0 Suka0 Tidak suka

59 tayangan10 halamanMar 04, 2011

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

DOC, PDF, TXT atau baca online dari Scribd

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

59 tayangan

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Anda di halaman 1dari 10

1. Introduction

cryptography is developed in the beginning of 19th and 20th century respectively, where

the quantum cryptography is more current cryptography that has been found. It is kind of

cryptography modern where the encryption and decryption process not use character

mode anymore. It develops to overcome weakness that has been found in the previous

cryptography algorithm. So, confidentiality, integrity, authentication, and non-

repudiation services that provide by cryptography can be achieved.

Moni Naor and Ali Shamir in their paper on 1995. [Moni Naor and Adi Shamir, 1995]. It

is different from quantum cryptography. The differences are lies on the application and

process that will be used. Where the quantum cryptography is applies on the key

distribution, but visual cryptography applies on the media that can be printed. Moreover,

it doesn’t need a complex calculation like mode bit calculation that used by quantum

cryptography. But, visual cryptography uses pixel mode calculation and it just uses

eyesight of human to decrypt the message.

Visual cryptography uses onetime pad concept in its processes. Where one

transparency is a shared random pad, and another transparency acts as ciphertext. The

same thing happened to quantum cryptography algorithm. The onetime pad

cryptography algorithm is associated with quantum key distribution, as it provably

secure when used with a secret random key. [ C. E. Shannon , Bell Syst. Tech. J. 28,

656 (1949)].

1.2 Quantum Cryptography

quantum mechanics concept inside. It relies on two important pillars of 20th century

quantum mechanics. They are Heisenberg uncertainty principle and the principle of

photon polarization. [Mehrdad].

The Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that two pairs of object that are related each

other, characteristics in one another of them will not know if the measurement of

characteristics happened to another one. Secondly, based on the photon polarization

principle explains how light photons can be polarized in a specific direction.

Quantum cryptography is one of an unbreakable cryptography algorithm that has

been found beside onetime pad algorithm. It is a solution to onetime pad algorithm

cryptography in terms of key exchange that is used depends on the length of message. If

the message is quite long then the key that is being used is long too. It needs more time

to remember the long key in that situation. By using the two important pillars of

quantum mechanics that has been explained before, the key exchange between two

parties is secured and easy.

cryptography compare to another cryptography algorithm. Since there is no need a

complex calculation either cryptography knowledge inside to decrypt the image, it is

easy to decrypt by aid visual if the n share of image is overlaid each other. So, everyone

without knowledge of cryptography who has the n-share completely can retrieve what is

the message.

Besides that, there are some disadvantages of visual cryptography. The

distribution of n-share to the receiver is doubt secured. The man in the middle attack

could be exists in between to get the n-share. Then, the n-share would fall down to the

wrong person. Moreover, anyone who has the n-share could decrypt the image easily.

Moreover, the image couldn’t be decrypted because of the n-share that is not complete.

N-1 share is just a random pixel that doesn’t have any meaning. So, the image couldn’t

be decrypt until the n-share is complete.

Based on Bennet and Brassart paper, there are two advantages that have been

found in quantum cryptography. [Bennett H.Charles and Brassard Gilles, 1984]. Secured

media is one of the advantages that have been explained through the paper. The media is

called as photon media where it is a kind of light particle that will be used as a media to

transmit the secret key. The secret key transmits using light wave with a certain

polarization direction to the receiver. It is said secured because if there is some of

photon lost or changes during transmission, it means an eavesdropper exists in between.

So, by using this algorithm, it can detect if there is an eavesdropper or not. Compare to

classical cryptography where this algorithm is strong because of the message that has

been encrypted by make a complex calculation inside. But the message still can be

achieved by an eavesdropper without knowing by two parties. There is possibility where

the message can be decrypted so he will know the content of message. The two parties

can’t know if there is an eavesdropper in between. The message still can be sent to the

receiver.

Besides that, onetime pad concept that has been applied to quantum

cryptography algorithm is another advantage that can be achieved. The selection of

random number or characteristic, not using a certain formula to become the key to

encrypt the message is the concept of onetime pad that is being used in the quantum

cryptography. [MILS electronic paper]. Looking into quantum cryptography algorithm,

the random is lies on the random polarization that will be choose by a sender and

receiver to transmit the secret key. The eavesdropper will not know the random itself so

then he/she will not get the secret key.

Besides having the advantages, quantum cryptography also has the

disadvantages. Based on paper, there are many disadvantages that act as limitation for

quantum cryptograph itself. A comparison to classical cryptography has been described

also in the paper, where it shows that classical cryptography is more better than quantum

cryptography in terms of certain part. Such as, the medium that used to transmit the

secret key, the distance of communication that can be used over millions of kilometers

and the multiple platforms for implementation classical cryptography on both side

hardware and software since some of them are not really support to quantum

cryptography. [Sakthi, Sudharssun, Kumar, Limitations of Quantum & the

Versatility of Classical Cryptography].

Moreover, there is a noise between two parties that would come in the key

exchange process in quantum cryptography. Because of the noise can’t be differentiated

with information tapping, the eavesdropper has a possibility the secret key can be

achieved. Besides that, the eavesdropper can make the communication fail by giving

many errors to the receiver.

3. Application

Based on the paper, the visual cryptography that is popular is the black and white

pixel that is being used by Moni Naor and Adi Shamir, 1994. In this cryptography, every

pixel of images is appeared on n variation called share. A pixel is divided into two parts,

one white and one black block. If the pixel is divided into four equal parts, there are two

white and two black blocks.

