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Penang International Art Festival 2007

Rentas Sempadan
International Print Exhibition

Balai Seni Lukis Pulau Pinang


3 - 31 July 2007
Rentas Sempadan/ Border Crossing
An International Print Exhibition

Published by
Penang State Museum & Art Gallery
Ground Floor, Dewan Sri Pinang
Light Street, 10200 Penang, Malaysia
Tel/Fax 604-261 3144
Email: muzium@po.jaring.my

Curator
A.Rahman Mohamed

Copyright © 2007 Penang State Museum & Art Gallery

No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted


or published in any form or by any means, electronic or
mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information
storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from
the copyright owner
Kata Aluan Pengerusi Balai Seni Lukis Pulau Pinang

Lembaga Muzium dan Balai Seni Lukis Pulau Pinang dengan


kerjasama Majlis Tindakan Pelancongan Negeri Pulau Pinang
dengan bangganya mempersembahkan Pameran Rentas Sempadan
yang merupakan pameran seni cetak antarabangsa dalam siri
Penang International Art Festival 2007.

Sesuai dengan semangat Tahun Melawat Malaysia 2007, satu


pameran yang bercorak antarabangsa begini diharap dapat
memperkenalkan Pulau Pinang di mata dunia. Saya difahamkan
seramai 59 pelukis dari dua puluh buah negara mengambil
bahagian dalam pameran ini. Setidak-tidaknya pelukis-pelukis ini
akan sedar bahawa karya mereka kini dipamerkan di sebuah negeri
yang bernama Pulau Pinang di Malaysia. Kalau tidak sempat
melawat Malaysia pun, tentulah mereka akan mula melayari
internet untuk mengetahui serba sedikit tentang negeri ini.

Bagi penduduk-penduduk Pulau Pinang pula, pameran ini


merupakan kesempatan bagi mereka untuk menjelajah ke seluruh
pelusuk dunia dengan menikmati karya-karya yang didatangkan
dari 20 buah negara ini.

Bagi pencinta seni khususnya, inilah peluang untuk menatap 90


buah karya seni cetak yang bukan sahaja pelbagai dari segi bahan
dan tekniknya malah juga mempamerkan inspirasi, pemikiran dan
pengolahan idea yang beragam. Ini tentunya berkait rapat dengan
budaya dan persekitaran dari negara mana datangnya karya-karya
tersebut.

Saya mengambil kesempatan ini untuk mengucapkan tahniah kepa-


da semua pelukis yang terlibat dalam pameran yang hebat ini.

Dato’ Tang Hon Yin


PengerusiBalai Seni Lukis Pulau Pinang
Rentas
Sempadan

Seni Cetak merupakan satu medium seni visual yang amat


demokratik. Sifat karya itu sendiri yang mempunyai gandaan mem-
bolehkan ianya ditunjukkan dan dipamerkan di beberapa tempat
dalam satu masa yang serentak. Begitu juga dengan sifat mudalih-
nya memungkinkan karya itu dihantar dan bergerak dari satu desti-
nasi ke destinasi lain yang biasanya merentasi berbagai sempadan
geografi. Sifat sebegini menjadikan seni cetak ini satu medium yang
boleh dan telah menjalinkan satu komunikasi di peringkat antara
bangsa.

Ini memang sepadanan dan kembali semula kepada asal usul


ciptaan cetakan itu sendiri yang merupakan satu usaha untuk
memerdekakan komunikasi visual supaya ia boleh dikecapi oleh
masyarakat massa. Inovasi cetakan serta pembuatan kertas di
negeri China sekitar kurun ke 6 dan kemudiannya perkembangan
cetakan di Eropah dalam abad ke 15 semuanya telah menyebabkan
satu revolusi. Bahan bercetak banyak diterbitkan, mudah diagih
dan diedar seluas-luasnya ke seluruh pelusuk dunia.

Rentas Sempadan meghidangan sejumlah 90 karya oleh 58


seniman dari 20 buah negara. Pameran ini menghimpunkan sejum-
lah karya yang besar bilangannya serta diwakili oleh seniman dari
segenap penjuru dunia. Secara lahiriahnya karya-karya yang dapat
ditonton dalam pameran ini sememangnya telah menepati tema
atau tajuk pameran kali ini " Rentas Sempadan". Kesemua karya
yang terpamer kali ini telah menempuhi dan melampaui batas sem-
padan geografi. Kebanyakan karya dari luar negara telah
didatangkan ke sini sama ada melalui pos atau perkhidmatan kuri-
er yang pastinya telah merentasi sempadan. Manakala karya seni-
man tempatan juga bukan sahaja telah merentasi sempadan daerah
dan negeri tetapi telah juga dibawa menjelajah ke pameran di luar
negara termasuk International Print Exhibition yang berlangsung
di Hatyai Art Gallery, Thailand baru-baru ini.

II.
Perubahan dan kemajuan dalam teknologi cetakan sentiasa mem-
beri inspirasi dan membuatkan seniman teruja untuk melakukan
cubaan dan penerokaan bahan. Secara tradisinya seniman cetak
menggunakan teknologi cetak yang telah ditinggalkan oleh industri
cetakan komersial seperti cetakan kayu, gurisan asid, litografi dan
letterpress, ini mungkin kerana terdapatnya limpahan alat dan
bahan yang tidak lagi digunakan oleh industri. Tetapi dalam beber-
apa kemajuan teknologi percetakan yang mudah diperolehi seni-
man, penggunaannya didapati seiring dengan penemuan teknologi
cetakan itu sendiri. Hal ini didapati benar bagi cetakan sutera sar-
ing pada awalnya. Kerana sifatnya yang mudah dan relatif murah,
teknologi tersebut segera dimanfaatkan oleh seniman tanpa
menunggu lebih lama lagi, sehinggakan dunia seni lukis sendiri
yang tergamam dan teragak-agak untuk menerima hasilnya sebagai
mempunyai nilai karya seni atau tidak berbanding medium ter-
dahulu seperti gurisan (etching) dan cetakan kayu yang telah diter-
ima dengan selesa. Awal daripada itu, tidak ketinggalan dicemburui
penerimaanya sebagai karya seni adalah karya-karya yang
dihasilkan dengan proses cetakan litografi. Perdebatan demi perde-
batan berlaku sehinggalah hasil karya kedua-dua proses tersebut
diterima sebagai karya seni.

Sejak tahun lapan puluhan pula datang lagi satu arus gelombang
yang melanda teknologi percetakan komersial. Munculnya ledakan
pengkomputeran dan teknologi digital. Gelombang ini benar-benar
memberi kesan yang besar terhadap teknologi percetakan. Cetakan
bukan lagi menjadi satu bidang yang dikawal secara ekslusif oleh
pedagang khusus dalam bidang tersebut. Cetakan telah benar-
benar menjadi demokratik. Sesiapa saja boleh memiliki mesin
pencetak. Percetakan telah menjadi satu perkara biasa dan tidak
lagi dilindungi dengan segala macam misteri. Generasi baru yang
ada sekarang tidak memandang cetakan sebagai satu perkara yang
asaing lagi. Walau pun pada awal ledakan komputer dan digital,
ada yang menjangkakan bahawa ledakan itu akan menyebabkan
terkuburnya percetakan, dunia kan menjadi dunia tanpa kertas
(paperless), tetapi jangkaan tersebut meleset. Malah percetakan
semakin menjadi segar dengan suntikan pengkomputeran tersebut.

Pengunaan teknologi digital bukan lagi digunakan sebagai alat


membantu untuk menghasilkan imej, tetapi kini ianya telah menja-
di medium penghasilan imej. Teknologi digital bukan lagi sebagai
alat tetapi juga sebagai medium. Cemburu masyarakat seni ter-
hadap teknologi digital masih tebal. Ada kalangan yang telah lama
mengamalkan cara-cara tradisional terus mempertahankan bidang
seni halus dari dicerobohi oleh cetakan digital, namun ada di antara
mereka yang menerima kemasukan teknologi baru ini asal saja
ianya digabungkan dengan medium-medium terdahulu yang telah
dapat diterima dengan selesa. Tidak kurang juga golongan yang
sedia menerima cetak digital seadanya sebagai karya seni. Di mana-
mana forum pun isu ini masih popular dan sering menjadi topik
perbincangan.

Kelpelbagaian teknik dalam seni cetak ada kalanya telah menye-


babkan seniman menjadi terpisah atas kelainan medium yang dia-
malkan. Terdapat banyak juga persatuan dan pertubuhan yang
keahliannya hanya terbuka kepada pengamal satu-satu jenis atau
teknik cetakan sahaja. Kalau persatuan pencetak setakan kayu,
maka hanya pencetak cetakan kayu sahajalah yang boleh mengang-
gotainya. Begitu juga dengan lain-lain medium cetakan. Tidak
kurang pula pameran dan pertandingan yang terkhusus kepada
satu-satu medium cetakan sahaja dengan memencilkan medium
cetakan lain.

Berbeza pula dalam satu wadah yang lain, kelpelbagaian dalam


medium cetakan dan keterbukaan penerimaan dalam eksperimen-
tasi dan penerokaan berani menyeberangi garisan telah menye-
babkan terhasilnya karya-karya yang terkeluar dari biasaan. Karya-
karya yang sebegini agak payah untuk masukkan ke dalam agihan-
agihan sempadan sempit seni cetak tradisional. Karya-karya yang
bersifat merentas sempadan ini juga perlu dibawa ke satu pelantar
yang lebih terbuka. Pameran ini merupakan salah satu dari pelan-
tar tersebut.

