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February, 2011 FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA

Analysis of Green Job


Profiles in Manufacturing
Engineering Using DACUM
Rodzidah Mohd Rodzi
Master of Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Degree of Electrical-Electronics Engineering (Hons), Universiti Tekonologi Malaysia

Keywords: Developing a Curriculum (DACUM), Green Occupational Analysis, Green Job Profiles, Duties, Task,
Green Jobs Survey, Manufacturing Engineering, Survey Questionnaire, Job Analysis, Duty Analysis Worksheet,
Skill-Gap Analysis Worksheet, Occupational Analysis, Management Level, Engineering Level, Job Sampling,
Center for Instructor and Advanced Training (CIAST), National Occupational Skills Standard (NOSS), Department
of Skills Development (DSD), Ministry of Human Resources (MOHR), Mapping.

Introduction job analysis as the basis for establishing an up-


to-date curriculum for IT-ES program[1].
A green job, also called a green-collar
job is, according to the United Nations DACUM has multiple uses. The process
Environment Program, “work in agricultural, can be used for job analysis, occupational
manufacturing, research and development analysis, process analysis, functional analysis
(R&D), administrative, and service activities and conceptual analysis. It is a storyboarding
that contribute substantially to preserving or process that provides a picture of what the
restoring environmental quality.” worker does in terms of duties, tasks,
knowledge, skills, traits and in some cases the
The green job profiles for specialized tools the worker uses. This tools to aid in hiring,
occupations need to be analyzed before been updating workers responsibilities, developing
implemented to the workers. However the training and views the workers job descriptions.
problem is, mostly Engineering Management
still not clear what method can be used to
analyze green responsibilities. DACUM Revolution
In this study, the Green Job Profiles DACUM grew out of a curriculum
were analyzed by using Developing A development effort directed at technical training
Curriculum (DACUM) technique. for the Women‟s Job Corp program in Clinton,
Iowa in the 1960‟s. This curriculum project was
DACUM was a workshop held to conducted by Experimental Projects Branch,
examine the occupational field entered by Canada Department of Manpower and
graduates of the Industrial Technology Electrical Immigration and the General Learning Corp of
Systems (IT-ES) degree program at Central New York (Norton,1985)[2].
Connecticut State University. The DACUM
process was used to conduct a locally relevant

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February, 2011 FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA

The DACUM movement continued to Engineering sector. The research has been done
grow in Canada, but it was not until 1975 that by using simple occupational analysis technique.
Robert Norton, the person most associated with
The simple technique mentioned,
DACUM in the United States learned about it. Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) is a useful
Late in 1976, Robert Norton conducted his first tool in occupational analysis. It is a very low
DACUM workshop at Colorado State University cost but an efficient solution. The sector scope is
in Fort Collins. During the late 1970‟s, many focus on the Manufacturing Engineering Job.
technical and community colleges implemented The present technique been implemented by
DACUM analyses for curriculum development most company is hiring a contractor to develop
their workers green skills but still can‟t achieve
[2]. optimum requirements.
Eventually, Norton was recruited to The Green Jobs in Manufacturing
train DACUM facilitators. A DACUM on Engineering Analysis process begins with
DACUM was conducted in October 1982, which develop and distribute Survey Questionnaire.
provided the basis for the development of the The Questionnaire was designed by using
DACUM Handbook with guidelines for Microsoft Office Word. Once the survey result
show positive responses, the Occupational
implementing formalized training of DACUM
Analysis can be performed.
facilitators. (Norton ,1985)[1].
The Occupational Analysis objective is
In 1983, Norton took DACUM essential in this study as the objective aimed is
international, and since then DACUM has been to carry out the green jobs duties and tasks. The
widely used nationally and internationally for Occupational Analysis been done by
training and educational curriculum implementing the DACUM method.
development. The DACUM process continues to In implementing DACUM method
be very successful in identify critical curricula, process, Manufacturing Engineering Job
especially for vocational and technical Sampling been done in order to get the standard
programs. existing responsibilities in production
management. The job scopes covered in this
project are Management Level and Engineering
Purpose Level. Both level are the person who will set up,
organize, coordinate and monitor the green
The purpose of this study was to analyze management strategy.
the green job profiles in manufacturing Duty Analysis Worksheet and Skill-gap
engineering by using DACUM technique. The Analysis Worksheet are developed in terms to
study started with surveying the knowledge of get the opinion and responses from the
Green Jobs from various sectors and various job respondents. The respondents are from variety
positions. career and level such as contractor, consultant,
industrial, services business, education and
Once the survey statistics have been government line.
analyzed, the Green Jobs responsibilities within
the Manufacturing Engineering sector were The responses, feedbacks and evaluation
carried out. All the responsibilities will be from the respondents will be processed and
analyzed in order to identify Green Job tasks and documented in statistics graphic. Those results
duties in Manufacturing Engineering. are ready to be used by the Manufacturing
Engineering Management.
The scope of this research is to carry out
the Green Job tasks in Manufacturing

