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Agroindustri Produk

Fermentasi

Teknologi Industri Pertanian


Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian
Universitas Brawijaya

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Pertemuan Pokok Bahasan Sub Pokok Bahasan
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1 Pengertian Pengertian fermentasi, Produk


fermentasi Fermentasi, Sejarah Fermentasi, Industri
fermentasi masa kini
2 Mikroorganisme Bakteri, Khamir, Jamur, Metode Isolasi,
dalam Industri Isolasi Mikroorganisme, Perbaikan
Strain, Penyimpanan Kultur
3 Kinetika Perhitungan Mikroba, Model
Pertumbuhan Pertumbuhan, Pertumbuhan Mikroba,
Kultur Fed-Batch dan Kontinyu
4 Media Fermentasi Sumber Karbon, Nitrogen, Mineral,
Vitamin dan Faktor Tumbuh, Prekursor

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5 Faktor Lingkungan Faktor Abiotik dan Biotik

6 Tempe Mikrobiologis Inokulum, Mekanisme


Pembentukan, Faktor Berpengaruh,
Tahapan Pembuatan, Sifat Fisikokimia,
Keragaman Proses Pembuatan
7 Kombucha Proses Fermentasi, Cara Pembuatan,
Perubahan Mikrobia dan Biokimia

8 Tape Cara Pembuatan, Tahapan Proses,


Mikrobiologi dan Biokimia Tape, Ragi
Tape, Brem Padat

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9 Nata DeCoco Proses Pembuatan, Keragaman


Mikrobia

10 Produk Fermentasi Susu, Produk Fermentasi Susu, Produk


Berbasis Susu Susu Asam, Manfaat Produk Susu
Fermentasi
11 Fermentasi Kecap Kecap Kedelai, Kecap Ampas Tahu,
Kecap Ikan

12 Fermentasi Asam Fermentasi Asam Asetat, Fermentasi


Asetat dan Laktat Asam Laktat

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13 - 14 Fermentasi Alkohol Kultur dan Pemeliharaannya,
Mekanisme Fermentasi,
Komposisi Campuran,
Penanganan Biji dan
Penggilingan, Kualitas Bahan
Baku, Peralatan dan Bahan baku,
Produksi Alkohol dari Tetes

Pustaka
 Dania, W.A.P., N. Hidayat dan I. Nurika. 2006. Membuat
Minuman Prebiotik dan Probiotik. Trubus Agrisarana.
Surabaya
 Hidayat, N., M.C. Padaga dan S. Suhartini, 2006, Mikrobiologi
Industri. ANDi Offset. Yogyakarta
 Hidayat, N; Wignyanto; I Nurika dan S Suhartini. 2006.
Agroindustri Produk Fermentasi. TIP-FTP-UB. Malang
 Steinkraus, K.H. (ed), 1989, Industrialization of Indigenous
Fermented Foods, Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York.
 Ulrich, K.T. and S.D. Eppinger, Perancangan dan
Pengembangan produk (terjemahan), Penerbit Salemba
teknika, Jakarta.

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FERMENTATION

Agroindustri Produk Fermentasi


TIP – FTP – UB

Fermentation
 Derived from ‘fervere’: boiling appearance of the action of yeast
on extracts of fruit/malted grain.
 It is due to the production of CO2 bubbles caused by the
anaerobic catabolism of the sugars present in the extract.
 Biochemists => fermentation = generation of energy by
catabolism of organic compound
 Industrial microbiologist => fermentation = any process for the
production of product by the mass culture of a microorganism
(Stanbury& Whitaker 1984)
 Fermentation = gradual change done by enzymes of
microorganism (mold, yeast, bacteria) (Hidayat et al 2006)

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The range of fermentation processes

 There are 4 major groups of commercially important


fermentations :
1. produce microbial cells (or biomass) as the product, co : baker’s
yeast, yeast for single cell protein, ‘ragi’, probiotics
2. produce microbial enzymes, co: amylase, protease, pectinase,
catalase, glucose oxidase, etc
3. produce microbial metabolites, co : ethanol, citric acid, vitamins,
acetone, butanol, glutamic acid, lysine, etc
4. modify a compound which is added to the fermentation– the
transformation processes, co: conversion of ethanol to acetic
acid at vinegar, production of steroid, antibiotics and
prostaglandin
 the advantages : operating at relatively low temperature, without
the requirement for potentially polluting heavy metal catalyst.

The Chronological Development of The


Fermentation Industry
 Pre 1900 : alcohol and vinegar; batch, using pure cultures and
‘good vinegar’
 1900 - 1940 : baker’s yeast, glycerol, citric acid, lactic acid,
acetone / butanol; bath & fed batch - using pure cultures
 1940 - date : penicillin, streptomycin & other antibiotics,
gibberelin, amino acid, nucleotides, enzyme, transformation;
batch, fed batch, continuous, mutation and selection
programmes essential
 1960 - date : single cell protein; continuous & medium recycle,
genetic engineering of production strains
 1979 - date : foreign compounds, not normally produced by
microbial cells ex : insulin, interferon; batch, fed batch &
continuous batch, genetic engineering to introduce foreign
genes into microbial host

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Fermentation products and their microbial
producers
Products Microbes

Bakery, beer, wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae


Yoghurt, kefir, probiotics Lactic acid bacteria
Soy sauce Aspergillus oryzae, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii
Tempeh Rhizopus oryzae
‘Tapai’ Hansenula, Saccharomyces
Acetic acid Acetobacter aceti
Citric acid Aspergillus niger
Lactic acid Lactobacillus delbrueckii
Nata Nata Acetobacter xylinum
Pickles, sauerkraut Lactic acid bacteria
Glutamic acid Corynebacterium glutamicum
Lysine Brevibacterium lactofermentum
Penicillin Penicillium chrysogenum
‘Oncom’ Neurospora sitophila
Angkak Monascus purpureus

The present development of industrial


fermentation
 Microbial cell of probiotics=> capsule, drink/beverages
 Amylase and glucose isomerase for fructose syrup
production as diet sweetener
 Colouringagent from microorganism for textile colours
 Biodieselas energy source to replace petroleum
 Bioinsecticides
 Microbial bioplastics(Polyhydroxyalkanoates)
 Isoflavonof soybean
 Lipase for detergent
 Lactic acid for PLA (Polylacticacid)