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OUTLINE IN POLITICAL LAW

by Dean Mariano F. Magsalin, Jr.

I. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
A. Definition and Divisions of Political Law
Macariola vs. Asuncion, 114 SCRA 77 (1982)
B. Definition of Constitutional Law; Distinguished from Political Law
C. Constitution
1. Definition and theoretical basis (The Social Contract Theory)
2. Function
3. Classification
4. Essential qualities of a written constitution
5. Parts of a constitution
6. Interpretation of the Constitution
Francisco v. House of Rep., G.R. No. 160261, Nov.10, 2003
7. Supremacy of the constitution
Mutuc vs. Comelec, 36 SCRA 228 (1970)
Alih et., al., vs. Castro, 151 SCRA 279 (1987)
Manila Prince Hotel vs. GSIS, G.R. 122156, Feb. 3, 1997
II. AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION
Article XVII, Sections 1,2 & 3
A. Amendment vs. Revision
B. Proposal
1. By Congress
2. By Constitutional Convention
Gonzales vs. Comelec, 21 SCRA 774 (1968)
3. By the people thru initiative (See R.A. 6735 August 4, 1989)
Santiago vs. Comelec, G.R. 127325, March 19, 1997
Lambino v. Comelec, G.R. No. 174153, October 25, 2006
Lambino v. Comelec Resolution (November 21, 2006)
C. Submission
Tolentino vs. Comelec, 41 SCRA 702 (1971)
D. Ratification - Article XVII, Section 4, Paragraphs 1 & 2
E. The position of the Convention in our system of government
III. HISTORY AND BACKGROUND
A. The Philippine Revolution and the Malolos Constitution
B. The Organic Laws Under the American Period
1. Mckinley’s Instructions (Apr. 7, 1900)
2. The Spooner Amendment (1901)
3. The Philippine Bill of 1902
4. The Philippine Autonomy Act or Jones Law (1916)
U.S. vs. Bull, 15 Phil. 259 (1910)
C. The Japanese Occupation
D. The 1935 Constitution
Mabanag vs. Lopez Vito, 78 Phil 1 (1947)
E. The 1973 Constitution
Planas vs. Comelec, 49 SCRA 105 (1973)
Javellana vs. Executive Secretary, 50 SCRA 30 (1973)
Sanidad vs. Comelec 73 SCRA 333 (1976)
Occena vs. Comelec, 104 SCRA 1 (1981)
F. The 1986 Provisional Constitution
1. The Snap Elections
PBA v. Comelec, 140 SCRA 455 (1985)
2. The February 1986 Revolution
3. Proclamation No. 1, February 25, 1986
4. Proclamation No. 3, March 25, 1986
Lawyers League v. Pres. Aquino, G.R. 73748, May 22, 1986
In Re Saturnino Bermudez, 145 SCRA 160 (1986)
G. The 1987 Constitution
1. The Constitutional Commission of 1986
2. Proclamation No. 58 (February 11, 1987)
3. When considered ratified - Article XVIII, Section 27
De Leon vs. Esguerra, 153 SCRA 602 (1987)
IV. JUDICIAL REVIEW
A. Theory and Justification of Judicial Review
Angara vs. Electoral Commission, 63 Phil. 139 (1936)
Francisco v. House of Rep., G.R. No. 160261, Nov.10, 2003
B. Requisites of Judicial Review
Article VIII, Section 5(2)
1. Actual Case or Controversy
Prematurity:
PACU vs Secretary of Education, 97 Phil. 806 (1955)
Mariano vs Comelec, G.R. No. 119694 March 7, 1995
Cutaran v. DENR, G.R. No. 134958, January 31, 2001
Montesclaros v. Comelec, G.R. No. 152295. July 9, 2002
Mootness:
Atlas Fertilizer v. Sec, DAR, G.R. No. 93100, June 19, 1997
Gonzales v. Narvasa, G.R. No. 140835. August 14, 2000
Lacson v. Perez, G.R. No. 147780, May 10, 2001
Defunis v. Odegaard, 416 U.S. 312 (1974)
Exceptions to Mootness:
Acop v. Guingona, G.R. No. 134855, July 2, 2002