III

Pada pameran kali ini kurator telah membuka sempadan seberapa


luas yang boleh, membenarkan sempadan-sempadan direntas
sesuai dengan wawasan globalisasi. Bukan sahaja dengan pem-
bukaan sempadan negara dan geografi yang dibuktikan dengan
penyertaan karya-karya dari 20 buah negara, malah yang lebih
penting lagi ialah terbukanya sempadan penerimaan karya sebagai
karya seni cetak. Pameran ini menghimpunkan karya-karya yang
datangnya dari pelbagai teknik dan bahan. Dari teknik dan bahan
yang sedia diterima sebagai karya cetakan sehinggalah karya-karya
yang terhasil dari medium hybrid, juga lain-lain medium yang
masih samar batasannya. Memang sudah menjadi kemestian bila
membicarakan karya seni cetak, perkara yang disentuh tentunya
teknik dan medium disamping hal benda yang diutarakan oleh
pelukis. Rencana ini juga tidak lari dari hal yang sedemikian.
Endi Poskovic, memanfaatkan kerjatangan yang halus dan teliti
melalui karya karya cetakan kayu beliau. Dengan penggunaan
teknologi rendah, beliau menghasilakn karya grafik yang memukau
dan tidak kurang menghiburkan. Begitu juga degan karya cetakan
kayu dengan warna berasaskan air cara Jepun oleh pelukis Haruka
Furusaka menerusi karya beliau, Intuition. Fauzan Omar pula
memanfaatkan cetakan lino berwarna dalam karya-karya dari siri
Diversity and Unity. Begitu juga dengan karya berebagai teknik
cetakan relif yang asas dan mudah telah dimanfaatkan oleh pelukis
bagi menghasilkan karya-karya yang segar dan memukau.
Mengketengahkan gambaran kehidupan harian suri rumah,
Wednesday Face, karya Heli Kurunsaari menonjolkan medium
cetakan kayu berwarna dengan teknik luakan.

Tentunya teknik-teknik tradisional yang telah lama diamalkan


masih dianuti dan dipraktikkan oleh seniman di dalam pameran
kali ini. Cetakan gurisan merupakan teknik yang amat popular dan
terus oleh beberapa seniman pada kali ini. Loo Foh Sang dan Rita
Marhaug masih kukuh dengan cetakan gurisan. Walaupun meng-
gunakan teknik asas yang sama, terdapat dua pola yang berlainan
antara mereka. Loo Foh Sang dalam karyanya, Sunset Series :
Festival Dance, begitu ashyik memanipulasikan platnya dengan
gurisan garis serta lapisan-lapisan tona yang terhasil dari titik-titik
halus aquatint. Manakala Rita Marhaung pula menggunakan ban-
tuan fotografi dan komputer bagi menghasilkan plat, yang kemudi-
annya masih dicetak dengan cetakan gurisan secara tradisional itu.
Sarah Edmonds juga masih menggunakan teknik intaglio yang pel-
bagai pada cetakan beliau yang bertajuk Lucerna - Beheading of
St.Denis. Beliau memanfaatkan cetakan timbul, gurisan kering dan
cetakan viscocity yang dicetak di atas kertas buatan tangan. Bagi
Bill Horsterman, dalam karya beliau, Emission, beliau menggu-
nakan gurisan garis serta aquatint tetapi mencetak platnya dengan
cara menggabungkan cetakan intaglio serta juga cetakan relif.
Emily Wilson lewat karya beliau Greed or Need, seniman Cerese
Vadent melalui karyanya Western Pivot, Koichi Yamamoto dengan
karya beliau Site Untouched, semuanya terus memanfaatkan ruang
pengolahan yang luas yang diberikan oleh medium gurisan. Begitu
ramai seniman dalam pameran ini yang mengambil kesempatan
pada medium gurisan yang tiada batasan dan kekangan ini.
Seniman-seniman Katarzyna Cepek, Lidija Antanasujevic, Oscar
Jay Gillespie, Rahman Mohamed, Heather Muise, dan Saeko
Furukata semuanya begitu selesa dengan karya-karya yang dihasi-
lakn dengan medium gurisan. Enrique Leal dalam karyanya
Enfoldment memanipulasi teknik aquatint sehingga menghasilkan
karya yang bersinar, seolah-olah terpancar cahaya dari dalamnya.

Seni cetak litografi berjaya memikat ramai seniman untuk mencu-


ba dan terus menggunakannya sebagai medium ekspresi mereka.
Ini adalah kerana sifat medium tersebut yang begitu hampir den-
gan medium-medium tradisional yang sering digunakan oleh
pelukis. Penghasilan imej pada plat batu mahupun plat logam lain
dibuat dengan secara spontan samada dengan cara sapuan berus,
penggunaan pensel litografi ataupun konte crayon. Kesemua alat
perlukisan pada plat tersebut memang amat serupa dengan perala-
tan dan bahan yang sering digunakan pelukis. Ini menyebabkan
ramai pelukis yang tertarik dan selesa untuk menghasilkan imej
pada plet litografi. Proses-proses teknikal selepas penghasilan imej
atas plet itu sahaja yang rumit dan memyebabkan tidak ramai penc-
etak ingin menceburi atau berpeluang menceburi cetakan medium
litografi ini. Usaha menghidupkan semuala serta mempopularkan
cetakan litografi dilakukan pada tahun 60an melalui Tamarind
Lithography Workshop di Los Angeles Amerika Syarikat.

Paul Schumann lewat karya beliau Drawing vs Painting benar-


benar melihat dan meneliti kemungkinan-kemungkinan medium
litografi yang boleh memindahkan lukisan dan lakaran dan tidak
sedikit pun kurangnya kebolehan medium ini menghasilkan visual
yang menyerupai catan. Manee Meemak seorang lagi pengkarya
yang menggunakan medium litografi, memilh penggunaan warna
yang suram dengan sekali sekala diberi percikan cahaya pada karya
beliau yang bertajuk Firefly. Mathew J. Egan pula menggunakan
medium offset litografi dalam menghasilkan karya yang bertajuk
The Draped Divide. Litografi menggunakan plat aluminium menja-
di medium pilihan oleh Naomi Hashimoto dalam karya beliau
Profound. Tongchai Yukantapornpong dari Thailand pula bermain
dengan garis-garis berwarna dalam karya litografi beliau bertajuk
On the Edge.

Saring sutera dan serigrafi melonjak ke dalam arena seni halus bila
dipelopori antaranya oleh pelukis pop Andy Warhol. Satu lagi
medium cetak yang sangat fleksibel, boleh dicetak pada semua jenis
permukaan dengan pilihan pelbagai jenis dakwat. Beberapa pelukis
dalam pameran ini memperagakan karya mereka yang dihasilkan
dengan medium serba boleh ini. Jamil Mohd. Isa memperagakan
karya saring sutera beliau Pisang Emas Dibawa Belayar. Said Aniff
Hossanee membawa semangat Afrika dalam karya stensil beliau,
Orange Safari. Artis dari portfolio antarabangsa Emission, Myrtle
Clark Bremer dan Melissa Gill masing-masing menghidangkan
karya serigrafi mereka bertajuk Canes Venatici dan Interchange.

Cetakan monotaip dan monoprint dihasilkan oleh banyak pelukis


atas sebab-sebab yang beerlainan. Cetakan monotaip sebenarnya
berbeza dengan monoprint. Cetakan monoprint punyai plat yang
terukir yang boleh diulang kesan yang sama berkali-kali manakala
monotaip hanya boleh menghasilkan satu keping karya tanpa edisi.
Ada pelukis yang inginkan kebebasan dan inginkan kesan yang
khusus akan menggunakan salah satu atau kedua-dua teknik dalam
satu karya mereka. Malah tidak kurang pulang yang meng-
gabungkan kedua-dua teknik ini dengan lain-lain teknik yang telah
dibincakna terlebih dahulu. Karya Todd Christensen, Detached and
Uncaring, mengabungkan pelbagai teknik termasuk cetakan cop
getah. Mary Robinson melalui karya beliau Portal variation I-XXVI
menggabungkan pelbagai teknik di samping monotaip dan mono-
print. Lain-lain seniman yang menghasilkan cetakan monotaip dan
monoprint termasuklah Mohamad Rojana, Satawat Chuaynum
dam Kamol Kongthang.

Teknologi komputer dan digital menjadikan keresahan bagi berba-


gai pihak dalam arena seni cetak. Satu pihak begitu resah dan tidak
sanggup menjauhkan diri dari arus gelombang yang melanda lang-
sung mengambil dan menggunakannya sebagai satu cara penguca-
pan baru dalam karya cetakan mereka. Cetakan digital, inkjet,
giclee dan pelbagai lagi telah dan sedang memasuki arena seni
cetak. Benjamin Vasserman yang begitu kental dengan karya-karya
etching gaya tradisionalnya kini beralih memanfaatkan teknologi
baru. Karya digital beliau berjudul Diagnosis VI bersama kita
dalam pameran kali ini. Steve Lovett yang memang terpukau den-
gan teknologi bukan sahaja menghasilkan karya dengan menggu-
nakan cetakan digital, malah hal benda yang digarap juga meru-
pakan pola-pola yang terpamer pada permukaan skrin dan video.
Ini dapat dilihat melalui karya beliau, Down and Up. Lain-lain
pelukis yang tangkas menggunakan medium baru ini termasuklah
Kathryn Reeves.

