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Live-in- Field Experience (LFE)

Summer 2010

Prepared for

Asst. prof. Talim Hossain

School of social science and humanities

Independent University, Bangladesh

Prepared by
Sajal karmaker

ID# 0720381


Date of Submission: 27-07-2010

LFE summer 2010

Independent University, Bangladesh

Live-In- Field Experience

Location: Rural Development Academy,Bogra
Area of work: Ramnagar Village
Para name: Sarkar para

Prepared for

Asst. prof. Talim Hossain

School of social science and humanities

Independent University, Bangladesh

Prepared by
Sajal karmaker

ID# 0720381


Date of Submission: 27-07-2010

LFE summer 2010


Asst. Prof. Talim Hossain
School of social science and humanities
Independent University, Bangladesh (IUB)
Baridhara, Dhaka.

Sub: Letter of Transmittal for the assigned LFE report, summer 2010

We, the undersigned, would like to submit herewith the Live-in-Field Experience (LFE) Report,
summer 2010 for your perusal. Upon completion of LFE study on RAMNAGOR (Sarkar Para)
in BOGRA district from May 14, 2010 to May 25, 2010, this report has been prepared.
By using the technique called PRA, questionnaire survey, observation, and preparing case
stories, we tried our best to learn about the demography, geography, social condition and change,
economy and agriculture, the impact of seasonality on various aspects of agriculture, health and
environment, and the market and haat serving the needs of the village. The analysis of data
gathered from our field survey helped us in understanding the lives of the villagers.
We would be glad to clarify any matter whenever you require so.

Sincerely yours,
Sajal Karmaker
ID# 0720381

LFE summer 2010


We express our honest gratitude to our teachers, Professor Haroun Er Rashid, Mr. Munir
Hossain, Mr. Mujahid Akbar, and Mr. Zeshan Abedin, for their restless guidance in the field.
Our special thanks go to our teachers, Professor Haroun Er Rashid and Asst. Prof. Talim
Hossain for educating us on various aspects of LFE.

We also owe many thanks Rural Development Academy (RDA) staffs, the most hospitable
people. Our sincere thanks go to the researcher and auditor, Dr. Iqbal for giving us many
valuable tips for collecting data during the field survey.

Without the constant help and guidance of our assigned LFE monitors, the study would not have
been this thorough. We are really grateful to them.

Last but not the least, our honest gratitude goes to the inhabitants of RAMNAGOR (Sarkar
Para), for their warm and hospitable treatment. Without their enthusiastic cooperation, it was not
possible to make the study successful.

LFE summer 2010

Table of Contents
SL Subject Page No
1.0 Introduction 01
1.1 About RDA 01
1.2 Vision 01
1.3 Mission 01
1.4 Goals 02
1.5 Objectives 02
1.6 Slogan of RDA 02

1.7 Village Selection 02

1.8 Assigned Job 02
2.0 Introduction 03
2.1 Objective of the study 03
2.2 Methodology 04

2.3 Overview of the village 04

2.4 Overview of the village 05

2.5 Overview of the village 05

2.5.1 Village Map 06

2.5.2 Para Map 06

2.5.3 Major findings from para 07

2.5.4 Transect Map 07

2.6 Conclusion 08

3.0 Introduction 08

3.1 Objectives 09
3.2 Division of time 09
3.3 Major fields of social change 09
3.3.1 Change in Agriculture 10
3.3.2 Change in Occupation, Infrastructure, and Housing 10
3.3.3 Changes in environment & health 11-12
3.4 Gender Division of Labor 13
3.5 Positive & Negative Changes 14
3.6 Conclusion 14
4.0 Introduction 15
4.1 Objectives 15
4.2 Economic Change 15
4.2.1 Occupation 15
4.3 Income assessment 16
4.4 Primary and Secondary Sources of occupations 17
4.5 NGO activities 17

4.6 Problems and Opportunities in Agriculture Sector 17

4.7 Micro Credit 18
4.8 Positive and negative activities regarding micro credit 18
4.9 Crops calendar 19
4.10 Conclusion 19

5.0 Introduction 20
5.1 Objectives 20
5.2 Finding in our visited para 21
5.2.1 Source of water 21

5.2.2 Sanitation 22

5.2.3 Fuel type 22

5.2.4 Diseases 23

5.2.5 Medical facilities and Vaccination 23

5.3 Public Heath care Problem 24

5.4 Conclusion 24
6.0 Introduction 25
6.1 What is marketing 25
6.2 What is Rural Marketing 25
6.3 Objectives 25
6.4 Deference between haat and bazer 26
6.5 Noy mile haat at a glance 26
6.6 Types of products 26
6.6.1 Consumer products 27
6.6.2 Industrial products 27
6.7 Inwards and outwards products 28

6.7.1 Inwards and outwards products 28

6.7.2 Outwards Products 28

6.8 Brand Preference 29
6.9 Bargaining power 29
6.10 List of Clone products 29
6.11 What is value chain Analysis 30
6.12 Value chain Analysis of Asparagus Bean 30
6.13 Distribution channels 30