To decrypt the message, n numbers of share could be overlaid. There are two

shares for example, 1st share and 2nd share. If a pixel on 1st share has a given state, the

pixel on 2nd share may have one of two states which are identical or inverted to the pixel

of 1st share. If the pixel of 2nd share is identical to 1st share, the overlaid pixel will be half

black and half white. Such overlayed pixel is called grey or empty. If the pixels of 1st

and 2nd share are inverted or opposite, the overlayed version will be completely black.

This is called an information pixel, where the content of the message could be seen

clearly.

In the usage of visual cryptography, the sender will distribute one or more

random of first share to the receiver. Then, he will send the second share for a particular

first share to the receiver. The receiver overlaid both of shares and the secret information

is knowable. It is just need by looking at the share that is overlaid each other. No need a

computer or performing a complex calculations. This is an unbreakable system because

if one of the shares is lost, then the message inside couldn’t be retrieve. As long as both

of shares is not exist in the wrong hand, it still an unbreakable system.

For clearly understanding, there are two applications which are almost the same

that have been found through the Internet.

accessed by March 10, 2010], to encrypt the message by enter random keystroke in the

passphrase form to make a different plaintext pixel display, insert the message, choose

how big pixel that to be wanted, and click the make images button. Three windows will

open after click the images button. They are ciphertext, stream, and plaintext.

Fig.2. Visual Cryptography 1st Application

Fig.2.a. Ciphertext

Fig.2.b. Stream

Fig.2.c. Plaintext

Universität Tübingen. In this application, there is no insert passphrase. So, the display of

pixel on plaintext is the same for every message that is inserted. Here, just enter the

message, wait for a moment until the loading process is finished. Then, click on the

second share, bring it move to the first one and the plaintext would be generated.

Fig.3. Insert the message

3.2 Quantum Cryptography

algorithm (Quantum Key Distribution - QKD). It applies only to produce and distribute

a key secret. Not to transmit any message data. This key can be used in encryption and

decryption of message process.

The application to form secure QKD that popular is the Bennett and Brassard

protocol ( BB84 ) that published on 1984. There are two set polarization filter is needed

inside. They are rectilinear basis set (which is included vertical and horizontal filter) and

diagonal basis (filter that is rotated as big as 45 degree). It used by alice as a sender to

generate a onetime pad function in transmit the secret key. Together with the onetime

pad that she has been generated, she sends it to bob as a receiver through the photon

media. At the bob side, receive the random bit. Then he asked to alice which one from

the random bit that he has received is used by alice. The eavesdropper can be existed in

this process. Some of the random bit can be achieved by the eavesdropper, the others is

wrong.

Fig.4. Quantum Cryptography

4. Latest Works

(VCS) that popular to be developed. It is a kind of secret sharing scheme which allows

the encryption of a secret image into n shares that will distribute to n participants. The

development of visual cryptography scheme is more advance, since visual cryptography

is a new cryptographic technique.

The basic visual cryptography is based on breaking the pixels into some

subpixels (expansion of pixels). Started from the basic things, now the advance of visual

cryptography has become developed. Such as color visual cryptography schemes. In the

paper, proposed a color VCS with no expansion and with expansion pixels. By the end

of the paper, the comparisons of the proposed cryptography to the existing cryptography

which is black and white with expansion pixels under the visual cryptography model of

Tuyls is generated. [color visual cryptographic scheme]. This is a development from

Naor and Shamir visual cryptography.

Besides that, the development of VCS in another form like in halftoning image

processes. Where, halftoning is a process of converting a gray scale image into a binary

image. In the paper, the security of share is more needed. So, data hiding in halftone

images using conjugate ordered dithering (DHCOD) algorithm is explained through this

paper. [Jena, A Novel Visual Cryptography Scheme]. It is kind of modified version

from the previous research on data hiding in halftone images using conjugate error

diffusion technique (DHCED). To make it secure, the generating of watermarked share

through DHCOD algorithm has been described.

Quantum Cryptography

developments is quantum cryptography in the Internet environment. Where the Internet

is a very important tool used today to connect with others. Therefore, some research on

the field of communication networks started to secure the communication between each

other. They are developing in the field of wireless communication network and SSL /

TLS handshake protocol.

In the paper quantum cryptography for wireless network communications in

2009, the advantage of quantum cryptography in the form of key exchange through the

photon media which is called secured unconditional become one of the reasons for

developing such quantum cryptography. This approach is merged with the IEEE 802.11i

wireless network. It can serve better to provide secure data communications for small

networks such as IEEE 802.11i.

As almost the same reason which is unconditional secured like in the quantum

cryptography for wireless network communication, this approach is used in data

transmission within SSL / TLS handshake protocol. Before that, it is based on the public

key encryption. Now it develops to make the protocol more secure than just only use the

computation calculation.

5. Conclusion

the message. Advantages and disadvantages in the basic cryptography algorithm have

been found. So the development to the new study is kept on going to overcome the

weaknesses that exist in the current algorithm.

6. References

Bennett H.Charles and Brassard Gilles, Quantum Cryptography : Public Key Distribution and

Coin Tossing, ICC, India 1984, pp1–5.

’94. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, (950):1–12, 1995.

Wireless Network Communications,” IEEE, 2009.

## Lebih dari sekadar dokumen.

Temukan segala yang ditawarkan Scribd, termasuk buku dan buku audio dari penerbit-penerbit terkemuka.

Batalkan kapan saja.