Sanlakas v. Executive Secretary, G.R. 159085, February 3, 2004
Pimentel v. Ermita, G.R. 164978, October 13, 2005
2. Proper Party
Joya vs PCGG, G.R. 96541, August 24, 1993
Agan v. PIATCO, G.R. No. 155001, May 5, 2003
CHR Employees Assoc. v. CHR, G.R. 155336, Nov. 25, 2004
Citizen Standing:
Tanada vs. Tuvera, 136 SCRA 27 (1985)
Chavez v. PEA and Amari, G.R. 133250, July 9, 2002
Associational Standing:
KMU Labor Center vs. Garcia, G.R. 115381, Dec. 23, 1994
John Hay PAC. v. Lim, G.R. No. 119775, Oct. 24, 2003
IBP v. Zamora, G.R. No. 141284, August 15, 2000
Executive Secretary v. CA, 429 SCRA 781, May 25, 2004
Kilosbayan v. Guingona, 232 SCRA 110 (1994)
Taxpayer’s Standing:
U.S. v. Richardson, 418 U.S. 166 (1974)
ITF v. Comelec, G.R. No. 159139. Jan. 13, 2004
Jumamil v. Café, G.R. 144570, September 21, 2005
Voter’s Standing:
Tolentino v. Comelec, 420 SCRA 438, January 21, 2004
Legislative Standing:
Ople v. Torres, 293 SCRA 141 (1998)
Governmental Standing:
People v. Vera, 65 Phil 56, November 16, 1937
Facial Challenge:
Estrada v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 148560, Nov. 19, 2001
3. Earliest Opportunity
Umali v. Guingona, 305 SCRA 533 (1999)
4. Necessity of Deciding Constitutional Questions
Arceta v. Mangrobang, G.R. No. 152895. June 15, 2004
Mandatory Notice
Mirasol v. CA, G.R. No. 128448, February 1, 2001
C. Functions of Judicial Review
Mitra vs Comelec, 104 SCRA 58 (1981)
Salonga vs Cruz-Pano, 134 SCRA 438 (1985)
Javier v. Comelec, 144 SCRA 194 (1988)
D. The Exercise of Judicial Review
Ynot vs. IAC, 148 SCRA 659 (1987)
E. Effect of Declaration of Unconstitutionality
New Civil Code, Article 7
Serrano de Agbayani vs PNB, 38 SCRA 429 (1972)
F. Partial Unconstitutionality
Salazar vs Achacoso, 183 SCRA 145 (1986)
V. THE STATE
A. Concept and Definition
Distinguished from nation
CIR v. Campos Rueda, 42 SCRA 23 (1971)
B. Territory
1. Definition
2. Components
3. The Philippine Archipelago - Article I
a. Article III, Treaty of Paris
b. The US-Spain November 7, 1900 Treaty
c. The US-Great Britain January 2, 1930 Treaty
d. R.A. 3046 (June 17, 1961)
e. R.A. 5446 (September 8, 1968)
f. P.D. No. 1596, June 11, 1978 (other territories)
g. P.D. No. 1599, June 11, 1978 (200 Mile EEZ)
h. U.N. Convention on Law of the Sea
Reagan vs CIR, 30 SCRA 968 (1969)
People vs. Gozo, 53 SCRA 476 (1973)
C. People
Definition
a. As Inhabitants
Article III, Section 1 & 2 Article II Sections 15 & 16
b. As Electors
Article VII, Section 4 Article XVI, Section 2
Article XVIII, Section 25
c. As Citizens
Article II, Section 1 & 4 Article III, Section 7
D. Government
1. Definition
Government of the Rep. of the Philippines defined
Section 2 (1) Administrative Code of 1987
People v. SB, G.R. No. 145951, August 12, 2003
MIAA v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 155650, July 20, 2006
2. Constituent vs Ministrant Functions
ACCFA v. CUGCO, 30 SCRA 649 (1969)
Valmonte vs. Belmonte, 170 SCRA 256 (1989)
3. Parens Patriae
Government vs. Monte de Peidad, 35 Phil. 728 (1916)
Cabanas vs. Pilapil, 58 SCRA 94 (1974)
Gonzales v. Marcos, 65 SCRA 624 (1975)
4. De Jure Government/Criteria for Legitimacy
5. De Facto governments
a. Kinds & Characteristics
Co Kim Cham vs. Valdez, 75 Phil 113, 371 (1946)
Lawyer's League v. Aquino, G.R. no. 73748, May 22, 1986