6.13.1 What is Distribution Channels 30

6.13.2 Asparagus Bean 31

6.14 Problem faced by the Noymile haat 31

LFE summer 2010

1.0 Introduction
This report is arranged for the course of Live-in-Field Experience (LFE). It is a pre-requisite
course, which must have completed by every students of Independent University Bangladesh (IUB)
before graduation. Students who are following the 1999 syllabus, for them it is a course of 6 credits
and for the other students, it is a course of 4 credits. Students have to stay about 14 days at a selected
place to conduct a survey and research.
As we all know, about 75%-80% of the people of our country live in village. The rest of the people
of urban area depend on the villagers directly or indirectly for various purposes; but most the urban
people have a preconceived idea that the village people are poor and illiterate. It is a fact that nearly
all the students of IUB have been brought up in urban areas and it is a reality that they have little or
no idea about the villages of Bangladesh. But our root is from the villages and their culture, rivers,
relations etc. So, it is our duty to know about them and their life style.
Development of our country is based on our rural areas. Our politics, society, economic condition,
literacy rate and health condition depend on our village. As we are not concerned about our village
and villagers, that s why even after 35 years of our independence, Bangladesh is still an
underdeveloped country.
IUB students have an opportunity to go to the villages and in front of the villagers on the occasion of
Live-In-Field Experience programme to know about the real picture of rural life and find out our
1.1 About RDA
The beggar women of Thengamara village of Bogra district established that organization
Rural Development Academy (RDA) in 1980; while most of the people of the area used to live from
hand to mouth. Prof. Dr. Hosne-Ara Begum was the director of that organization.

Happy & prosperous women and their family in the society.

1.3 Mission
RDA works for poor women of the village by giving loans and make theme self reliant in
which they establish their own business and carry out their whole life as well as her family.

LFE summer 2010

1.4 Goals
Family development through women empowerment.

1.5 Objectives
Prime objective of RDA is to develop the socio-economic status & condition of the poor
women/ultra poor women & their family members through implementation of grassroots decision
and utilizing local human & material resources.

1.6 Slogan of RDA

Let family be the focal point of women development

1.7 Village Selection

We were assigned in the village named as Ramnagor under Bogra district by our
instructors and RDA staffs. Our village was big enough to find out the required information about
the village properly by the five members but we tried to our best. In the village there were three
PARAs. One is called UTTOR PARA and another is DOKKHIN PARA but we got the middle of
the village SARKAR PARA.

1.8 Assigned Job

Ø Village Resource Mapping and Transact

Ø Social Change and Micro credit
Ø Production cycle, Income assessment and market
Ø Social Structure
Ø Health and Environment
Ø Rural Market Analysis

LFE summer 2010

Village resource mapping and transect

2.0 Introduction
Bangladesh is a developing country where majority people live in the village. A village is a
human settlement commonly found in rural areas. Villagers have the common unity among the life
and the reality; the people didn t have the modern life before the industrialization. Now we are
residing in a luxurious city but if we observe in different way we will able to find that our ancestors
were village people. So we should consider the village as our root. So every responsible citizen must
know about the village and the villagers. After observing the village Sarkar para of Ramnagor in
Bogra we recognize most of the village people is depending on agriculture. Many of them are
landless peasants. They cultivate of others land. Majority of people lives below poverty level. Our
development work depends on foreign loan and aid. We are provided with a unique opportunity from
our university to get the real picture of the village areas and the villagers. This is why LFE program
is undertaken. We went to Bogra (RDA) for our LFE purpose. In Bogra, our assign village was
Ramnagor. The whole Ramnagor village is divided into four paras. One is uttor para, Dokkhin para,
Moddho Para, and Sarkar para. We are assigned to work in Sarkar Para in which most of them were
Muslim and cultivator. This LFE program is very useful for us to getting demographic profile of the
villagers and their cultural behavior, their economical structure, critical health, environmental issues
and rural condition. By reason of LFE we worked on village map, Para map and also a transect map.
Due to that work, we discerned about the geographical and topological information from the whole
village as well as knew how exactly uses the map.

2.1 Objective of the study

Map is one kind of major resources for any country to recognize a certain location or it s
surrounding areas. In the same way village map is a major tools for our survey purpose. Actually
map is a representation of any geographical location of the village. And we have also done a Para
map for focusing our Para very well. We have found some of objectives and those are given below:
Ø To get the idea about the total area of the village.

LFE summer 2010

Ø To know the total households and population of the village
Ø To know the family structure and reason behind that
Ø To know about the main occupation of villagers
Ø To know the family structure and reason behind that
Ø To make out the resources those provide benefits to the villages.

Ø Educational structure.

Ø To get the real environmental condition of the village including safe water facility, toilet
facility, kinds of fuel they use and also the cooking system.

Ø Health facility, such as public health center of any privet health centre.

Ø Also to know about the NGO s and its facility.

2.2 Methodology
Sarkar para which is one of the Para of Ramnagor village. Here we found around
120 houses and we have selected 25 households which form my sample. Information was
collected through Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), which we supplemented with a
questionnaire survey. There are both negative and positive changes have occurred within the PARA.
So, our purpose is to identify what social changes has occurred, when the changes occurred and what
made the changes to occur. To illustrate these changes, we organized our collected data and
represented that information through a Map of Time period and Gender Division of Labor analysis.

2.3 Overview of the village

Name of the village Ramnagor

Union Dosmile
Thana Sherpur
District Bogra
Post office RDA
Location 1.5 km from RDA
Deep Tube well Belong to everyone house
No. of primary school 0
No. of high school 0
Madrasa/Moktob 1
Mosque 2
Electricity Facility Available
Mobile Facility Most of the houses
No. of pond 1
Gas Only one house
Graveyards Belongs to everyone house
Religion Muslim

2.4 Rapport Building

Rapport Building means making or building a relationship among the mass people in which
people can share his/her experience freely or friendly. Building relationship with the villagers is
called rapport building. So, the villagers may feel free to share information. But remember one thing
we should behave with the people in such a way that, we do not know anything and the villagers are
teaching us. There some different way we should always remember to make rapport building. The
following ways are given below:

1. Approaches should be very polite and at last persuaded them to speak about their village.
2. Make relationship with the villagers by talking with them while walking through the
village and giving salaam to the older.
3. Asked the villagers from which direction is full of natural resources in which it may
helps to make a transect map
4. Asked the villagers in a several formatted questions which they fell most comfortable for
answering the questions.
5. Should ask the villagers the name of the trees or crops, which is unfamiliar to us.