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February, 2011 FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA

Methodology been compared and contrast. Then the


standard and ordinary job responsibilities
This study methodology is based on 3 will be short listed.
stages (a) initial phase: problem identification,
literature review and methodology design. (b) Responsibilities or duties in green
core phase: surveying, developing, implement, jobs also will be related to the selected job
documenting responses and analyzing. (c) final responsibilities. In this step, the sources are
phase: report preparation. from the literature review, observation and
experience. Some discussion with the
Problem identification stage is important
trainers from Centre for Instructor and
to clarify that green skills are very important in
every career. So, a survey has been done in order Advanced Skills Training (CIAST) also
to develop the statistics of green jobs knowledge contribute in this selection and relation.
among the Malaysia citizen. The other problem
Finally, the DACUM approach was
is to declare the Manufacturing Engineering job
responsibilities. Every manufacturing production applied for occupational analysis. It is a
involves different environment and different storyboarding process that provides a picture
green manufacturing requirements. of what the worker does in terms of duties,
tasks, knowledge, skills, traits and in some
Before developing the analysis cases the tools the worker uses. The
worksheets, samples of Manufacturing information is presented in graphic chart
Engineering job responsibilities has been form and can include information on critical
compare and contrasts. This will optimized the and frequently performed tasks and the
list of job responsibilities. Manufacturing
training needs of workers.
Engineering Duty analysis and skill gap analysis
had been distributed to be fulfilled by the This project involved 5 steps by using
respondents. In the analysis worksheets also DACUM method.
include an evaluation as to get agreement from
the respondents in terms of declaration of the Step 1 : Develop Duty Analysis Worksheet
tasks at the Manufacturing Engineering
production. The information gathered in this In the Duty Analysis Worksheet, contains the
project must be translated into duties and tasks list of Manufacturing Engineering tasks in the
components. production. Those tasks are related to the green
jobs responsibilities. The purpose of Duty
Once the problem is identified, survey Analysis is to get the opinion or sharing idea
questionnaire was created by using Microsoft which tasks are certainly being implemented in
Office Word software. This questionnaire help production.
to assess the respondents interests of green
skills. It is based on the knowledge of the Step 2 :Develop Skills Gap Analysis Worksheet
respondents about the important of green skills
in order to build the green working environment. The purpose of Skills Gap Analysis is to
The responses portray the knowledge and measure the level of workers skills in certain
interests of the respondents. jobs responsibilities. In this project the Skills
Gap Analysis Worksheet represents the skills
Green Jobs and Manufacturing level of Manufacturing Engineering workers in
Engineering Jobs Sampling method then order to execute the Green Jobs Skills. Through
been implemented. In this research, in order this Analysis Worksheet, the opinion by the
experience and vary level of posts will be
to optimize the Manufacturing Engineering
documented.
Job responsibilities in the production, some
samples of job responsibilities and Step 3 : Distribute to the respondents to get the
description are selected. The samples then responses and feedbacks. The Duty Analysis
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February, 2011 FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA

