Anda di halaman 1dari 5


Heredity and Hormones

Tiffany Nicole Cooper

University of Phoenix

October 19, 2010

Joan Mason

Heredity and Hormones

When comparing and contrasting the influence of heredity and hormones on human

behavior a person would make sure and thoroughly look through and see the different

mechanisms that make our bodies function properly.

The endocrine system

The endocrine system is a very important part of our bodies “make-up,” and it works very

closely to the nervous system. The two systems are in constant conversation together. The

endocrine glands release hormones into the body’s bloodstream. Now, traveling through the

bloodstream may be a very effective way for a nerve impulse to travel, but it seems that hormones

can take seconds, even minutes to reach where they are destined to go.

Hormones and what glands they come from

When identifying hormones a person would see that there are a few different kinds of

hormones like; thyroxin, which is produced in the endocrine gland located right below the voice

box. This hormone is responsible for the regulation of the body’s rate of metabolism. This

hormone is responsible for how alert and energetic a person can be, or if they are fat or thin. But as

with anything too much of anything can be bad. A person with an overactive thyroid can cause a

variety of symptoms and they would have to take medicines to control the overactive thyroid.

Symptoms can include reduced concentration and difficulty focusing on a task, snap decisions,

over-excitability, insomnia, and fatigue (just to name a few.) Too little of something is not a good

thing, either. If a person is not getting enough of the hormone thyroxin, a person could sleep and

sleep and always feel tired. Thyroid problems are often misdiagnosed as depression or “living

Another hormone called “parathyroid” comes from four tiny glands that are embedded in

the thyroid. These hormones control and balance the levels of calcium and phosphate in the body

which in turn influences the levels of excitability.

The pea-sized pineal gland is responsible for secreting the hormone “melatonin.” This

gland is located in the middle of the brain. Melatonin is used in the body to help balance out the

sleep-wake cycles.

Our pancreas is located in a curve between the stomach and the small intestine. It is

responsible for controlling the sugar in our blood system. In order for the pancreas to control the

sugar in our blood, it secrets two different hormones;”insulin” and “glucose.” The two hormones

work against each-other to keep the blood sugar properly balanced. An underproduction of insulin

can cause “diabetes mellitus,” which means there is too much sugar in the blood and urine. Too

much insulin in the blood can cause “hypoglycemia” or not enough sugar in the blood.

Pituitary glands produce the largest number of different hormones, making this gland has

the widest range of the effects on the body’s functions. It is also known as the “master gland”

because of its role in regulating other endocrine glands. The pituitary gland is located on the

underside of the brain and is connected to the hypothalamus.

The gonads (also known as the reproductive glands) are located in different places for men

versus women. For men, it is located in the “testes” and it predominantly secrets “androgens.”

Whereas in women; it is located in the “ovaries” and predominantly secrets “estrogen.” Both

hormones can be found in either man or woman; it just depends on the sex as to which one is

secreted more dominantly in.

The two adrenal glands are located right above the kidneys. According to Morris, C.G., &
Maisto, A.A. (2002). “Each gland has two parts: an inner core (adrenal medulla) and the outer

layer (adrenal cortex). Both the adrenal medulla and the adrenal cortex are responsible for the

body’s reaction to stress. Stimulated by the autonomic nervous system, the adrenal cortex pours

several hormones into the bloodstream. “Epinephrine”, “norepinephrine” and

“adrenocorticotropic hormone, (ATCH”) are just a few of the hormones that pours into the



Genetics play a big role in human behavior, but to most contemporary psychologists say

that both genes and environment are responsible for shaping a humans’ behavior. “Genetics” is

also known as “the study of how traits are transmitted from one generation to the next.”

The off-springs are not identical to their parents, but certain traits reappear from generation to

generation in somewhat conventional patterns. Genes are passed on by “chromosomes,” which are

tiny, threadlike bodies, found in the nucleus of all cells.

Behavior genetics

Behavior genetics focuses on the extent to which hereditary accounts for individual

differences in behavior and thinking. The goal of this is to figure out which genes donate to which

characteristics in addition to genetic tendencies toward psychological and neurological disorders.

Evolutionary psychology

Evolutionary psychology refers to the study of the evolutionary roots of behaviors and

mental processes that all human beings share. “The key to these shared characteristics, they feel,

is the process of evolution by “natural selection,” first described by Charles Darwin in On the

Origin of Species (1859).” “Natural selection promotes the survival and reproduction of
individuals that are well adapted to their environment.” This may mean that the stronger do not

always win. It is the one who has figured out how to live life efficiently and effectively. Being

smart, and strong are two things that help a species in natural selection.

Reference Page:
Morris, C.G., & Maisto, A.A. (2002). Psychology: An Introduction (12th ed.). Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Charles Darwin in On the Origin of Species (1859).