6. Government distinguished from Administration
7. Other classifications of Governments
a. based on accountability to the people
b. presidential vs. parliamentary
c. national, local, federal
E. Sovereignty
1. Definition
2. Dual Aspect, Kinds & Characteristics
3. Dominium & Imperium
4. Effects of Change in Sovereignty
Macariola vs. Asuncion, supra
6. Effects of Military Occupation
7. Territorial, personal and extraterritorial jurisdiction
8. Acts of State
Harvey vs. Commissioner, 162 SCRA 840 (1988)
VI. CITIZENSHIP
A. Definition
B. Importance of Citizenship
Lee. V. Dir. of Lands, G.R. No. 128195, October 3, 2001
C. Modes of Acquiring Citizenship
D. Who are Philippine Citizens - Article IV, Section 1
1. Citizens at the time of adoption of the 1987 Constitution
a) Citizens under the 1935 Constitution
i. Philippine Bill of 1902 & Jones Law
ii. The Caram Rule
iii. Those whose fathers were citizens
Republic v. Chule Lim, G.R. No. 153883, January 13, 2004
iv. Those who elected upon reaching majority age
v. Those who were naturalized
b) Citizens under the 1973 Constitution
i. Those already citizens
ii. Those whose fathers and mothers are citizens
iii. Those who elected
iv. Those who were naturalized
2. Those whose fathers & mothers are citizens
3. Those who elect Philippine Citizenship
4. Those who are naturalized in accordance with law.
E. Natural Born Citizens - Article IV, Section 2
Advantages of natural born citizens
Article XII, Section 8
Article VII, Sections 2 & 3
Article VI, Sections 3 & 6
Article VIII, Section 7 (1)
Article XI Section 8
Art. IX-B Section 1(1)
Art. IX-C Section 1(1)
Art. IX-D Section 1(1)
Article XII, Section 20
Article XIII, Section 17 (2)
1. Those whose fathers and mother are citizens.
2. Those who elect Filipino citizenship
3. Reacquisition of natural born citizenship by repatriation
Tecson v. Comelec, G.R. No. 161434, March 3, 2004
In re Ching, Bar Matter No. 914, October 1, 1999
Co vs HRET, 199 SCRA 692 (1991)
Villahermosa vs Commissioner, 80 Phil 541 (1948)
Bengzon v. HRET, G.R. No. 142840, May 7, 2001
F. Naturalization
1. By Judicial Proceeding
a) Com. Act No. 473 (Revised naturalization Law)
Sections 2,3,4,5,7,8,15 & 18
b) R.A. No. 530 Section 1 - effect on the wife and children
Republic vs De La Rosa, G.R. No. 104654, June 6, 1994
Republic vs. Liyao, 214 SCRA 748 (1992)
Moya Lim Yao v. Commissioner, 41 SCRA 292
2. By Administrative Proceeding (R.A. No. 9138)
3. By Direct Act of Congress
3. Denaturalization
G. Loss of Citizenship - Article IV, Section 3
Coquilla v. Comelec, G.R. No. 151914, July 31, 2002
Yu vs Santiago, 169 SCRA 364 (1989)
H. Reacquisition of Citizenship
Com. Act. No. 63, Section 1(2)
Frivaldo vs. Comelec, 174 SCRA 245 (1989)
Frivaldo vs. Comelec, 257 SCRA 727 (1996)
Altarejos v. Comelec, G.R. No. 163256. Nov. 10, 2004)
Tabasa v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 125793, August 29, 2006
Angat v. Republic, GR. No. 132244, September 14,1999
Jao vs. Republic 121 SCRA 358 (1983)
I. Dual Citizenship
R.A. No. 9225 (September 17, 2003)
Nicholas-Lewis v. Comelec, G.R. No. 162759, August 4, 2006
J. Dual Allegiance - Article IV, Sections 4 & 5
(See Sec. 40, R.A. 7160, Local Govt. Code)
Aznar vs Comelec, G.R. No. 83820, May 25, 1990
Mercado v. Manzano, 307 SCRA 630 (1999)