Begitu juga dengan karya xerography Chong Hip Seng. Hip Seng
gemar membuat lapisan pada permukaan karyanya. Karya-karya
figura dan landskap beliau sering berlatarkan taip dan teks dari
akhbar, malah dari buku panduan telefon. Untuk mendapatkan
kesan ini beliau membuat cetakan berganda dengan melalukan
bahantaranya berulang kali kedalam mesin fotokopi, yang beliau
samakan dengan percetakan plat berganda ( multiple plates print-
ing ). Dalam menghasilkan siri karya ini, Chong Hip Seng tidak per-
nah memikirkan dan memperdulikan ke dalam kategori manakah
karyanya akan diletakan, samada sebagai lukisan atau pun cetakan.
Apa yang lebih penting kepada beliau ialah kesan akhir yang hanya
terserlah dengan proses yang dipilih itu.

Seni cetak sangat berkait rapat dengan penggunaan kertas.


Seniman cetak begitu teliti dalam pemilihan kertas yang digunakan.
Semua sifat kertas diambil kira, dari ciri-ciri fizikalnya hinggalah
kandungan kimia kertas diselidiki agar cetakan yang dihasilkan
bukan sahaja cantik untuk pandangan mata malah hayatnya juga
dapat dijaga. Ciri-ciri keasidan kertas sangat dititik beratkan
supaya kertas yang digunakan itu akan bersifat tahan lama
(archival). Dalam keadaan begini ada di antara seniman yang telah
memberi penumpuan yang lebih kepada kertas itu sendiri berband-
ing proses cetakan. Dr. Chew Teng Beng merupakan salah seorang
daripada seniman dalam pameran ini yang telah mengkaji dan
memberi penumpuan kepada jasad kertas itu sendiri dalam meng-
hasilkan karya seni beliau. Karya-karya kertas buatan tangan beliau
berada di satu dimensi yang unik. Ianya di antara karya dua dimen-
si dengan karya dua dimensi. Dalam pameran ini dua karya beliau
dari siri TBCGMP diperagakan. Manakala Dr. Mohamed Najib pula
bermain dengan gabungan kertas yang diperbuat dari batang
pisang dengan kain yang bercetak. Karya Dr. Mohamed Najib men-
gadunkan unsur-unsur dan motif tradisional dengan kertas buatan
tangan.

Beberapa karya mungkin dianggap janggal berada dalam pameran


seni cetak ini. Mungkin mendatangkan tanda tanya kepada sebaha-
gian penonton nanti. Sebenarnya sengaja pemilihan dibuat bagi
membolehkan terujudnya satu wacana tentang apakah sebenarnya
batasan atau sempadan yang memisahkan satu karya itu sebagai
karya cetak atau bukan.

Sebagai seorang pengarca Tengku Azahari ada kalanya berusaha


menghasilkan karya-karya yang boleh diperbanyakan dengan peng-
gunaan acuan. Proses penduan ini sebenarnya menghasilkan satu
edisi. Satu proses yang tiada bezanya dengan penghasilan karya
seni cetak. Satu karya yang diperbanyakkan dan menhasilkan edisi
yang kesemuanya adalah karya asli. Mohamad Khizal Saat menggu-
nakan teknik cetakan yang pelbagai dan karya beliau dipersem-
bahkan dalam bentuk instalasi.

Kemungkinan-kemungkinan kelainan dalam persembahan seni


cetak menjadi semakin luas. Mungkin untuk pameran mendatang
sempadannya menjadi lebih kabur dan tipis sehingga memu-
ngkinkan segala.

A.Rahman Mohamed
Kurator Jemputan
Crossing Borders: The Penang International Print Exhibition.

Translated from the Malay by Dr. Zakaria Ali

Print is the most versatile of the visual mediums. Because of its


multiple editions, a print can be shown at different locations simul-
taneously. It is easily transportable, a vehicle to establish communi-
cations worldwide.

Print helped the masses to communicate. The invention of paper in


the 6th century in China spreading to Europe in the 15th century
revolutionized the art of printmaking. Printed material could then
be distributed everywhere.

This show gathers fifty-nine international artists who produced


ninety works, all of which, overtly or otherwise, touched upon the
theme of "Border Crossings". In a sense, these artworks have liter-
ally transcended geographical boundaries. Works from overseas
reached Penang through the mail or currier services: crossing bor-
ders. Local works crossed the Thai border to the Hatyai Art Gallery,
Thailand, made a U-turn and re-entered Penang..

11.

Technological advances inspire the printmakers to try out new


things, new ideas, and new materials. Traditionally printmakers
produced woodcuts, lithography, letterpress, and etchings. One of
the early advances of printmaking is the silk screen. Silkscreen is
relatively so easy to do and cheap that the art world was initially
reluctant to accept it as an art form in the same category as the
woodcut or the etching. Lithography, on the other hand, was more
readily accepted. After extensive debates, however, the making of
silk-screens and lithographic prints gained entrance into the main-
stream.

In the 1980s, the wave of computer and digital printing hit the
shores of commercial printing. Now printmaking is no longer
under the exclusive control of printmakers. Anyone with a printing
machine can print. Soon printmaking became commonplace,
devoid of any mystery. Younger printmakers look at printmaking
as a given. At first people thought that with digital technology the
world would turn paperless. However, printmaking has become
even more extensive with the aid of the computer.

Digital technology not only creates images but also has become the
very medium itself; the means and the medium are one. The art
community is still suspicious of the digitals. Entrenched practition-
ers of the traditional medium defend their territory from the
assaults of the digits; others grudgingly accept them if they bend to
suit traditional demands. Still others accept digits as an art form.
Discussions persist on whether the digits are art.

The multiple techniques in printmaking have separated the print-


makers according to mediums. Hence, numerous associations and
societies have sprung up accepting members who practice one
medium or another. The society of wood-printers caters only to the
wood-printers. Exhibitions and competitions call for artworks of
specific medium.

Other medium encourages multiplicity of techniques and mediums.


Such works are difficult to categorize into the narrow confines of
traditional printmaking. These cross borders need to be more
exposed, as in this show.

111.

In this exhibition, the curator has widened the horizons, consistent


with the vision of globalization. The opening up of borders to print-
makers from twenty nations signals that the public is ready to
accept their print-works as art. The multiplicity of hybrid prints
delineates its own boundaries. As is often the practice, that when
we discuss printmaking we touch on the technique, medium, and
subject matter, which is what I shall do.
Endi Poskovic shows an exquisite handy work in his woodcuts.
Using a low technology, he produces a stunning piece of work.
Equally stunning is the work of Haruka Furusaka with his
"Intuition". Fauzan Omar uses colored lino-print from the series
"Unity in Diversity". Print relieves in numerous techniques have
been produced by various artists. Depicting the mundane everyday
life in "Wednesday's Face" Heli Kurunsaari also uses the relief
woodcut with color.

Traditional techniques are still widely used in this exhibition.


Etching still has its lure, as can be seen in the prints by Loo Foh
Sang and Rita Marhaung. The difference between these two is that
Loo Foh Sang in his "Sunset Series: Festival Dance" is absorbed in
manipulating his plates with fine tonal lines rendered by tiny drops
of aquatint. Rita Marhaung, on the other hand, uses photography
and the computer to aid her with the plate put through the press in
the traditional way. Sarah Edmonds uses multiple intaglios in her
"Lucerna - The Beheading of St. Denis", that employs relief print,
dry etching, and viscosity prints on hand-made paper. In
"Emission" Bill Horsterman utilizes line etching, aquatint, and pro-
cessing his plate in intaglio and relief. Emily Wilson with
"Greed/Need", Cerese Cadent with "Western Pivot", Koichi
Yamamoto with her "Site Untouched" takes advantage of the vast
possibilities provided by etching. Other participants, too, see the
advantages of etching, including Katarzyna Cepek, Lidija
Antanasujevic, Oscar Jay Gillespie, Rahman Mohamed, Heather
Muise, and Saeki Furukata. Enrique Leal in his "Enfoldment"
manipulates the aquatint in such a way that his work seems to
shine, as though emitting light.

Lithography attracts quite a number of printmakers who staunchly


defend it as a traditional medium. The image on the stone or metal
plate is drawn with brush strokes, litho pencil or konte crayon.
Painters also use these drawing materials. It is not surprising, then,
that many painters are keen to try their hands on lithography. The
Tamarind Lithography Workshop in Los Angles revives the dying
art of lithography in the 1960s.

Seeing the possibilities of lithography, Paul Schumann in his


"Drawing vs. Painting" transfers his drawings and sketches that
resemble an actual painting. Another lithographer Manee Meemak
in her "Firefly" uses sober color with occasional sparkles. In "The
Draped Divide" Mathew J. Egan takes advantage of the offset
lithography. Naomi Hashimoto in her "Profound" makes use of alu-
minum plate. Thailand's Tongchai Yukantapornpong plays with col-
ored lines in "Chaotic and Order".

Andy Warhol popularizes the silkscreen and serigraphy as medi-


ums. Silkscreen is very flexible which means an image is readily be
printed on whatever surfaces with whatever ink. Several artists in
his exhibition use this medium, including Jamil Mohd. Isa in his
"Pisang Emas Dibawa Belayar", Said Aniff Hossanee delivers the
African spirit in his stencil-work "Orange Safari". Myrtle Clark
Brenner and Melissa Gill present us with their serigraph works enti-
tled "Canes Venatici" and "Interchange".

For different reasons many printmakers use the monotype and the
mono print. With mono print, the plate can be reprinted; with
monotype, only a single print. There are those who use both tech-
niques in a single work. Still others have used these and other tech-
niques. Todd Christensen in his "Detached and Uncaring" uses
multiple techniques, including the rubber stamp. Besides using the
monotype and the mono print, Mary Robinson in her "Portal
Variation I-XXXVI" combines other means as well. Other mono-
type and mono print practitioners include Mohamad Rojana,
Satawat Chuaynum and Kamol Kongthang.