2.5 Village, Para, and Transect Mapping

There are several steps to construct a village map by the participation of villagers. The
following steps are given below:

LFE summer 2010

2.5.1 Village Map
First we need a clear large open space then asked to scratch out the outline figure of the total
village marked paths and other major landmarks such as Mosque, ponds, cropping lands, shop, other
important places etc. by different colors which is given from RDA. After drawing a village map it
would be eaiser for us to recognize the four paras which is mentioned before as well as got an idea
about total area and population. Due to the village map we are able to know is there any schools,
mosque or madrasha, moktob, bank etc? We found that kind village resources which is given below.
Ø Land utilization: The total village area is covered by with different types of tree, bamboo
bushes, homesteads, and cultivated lands. Everywhere belongs to green.
Ø Electricity poll: Through village map we are able to find out electricity poll. About 95%
people use electricity in this village.
Ø Mosque: we got two Mosque.
Ø Temple: We did not found no single temple in this village
Ø NGO: There is Four NGO s working in Ramnagor at our study area. They are ASA,
GRAMEEN, BRAC and RDA for Social Welfare. This NGO s offer micro credit,
healthcare facilities, and safe sanitation

Photo:1. Village Map Photo:2. Para Map

2.5.2 Para Map

After that we figure out the Para through Para map which constitute a village. We may figure out it
different ways like within the village map or draw another map beside the village map. It s an
easier way to locate where actually we assigned.

LFE summer 2010

2.5.3 Major findings from para
Ø Educational Institution: we found no school in Sarkar para.
Ø Main occupation agriculture.
Ø No bank in the para.

2.5.4 Transect Map

The Transect is a technique that is directly built upon the village map to help the team learn
more details about the environmental, economical and social resources of a community. To make a
transect map first we choose a direction which is full of natural resources. The direction limited should be

Steps 0-40 41-80 81-120 121-160 161-200

Zone Residence Residence Residence Tree garden Tree garden
Land Plain Plain Plain Plain Plain
Land Use Plantation & Residence Plantation & Plantation Plantation &
Residence Residence Residence
Soil Type Sandy Loam Sandy Loam Sandy Loam Sandy Loam Sandy Loam
Trees Jack fruit & Khoshkar Banana tree Various Banana
Mango types of Garden
tree & Coconut
House Type Tin shed & Tin shed Concrete _ Tin shed
Crops _ _ _ ü ü
Pond ü ü _ _ _
Ditch _ ü _ _ ü
Problem Waste Narrow _ Unhygienic _
disposal Ditch

95-100 feet. By using the transect map we may know about Varity land, variety crops, tress, level of
land, crops, household status, sanitary system etc. Which are given below:
Table.1: Transect table
LFE summer 2010
After completing the transect map we found out lots of resources. The given tabular form
indicate 5 steps and if we observe clearly it is easy to understand the transect map. 0-160 steps
we found that it was a resident area. Total 100 steps land type was plain and soil type was sandy
loam. Using transect map we are able to found out different types of trees, different types of
houses like- tin shed, concrete etc. Even we recognized some problem like- disposal and
unhygienic problem.
2.6 Conclusion
As we know every map locates a geographical and structural location. In this way It is
helped us to find out the correct information about the village and Para and also helped to
complete other parts of the report appropriately and meaningfully. It also provide the information
about the resources and major infrastructure of the village and para. The resources, infrastructure and
other facilities of the village are changing over time. To keep track with these changes the village
map should be revised periodically. But through LFFE we are able to draw a correct map in which an
individual would be able to visualize the whole village and para by our drawn map without being
present physically.

Social Change Process

3.0 Introduction
The word "social" refers only to society as "a system of common life", but in another sense it
contrasts specifically with "individual" and individualist theories of society. In an elaborate sense, it
means the lifestyle, the feelings about the surroundings of a group of people and as well as their
acceptance to the conditions of life (social behavior). So, social change is called the changes in the
social conditions and social behavior. Day by day the people of societies being change due to the
communication process. No social life is possible without such communications or interactions. This
is why communication is basic to change social life. My assigned area was Sarkar Para , which is
situated in the village of Ramnagor of Bograt district and in this report I try to contains data to
respond those issues of interactions based on change map or time/trend line graph.
LFE summer 2010
3.1 Objectives
The objectives of this study is to know about how and why society being change in
Sarkar para of the Ramnagor village. This PARA will act as a representative of the total rural
area of Bangladesh. In order to make development of the rural areas it is important to identify the
sources of changes in values, beliefs and cultures of the rural areas. Through LFE we are able to
recognized that kind of process in which society being change which influences our norms and
values, believes, ethics as well as economy.

3.2 Division of time

On the basis villagers information, we divided out timeline in five different dimensions and those
PERIOD 1: Shekh Mujiber Amol to Zia r Amol: 1971-1980
PERIOD 3: Ershader Amol: 1981-1990
PERIOD 4: Khaleder prothombar abong Hasinar Amol: 1991-2000
PERIOD 5: Khaleder porerbar abong Hasinar Amol : 2001-2010

3.3 Major fields of social change

There is some major fields like-

1. Agriculture 6. Communal 8. Other facilities

a. Land use a. Education a. Recreation
b. Equipments b. Dowry b. Communication
c. Fertilizing & c. Value chain c. Electricity
Pesticide d. Transportation
d. Gender Mobility
d. Irrigation Process
e. House holds 9. Other
2. Occupation a. Crime
7. Health & environment
been changing in every period. Anda. these
Trees major fields which are mentioned above each
4. Housing patterns
other directly or indirectly related. From b.ourSanitation
survey we found some changes in Health and
5. Economic patterns c. Vaccination
environment over the years which we are showing in the tabular form below:
d. Wildlife
e. Family planning