Valles v. Comelec, G.R. 137000, August 9, 2000
VII. DOCTRINE OF STATE IMMUNITY
1. Basis - Article XVI, Section 3
2. When is a suit against a State?
Republic vs. Feliciano, 148 SCRA 424 (1987)
Phil. Agila Satellite v. Lichauco, G.R. No. 134887, July 27, 2006
3. Express Consent
a. Money claims arising from contract
Act. No. 3083
C.A. no. 327 as amended by P.D. No. 1445
Sayson vs. Singson, 54 SCRA 282 (1973)
Republic vs. Purisima, 78 SCRA 470 (1977)
b. Torts committed by special agents - NCC Article 2180
Meritt vs Government, 34 Phil. 311 (1916)
c. Incorporated Government Agencies
(Note: Unincorporated Agencies exercising principally
proprietary functions may be sued)
PNB vs. CIR, 81 SCRA 314 (1978)
SSS vs. CA. 120, SCRA 707 (1983)
Rayo v. CFI, 110 SCRA 450 (1981)
Farolan v. CTA, 217 SCRA 298 (1993)
4. Implied Consent
a. Government submits itself to the court’s jurisdiction
b. The State itself files a complaint
RP vs. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 85384, Feb. 28, 1990
Froilan vs. Pan Oriental Shipping Co., 95 Phil. 905 (1954)
Lim vs. Brownell, 107 Phil. 344 (1960)
c. Government entering into business contracts
Malong v. PNR, 138 SCRA 63 (19850
Fontanilla v. Maliaman, 194 SCRA 486 (1991)
d. When Inequitable for government to claim immunity
Santiago vs. Republic, 87 SCRA 294 (1978)
Amigable vs; Cuenca, 43 SCRA 360 (1972)
5. Suits against Municipal Corporations
Torio vs. Fontanilla, 85 SCRA 99 (1978)
6. Suits against Foreign States
The Holy See vs. Hon. Rosario, Jr., December 17, 1994
U.S.A. vs. Ruiz, 136 SCRA 487 (1985)
U.S.A. vs. Guinto, G.R. No. 76609, Feb. 26, 1990
Minucher v. CA, G.R. No. 142396, February 11, 2003
Rep. of Indonesia v. Vinzon, G.R. 154705, June 26, 2003
7. Suits against International Agencies
WH0 v. Aquino, G.R. No. L-35131, November 29, 1972
DFA v. NLRC, G.R. No. 113191, September 18, 1997
8. Suits against Public Officers
Animas v. PVAO, 174 SCRA 214 (1989)
U.S.A. vs. Reyes, G.R. No. 79233, March 1, 1993
Lansang v. CA, G.R. No. 102667, February 23, 2000
Shauf v. Court of Appeals, 191 SCRA 713 (1990)
Republic v. Sandoval, G.R. No. 48607, March 19, 1993
9. Consent to execution
PNB vs. Pabalan, 83 SCRA 595 (1978)
Municipality of Makati vs. CA. 190 SCRA 206 (1990)
Nessia vs. Fermin, 220 SCRA 615 (1993)
Caloocan City v. Allarde, G.R. No. 107271, Sept. 10, 2003
VII. PRINCIPLES AND POLICIES
A. Preamble - Nature, purpose and aims
B. Principles
1. Sovereignty of the People and Republicanism
a. Direct and Indirect Democracy
b. Representation and renovation
c. Accountability to the people
d. Rule of the Majority
Pablo Ocampo v. HRET, G.R. No. 158466. June 15, 2004
e. The Rule of Law
Article II, Section 1 (sovereignty resides in the people)
Article V, (Suffrage)
Villavicencio vs. Lukban, 39 Phil. 778 (1919)
2. Adherence to International Law
Article II, Section 2, 7 & 8
(Independent foreign/nuclear-free policy)
a. Renunciation of War - Article VI, Section 23 (1)
b. Adoption of International Law
Mejoff vs. Director of Prisons, 90 Phil. 70 (1952)
Agustin vs. Edu, 88 SCRA 195 (1979)
Ichong vs. Hernandez, 101 Phil. 115 (1957)
In Re Garcia; 2 SCRA 984 (1961)
c. Adherence to policy of peace, freedom, amity
3. Supremacy of Civilian Authority
Article II, Section 3
Article VII, Section 18 (commander0in0chief clause)
Article XVI, Section 5(4) (AFP in active service)
Article XVI, Section 5(2) (respect for people's rights)
4. Government as protector & People as Defenders of the State
Article II, Sections 4 & 5 (no extension of service)
People vs. Lagman and Zosa, 66 Phil. 13 (1938)
Resident Aliens
5. Separation of Church and State
Article II, Section 6
Article III, Section 5 (freedom of religion clause)
Article IX-C, 2(5) (political party ban on sects)
Article VI, Section 5(2) (no sectoral rep. from religious sector)