There are those who are less than easy with the computer and the
digits. Some follow the trends by adopting them, printing using
inkjet, giclee. Benjamin Vasserman, a master etcher, moves on to
using the new technology, as can be seen in his digital work
"Diagnosis VI", shown here. Steve Lovett is engrossed in the new
technology, using the digital print, and the video, as can be seen in
his "Down and Up". Likewise, Kathryn Reeves, too. In his xerogra-
phy work, Chong Hip Seng adds layers to the print surface, which
features figures and texts torn from the daily papers and telephone
directory. By printing in multiples, Hip Seng produces a series of
the same work, caring less whether it is a painting or a print. What
is crucial to him is the process of making.

Linked to printmaking is the use of paper. Printmakers are most


particular about the paper they use. The texture, the feel, the acid
contents go into determining how the image looks and how long the
paper will last. Some printmakers devote more time to checking on
the quality of paper than to doing the actual printing. Dr. Chew
Teng Beng is one participant who has done an extensive study on
paper. His two-dimensional work, "TBCGMP" is made of hand-
made paper. Dr. Mohamad Najib plays around with handmade
paper derived from banana trunks and cloth, printed with tradi-
tional motifs.

A few works may seem out of place, shown here to give an idea of
what constitutes a print. Sculptor Tengku Azahari often produces
pieces replicated in molds, whose numbers amount to an edition,
no different from the run-of-the-mail print, each as original as the
last. Mohamad Khizal uses multiple printings in his installation.

Printmaking permits a whole range of possibilities. In future exhi-


bitions the blurred boundaries may render divisions pointless.

A. Rahman Mohamad, Guest Curator.


Rentas Sempadan
Rentas
Sempadan

Benjamin Vasserman | Diagnosis VI | Digital Print | 2006


Rentas
Sempadan

Chew Teng Beng, Dr. | Coralscape Series 2 | Handmade Paper | 1991


Rentas
Sempadan

Chong Hip Seng | Countryside #3 | Xeroxgraphy | 2006


Rentas
Sempadan

Dariusz Kaca | The last meeting | Colour Linocut | 2006


Rentas
Sempadan

Endi Poskovic | Rhino in Red Shoes | Colour Woodcut | 2004


Rentas
Sempadan

Fauzan Omar | Unity in Diversity | Colour Linocut | 2000/2001


Rentas
Sempadan

Haruka Furusaka | Intuition | Watercolour woodblock | 2006


Rentas
Sempadan

Kamol Kongthang | Natural Phemenon # 2 | Lino, Silkscreen, Mono | 2006


Rentas
Sempadan

Loo Foh Sang | Sunset Series : Festival Dance | Etching & Aquatint | 2006
Rentas
Sempadan

Lou Qi | 53-80- Brush | Woodcut | 2006


Rentas
Sempadan

Mohd Jamil Mohd Isa | Pisang Emas Dibawa Belayar | Silkscreen | 2006
Rentas
Sempadan

Manee Meemak | Fireflies | Lithography | 1999


Rentas
Sempadan

Mohammad Khizal Mohd. Saad | Dejavunik | Print Installation | 2004


Rentas
Sempadan

Mohamed Najib Dawa, Dr. | Fussion | Embaded Handmade Paper | 2006


Rentas
Sempadan

Muhammad Rojana | Flower | Monoprint | 2007


Rentas
Sempadan

Padungsak Panichtrakulsi | Space & Flower No.1| Silkscreen | 2007


Rentas
Sempadan

Rahman Mohamed | Conversation | Lithography | 2006


Rentas
Sempadan

Rita Marhaug | West coast 2000 Series Variation # 1 | Photobased intaglio | 2004
Rentas
Sempadan

Said Aniff Hossanee | Orange Safari | Silkscreen | 2001


Rentas
Sempadan

Satawat Chuaynum | Trace of Civilazation I | Monoprint on handmade paper | 2007


Rentas
Sempadan

Steve Lovett | Down and Up | Digital Print | 2006


Rentas
Sempadan

Tengku Azahari | Merentap Apa Terkandung Di dalam | Fiber Glass Casating | 2006
Rentas
Sempadan

Ying Tianqi | City Village Series # 10 | Colour Woodcut | 1989


Emission International Portfolio Exchange
The twenty participants in this portfolio
were asked to contemplate and respond
to the idea that an emission by one
person, group or nation affects others

Project organized by
Mary Robinson
South Carolina, USA
Emission
Portfolio

Clockwise
Myrtle Clark Bremer (UK) | Canes venatici | Seven
Colour Serigraph | 2005

Sarah Edmonds (USA) | Lucerna - Beheading of St.Denis |


Blind embossing, drypoint,& viscocity print on white crow
handmade paper | 2005

Kate Ferucci (USA) | Music gives life to everything | letter-


press | 2005

Jill Allen (USA) | Process 929 | Colour Woodcut | 2005


Emission
Portfolio

Clockwise

Melissa Gill (USA) | Interchange | Serigraph | 2005

Lou Joseph (USA) | Accumulation #3 ( Bags ) |


Collagraph | 2005

Bill Hosterman (USA) | Emission | Line etch and


aquatint, printed in intaglio and relif | 2005

Saeko Furukata (France) | Electrofairy | Line Etch


and aquatint | 2005
Emission
Portfolio

Clockwise

Rahman Mohamed (Malaysia) | Emission | Line etching


and aquatint | 2005

Michael Markwick (The Netherlands) | Migration |


Archival Inkjeet on paper | 2005

Daniel Leathersich (USA) | The cedar cutter | Etching,


Mulbery paper, Cedar veneer mounted on paper | 2005

Haran Kim (Korea) | Emit a sweet fragrance | Monotype,


serigraph, sewing | 2005
Emission
Portfolio

Clockwise

Mary Phelan (USA) | Flow | Letterpress monotype | 2005

Kathryn Reeves (USA) | Who knows what may come on


the wind? | Digital opaque pigment print on 100% cotton
paper | 2005

Mary Robinson (USA) | Portal Variations I-XXVI |


Monoprint, line etch, drypoint, monotype, woodcut | 2005

Adam Norton (Australia) | Rocket | Archival Inkjet on


paper | 2005
Emission
Portfolio

Clockwise

Jim Sconyers (USA) | O. B. D II | Ultra Giclee with


acrylic varnish| 2005

Barbara Zeigleri (Canada) | Emission=Prediction |


Woodcut and archival giclee print| 2005

Ainie Scannell (Ireland) | Pnadora finally finds her


voice| Archival Inkjet on Fabriano Paper| 2005

Paul Schumann (USA) | Drawing vs painting : carbon


Exchange | Lithography, serigraphy| 2005
On the Edge International Portfolio Exchange
The twenty international artists
participating in the portfolio are invited
to reflect on their own interpretations of
the theme and asked to consider the
formal, artistic, personal, social and/or
political aspects of the word "edge". How
can artists integrate the edges of the
printing surface/paper to inform the
concept of the image? What does it mean
for printmaking students to be on the
verge of their professional careers?
What is the significance of globalization
and the disappearance of borders
between countries, cultures and ideas?
All participants are also encouraged to
show "On the Edge" in their respective
countries to promote contact between
cultures on a global scale.

Project organized by
Katarzyna Cepek and
Emily Wilson
Arizona, USA
On the Edge
Portfolio

Clockwise

Brian Curling (USA) | Deepen Through Each Passing


| Colour Woodcut | 2005

Emily Wilson (USA) | Greed or Need | Etching,


Aquatint,, Drypoint, Spitbite | 2005

Enrique Leal (Spain) | Enfoldment | TwoColour


Aquatint Intaglio| 2005

Cerese Vadent (USA) | Western Pivot | Line,


Aquatint,,White Ground, Soft ground, woodcut | 2005
On the Edge
Portfolio

Clockwise

Heli Kurunsaari ( Finland ) | Wednesdays Face |


Colour Woodcut | 2005

Jan Pamula ( Poland) | Image 026 | Digital Print |


2005

Jean Maddison (Canada) | On the Edge of Life |


Digital Print | 2005

Heather Muise (United Arab Emirates) | City Village


Series # 10 | Etching | 2005
On the Edge
Portfolio

Clockwise

Kathryn Reeves (USA) | Edge of Reason | Digital


Opaque Pigment Print on 100% cotton paper | 2005

Koichi Yamamoto (USA) | Site Untouched | Intaglio,


White Ground,Aquatint, Copper Engraving | 2005

Lidija Antanasujevic (UK) | Farewell Homeland |


Intaglio, three plates, three colours, Etching and
Aquatint | 2005

Katarzyna Cepek (USA) | In-Between/ Pomiedzy |


Etching, Xerox Transfer and Encaustic | 2005
On the Edge
Portfolio

Clockwise

Marta Wakula (Ireland) | Woman of the Dunes-


House | Linocut | 2005

Naomi Hashimoto ( Japan) | Profound | Aluminium


plate lithography | 2005

Oscar Jay Gillespie (USA) | Rimweed | Engraving


and Aquatint | 2005

Matthew J. Egan (United Arab Emirates) | The


Draped Divide | Offset Lithography | 2005
On the Edge
Portfolio

Clockwise

Rahman Mohamed ( Malaysia ) | On the Edge |


Etching and Aquatint | 2005

Tongchai Yukantapornpong (Thailand ) | On the


Edge | Lithography | 2005

Todd Christensen (USA) | Detached and Uncaring |


Reductive Linoleum cut, pencil, rubber stamps &
monoprinted stencils | 2005

Stefania Missio (Italy) | Self | Linoleum on Japenese


paper | 2005
Emission Portfolio Participants

Myrtle Clark Bremer (UK), Myrtle Clark Bremer is an artist living in Portsmouth, United Kingdom.
Her work has been shown in national and international exhibitions.