LFE summer 2010

3.3.1 Change in Agriculture
Period Land Use Equipments Fertilizing Irrigation
&Pesticide Process

1971-1980 Lands were unused Plough. Wood hoop Natural Boon

and everywhere and cow or ox. fertilizer(Cow machine and
becomes jungle due dung) canal
to the
consciousness of
the villagers.
1981-1990 Half of the total Plough. Wood hoop Limited use of Canal
land of para was and cow or ox. Chemical,
used for cultivation. Fertilizers with
And other land natural fertilizer.
used for living.
1991-2000 Cultivation land The use of plough, Villagers started Canal,
increased. wood hoop, and cow to use chemical Pump
or ox decreased and fertilizers as well machine
use of tractor as natural
increased. fertilizers
2001-2010 Land of cultivation The use of plough, Mostly uses Canal, Pump
is increasing due to wood hoop, and cow chemical machine
the consciousness or ox decreased and fertilizer. Little
and agriculture use of tractor bit natural
becomes main increasing. fertilizer.
occupation of the
Table.2: Change in Agriculture

This table shows in the period of 1971-1980 land for cultivation was very low but gradually it
increasing because peoples of the village more depending on agriculture and they take agriculture as
a main occupation. Gradually village people changing their agriculture tools like- plough, wood
hoop, cow, and ox. Now they use tractor, eclectic pump etc. Even they shift their mind in fertilizing
and pesticides and irrigation process. From our survey we found some changes in Health and
environment over the years which we are showing in the tabular form below:

3.3.2 Change in Occupation, Infrastructure, and Housing patterns

Period Occupation Infrastructure Housing patterns
1971-1980 Farmer, Fisherman No road House made with
1981-1990 Farmer, Fisherman, Road made of mud House made with tin
small businessman. as well as straw
1991-2000 Farmer, small Road made of bricks. House made with
businessman, people No development of straw, tin and bricks.
work in foreign road. And very few buildings.
countries, service

2001-2010 Farmer, service Pitch road is built. House of tin, bricks,

holders, working in straw and concrete
foreign countries, building.
both large and small
rickshaw puller.
Table.3: Change in Occupation, Infrastructure, and Housing patterns

This table revels that in the period of 1971-2010 during that long time the village people
gradually change their occupation. In the very beginning people only engage with farming. But now
if we see that people change their mind and they choose different types of occupation like- small
business, private/government service. But still a large number of people engage with agriculture.
Because of changing their occupation village people as well as government become more concern
about communication and housing patterns. In early stage roads are made with mud but now every
single road is made with breaks and picth. They change their housing patterns. Village people choose
bricks, tin and other materials to make their house. We found some concrete building which called
semi parka .

3.3.3 Changes in environment & health

From our survey we found some changes in Health and environment over the years which we
are showing in the tabular form below:


1971-1980 Open Field, No vaccinated No family Pond. Cannel.
Bushes planning
1981-1990 Bushes pit No vaccinated. No Family Tube-well, Pond,.
Latrine, Hanging planning
1991-2000 Ring Slab, Pit Few vaccinated. Family planning Tube-well, Pond.
Latrine, Hanging emerges.
2001-2010 Ring Slab, Pit Many vaccinated. Family planning Tube-well, Pond.
Latrine, Hanging moderately
Latrine, working.
Ring Slab, Septic All vaccinated. Family planning Tube-well,
tank. started to work at
a high rate.
Table.4: Change in Health & environment

Above table revels that in early stage in 1971 village people are not that much conscious
about sanitation, vaccination, family planning, water sources. But if we see the table we are able to
see that now village people are make theme self conscious about these environmental and health
issues. Before they use pit latrines, hanging latrines, even open space for purpose of the sanitation.
But now they begin to use ring slab, septic tank. Before they had not that much awareness about
vaccination. But our survey we found that now they take all kinds of vaccine. We found in our
assigned para Sarkar para most of the village people started to work family planning at a high rate.
Before they used ponds, canals, and tube-wells as water source. Now their main source is tube-wells
and every house belongs to a tube-wells. Different types of NGO s like- RDA, BRAC, TMSS they
provide these kind of facilities. Villagers told us that recently BRAC provide ring slab for free.
Apart from these we found out from our survey that before 1990, there was no electricity in the
PARA. The demand for electricity increased rapidly and now days 95% of the households have the
electricity facility. This is a major issue for the development of the PARA. Due to the availability of
electricity villagers use television, VCD and DVD players as recreation purpose. In this PARA at the
previous time there were only fruit trees are owned by the people like mango, rose apple, jackfruit
jam, gambrel, bamboo tree etc. at the later period the need for housing and money increased.
Normally stealing was the main problem of the PARA. Without this the village people are more or
less safe from other types of crimes.