Exceptions : Article VI, Section 28(3) (tax exempt. of churches)
Id., Section 29(2) (no appropriation for sects; exemptions)
Article XIV, Section 3(3) (optional religious instruction)
Id., Section 4(2) (Filipino ownership for schools, exceptions)
Estrada v. Escritor, A.M. No. P-02-1651, August 4, 2003
C. Policies
1. Independent foreign policy and a nuclear-free Philippines
Article II, Sections 7-8
Article XVIII, Sections 4 & 25 (on foreign military bases)
Bayan v. Exec. Sec., G.R. No. 138570, October 10, 2000
Lim v. Exec. Sec., G.R. No. 151445, April 11, 2002
2. A just and dynamic social order
Preamble
Article II, Section 9
a. The promotion of social justice
Article II, Section 10
Article XIII, Section 1-2
Article II, Section 26
Pamatong v. Comelec, G.R. No. 161872. April 13, 2004
Article VII, Section 13 par. 2
Calalang vs. Williams, 70 Phil. 726 (1940)
APCD v. PCA, G.R. No. 110526, February 10, 1998
PLDT v. NTC, 190 SCRA 717 (1990)
Maquera v. Borja, G.R. No. L-24761, September 7, 1965
b. Respect for human dignity and human rights
Article XIII, Sections 17-19
Article II, Section 11
Article XVI, Section 5(2)
Simon v. CHR, G.R. No. 100150, January 5, 1994
c. Fundamental equality of women and men
Article II, Section 14
Article III, Sections 14
PASEI vs. Drilon, 163 SCRA 386 (1988)
d. Independent people's organization
Article II, Section 23
Article XIII, Sections 15-16
e. The priority of education, science, technology, etc.
Article II, Section 17
Article XIV, Section 2
Tablarin vs. Gutierrez, 152 SCRA 370 (1987)
PRC v. de Guzman, G.R. No. 144681, June 21, 2004
U.P. BOR v. C.A., G.R. No. 134629, August 31, 1999
Camacho v. Coresis, G.R. No. 134372, August 22, 2002
f. Urban land reform and housing
Article XIII, Section 9-10
Mandaluyong v. Francisco, G.R. 137152, January 29, 2001
g. Reform in agriculture and other natural resources
Article II Section 2
Article XIII, Sections 4-8
h. Protection of Labor
Article II, Section 18
Article XIII, Section 3
The right of government workers to form unions
Article III, Section 8
Article IX-B, Section 2(5)
SSS Employ. Assn. vs. CA, 175 SCRA 686 (1989)
i. Promotion of health and ecology.
Article II, Sections 15-16
Article XIII, Sections 11-13
Prov. Of Rizal v. Exec. Sec., G.R. No. 129546, Dec. 13, 2005
3. The family as basic autonomous social institution
Article II, Section 12
Article XV (The Family)
Article II, Section 13
Family Code, Article 1
a. Protection of the Unborn
Roe v. Wade, 410 US 113
b. Natural Right and Duty of Parents
Meyer vs. Nebraska, 262 US 390
Pierce vs Society of Sisters, 262 US 510
Angeles vs Judge Sison, 112 SCRA 26 (1982)
4. A self-reliant and independent economic order
Article II, Sections 19 - 20
Article XII (National economy and patrimony)
Tanada vs. Angara, G.R. 118295, May 2, 1997
5. Communication and information in nation-building
Article II, Section 24
Article XVI, Sections 10 - 11
Article XVIII, Section 23
PLDT v. NTC, G.R. No. 88404, October 18, 1990
6. Autonomy of local governments
Article II, Section 25
Article X (Local Government Code of 1991 (R.A. No. 7160)
7. Recognition of rights of indigenous cultural communities
Article II, Section 22
Article VI, Section 5(2)
Article XII, Section 5
Article XIII, Section 6
Article XIV, Section 17
Article XVI, Section 12
R.A. No. 8371 (1997), The Indigenous Peoples Rights Act
8. Honest Public Service and Full Public Disclosure
Article II, Section 27
Article XI, Sections 4,5,6 (Ombudsman)
Article II, Section 28 (full public disclosure)
Article XI, Section 17 (statement of assets/liabilities)
Article VII, Section 12 (president's health)
Article VII, Section 20 (publication of loan applications)
Article XII, Section 21 (make public foreign loans)
Article XII, Section 2(5) (contracts with foreign groups)
Article VII, Sections 12,20 (con. of interest/books of acc.)