Worksheet and Skills gap Analysis Worksheet such a job. The jobs are involving tasks related
will be distribute to the respondents in order to to processes and actions.
get responses and feedbacks. The respondent
needs to fill up a little bit personal background This study has unites many engineering
form. This is as a record of the post, company, management disciplines to produce a reliable
age, and also races of the respondents. Those result. It was started with green skills demand
particular information are important as an survey. Once the respondents respond positively,
observation sources. A variety career job sampling had been done to determine the
background of respondents will be selected to current responsibility.
answer the analysis worksheets.
Duty Analysis Worksheet was
Step 4 : Process and document respondents developed in order to get the opinion and
evaluation validation from the experience worker in various
sectors. Based on the respondent‟s feedback,
After all the information from the there are two duties to be reserved which are
analysis been gathered, the analysis worksheet Management Level and Engineering Level.
will be processed and will be documented. The
high selected tasks will be depicted as the Next, Skill-gap Analysis Worksheet was
related task in executing green jobs. While the developed and distributed to analyze the skill
high weight from the skill gap analysis will be gap of the workers nowadays in terms to apply
concern in engineering management in terms to the green jobs tasks. To develop the Green Jobs
gain the workers skills development. Profile in Manufacturing Engineering, mapping
or DACUM technique has been used. It is a
Step 5 : Analysis the jobs and do tasks simple, quick result and low cost method but
mapping efficient.

Duties and Tasks mapping will be done Along the process of analyzing profile
in order to carry out the Green Jobs profile. The was carried out, several conclusion can be
mapping result will be shown in graphic. pointed down. The conclusions are;

The format was adapted from National i. In surveying the demand of the green
of Occupational Skill Standard (NOSS) which skills, the result of the 250 respondent‟s
is provided by Department of Skills feedbacks shows that 100% agree the green
Development (DSD), Ministry of Human skills are important to their workplace. Over
Resources (MOHR), Malaysia. NOSS is a 95% never attend the green development. One
document that stipulates the required hundred percent (100%) of the respondents
competency level expected of a skilled interested to participate in the green skills
employee who is employed in Malaysia in a development. One hundred percent (100%)
specific trade; it also defines the level of supported the government incentives in
employment and the path required to achieve developing green skills development. Only 54%
the stated competency level. of respondents heard about Department of Skills
Development (DSD) which is responsible in
developing Malaysia citizen skills.
Findings of the Green Job Profiles
Analysis ii. While in Job Sampling stage, jobs
responsibilities in Manufacturing Engineering
Green Jobs Profile was chosen in this were analyzed and two levels of jobs were
study which is applied by company that become proposed. The Management level and
more aware of the necessity for a clean Engineering level current responsibilities were
workplace. There are more types of green jobs determined. Those responsibilities were named
nowadays and everyone interested in having as duties. Under Management level, there are 5

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February, 2011 FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA

duties. While under Engineering level, there are The tasks and duties were mapped in sequence
6 duties. There were 33 green jobs tasks listed. according to the tasks step to execute the duties.