LFE summer 2010

3.4 Gender Division of Labor

Time Male labor Female labor

High Class Middle class Low Class High Class Middle Low Class
6am-10am Observe Small House hold Service House hold House hold
their business work House hold work work
belongings Cultivating Feeding work Feeding Feeding
Inspection Service cattle cattle cattle
their lands Day labor Service Sewing
Business Pulling Day labor

10am-2pm 10am-2pm House hold Service House hold House hold House hold Day labor
work House hold work work work House hold
Day labor work Sewing Sewing Sewing work
Pulling Service Day labor Day labor Sewing

2pm-6pm Business Small House hold Service House hold Day labor
Observe business work House hold work Sewing
their Service Day labor work Service House hold
belongings Pulling work

6pm-10pm Business Small Pulling - House hold Sewing

business Rickshaw work

10pm-6am - Irrigation Irrigation - - Helping

Table.5: Gender division of labor

LFE summer 2010

From our survey we found out in our para Sarkar para differences in gender division of labor of
upper class, lower class and middle class people both male and female. Here we see that male labor
utilize their time in different time slots. On the same female labor utilize their time in different time
slots. Both male and female start their work at 6am in the morning. Some upper class people
inspection their lands, doing business. Middle class people go to their service. Low class people feed
their cattle. Upper class women get busy with their service and household work and middle class
women get busy with cattle as well as service. Lower class people works as day labor, sewing etc. By
flowing given table we are able to find which classes of labor use which time.
3.5 Positive & Negative Changes
All our findings indicate towards significant social changes that have occurred over the last half
century. We have summarized the positive and negative impact on society in the table below:


Education and awareness Loan dependency
Increased sources of earning Deforestation
More employment Decreased soil fertility
Empowerment of women Lower family bonding
Telecommunication Climate change
Improved sanitation
NGO support
Table.5: Positive & Negative Changes

3.6 Conclusion
In conclusions, we can see on the above information. A social change can improved the
people s life style in the village. We founded, so many changes in the Ramnagor village of Sarkar
para in the last four decade (1971to 2010). According to the respondents in the first decade, they
didn t have any sorts of facilities, like education, occupations, communications, and agricultural
facilities. But after the liberation period, people were getting advantages occurred by those changes
by reason of different NGO s contribution.

LFE summer 201o

Economy, Rural Production Cycle & Social Structure

4.0 Introduction

Economic condition of a particular place refers to the information about the net income of
that place as well as the information about the expenditure. It deals with income sources, land, assets,
domestic animals and some other socio economic characteristics. As we know Bangladesh is a small
country of 135 million people. The volume of the land area is 0.15 million sq. km. Bangladesh is a
highly density area and about 880 people live in 1 sq km. The economic condition of Bangladesh is
not better. Bangladesh is still in the list of developing countries but the larger number of population
is unemployed still. Its economics depends on rural development because about 80% people depend
on the agriculture in our country. Through LFE we got a chance to know about the economic
condition and social structure of Ramnagor village (Sarkar para).
4.1 Objectives
Ø To know the villagers economics situation
Ø To capture the differences of villagers in their standard of living.
Ø To know about the NGO s activities
Ø To know how the NGO s help the rural people to change their socio-economic situation
4.2 Economic Change
ü 4.2.1 Occupation
There are around 550-600 people lived in the Sarkar para , about 65% people are male
labor and 15% are female labor and there are 80% labor whose major job are not laboring but
their side income earning factors. We found that from our survey about 80% village people s
main occupation is farming and 20% people are engaged in other occupation. Based on their
occupation and income assessment we divided into three classes.
1. Upper class
2. Middle class

LFE summer 2010

3. Lower class
Upper class and middle class people are involved in teaching, business, traders, government service
holders, vendors, labor, peasants and some of the women do work in NGO s. Lower class people are
involved as a rickshaw puller, van driver, tea stall etc.
4.3 Income assessment
According to our survey we found that how housing type, land size, domestic animal, self
transportation system even luxury products differentiates between three classes by a tabular form




Upper 10 Semi 200,000tk Agriculture Cow TV, VCD, Motor cycle,

Bigha paka Business Goat DVD, CD, Cycle
(Above) (Big size) Service Poultry Refrigerator
Working Birds ,
abroad Pigeon Multimedia
Middle 3-7 Semi 40,000- Agriculture Cow TV, Cable Cycle (almost
Bigha paka 200,000tk Small Goat network everyone)
(Small business poultry and phone
size) services

Lower 3 Bigha Tin/Mud/ Below Agriculture Cow Multimedia Cycle (very

(below) straw 40,000tk Drive push Goat phone few)

. Table.6: Income Assessment

LFE summer 2010

4.4 Primary and Secondary Sources of occupations

Primary sources of Income Secondary sources of Income

1. Agriculture 1. Goat, cattle and poultry
2. Carpenters 2. Day labors
3. Constructor worker
4. Medium and small size business
Table.7: Primary and Secondary Sources of occupation
As we know most of the middle and lower class people of Sarkar para of Ramnagor they choose
their occupation as farmer. But along with farming they have secondary sources of
income. There have some primary and secondary sources of occupation which is given below:

4.5 NGO activities

The NGO s like - ASA, BRAC, GRAMEEN BANK has tried to contribution in the
developing of the rural areas but they could not reach their destination because of some lacking.
Although they face some problems but NGO s concentrate in the rural development like women
empowerment, children education, as well as developing agriculture sector. Because as we
mentioned before there is no development is possible without agricultural. The problems and
opportunities are mentioned below

4.6 Problems and Opportunities in Agriculture Sector

Problems in Agricultural sector Opportunities in Agricultural sector

They don t have their own land Seed is available than before
Seed quality is not good. Available Technology
Fertilizer is expensive Less time for irrigation, harvesting and plantation
The quality of pesticide is not good but expensive. They are not depends on one or two particular crops but
also some crops that they can
They don t get any kind of help and support from
produce whole year

Table.8: Problems & Opportunities in Agriculture

LFE summer 2010

4.7 Micro Credit
We are not able to find anyone who is willing to say willingly that he or she took loan from
NGO. From our survey we found out only two families took loan from Grameen Bank. But later we
knew that more than 40% or around 50% family family of Sarkar para took loan from different
NGO S. But they felt fear to tell that they took loan because often they face some negative attitude
from NGO s. This loan only provide to the female member of the family. Many female member of a
family took more than two loans from different NGO.