Sarah Edmonds (USA), Sarah Edmonds received an MFA in printmaking from Indiana University in
2003 and a BFA from Kutztown University in 1999. In addition to her formal education, Sarah has pursued
art experiences and exhibitions in the Czech Republic, Canada, Italy, the Netherlands, and throughout the
U.S. Edmonds is currently teaching visual culture and foundations courses at Kutztown University.

Kate Ferrucci (USA), Kate Ferrucci received her undergraduate degree in printmaking from the
University of Notre Dame and her MFA in Graphic Design from Indiana University. In 2002 she founded
People to People Press. Ferrucci is the author, designer and producer of two books "Limestone Lives: Voices
from the Indiana Stone Belt", and "Soundings: Collected Stories from Bloomington's Music Community."
She currently lives and works in Rome, Italy.

Jill Allen (USA), born 1971 in Neenah, WI, received a BFA from the University of Illinois in
Champaign/Urbana, IL, and an MFA from the University of South Carolina in Columbia, SC. Allen was an
Artist in Residence at the Odyssey Center for the Ceramic Arts in Asheville, NC and has shown her work in
many exhibitions across the country.,. Allen's work has been featured in the Ceramic Glaze Handbook by
Mark Burleson, as well as in Handbuilt Tableware by Kathy Triplett.

Melissa Gill (USA), Melissa Gill studied art at University of Arizona for her BFA degree in Printmaking.
Attended graduate studies at Purdue University and Indiana University, Bloomington and received MA and
MFA in Printmaking respectively. She is a member of MAPC, Southern Graphics Council, and College Art
Association. Her art involves many media including printmaking, drawing, painting, photography, book-
making, installation, and video. She has exhibited her works in solo art show as well as group exhibitions
both in the states and internationally. Currently, she is an Assistant Professor of Art at Rockport College,
Illinois.

Lou Joseph (USA), born in 1975 in Youngstown, Ohio. Now he lives and works in Durham, North
Carolina, USA. Received his BFA degree from Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, Ohio, USA, and an
MFA from Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana. He has shown his work in many exhibitions in the
USA and abroad including Italy, England, Ireland, Poland and Germany.

Bill Hosterman (USA), is an Assistant Professor of Art at Grand Valley State University in Allendale,
Michigan, where he has taught printmaking, drawing and foundations since 1999. He has degrees in print-
making from The Pennsylvania State University and Indiana University. During the summer of 1993, Bill
apprenticed at the K. Caraccio Printmaking Studio and Bob Blackburn's Printmaking Workshop, both in
New York City. In 1995, Bill went to South Africa on a Fulbright scholarship to study printmaking.

Saeko Furukata (France), Born and brought up in Tokyo, studied BA visual communication (mainly
illustration) at Kent Institute of Art and Design in England.She's always interested in childhood thoughts
and memories. Her univers is constructed by little girl and her toys in twisted wonderland.Working as an
illustrator for children's books and some magazine.Recently she is designing toys, also sometimes updating
her web-site with degital finished works. She has resumed etching in Paris.
Rahman Mohamed (Malaysia), was born in Johor, Malaysia. He has a BA degree from Universiti Sains
Malaysia (USM), MSc degree from Pratt Institute in New York, USA and MFA degree from UW-
Milwaukee, USA. Currently he is a lecturer at the School of Arts, USM. Rahman works mainly in intaglio
and woodcut. He has participated in numerous art exhibitions in Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore,
Bangladesh, France , USA, Germany, Italy, Turkey, Canada and Poland. Besides printmaking, he also pro-
duces works in digital art and interactive multimedia.

Michael Markwick (The Netherlands), is a painter and printmaker who lives and works in Dordrecht,
the Netherlands, and Berlin, Germany. He was born on April 3, 1974, in Grand Rapids, Michigan, the
United States, to first- generation Dutch and Sri Lankan immigrants. He received a Bachelor of Fine Arts
degree in printmaking and painting in 1998 from Calvin College. He was awarded a Master of Fine Arts
degree in 2002 in printmaking and mixed-media installations from Indiana University, Bloomington,
Indiana, U.S.A.In 2002 he moved to the Netherlands to explore his Dutch roots.

Daniel Leathersich (USA), is a painter and printmaker based in Berks County Pennsylvania, USA. His
work is informed by a firm connection to history, a relationship with nature, and a strong community of
people. Leathersich has shown with the Boston Printmakers, the Printmaking Council of New Jersey, and
the New Arts Program (Kutztown, PA) as well as many other group exhibitions throughout the United
States. He has received grants from Kutztown University, and the Indiana Arts Commission with funding
from the National Endowment for the Arts (USA).

Haran Kim (Korea), lives and works in Seoul, Korea. Studied BFA,with major in printmaking at Hong-Ik
University, Seoul. Korea. She received her MFA in Printmaking from Indiana University, Bloomington,
USA. She has shown her work in numerous art exhibitions both in Korea and abroad, including The Third
Seoul International Book Arts Fair and Frankfurt Book Fair, Germany. Participated in artist in residence
program at the Kimmel Herding Center for the Arts, Nebraska in March and April 2007.

Mary Phelan (USA), an Associate Professor received BS in Art Education, College of Saint Rose; MA
from, UW-Madison. Currently Coordinator of the Fine Arts, Printmaking/Book Arts undergraduate depart-
ment. She frequently lectures and offers workshops on letterpress printing and book arts and has curated
numerous exhibitions related to artists' books. She is known for both her prints and letterpress printing and
has collaborated with many other artists to create books and various art projects.

Kathryn Reeves (USA), Professor of Art. Her area of specialization is print media: digital, intaglio, lithog-
raphy, screen, relief, and hybrid forms. BFA, 1974, painting/printmaking, Miami University of Ohio; post
baccalaureate studies, 1975, Harvard University; MFA, 1981, printmaking/drawing, Drake University. She
also taught at Drake University and Iowa State University, and worked at Harvard's Fogg Art Museum.
Reeves has shown over 200 international, national, and regional exhibitions - including in 2005, solo show
at the Scuola Internazionale di Grafica, Italy and group shows in New Zealand, Germany, and Poland. Her
work has also been shown in Taiwan, UK, Australia, and throughout North America. Her prints are includ-
ed in The Best of Printmaking: An International Collection by Allen and McGibbon.

Mary Robinson (USA), is currently an Assistant Professor and Head of Printmaking in the Department of
Art at the University of South Carolina-Columbia. Her work, which takes the form of drawing, painting,
printmaking and installation, has been shown in nine solo exhibitions, and has been included in over forty
group exhibitions, including shows throughout the United States, as well as in England, Germany, Italy and
Australia. Robinson has received numerous grants and awards, including a Fulbright-Hayes Study Abroad
Project in Korea in 2004. In 2005, she initiated and coordinated the international print exchange Emission.
Adam Norton (Australia), was born in United Kingdom in 1974, now residing in Sydney, Australia.
Received his BFA from The Ruskin School of Drawing and Fine Art, Oxford University. Spent his residency
at Toos Neger Studio, Dordrecht, The Netherlands in 2004. He has several one man shows and group exhi-
bitions held both in Australia and The Netherlands.

Jim Sconyers (USA), he is an artist in a variety of media, including printmaking, photography, and digital
media. In 2002, he received his MFA from Indiana University's Henry Radford Hope School of Fine Arts.
Since that time, his work has been selected for both national and international exhibition, including the
Global Matrix print exhibition in 2003 and Prints! exhibition in Rome, Italy in 2004. In 2006, Jim was the
recipient of a Mednick Fellowship by the Virginia Foundation for Independent Colleges to explore the
themes of community, collaboration, and communication. His current work is scheduled to debut in Hunt
Gallery, Mary Baldwin College, in 2008.

Barbara Zeigler (Canada), Associate Professor, received her B.F.A. in Painting and her M.F.A. in
Printmaking from the University of Illinois in Urbana, Illinois. Additionally, she studied for 2 and 1/2 years
at the Akademie der bildenden Kuenste in Munich, Germany and at the Universitaet Muenchen. She has
also taught at the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, Queen's University, the University of Alberta, and
the University of Illinois (Champaign-Urbana). She has special interest and accomplishment in the area of
print media (specifically intaglio and relief printing, lithography, and digital imaging), and in drawing, pho-
tography, and installation art. Her work has been exhibited widely nationally and internationally. Most
recently she has been exploring the integration of digital technology into printmaking practice. In this way
she hopes to promote the study and critique of contemporary culture by using experimental approaches to
interdisciplinary print-based research.

Aine Scannell (Ireland), Born 1957 , is an Irish artist who is resident in the UK. Her formal fine art educa-
tion was 'instilled' by a plethora of somniferous bag ladies and pedagogues. These included the 'usual sus-
pects' e.g., Middlesex, Goldsmiths, Wimbledon and Barcelona. In these past ten years though, thank good-
ness, outcomes have been going more successfully, on my own terms, and that has been as a graphic artist
in the European sense of the word. So she makes drawings, installations, art-objects and printmaking
works - these are original intaglio and digital prints, sometimes they comprise both techniques. This addi-
tionally applies to the bookart works she has made.

