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Nigeria

Nigeria is in West Africa and has a total land area of 923,768 sq km


Its coastline, on the Gulf of Guinea, stretches 853 km
Nigeria shares its international border of 4,047 km (2,513 mi) with four neighbors: Chad, Cameroon, Benin,
and Niger.
there are four natural divisions from south to north: the coastal belt of mangrove swamps,
about 15–95 km (10–60 mi) wide; the tropical rain forest, with undulating plains and
scattered hills, about 80–160 km (50–100 mi) wide; the high central plateau, with open
woodland and savanna, about 600–1,800 m (2,000–6,000 ft) in elevation; and the
semidesert in the extreme north.
The Niger River, which rises in the mountains to the northeast of Sierra Leone, enters
Nigeria from the west, then runs in a southeasterly direction until it receives the waters of
its principal tributary, the Benue, at Lokoja, whereupon it runs south about 547 more km
(340 mi) through Nigeria to the Gulf of Guinea.

Nigeria is a typical African country in the diversity and heterogeneity of its ethnic heritage, with an estimated
300 ethnic groups. No group enjoys an absolute numerical majority, but the four dominant groups—the
Hausa and Fulani in the north, Yoruba in the west, and Ibo in the east—together constitute 68 percent of the
population.

Relative to Nigeria's population, the size of the non-African community is small but fairly diverse; included
are Britons, Indians, Lebanese, and Americans.

The oil-rich Nigerian economy, long hobbled by political instability, corruption, and poor macroeconomic
management, is undergoing substantial economic reform under the new civilian administration. Nigeria's
former military rulers failed to diversify the economy away from overdependence on the capital-intensive oil
sector, which provides 20 percent of GDP, 95 percent of foreign exchange earnings, and about 65 percent
of budgetary revenues. Following the signing of an International Monetary Fund (IMF) standby agreement in
August 2000, Nigeria received a debt-restructuring deal from the Paris Club and a $1 billion loan from the
IMF, both contingent on economic reforms.

The defense structure is headed by the president in the capacity as chairman


of the Armed Forces Ruling Council. The chiefs of staff of the three services
are represented on the council. The chain of command runs through a general
staff, after the British model. The armed forces consist entirely of volunteers;
there is no conscription. Total strength of the armed forces is 77,000.

The Nigerian armed forces are the largest and the best trained in West Africa.
The army has been completely modernized, and military expenditures have
risen sharply in recent years, reflecting substantial arms purchases.

Oil and natural gas

Relation with united states

there are two seasons, dry and wet, throughout Nigeria, but near the coast the seasons are less sharply
defined. Temperatures above 37.8°C (100°F) are common in the north, but coastal temperatures seldom
climb over 32.2°C (90°F). two distinct seasons: a wet season from April to October and a dry season from
November to March. Temperatures are highest from February to April in the south and from March to June
in the north and are lowest in July and August over most of the country. The annual average rainfall varies
from 1,700 mm (70 in) on the western end of the coast to 4,310 mm (170 in) along the eastern section of the
coast, to 1,270 mm (50 in) over most central areas and the Jos Plateau, and to 500 mm (20 in) in the
extreme north.

Official language is English


Religons are Christianity and islam
More than 250 ethnic groups in Nigeria
Guinea

Guinea is located in southwestern West Africa, in an arc curving over Sierra Leone and Liberia. Guinea's
total land area of 245,857 sq km (94,925 sq mi) extends 831 km (516 mi) southeast to northwest and 493
km (306 mi) northeast to southwest. Its Atlantic coastline stretches 320 km (199 mi). Guinea's varied terrain
is divided topographically into four regions: Lower, or Maritime, Guinea; Middle Guinea, including the Fouta
Djallon highlands; Upper Guinea savannas; and the forest region of southeastern Guinea. Lower Guinea
also contains the Kaloum Peninsula; the island of Tombo, on which the capital, Conakry, stands; and the
Los Islands.

Guinea has three main ethnic groups and numerous smaller groups. The Peul (also known as the Fulani,
Fulbe, or Foulah) account for about 40 percent of the population, the Malinke for 30 percent, and the
Soussou for about 20 percent. The Soussou are most numerous in Lower Guinea, the Peul in Middle
Guinea, and the Malinke in Upper Guinea. The smaller forest groups, including Gerz and Toma, together
make up 10 percent of the population. Since independence the government has sought to break down
ethnic barriers and to de-ethnicize politics. The process of national integration has been accelerated by the
fact that the tribal groups no longer have access to the traditional machinery of keeping alive historic cultural
and emotional ties among their members.

Guinea possesses major mineral, hydropower, and agricultural resources yet remains a poor,
underdeveloped nation. The agricultural sector employs 80 percent of the workforce. Guinea possesses
over 25 percent of the world's bauxite reserves and is the second largest bauxite producer. The mining
sector accounted for about 75 percent of exports in 1999. Foreign mining companies have reduced
expatriate staff, while panic buying has created food shortages and inflation in local markets. Real GDP
growth is expected to have fallen to 2 percent in 2001.

Natural resources are minerals, oil, gas, timber, and fish

The defense establishment is headed by the president as commander in chief. The line of command runs
through the minister of the People's Army to the Combined Armed Forces General Staff.Military manpower
is provided by voluntary enlistment. A conscription law created by ordinance in 1959 makes all able-bodied
male citizens liable for military service between the ages of 19 and 49, but it has never been enforced.
Military personnel are liable to reserve duty after release.

Usa, germany, Russia, spain, Canada, and france are main trading partners

Guinea has a tropical climate with two distinct seasons. Although there are seasonal variations, the wet
season generally lasts from April or May to October or November, with the heaviest rainfall during July and
August. The dry season lasts from November to April. April is the hottest month.Lower Guinea has an
average rainfall of 2,400 mm

French is official language

Main religion is islam