In Sarkarpara Grameen Bank, TMSS, BRAC, and ASA these NGO s are providing loan for poor
women empowerment. Their field workers influence the female villagers to take the loan. Beside
these NGO many Government organizations (GO) are providing loan to the villagers like Krishi

4.8 Positive and negative activities regarding micro credit

During our survey we found some respondents claim that NGO s work negatively regarding
micro credit. On the other hand some respondent s claims that NGO s work very well and they get
befitted through micro credit.


1. Weekly payment system is flexible. 1. Interest rate is high.
2. Loans/ Micro credits contribute to women 2. In the previous period, defaulters had to pay
empowerment fines in terms of livestock, houses etc but now
3. NGO s did not apply political pressure on the situation is much more relaxed.
the people who has taken loans.
4. Loans/ Micro credits contribute to women 3. Unmarried women cannot get loans.
5. Not too many Assets are required for
taking loans. 4. No repayment consideration in case of
6. Taking loans from NGOs do not require inconvenience or natural calamities.
any security. It was easy to get loans from
NGOs. 5. Interest is taken as a flat rate. So it will be
7. BRAC also takes initiative to build a school become more higher than the rate declare at
in the village. first. For example most NGO told they take
8. BRAC provided free ring slab in the only 15% interest rate but originally they take
Sarkarpara for hygienic sanitation system. around 25% interest rate.

Table.9: Positive and negative activities

LFE summer 2010

Though micro credit has some positive and negative issues but through micro credit we may improve
our poverty. Because of micro credit may improve or increase living standard. People are able to
involve him outside activities which may provide some extra income. But village people may not
proper use the micro credit system. So NGO s should arrange a tanning program in which village
people get benefit.
4.9 Crops calendar

Photo.3: Crop Calendar

This crops calendar shows four types of crops and this calendar helps us to know which crops usually
cultivated in which month. Here I may not describe all the crops because of time consuming. But the
procedure to understand is same. Here we see the legends which indicated land preparation, seed bed,
Irrigation, Fertilizing, Insect Killing, and Harvesting. To cultivate Paddy at least four months
required. Around 20 days of Choitro they utilize that time for land preparation. 10 days use for seed
bed. Then Mid Boishakh to Joishtha farmers utilize that time for Irrigation which is most important.
Sometimes irrigation required more than that due to land condition. Then they use 4-5 days for Insect
killer and 8-10 days for Harvesting. This is procedure of Paddy.
4.10 Conclusion
While we carrying out the PRA for Social structure Analysis we came across several
interesting stories, shocking facts and exposures to aspects of life that would have remained hidden
had we not experienced this research. After completing the survey we found that villagers

LFE summer 2010

are involving with many occupations for set their luck and set them in the good economic condition.
In this part (Economy, Rural Production Cycle & Social Structure) we recognize that now women
are involving with different activities. They help their husband for farming purpose. The Social
structure analysis provided us the opportunity to learn about living standard in the villages in
Bangladesh. And finally LFE has helped us enrich our knowledge of rural life. The LFE program has
broadened our horizons and has equipped us to face the world without flinching. Country it is not
possible to keep the rural area in the back side. Industrialization is not only the solution but also we
should change our agricultural situation by the help the rural people.

Health & Environment

In a village, health and environment are probably two of the most important sections from
where we can visualize the view of the village. These two factors are interrelated with each other
because good environment leads a good health. Health is a state of physical, mental, and social well-
being. A good health means a good body which is absence of diseases. On the other hand
environments means surrounding, especially the material and spiritual influence, which affect
growth, development and existence of a living being. Good environment means good sanitations
system, safe drinking water, living standards etc. Safety water, sanitation, food, nutrition state,
hygiene practices, socio-economic and demographic characteristics, living standards, health care
facilities and many other factors influence and affect the total health status.
5.1 Objectives

Ø Define the health conditions of the villagers and surrounding environment.

Ø To recognize the crisis of the health care facilities
Ø To reflect the state of health, immunization and medical facilities available in the village
Ø Moreover, to find out if NGOs operating in the village are involved in development of the
village health care facilities or not and how

LFE summer 2010

5.2 Finding in our visited para
In our finding we got some attributes that shows the total scenarios of the Para. These attributes are-
Source of water Fuel type Cleanliness Family planning Waste disposal
Source of water Sanitation Fuel type Medical facilities Cleanliness
Sanitation Medical facilities Vaccination Diseases

Piped water Ring slab Kerosene Public health Washing hand

care before eat and
Tube-well Hanging Latrines Firewood
after toilet
Local public
Pond Septic Tank Leaves & Twigs
health worker Brush their teeth
Pit latrine Cow dung
Local pharmacy
Local priest
Table.10: Attributes

Vaccination Family planning Diseases Waste disposal

Polio Condom Cough fever In a whole beside
Diphtheria Contraceptive pill Malaria
Near by Ditch
Whooping cough Vasectomy Diarrhoea
In a specific place
Tetanus Lygation Dengue
No specific place
Hepatitis Typhoid

Table.11: Attributes

5.2.1 Source of water

From our survey we found in our assigned para Sarkar Para every people s main source of
water is tube-well. Before they use canal, ponds, rain etc for purpose of water but now people are
more conscious. Different types of NGO s BRAC, ASA they provide tube-wells.

LFE summer 2010

Fig.4: Source of water
Now every single house of Sarkar para belongs to a tube-well and 100% people use tube-well as
their water source.
5.2.2 Sanitation
This Sarkar para people are concern about their sanitation system. At present they do not
use open space for their latrines. Now they use rink slab, pit latrines, and septic tank. The diagram
shows that 98% use ring slab because NGO s like BRAC provide ring slab. Only 2% people use pit
latrines. There are no hanging latrines in this Para.