Paul Schumann (USA), received his MFA in printmaking from Indiana University. He has taught at the
Minneapolis College of Art and Design, and the University of Minnesota. His prints and drawings have
been shown throughout the United states and other countries.
On The Edge Portfolio Participants

Brian W.Curling (USA) is from Cadiz, Kentucky and has received his BFA from the University of
Kentucky-Lexington, Kentucky in the year 2000. He received his MFA in Printmaking, Book Arts and
Drawing from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Nebraska in 2004. In 2005, he participated in exhibi-
tions such as the Open Expression, Contemporary American Art American University in Cairo Egypt and Es
Waren Zwei Konigskinder (Once Were Two King's Children) at the Eackladen Altwachwitz Gallery in
Dresden, Germany. He also achieved awards such as the Finnish Graphics Council, Artist Residency
Recipient, Helsinki, Finland and also the Vreeland Award for distinguished MFA Candidate, University of
Nebraska.

Emily Wilson (USA). She is from Sacramento, California. She received her BFA from the Utah State
University, and her MFA from the University of Arizona, Tuscan, Arizona. She has participated in several
exhibitions such as the Street Collections at The Place Gallery St. Loius, MO and also Half and Half at the
CurrisCenter Gallery, Murray State University, KY. Her awards included 30th International Print and
Drawing Exhibition, Public Choice Award in 2005 and the Professional Development Grant, Arizona
Commission of the Arts in 2004. She initiated and coordinated the international print exchange On the
Edge.

Enrique Leal (Spain) is from Madrid, Spain and is an Associate Professor of Art, Facultad de Bellas Artes
Cuenca, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, Spain. He has received his BFA in Drawing and Printmaking at
the Politechnical University Valencia in 1996 and his MFA in Drawing and Printmaking at the Universidad
de Castilla La Mancha in 1998. Also, he took his PhD. Fine Arts at the University of Castilla La Mancha in
2003. He has participated in numerous group exhibitions such as in 2004 at the Tribes Gallery, New York
and also in 2005 at the RCIPP, Mason Gross School of Arts, Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New
Jersey.

Cerese Vaden (USA) She was raised on a ranch in rural central Idaho, Cerese Vaden established early her
interest in constructions and natural forms. Often incorporating the juxtaposition of three-dimensional
objects with what have traditionally been two-dimensional works; paintings, prints and drawings, Vaden's
artwork merges and presents these elements within three dimensional formats and structures. An assistant
professor of art at the University of Arizona since 2000, Vaden teaches printmaking, watercolour, drawing
and book art courses. In 2001, she took a hiatus serve as Director of Landfall Press in Chicago, Illinois. Her
prints and mixed media works have been shown throughout the United States as well as many locations
abroad.

Heli Kurunsaari (Finland) was born in 1971 in Lapua, Finland. Graduated from the Art Institute of Lahti
Polytechnic in 1996. She has had many solo and group exhibitions in Finland and abroad. Her work has
been shown internationally in such exhibiton as A Century of the Woodcut Print in Finland, Sheldon
Memorial Art Gallery and Eisentrager/ Howard Gallery, Lincoln in Nebraska USA, Finnish Institute in
Madrid, Mois de l'Estampe-Finnish Institute in France, 4th Print Triennial Kochi in Japan, 11th Print
Triennial of Tallinn in Estonia and World Award Winners Gallery in Katowice, Poland. Her work is includ-
ed in essential collections in Finland. She is also a member of the board Association of Graphic Arts in
Finland.
Jan Pamula (Poland). A professor of the Academy of Fine Arts in Krakow.He was born in 1944 in Poland.
1961-68 he studied painting and graphic art at the Academy of Fine Arts in Krakow, and in 1967 at the Ecole
Nationale Superieure des Beaux Arts in Paris. . Pamula has had over 50 solo exhibitions in Poland and
abroad. He has taken part in several hundred collective, international exhibitions. He received numerous
prizes on international and domestic exhibitions. In 2003, he was awarded the annual prize of Witold
Wojtkiewicz ZPAP in Krakow . His works of art can be found in the collections of the National Museum in
Warsaw and Krakow; Victoria and Albert Museum, London; Albertina in Vienna; Portland Art Museum in
Oregon.

Jean Maddison (Canada) Professor at the University of Guelph, Canada. She has been a printmaker for
over 25 years and taught at many universities, including University of Victoria, B.C., University of Western
Ontario, Mount Allison U., N.B., York University and McMaster University in Ontario, Canada. She migrat-
ed to Canada in 1977 from England. During the years 1972-1977, she set up and managed the Lithographic
Print Workshop in London, England where she printed editions for and collaborated as Master Printer with
many artists from all over the world. Her Lithography Print Workshop was mentioned in the Thames and
Hudson Manual of Advanced Lithography by Richard Vicary, published in London in 1977.

Heather Muise (United Arab Emirates) received her B.F.A. from the University of Windsor, Canada, and
her M.F.A in studio art (printmaking) from the University of Tennessee. Her work has been exhibited in
over 80 shows across four continents. She has been teaching printmaking and foundations courses at
Zayed University in the United Arab Emirates for the past five years where one of her main areas of research
is creating bridges between Arab and Western artists and cultures through the printmaking media. She has
recently moved to Greenville, North Carolina with her partner Matthew Egan. Her work has been exhibited
across North America, in Europe, the Middle East and Australia.
Kathryn Reeves (USA). Please see her bio in the Emission portfolio.

Koichi Yamamoto (USA) is the Assistant Professor in Printmaking at the Department of Art in Utah
State University. He received his Bachelor of Fine Arts Degree at the Pacific Northwest College of Art,
Portland, Oregon and received his Masters of Fine Arts Degree at the University of Alberta, Edmonton,
Alberta Canada.

Lidija Antanasujevic (UK). She was born in 1961 in Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro. She received her
MA in printmaking at the Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Arts in Belgrade. She had done numerous solo
exhibitions like The Easiness of Mere Being at Gallery Dvorni Trg, Ljubljana, Slovenia in 2000 and also at
the London Print Workshop Gallery in London. She has also participated in group exhibitions such as the
Continental Breakfast Belgrade and May Exhibitions of Prints in Belgrade.

Katarzyna Cepek (USA). She received her BFA in Drawing and Printmaking from Boise State University
in 2003. MFA in Printmaking at the University of Arizona. Participated in exhibitions in the USA, and New
Zealand. Cepek was born in Poland and left her native country at the age of ten. Since her arrival in the
United States, she has existed between two cultures. Her art work examines the concept of construction of
self through the reconstruction of memory. She draws on childhood recollections as well as family histories
to create work that explores her identity as a Polish citizen living indefinitely in America.

Marta Wakula (Ireland). She was born in 1979 in Poland. Graduated from Institute of Art, Pedagogical
University in Cracow (1988-2003) Department of Linocut. Dealing with woodcut and linocut technique and
painting. Graduated from School of Icon's painting in Cracow (2000) and School of Computer Design in
Cracow (2002). Participated in a Competition of Bietigheim-Bissingen Linocut Today, Germany, 2004 and
VIII International Engraving Biennial Caixnova, Spain, 2004.
Naomi Hashimoto (Japan) was born in Tokyo, Japan. Graduated from Tama Art University, Japan,
studied graphic design and lithography and took BA. Participated in a Workshop on Reduction Woodcut
Printmaking with Professor Karen Kunc, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, U.S.A at St. Reparata, Florence,
Italy, summer 1999. Have personal exhibitons several times mostly in Tokyo, Japan. Participated in inter-
national exhibitions such as Grafinnova '98 (Vaasa, Finland), Mini print International CADAQUES (Spain),
International Biennale of Miniature Art (Serbia and Montenegro) and others.

Oscar Jay Gillespie (USA). Professor of Art at Bradley University, Illinois. BFA from Northern Arizona
University. MFA in Printmaking from Arizona State University. Founding Coordinator and Printer of
Cradle Oak Press, University of Bradley. Participated in numerous exhibitions in the USA and abroad.

Matthew J. Egan ( United Arab Emirates). He was born in Canada, and recently taught printmaking for
several years in the United Arab Emirates where he was an Assistant Professor of Foundations and Design
at American University of Sharjah. He earned a MFA from the University of South Dakota and a BFA from
the University of Windsor. One of his main areas of interest and research is forging opportunities and links
between Eastern and Western image-making traditions and practices through an attempt to identify with
cultural and social issues relating to both individual nations and the wider narratives of the eastern and
western hemispheres.

Rahman Mohamed (Malaysia). Please see his bio in Emission Portfolio.

Tongchai Yukantapornpong (Thailand). He was born in Bangkok in 1960. In the year 1981, Thongchai
graduated in the College of Fine Arts in Bangkok. Received B.F.A. in Graphic Arts in 1985 and M.F.A in
Graphic Arts in 2002 both in Silpakorn University, Bangkok. As the Art Instructor in Printmaking,
Department of Printmaking Painting and Sculpture in the Faculty of Arts, Chiang Mai University,
Thongchai has participated in many exhibitions like the 48th and 49th National Exhibition of Arts at the
National Gallery in Bangkok as well as plenty solo exhibitions such as exhibitions in the A.C.S Gallery
Nagoya, Japan and in the Twain Tippetts Exhibition Hall, Utah State University, USA. Also, is the award
winner of the 13th Toshiba "Brings Good Things to Life" Art Competition.

Todd Christensen (USA). He is from Las Vegas, USA attended Utah State University from 1999-2001. He
also has attended University of Arizona to do his MFA. He has worked as a Graduate Teaching Assistant
and Adjunct Faculty both in the University of Arizona. In 2005, he had participated in three exhibitions
which is the Hereditary Anxieties (solo show) in Burris Hall Gallery, Las Vegas, the '18th Annual El Ancon
Show' in Ribera and the 'Wild West Sideshow Adventure', Mangere Community Arts Outreach Gallery
Manukau, New Zealand. He has participated with many invitational portfolio exchange such as the
Frogman Press 2001 Portfolio and Second Intermountain Invitational Print Portfolio.