i. Green Job Profile for Management Level (4


iii. In Duty Analysis stage, Duty Analysis
duties)
Worksheet was developed and distributed to 250
Duty 01 – Administer organizational policies
respondents. The purpose is to determine the
and procedures : 3 tasks
exact standard job responsibilities implemented
in actual manufacturing management. In order to Duty 02 – Plan departmental budget : 2 tasks
view the capabilities of the present workers,
Skill-gap Analysis was developed and Duty 03 – Execute business strategy /
distributed to the respondents. The result can be planning : 3 tasks
used in measuring the capabilities of the workers
to execute the green jobs tasks. From the Duty 04 – Develop marketing plan : 4 tasks
calculations, the average of skills gap in
Management Level are 25.3% while in ii. Green Job Profile for Engineering Level (5
Engineering Level are 31.1%. The results of the duties)
Skill-gap Analysis are as below Duty 01 – Implement environmental
regulations: 2 tasks
The total score full level of proficiencies are Duty 02 – Set up Green Workplace
1250. standards: 4 tasks
Management level: Duty 03 – Perform green production process:
a. Administer organizational policies and 4 tasks
procedures – 96% (1200)
b. Evaluate staff performance – 88% Duty 04 – Develop team work: 2 tasks
(1100)
c. Plan departmental budget – 49.6% Duty 05 – Manage facilities and equipment :
(620) 2 tasks
d. Execute business strategy / planning –
60% (750)
e. Develop marketing plan – 80% (995) Future Study
There are some recommendations that
Engineering level: can be considered in future study of
a. Implement environmental regulations – occupational analysis in Manufacturing
78.4% (980) Engineering sector.
b. Setup green workplace standards – 83% The recommendations are as below :
(1037)
c. Perform green production process –  Repeat the Green Jobs Survey
59% (734) biannually in order to assess job growth
d. Develop team work – 92% (1153) in industries and occupations, and as a
e. Resolve technical and non technical basis for measuring progress against
problems – 58% (729) current and future state economic goals.
f. Manage facilities and equipment – 43%
(541)
 Conduct detailed analyses of targeted
green industry areas and occupations to
iv. Finally, constructing the Green Jobs determine key growth factors,
profile in Manufacturing Engineering stage, employment projections, and to define
mapping or DACUM method was implemented. the education and skill standards

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February, 2011 FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA

required of current and emerging green discover that the tasks trained for was not
occupations. critical or worse, not required [3].

 Expand analyzing Green Jobs Profile for By using the Develop A Curriculum (DACUM)
variety positions by study a company approach to job analysis, a complete job profile
manufacturing management and their including prioritized tasks can be developed in
current activities. only 2 days. Validation can be completed in four
to six hours over a two-week period.

Implications Thus, the outcome of this study is not


solely to carry out the green jobs profile for
This study anticipates contributing to Management and Engineering Levels, but also
manufacturing engineering management by can be used for others manufacturing
developing Green Occupational Analysis, using management purpose such as for instructional
simple and low cost method. The final result can program planning, curriculum development,
readily used by the Manufacturing Engineering training materials development, organizational
Management. restructuring, employee recruitment, training
needs assessment, meeting ISO 9000 standards,
The format can be used to analyze other career counseling, job descriptions, competency
job description by adjusting the duties and test development, and other purposes.
information suit to the expected responsibilities.
The formats are „one size fits all‟ which means it
can be implemented to the others job scope. References
A successful strategy to green the [1]Norton, R.E. (1992). DACUM: A proven and
economy involves environmental and social full powerful approach to occupational analysis.
cost pricing of energy and materials inputs, in (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.
order to discourage unsustainable patterns of ED 346 248)
production and consumption. The most critical
strategy, is to shift the whole job responsibilities [2]Dr. Deborah J. Zanella, Journal of Industrial
including upgrading the workers skills and Technology, Volume 15, Number 4 – August
knowledge. 1999 to October 1999.

Most company claim to set up green [3]http://www.dacum.net/index.php?option=co


workplace need to convert everything to a new m_content&task=view&id=42&Itemid=43;
approach. The most complicated issue is about April 13th, 2007.
the manpower workforce. The whole job
responsibilities need adjustment by adding up
green job tasks. The workers also need to
provide training adequately in order to increase
their capability to execute green job tasks.

For that reason, the DACUM


application in analyzing green job profiles is a
clear example of a simple method.

With today's industrial optimization


programmes, companies are struggling to
develop accurate and concise job descriptions.
Quite often, after spending hours developing a
job description, followed by training, companies
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February, 2011 FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA

APPENDIX A – SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE

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APPENDIX B – DUTY ANALYSIS WORKSHEET

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APPENDIX C – SKILL-GAP ANALYSIS WORKSHEET

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APPENDIX D – NOSS VERB (STEP VERB & ABILITY VERB)

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APPENDIX E – NOSS VERB (TASK VERB & STEP VERB)

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APPENDIX F – NOSS VERB (DUTY VERB & TASK VERB)

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APPENDIX G – DUTY VERB, TASK VERB AND STEP VERB (TABLE)

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APPENDIX H – ATTITUDE / SAFETY (TABLE)

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