Fig.5: Sanitation
5.2.3 Fuel type
This para s major fuel type is fire wood. Beside fire wood now they use dry leaves and twigs,
cow dung , straw etc. This diagram shows that 50% people of this para use fire wood, 30% used
leaves and twigs 19% use straw for cocking and other purpose. The effects of such kind of fuel are
eye burning, skin disease and breathing problem. Only 1% (one family) who uses gas for making
children s food.

LFE summer 2010

Fig.6. Fuel Type
5.2.4 Diseases
Every year they suffer different types of diseases. The table revels that which is the most
common diseases in Sarkar para .

Fig.7: Types of Diseases

This table indicates that the most common disease of the Sarkar para is cough fever due to use high
amount of fire wood and straw. 60% people suffer from Cough fever. 5% for malaria, 25% diarrhea,
2 % dengue and 8 % typhoid.

5.2.5 Medical facilities and Vaccination

Our Para s people are concern about the vaccination and heath care facilities. 100% para s
people take Polio, Diphtheria, and whooping cough vaccine. Few people take Tetanus and Hepatitis
B. But now local public care and local public health worker make them conscious about Hepatitis B
and vaccine.

LFE summer 2010

Fig.8: Health care facilities Fig.9: Types of Vaccination

After survey we knew that they prefer local health worker rather than public health worker. 60%
people choose local public health worker and 30% people choose public health care.

5.3 Public Heath care Problem

There has some problem that s why people choose local health worker rather than public health care.
Problems are

1. Waiting hours too long

2. Medicine cost is high

3. Not Close to the home

5.4 Conclusion
Mistreatment of natural resources, population increase, for the most part poverty etc are the
main reasons behind unsatisfactory state of health and environment. The current condition of our
assigned Para is satisfactory in different aspects; like number of educated people, Advance
agriculture, health consciousness, sanitation, vaccination, it is much more developed except a few
household those are not educated. The rural people changing their socio-economic condition and
their lifestyle day by day. The social structure has changed huge compare then before. People are
more concern about their life, their surrounding environment and their health and health care
facilities. But few people still depend on Ojha and kobiraj. So the government should take step and as
well as NGO s to do something for them.

LFE summer 2010

Rural Market Analysis

6.0 Introduction

Rural market is the most important place for any village or any rural area in Bangladesh. To
analyze or to observe any village, inhabitant of that village, market is the best place for any
researcher or anthropologist. Here he/she can easily collect his/her required data or information. A
rural market is the place where people of different village gather .To understand the rural life or we
should say to get a quick look of rural life we must get information about the rural market

6.1 What is marketing?

Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and
distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and
organizational objectives. - John V. Thill, Marketing (1 edition) Marketing is satisfying customers
needs Philip Kotler(7 edition)

6.2 What is Rural Marketing?

The term market stood for the place where buyers and sellers gathered to exchange their
goods, such as a village square. Economists use the term market to refer to a collection of buyers and
sellers who transact in a particular product class, as in the housing market or the gain market. As we
know rural marketing is a managerial science which deals with identified needs and wants of the
market and satisfying the customer.

6.3 Objectives

1. To have a clear idea about the economic activity of the villagers.

2. To have an idea about the difference in consumer behavior of rural and urban area.

3. Value chain.
4. Understand the Distribution channels.
5. Identify Fake products
6. Price structure

LFE summer 2010


Bazar Haat
It is a establish place. Does not a fixed place. After some time it
Provide fewer amounts of products Provides higher amounts of products.
Less no of buyers and sellers. Higher no of buyers and sellers.
In bazaar most of the sellers and buyers IN haat sellers and buyers came from different
came from the same village. villages.
Bazar is smaller than Haat. Haat is bigger than Bazar.
Bazar starts from 8am-6pm. Haat starts from 8am-2pm.
It held for every day. Does not take place every day. (1/2 days in a
Table.12: Difference between Haat and Bazar

6.5 “NOY MILE HAAT” at a glance

Ø Age is about 23- years
Ø Length is 20 Acres (Approximately)
Ø Working time 8am-2pm.
Ø Distance from Ramnagor Sarkar Para aroung 2km.

6.6 Types of products

In terms of the type of consumer, products are classified into two categories and which
would be used to describe the several types of products found in NOY MILE HAAT .

Diagram.1: Types of products

1. Consumer Products 2. Industrial Products

LFE summer 2010

6.6.1 Consumer products
Consumer products are those bought by final consumers for personal consumption.
(Principle of Marketing; Philip Kotler, Gray Armstrong)

There are basically four types of consumer goods those are convenience goods, shopping goods,
special goods and unsought goods.
6.6.2 Industrial products
Industrial products are used for business purposes. It includes raw materials and
manufactured materials and parts. The farmers of the village grow paddy, mustards and some amount
of fish and vegetables etc. As capital: Deep tube well, cattle s, tractor etc. As Operational: Pen, light,
fan, and some intangible products like barber, day laborer etc. and as Production: Paddy, meat,
In terms of the type of consumer, products are classified into two categories and which would be
used to describe the several types of products found in NOY MILE HAT .

Chart.2: Classification of Products

Chart.1: Classification of products

LFE summer 2010

6.7 Inwards and outwards products

6.7.1 Inwards products

The products, which are not produced in the village, for the consumption of the village people,
the products are imported from urban area to village market is called Inward product.
6.7.2 Outwards Products

The products, which are produce in the village and some time it is exported outside of the village
like Dhaka, Bogura, Rajshahi and other big city of Bangladesh is called outwards products.

Chart.2: Classification of products

LFE summer 2010

6.8 Brand Preference
Basically villagers prefer products by considering the price and placement of the product in
the shelf of the shop. Brand image plays a very little role in case of customer preference.