Stefania Missio (Italy)


Rentas Sempadan Participants

Benjamin Vasserman (Estonia)


Born 1949.Studied at Estonian Academy of Art (graphic art) 1973 - 1979.
Began to exhibit in 1978. Member of the Estonian Artists'Association since
1989.At present free-lance artist in Tallinn. Participated in hundreds of
print exhibition worldwide, including solo exhibitions in Estonia, Germany,
Finland and Denmark. International print exhibition in Romania, USA,
Poland, Italy, Canada, Norway, Macedonia, India, Korea, Thailand and
including the Universiti Sains Malaysia International Print Exhibition 2007,
Malaysia. He has won several major awards and special prizes including the
10th. Tallinn Print Triennale and gold prize in Beijing, China.

Chew Teng Beng, Dr. (Malaysia)


Born in Trengganu, Malaysia. Studied at Cranbrook Academy, Michigan.
Received BFA and MFA from University of Michigan, PhD from New York
University, USA in 1986.Established painting and printmaking department
in the Seina Height University, Andrian in 1970. Established fine arts pro-
gram in the School of Humanities, Universiti Sains Malaysia in 1972.
Participated in many art exhibitions nationally and internationally. He had
18 solo shows and many group shows in the USA, China, Australia, Europe,
Brazil, Taiwan, and ASEAN countries.

Chong Hip Seng (Malaysia)


Born 1950 in Penang, Malaysia. A full time artist. Studied lithography under
Sandoz Claude, Switzerland. He has participated in various exhibitions in
Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, and China. Held a number of solo art exhibi-
tions including - 1st. 7 2nd. Solo Exhibition, Penang 1977; and 1983. A solo
show at Takashimaya, Singapore in 1995. His works are in the collection of
National Art Gallery, Malaysia; Singapore Art Museum; Universiti Utara
Malaysia and Siam Art Museum, Thailand.

Dariusz Kaca (Poland)


Born in Kutno in 1960. He is presently working as a tutor in the Studio of
Woodcut Techniques at the Department of Graphics and Paintings at
Strzeminski's Academy of Fine Arts in Lodz. Poland.He earned his M.F.A
from the High School of Fine Arts in Lodz in 1994. He pursues artistic and
design graphic, artistic book, drawing and painting.He has 17 solo exhibi-
tions and participated in 130 group exhibitions in Poland and abroad.
Including the Universiti Sains Malaysia International Print Exhibition 2007.
Endi Poskovic (USA)
Born in 1969 in Sarajevo, Bosnia. Lives inthe United States since 1991. A
graduate of Sarajevo School of Applied Arts (Diploma in Fine Arts) 1986,
Sarajevo Principal School of Music (Music Diploma) 1987, Sarajevo
Academy of Fine Arts/University of Sarajevo (B.F.A.) 1990, studied at
Minnet Fondet in Norway 1990-91, State University of New York at Buffalo
(M.F.A.) He has over 300 individual and group exhibitions, including all
major international annual, biannual and triennial exhibitions of prints
throughout the United States, Europe, Australia, Canada, China, Cuba,
Ecuador, Japan, Korea, South Africa, Thailand and Malaysia. His works are
in the collection in over 100 public and universities collections.

Faizan @ Fauzan bin Omar (Malaysia)


Associate Professor of Art at the School of Arts, Universiti Sains Malaysia.
Graduated with Diploma in Art and Design (Fine Art),ITM Shah Alam,
Obtained Art Teachers' Diploma from ITM Shah Alam,MFA (Painting)
Maryland Institute College of Arts , U.S.A. Participated in many art exhibi-
tion in Malaysia, ASEAN countries, Australia and Thailand. He has won sev-
eral art awards including Australian Cultural Award 1995; Major Award
Philip Morris Art Competition, Joint Winner in Printmaking Category Salon
Malaysia 1992.

Haruka Furusaka (Japan)


She was born in 1976, Osaka, Japan. Now an independent artist working in
watercolor, woodblock printmaking and painting. She lives in Osaka, Japan.
Awarded BFA from Musashino Art University, Tokyo. Studied Japanese
Woodblock Printmaking at Nagasawa Art Park in 2001. She has conducted
workshops on Japanese Woodblock Printing in the USA and Germany.
Furusaka stayed at the residence Ateljé Stundars maintained by the Council
of Swedish Education and Culture in Ostrobothnia, Finland. Shows her
prints in many art exhibitions including the Universiti Sains Malaysia
International Print Exhibition 2007.

Kamol Kongthong (Thailand)


He was born in Nakhon Sri Thammarat, Thailand. Participated in many art
exhibition in China, Thailand and Malaysia including the 3rd Exhibition of
New Expression of Asian Art in Kuala Lumpur 2006; Artists’ Heart for
Tsunami Art Exhibition, Bangkok2005; the 14th. Watercolour Exhibition of
Asia, China 2000.
Loo Foh Sang (Malaysia)
Born in 1944 in Kuantan, Pahang. He studied at Nanyang Academy of Fine
Arts, Singapore 1963-65; further his studies at theEcole National Superieure
des Beaux Arts and Atelier 17 (under Stanley William Hayter) in Paris,
France. Returned to Malaysia in 1988 and taught print-making at the
Malaysian Institute of Art until 1993. Head of the Fine Art Department of
Central Academy. Helped organise the First International Annual Print-
making Exhibition at Central Art Gallery in KL, in 1996. This exhibition
developed into the Annual Exhibition of International Contemporary Prints,
which showed 70 works from 39 countries.

Lou Qi (China)
He was born in Hangzhou, China in 1960. He is a chief editor of Art Riches
Magazine, China. He has been invited as a guest lecturer at Milan Academy
of Fine Arts, Italy and Seattle Communication College, Washington, USA.
Has exhibited in many art exhibition in China, France, Japan, Malaysia,
Taiwan, Germany, Sweeden, Denmark, Austria, and Thailand. His works
are in many public collections including Yale University Art Gallery; Malm
Modern Art Museum, Sweeden; eastern Art Museum, Japan; FBVA
Foundation for Humanities, France.

Mohd Jamil Mohd Isa (Malaysia)


He was born in 1967 in Penang, Malaysia. earned in Diploma in Art & Design
from ITM, Shah Alam. Awarded MA in Fine Art from University of Central
England, Birmingham. Now a lecturer at Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah
Alam. Had his solo exhibition - Yang Hitam Manis in 2000. Participated in
many art exhibitions in Malaysia and abroad including X’change- Nagoya
Art University, Japan; Alternative Printmaking - Galeri Petronas, Kuala
Lumpur; 4th. Triennale of Small Print, France. His works are in the collec-
tion of many coporate bodies including National Art Gallery Malaysia,
Malaysian Embassy, Stockholm and Concorde Hotel, Kuala Lumpur.

Manee Meemak (Thailand)


Born in 1977 , Nakornsrithomra, Thailand. Instructor in printmaking,
Faculty of Art ,Thaksin University Songkhla, Thailand. Awarded B.F.A. and
MFA in Graphic Art from the Faculty of Painting, Sculpture and Graphic
Arts Silpakron University, Bangkok Thailand. Exhibited her lithographs in
many art exhibitions including Kyoto Hanga in Japan; Universiti Sains
Malaysia International Print Exhibition 2007; The 18th. Silpa Bhirasri
Exhibition of Contemporary Arts, Bangkok.
Mohamad Khizal Mohamad Saat (Malaysia)
He was born 1977, in Taiping, Malaysia. A lecturer in printmaking at
Universiti Sains Malaysia School of Arts. He has his BFA from Universiti
Teknologi MARA. Graduated with MFAD in Printmaking from University of
Tasmania, Australia. He has conducted several printmaking workshops and
demonstrations around Malaysia. He has exhibited his works in many exhi-
bitions in Malaysia, Australia and Thailand.

Mohamed Najib Ahmad Dawa, Dr. (Malaysia)


He was born in Pahang, Malaysia. Currently an associate professor in art at
the School of Arts, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang. Earned his BA in Fine
Arts from Universiti Sains Malaysia, awarded MA and Ph.D from
Manchester Metropolitan University, UK. He has partcipated in many art
exhibition in Malaysia, United Kingdom, Australia, Mauritius, USA and
Thailand. He has conducted batik workshops at The Syracus University,
New York, USA. He has curated an art exhibition at the National Art Gallery,
Malaysia.

Muhammad Rojana Udomsat (Thailand)


He was born 1959 in Pattani, Thailand. Received his art training from the
Poh Chang Art College, Bangkok. He has shown his works in many art exhi-
bitions including Contemporary Art Exhibition 1990 in Pattaya; 2nd. Phuket
Andaman painting Exhibition 2000; the Universiti Sains Malaysia
International Print Exhibition 2007; the 14th. International watercolour
Exhibition of Asia in China 2000; Exhibition of Painting, Thammasat
University, Bangkok 1990 and Artist’s Heart for Tsunami at the Queen’s
Gallery, Bangkok.

Padungsak Phanichtrakulsil (Thailand)


He lives in Hatyai, Thailand. Works mainly in silkscreen. He participated in
the Prince of Songkhla University Contemporary Art Exhibition 2001;
"Serenity in krue Se" Art Exhibition; Unseen in Frame Art Exhibition at
Ayothaya Contemporary 2004 ;Watercolour Painting Art Exhibition,
Bangkok 2005; The 3rd Exhibition of New Expression of Asia Art Kuala
Lumpur, Malaysia 2006 and USM International Print Exhibition 2007.
Rahman Mohamed (Malaysia)
He was born in Johor, Malaysia. He has a BA degree from Universiti Sains
Malaysia (USM), MSc degree from Pratt Institute in New York, USA and
MFA degree from UW- Milwaukee, USA. Currently he is a lecturer at the
School of Arts, USM. Rahman works mainly in intaglio and woodcut. He
has participated in numerous art exhibitions in Malaysia, Thailand,
Singapore, Bangladesh, France , USA, Germany, Italy, Turkey, Canada and
Poland. Besides printmaking, he also produces works in digital art and inter-
active multimedia.

