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Customer Success Brief

Accurately predicting thermo-mechanical fatigue in exhaust manifolds

Jaguar’s VDV system using fe-safe/TURBOlife™ enables rapid development

and deployment of high temperature components, accurately determining
performance at the design stage, to minimise both component and
material testing iterations

Jaguar Land Rover Advancing a tradition A more effective design

of excellence and and test process
Challenges performance The conventional design process involves
• Accurately predict fatigue life in repetitive prototype manufacture, testing and
Jaguar Land Rover is built around two great
thermo-mechanical situations evaluation until a component can be
• Integrate with preferred commercial British car brands that design, engineer and
manufactured. Jaguar’s VDV process involves
Finite Element (FEA) software and manufacture in the UK. Jaguar Land Rover is
internal robust design (DOE) system computer-based component performance
part of Tata Motors, India's largest automotive
• Develop cost effective designs that specification, design, durability assessment and
meet higher efficiency (high durability evaluation against the component
temperature) requirements
performance specifications. A final single
Always seeking to revolutionise their products
round of physical testing is then completed
Key fe-safe/TURBOlife ™ and develop a class of vehicles around rigorous
consumer expectations, from racing to safaris,
before the component goes into service.
capabilities Jaguar Land Rover continues to redesign and
• Direct import and easy data reinvent their vehicles.
manipulation with Abaqus and other
commercial FEA software
• The appropriate fatigue technology for In recent years the engine operating
high temperature applications in which temperatures of cars, vans and heavy goods
both structural and thermal loadings vehicles have been increasing because
vary and inelastic effects (creep) can of European environmental legislation on
be accounted for
• Easy-to-use results visualisation and emissions and the need to improve engine
software integration as a part of a efficiency.
larger design system Real-world
Recognising these demands, Jaguar developed temperatures
Conclusions a virtual design validation (VDV) process to Jaguar’s VDV process starts by matching
• fe-safe/TURBOlife™ predicted the streamline the manufacture and testing of exhaust manifold metal temperatures on the
location and number of cycles to failure test bed with those occurring during high
prototypes by testing computer-modeled parts.
with good correlation to test results
• fe-safe/TURBOlife™ fatigue life Jaguar has achieved considerable success with speed running of actual vehicles. The aim is to
predictions are now fully integrated into a VDV approach for high temperature simulate the test bed as an approximation of
a robust design methodology components in a new design of exhaust actual customer usage. Test bed temperature
• fe-safe/TURBOlife™ plays a key role in
manifolds. This method of using standardised extremes, i.e. alternating maximum power and
accurately determining performance
at the design stage, minimising both material data and computer-predicted rapid cooling, are recorded in order to recreate
component and material testing iterations performance of components provides a the range of vehicle operation. Measured by
• fe-safe/TURBOlife™helps to reduce predictive design process which replaces a multiple thermocouples, the heat generation
overall development costs and timescales,
as well as providing insight into identifying reliance on expensive and time-consuming feedback is used to select test bed engine
lower cost materials for production component testing. speed, loadings and fuel consumption.
The FEA is an elastic analysis, because the more
complicated elastic-plastic-creep analysis would
require rarely available material behaviour data.
The material’s inelastic aspects (plasticity and
creep) are incorporated using algorithms
developed by Serco Assurance from their
experience in the nuclear industry.
fe-safe/TURBOlife™ calculates inelastic strains
and relaxed stresses from elastic analysis, and
cyclic stress-strain hysteresis loops can be
constructed to accommodate creep strain and
also identify fatigue and creep damage.

Eventual Failure Locations fe-safe/TURBOlife™ has been developed in

Advanced thermal imaging is also used to partnership with Serco Assurance. Serco
identify heat distribution to create a complex Assurance has more than 40 years experience in
FEA model. Lab engineers predict the transient collaborative research in thermo-mechanical
temperature distribution for the exhaust and creep-fatigue damage mechanisms,
manifold over the test cycle and apply natural Results supported by its world-class materials and
convection boundary conditions to the external Jaguar’s VDV process accurately correlated the component test laboratory and materials
surfaces of the manifold. Some modifications to physical prototype test with the software database.
the external heat coefficients are made to predictions, in both product life of the exhaust
achieve a correlation between the predicted and
measured temperature distributions. Finally, the
manifold (number of cycles to failure) and the
location of the eventual failure.
safe technology limited
transient temperature distribution is used as a Safe Technology Limited is the technical
loading condition for a transient structural FEA Using fe-safe/TURBOlife™ for their design leader in the design and development of
model of the manifold. validation has enabled Jaguar to confirm an durability software and is dedicated to meeting
its customers' most demanding applications.
alternative material (high silicon molybdenum
iron) for the exhaust manifold component, with As a private company, Safe Technology is able
advantages in cost and castability. Computer- to take a long-term view of software
based testing and analysis has provided a near- development and the research and industry
optimal design at an early stage in the design collaboration needed to address real world,
industrial applications. Its independence and
process, because Jaguar has been able to set up a focus enables quick response to customer
design of experiments (DOE) where key feedback so that its software genuinely reflects
parameters are varied and the impact on the industrial and commercial requirements of
predicted manifold life can be assessed. engineers and designers.

In-depth knowledge of fatigue combined with

fe-safe/TURBOlife andFEA Summary ™

expertise in software development allows
Safe Technology to provide outstanding
The Jaguar VDV system using fe-safe/TURBOlife ™ service - with standard and advanced training,
fatigue life prediction enables a more rapid development and deployment software support, and consulting services
provided by fatigue experts.
of high temperature components, also helping to
A complex FEA model is required to correctly
determine the stress distribution in the exhaust
accurately determine performance at the design stage, Safe Technology develops, markets and
minimising both component and material testing supports its software products directly from
manifold, because joints are designed to slip in offices in the UK and USA, by a network of
iterations. This in turn reduces overall development
order to accommodate thermal expansion independent distributors worldwide and via
costs and timescales, as well as providing insight into
between the manifold and the cylinder head. the worldwide SIMULIA network.
identification of lower cost materials for production.
In this case, approximately 60 sets of To learn more, please visit our website where
you can learn about our software products and
incremental thermal load stress/strain data are related services, and register to download
applied through fe-safe/TURBOlife™. The technical papers by our users on real world
predictive analysis process involves both FEA applications. You can also find the contact
stress/strain analysis and durability assessment, details for your local office or representative.
accounting for fatigue, creep and corrosion. If you would prefer to give us a call, please
contact one of our main offices:

Worldwide: +44 (0) 114 268 6444

North America: +1 310 714 0792
Safe Technology Limited
Willis House, Peel Street, Sheffield, S10 2PQ, UK

Tel: +44 (0) 114 268 6444 Fax: +44 (0) 114 303 0055
Email: Website:

All trademarks are acknowledged. fe-safe™ and the Safe Technology logo are trademarks of Safe Technology Limited. With thanks to Jaguar Land Rover for images supplied.