Products name Preferance

Biscuits Energy plus
Soap Lux
Washing powder Wheel
Soft drinks RC, 7UP
Tobacco leaf Hakimpuri
Tube-well Barsha
Cement Shah, Anwar

Table.13: Brand Preference

From the field study we came to know different causes of buying a product. In case of soaps people buy
different brands because of fragrance. One of the retailers of the village told us that incase of
convenience good like soap the customers does not have any brand preference and the shop-keepers
basically influence the customers to buy a specific brand. From this statement we can come to a
conclusion that the villagers are not loyal to any brand, they are loyal to the local retail stores.

6.9 Bargaining power

The bargaining power of the wholesaler is higher than the other party of the distribution
channel. From our survey we found that farmers have very little power in case of bargaining. There is
a practice called Dadon which makes a limit in bargaining of the farmers as they have already
entered into a contact with the wholesaler. In Dadon the price has already fixed before the harvesting.
That s why; the farmers have a very little scope to realize the present market condition. The
wholesalers are the key actors of setting the price. The retailers and the small traders are controlled
by the decision of the wholesalers.
6.10 List of Clone products
Original Clone
Frooto Mango Juice Froote Mango juice

Top 10 Cigarette Tope 10 Cigarette

LFE summer 2010 Tung
Bata Data

Table.14. list of colon products

6.11 What is value chain Analysis?

Value chain is a major tool for identifying ways to create more customer value. A value chain
analysis evaluates the activities at every stage which are given below:

6.12 Value chain Analysis of Asparagus Bean

Chart.2: Value Chain Analysis

6.13 Distribution channels

6.13.1 What is Distribution Channels?

According to Kotler & Armstrong, distribution means, “The task involved in planning,
implementing and controlling the physical flow of materials, final goods and related information from
points of origin to points of consumption to meet customer requirements at a profit.” (Source: Kotler
& Armstrong, 1997. Page – 410)

LFE summer 2010

Chart.3: Asparagus distribution channel

6.13.2 Asparagus Bean

The farmers of Ramnagor village produce Asparagus bean among which a large quantity is
in tented for commercial purpose. The villagers are not consuming this vegetable. After getting the
vegetables the farmers of the village distribute them to different Small Trader, then small trader bring
it to the Noymile haat and then Retailer or final buyer buy the vegetables. From the field study we
found that in this season Asparagus bean s production is so high. In every bigha they got 2200-
2400kg or 50-60 MON.

6.14 Problem faced by the NOYMILE HAAT

There has some common problem in Noymile haat which are given below-

1. There were no structured Drainage facilities.

2. No permanent shed which can give them shelter in rain or bad weather for the seller and
3. Toilet facilities were not satisfactory
4. Unhygienic restaurant for the seller and buyer
5. There is no fixed area for the seller and buyer in the haat day.
6. Place is dusty, noise and heavy gathered.
7. Create traffic jam on the Rangpur-Bogra highway road.

LFE summer 2010

Case Study#01
Seller- Md. Uzzal Ahmed

Age- 438

Md. Uzzal Ahmed is the household head and he is the only earning member of his family. His family
consists of 4 members. They are his wife, and 2 sons. He has 12-13 bigha of ownlands. He hires day
labors for cultivating his land. He divided his land into 6 parts where he produces different types of
paddy and vegetables etc. he told us that he produces paddy in 4 bigha of his total land. He produces
maize and potato in the same field. He also produces Asparagus bean in 2 bigha, potol in 3 bigha,
brinjal in 1 bigha, jute in 1 bigha. He has a 2 big pond where he gets lots of fishes. His yearly income
is 192000tk and his yearly expenditure is 168000tk and his profit is 24000tk per year.He has 4 family
members including him. They are his wife and 2 sons. Both sons go to school. He wants his son to
become highly educated.

Case Study#02

Farmer Md. Zafor Ahmed

Age -55+

Md. Zafor Ahmed is a 55 years old farmer. He lives at Ramnagor Dakkhin para. He consists of 7
members in his family. They are his wife and five sons. He never goes to school. One of his sons
goes to school and he is in class seven. Rest of the sons is working in field with their father MD.
Zafor Ahmed. He has 8 bigha of cultivable and. In traditional way he cultivates his land. He has 4
cows. In every season he gets 150 mound seasonal agricultural foods. He produces paddy, maize,
potato, brinjal, black pepper etc. His monthly income is around 20000tk and expenditure is around
12500tk so hi profit is 7500tk. His expenditure area is medicine, fertilizers, seeds. His favorite selling
area is Noi-Mile and Dosh-Mile haat.

LFE summer 2010

It is very great pleasure and privilege for me that I took a part of LFE 2010 in Spring from IUB. I
have learned many things from LFE. Basically most of the student of our student of our group is
from urban area. We don t know much about the village and village market. So in LFE we learned a
lot of things about the village market, hat and the buying behavior of the villagers. From this survey
we realize that Bangladesh is mainly a country of villages and the village market plays a vital role in
the life of the villagers. It is an integral part of village life. It save the villagers from the trouble of
going to distant places to buy things of daily use. A village market is not only develops village life
but also promote the export of the country.

LFE summer 2010


Ø Principles of Marketing by Philip kotler & Gary Armstrong.

Ø Marketing Management by Philip Kotler.
Ø Economics: Principles, problems & problems, Campbell R. Meconnell & Stanley. Brue
11 edition. Mcgrew Hill, 1990.
Ø Reference book: - H.W. BOYD, O.C. WALKER, Marketing management Third

LFE summer 2010

Picture of presentation and field survey

LFE summer 2010

LFE summer 2010