Rita Marhaug (Norway)


She works as assistant professor at Bergen National Academy of the Arts,
Department of Specialized Art, in the area printmaking. Since the early -
ninties participated in numerous solo and group exhibitions both in Norway
and internationally. Her important tools for expression are printmaking,
drawing, video, photography and performance. She has won several awards
including Artist in Residence in Evora, Portugal in 2004; Honourable men-
tions Grafinnova, Vassa, Finland 2002 and Bronze prize at the Osaka
International Printmaking Triennale, Japan 1994.

Said Aniff Hossanee (Mauritius)


He is a painter/engraver of various facets,deeplyrooted in his multicultural
environment.His artistic production depicts and reflects his emotional affin-
ity to his motherland Mauritius. The vibration and play of colours and forms
are very particular to him,his style and signature. His recent works are
indeed " a statement for diversity"- an element of dialogue.The artist`s com-
mitment to world of visual arts along with his regular participation in
national and international events are proof of his active role in the local &
abroad artistic milieu. He has participated in about 20 group art shows in
Mauritius and held about 15 solo art exhibitions all through the island.

Satawat Chuaynum (Thailand)


He was born in 1957 in Phatthalung, Thailand. Obtained his art education
from Poh Chang Art College in Bangkok. He has won several awards includ-
ing the 1st. Prize in International Drawing Competition, World Wildlife
Fund, Switzerland. Participated in many art exhibitions in Thailand and
abroad including Artist’s Heart for Tsunami at the Queen’s Gallery,
Bangkok; USM International Print Exhibition 2007, Penang, Malaysia and
Foot Bridge International Group Exhibition at siam art Gallery, Thailand.
Steve Lovett (New Zealand)
He was born in Auckland New Zealand, where he now lives and works.
Studied printmaking at the University of Auckland in New Zealand.
Specialising in serigraph and digital work. He has taught at Manukau School
of Visual Art in Auckland, New Zealand since 1996. Since 1998, he has lead
Photo by Silvi Glatteur

the printmaking section of the school, developing a print program with the
capacity to encourage both traditional atelier printmaking and more con-
temporary approaches to printmaking. Lovett has exhibited widely with
work being held in public and private collections in New Zealand, Australia,
the United States of America and India.

Tengku Azhari Tengku Azizan (Malaysia)


Awarded BFA from Universiti teknologi MARA, obtained Master of Fine Art
and Design from University of Tasmania, Australia. Currently a lecturer at
School of Arts, Universiti Sains Malaysia. He has exhibited his works in
many exhibitions in Malaysia, Australia, USA and Poland. Tengku has won
several awards including Major Prize, Shah Alam Open Drawing Competitio.
A multi- platforms artist, he works in traditional sculpture, video art, and
electronic media.

Ying Tianqi (China)


A professor at Shenzhen University,China, Ying is an influential explorer in
the field of modern art. He is renowned for his Xidi Village series and
regarded as an expert in folklore. In 1986, Ying came upon Xidi Village and
spent eight years there. Ying's 35 prints completed 12 years ago and 34 tra-
ditional Chinese paintings from last year concentrate on Xidi Village, a
well-preserved centuries-old village. "Ying's works remind us of traditional
culture and modernity," a review in the Shenzhen Economic Daily said
Friday. "The exhibition at Guanlan Art Gallery enables people to compare
Xidi Village with ancestral Hakka buildings in Guanlan Township in a
'Dialogue with Guanlan.'
Printmaking Glossary

Here is a list of terms to help you find your way around the "Rentas Sempadan " exhibition:

Aquatint - An etching technique that creates areas of tone through the use of powdered resin that is sprin-
kled on the etching plate prior to being bitten by the etching acid. The result is a finely textured tonal area
whose darkness is determined by how long the plate is bitten by the acid.

Collograph -A plate built out of an array of materials, from gauze to plaster, to create a number of
textures. Ink is applied to the plate and printed.

Drypoint - Similar to etching, but the lines are simply scratched into the plate manually, without the use of
acid. The hallmark of a drypoint is a soft and often rather thick or bushy line somewhat like that of an ink
pen on moist paper.

Engraving - A form of intaglio printing in which lines are incised into a metal plate with a carving tool
called a burin. The characteristics of burin engraving differ from that of etching in that engraving, requiring
considerable force, is done from the strength of the arm and eliminates the quavering autographic qualities
of etching, which is done more from the finger tips like fine drawing. The hallmarks of engraving are often
elegantly swelling and tapering lines.

Etching - A means of incising lines in a metal plate with acid for printing in the intaglio technique. The
plate is first covered with an acid resistant ground through which the artist scratches a design with a stylus
or needle, revealing the bare metal below. This plate is then immersed in an acid bath that cuts the incised
lines into the plate. Etched lines often betray the subtle motions of the artist's fingertips.

Giclée - An Iris print, the name derives from the French for "spurt."

Inkjet print - a general designation for the large class of printers used to print computer images. Inkjet
printers make us of extremely small nozzles to deliver exact amounts pigment to precise locations on the
paper.

Intaglio - Any of the techniques in which an image or tonal area is printed from lines or textures scratched
or etched into a metal plate (engraving, etching, drypoint, aquatint, lift ground, soft ground). The plate is
covered with ink, then wiped clean leaving ink in the incised lines or textures of the image. This plate is then
printed in a press on moistened paper. The paper is forced down into the area of the plate holding ink, and
the image is transferred to the paper.

Iris print -An type of inkjet print printed from an Iris printer.

Letterpress -Typographic printing from movable type.

Lift-ground aquatint -A form of intaglio printing in which the artists draws with a specially formulated
ink on a metal plate. The plate is then covered with an acid resistant ground and immersed in water. The
characteristics of the drawing medium allow it to dissolve and work through the acid resistant ground.
When bitten in acid, the final result resembles pen or brush work.

Linoleum Cut - A relief print carved into linoleum rather than wood.

Lithograph - A printing technique in which the image is drawn on a very flat slab of limestone (or a spe-
cially treated metal plate). This stone is treated chemically so that ink, when rolled on to the stone, adheres
only where the drawing was done. This inked image can then be transferred to a piece of paper with the
help of a high pressure press.
Monotype -A form of printmaking in which the artist draws or paints on some material, such as glass, and
then prints the image onto paper, usually with a press. The remaining pigment can then be reworked, but
the subsequent print will not be an exact version of the previous print. Monotypes may be unique prints or
variations on a theme.

Monoprint - Same as a monotype but includes repeatable incised areas on the plate.

Photogravure -A means of printing a photographic image by the intaglio process. The photographic neg-
ative (which may be of an artist's drawing) is projected onto a sensitized gelatin emulsion or carbon tissue
that is transferred to a copper plate. After washing the plate areas that correspond to the image on the neg-
ative are dissolved and the plate can be bitten by acid as in routine etching. In hand photogravure, which is
most commonly used in printmaking, the copper plate is first prepared for aquatint etching. The end result
can closely resemble a traditional linear etching or soft ground etching.

Relief print - Any print in which the image is printed from the raised portions of a carved, etched, or cast
block. A simple example would be a rubber stamp. The most common relief prints are woodcuts. The term
"relief print" is used when it is not clear which kind of relief printing has been used (photomechanical or
hand carved, for example).

Screen Print - A form of stencil printing in which the stencil is adhered to a fine screen for support. Ink
can be squeegeed through the screen onto paper. Screen printing can have a hard edged quality caused by
the crisp edges of the stencil. Also referred to as "silk screen" and "serigraphy."

Serigraph -Another term for Screen Print.

Soft ground - An etching technique in which the plate is covered with malleable ground through which a
variety textures can be pressed, allowing them to be etched into the plate. For example, a piece of paper laid
on top of a soft grounded plate can be drawn upon with a pencil, and the resulting etched image will resem-
ble a pencil line drawn on paper. To be distinguished from "hard ground" used for simple line etching.

Sulphur ground -A technique in which a caustic sulphur compound is painted directly on an etching
plate, or in which sulphur dust is otherwise applied to a plate. The resulting marks will hold ink and can be
printed like an etching. The technique typically creates blotchy expanses of grey tones. This might be com-
pared to printing rust marks on a steel or iron plate.

Wood engraving - A relief print carved in the end grain of a block of wood whose thickness is the same as
the height as a piece of movable type ("type high"). This was traditionally a commercial technique practiced
by specialists and used in magazines and book illustrations.

Woodcut - A relief print . After the relief image has been carved in the plank with knives or gouges it is
inked with a dauber or roller. It can then be printed by hand (in which case a sheet of paper is laid down on
the inked plank and rubbed from the back with a smooth surface such as the palm of the hand or a wooden
spoon) or with the help of a mechanical press.

Xerography - A print produced by electrostatic process using copying machine.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Chairman of the Penang State Art Gallery Committee wishes


to recognise and thank the following for their invaluable
contributions and cooperation in making the exhibition a reality.

Y. Bhg. Datuk Syed Ahmad Jamal


National Art Laurreate

All participating artists

En.A.Rahman Mohamed
the Curator of Rentas Sempadan : An International Print
Exhibition
and members of his sub-committee

Dean and Staff of the School of Arts


Universiti Sains Malaysia

Curator and Staff of the


Penang State Museum and Art Gallery

The Media