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1. Water waves at the surface of a pond pass a floating log of length L.

The log is at rest relative to


the bank. The diagram shows wave crests at one instant.

The number of crests passing the log per unit time is N. The speed of the water waves relative to
the log at rest is

L
A. 7 (N – 1).

L
B. 6 (N – 1).

L
C. 7 (N).

L
D. 6 (N).
(1)

2. Two identical triangular pulses of amplitude X travel toward each other along a string. At the
instant shown on the diagram below, point M is midway between the two pulses.

X
X M

1
The amplitude of the disturbance in the string as the pulses move through M is

A. 2X.

B. X.

X
.
C. 2

D. 0.
(1)

3. The diagram below shows two wave pulses moving towards one another.

Which one of the following diagrams shows the resultant pulse when the two pulses are
superposed?

A . B .

C . D .

(1)

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4. A bat approaches an insect of wing span length d. The bat emits a sound wave. The bat detects
the insect if the sound is reflected from the insect.

r e f e c t e d w a v i en s c i d e n t w a v e s

The insect will not be located if

A. the insect’s speed is less than the speed of the sound wave.

B. the insect’s wing beat frequency is greater than the frequency of the sound wave.

C. the length d is much greater than the wavelength of the sound wave.

D. the length d is much smaller than the wavelength of the sound wave.
(1)

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5. The diagram below shows a transverse wave on a string. The wave is moving from right to left.

d i r e c t i o n o f w a v e

u p w a r d s

l e f t r i g h t

d o w n w a r d s

In the position shown, point X has zero displacement and point Y is at a position of maximum
displacement. Which one of the following gives the subsequent direction of motion of point X
and of point Y?

Point X Point Y

A. left left

B. upwards upwards

C. downwards left

D. downwards upwards
(1)

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6. A water surface wave (ripple) is travelling to the right on the surface of a lake. The wave has
period T. The diagram below shows the surface of the lake at a particular instant of time. A
piece of cork is floating in the water in the position shown.

T
Which is the correct position of the cork a time 4 later?

c o r k

A . B .

C . D .
(1)

7. Waves of frequency f travel with speed c in air and enter a medium M of refractive index 1.5.
Which of the following correctly gives the frequency and speed of the waves in the medium M?

frequency speed

c
A. f
1.5

B. f 1.5c

C. 1.5f c

f
D. c
1.5
(1)

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8. The phenomenon of diffraction is associated with

A. sound waves only.

B. light waves only.

C. water waves only.

D. all waves.
(1)

9. A light wave travelling through a vacuum is incident on a block of glass. What change, if any,
occurs in the frequency and amplitude of the wave as it travels into the glass?

frequency amplitude
A. decreases decreases
B. decreases constant
C. constant decreases
D. constant constant
(1)

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10. The graph below shows the variation with time t of the displacement x of a particle undergoing
simple harmonic motion.

Which graph correctly shows the variation with time t of the acceleration a of the particle?

(1)

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11. This question is about waves and wave motion.

(a) Describe, by reference to the propagation of energy, what is meant by a transverse wave.

Transverse wave

(2)

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(b) State one example, other than a wave on a string, of a transverse wave.

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(1)

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A transverse wave is travelling along a string that is under tension. The diagram below shows
the displacement of part of the string at time t = 0. The dotted line shows the position of the
string when there is no wave travelling along it.

d i s p l a c e m e n t / c m

d i s t a n c e a l o n g s t r i n
5 . 0 1 5 2 5 3 5 4 5

(c) On the diagram above, draw lines to identify for this wave

(i) the amplitude (label this A);


(1)

(ii) the wavelength (label this λ).


(1)

–3 –1
(d) The period of the wave is 1.2 × 10 s. Deduce that the speed of the wave is 250 m s .

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(2)

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–4
(e) Using the axes below, draw the displacement of the string when t = 3.0 × 10 s. (The
displacement of the string at t = 0 is shown as a dotted line.)

d i s p l a c e m e n t / c m

d i s t a n c e a l o n g s t r i n
5 . 0 1 5 2 5 3 5 4 5

(3)
(Total 10 marks)

12. Simple harmonic motion and the greenhouse effect

(a) A body is displaced from equilibrium. State the two conditions necessary for the body to
execute simple harmonic motion.

1. .........................................................................................................................

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2. .........................................................................................................................

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(2)

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(b) In a simple model of a methane molecule, a hydrogen atom and the carbon atom can be
regarded as two masses attached by a spring. A hydrogen atom is much less massive than
the carbon atom such that any displacement of the carbon atom may be ignored.

The graph below shows the variation with time t of the displacement x from its
equilibrium position of a hydrogen atom in a molecule of methane.

–27
The mass of hydrogen atom is 1.7 × 10 kg. Use data from the graph above

(i) to determine its amplitude of oscillation.

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(1)

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(ii) to show that the frequency of its oscillation is 9.1 × 10 Hz.

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(2)

–18
(iii) to show that the maximum kinetic energy of the hydrogen atom is 6.2 × 10 J.

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(2)

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(c) On the grid below, sketch a graph to show the variation with time t of the speed v of the
hydrogen atom for one period of oscillation starting at t = 0. (There is no need to add
values to the speed axis.)

(3)

(d) Assuming that the motion of the hydrogen atom is simple harmonic, its frequency of
oscillation f is given by the expression

1 k
f= ,
2π mp

where k is the force per unit displacement between a hydrogen atom and the carbon atom
and mp is the mass of a proton.

–1
(i) Show that the value of k is approximately 560 N m .

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(1)

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(ii) Estimate, using your answer to (d)(i), the maximum acceleration of the hydrogen
atom.

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(2)

(e) Methane is classified as a greenhouse gas.

(i) Describe what is meant by a greenhouse gas.

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(2)

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(ii) Electromagnetic radiation of frequency 9.1 × 10 Hz is in the infrared region of
the electromagnetic spectrum. Suggest, based on the information given in (b)(ii),
why methane is classified as a greenhouse gas.

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(2)
(Total 17 marks)

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