Article IX-D, Section 4 (COA annual report)
Article III, Section 7 (right to information)
Legaspi vs CSC, 150 SCRA 530 (1987)
Valmonte vs Belmonte, 170 SCRA 256 (1989)
De Jesus vs. COA, G.R. 109023, August 12, 1998
Chavez v. PEA & Amari, G.R. No. 133250, July 9, 2002
VIII. SEPARATION OF POWERS
A. Purpose
B. Interdepence, Blending of Powers and Checks and Balances
In Re: Laureta and Maravilla, 148 SCRA 382 (1987)
Demetria vs Alba, 148 SCRA 208 (1987)
Mantruste System vs CA, 179 SCRA 136 (1989)
INS v. Chadha, 462 U.S. 919 (1983)
C. Justiciable and Political Questions
La Bugal-B’Laan v. Ramos, G.R. No. 127882. Dec. 1, 2004
Arnault v. Balagtas, 97 Phil 358 (1955)
Goldwater v. Carter, 444 U.S. 996 (1979)
Article VIII, Section 1
Article VII, Section 18
IX. DELEGATION OF POWERS
a) Tariff Powers (Article VI, Section 28(2))
Garcia v. Executive Secretary, 211 SCRA 219 (1992)
b) Emergency Powers (Article VI, Section 23 (2))
c) Rule Making Power of the SC )(Article VIII, Sec. 5(5))
d) Local Government Units (Article X, Section 15)
e) Constitutional Commissions
Articles IX-A, Section 6; IX-C, Sec. 3, IX-D, Section 2(2)
e) Administrative Bodies
f). Tests for Valid Delegation
Jaworski v. Pagcor, G.R. No. 144463, January 14, 2004
U.S. v. Ang Tang Ho, 43 Phil 1 (1922)
Conference v. POEA, 243 SCRA 666 (1995)
Pelaez vs Auditor General, 15 SCRA 569 (1965)
People vs. Judge Dacuycuy, 173 SCRA 90 (1989)
X. THE STRUCTURE AND POWERS OF THE NATIONAL GOVT.
A. Congress
1. Composition, Qualification and Term of Office
a. Senate - Article VI, sections 2-4
b. House of Representatives - Article VI, Sections 5-8
Powell v. McCormack, 395 U.S. 486 (1969)
Macias vs. Comelec, 3 SCRA 1 (1961)
Tan vs Comelec, 142 SCRA 727 (1986)
Vets. Fed. Party v. Comelec, G.R. 136781, October 6, 2000
PM v. Comelec, G.R. No. 164702, March 15, 2006
Bag. Bayani v. Comelec, G.R. No. 147589, June 26, 2001
Aquino v. Comelec, 248 SCRA 400 (1995)
Marcos v. Comelec, 248 SCRA 300 (1995)
Dumpit Michelena v. Boado, G.R. Nos. 163619, November 17, 2005
2. Election
a. Regular election - Article VI, Section 8
b. Special election - Article VI, Section 9
R.A. No. 6645, December 28, 1987
3. Organizations and Sessions
a. Election of Officers - Article VI, Section 16(1)
Santiago v. Guingona, G.R. 134577, November 18, 1998
b. Quorum - Id Section 16(2)
Avelino vs. Cuenco, 83 Phil. 17 (1949)
c. Rules of Proceedings
Id., Section 16(3) Id., Section 21
Pacete vs. Comm. On Appointments, 40 SCRA 58 (1971)
Arroyo vs. De Venecia, G.R. 127255, August 14, 1997
d. Discipline of members - Id., Section 16(3)
Alejandrino v. Quezon, 46 Phil 83 (1924)
Osmena vs. Pendatun, 109 Phil. 863 (1960)
Santiago v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. 126055, April 19, 2001
De Venecia v. SB, G.R. No. 130240, Feb. 5, 2002
e. Journal and Record - Article VI, Section 16(4)
1. The Enrolled Bill Theory
Casco Chemical Co. vs. Gimenez, 7 SCRA 347 (1963)
2. Probative Value of the Journal
United States vs. Pons, 34 Phil. 729 (1916)
3. Matters to be entered in the Journal
a. Yeas and Nays on third and final reading of a bill
Article VI, Section 26(2)
b. Veto message of the President
Article VI, Section 27(1)
c. Yeas and Nays on the re-passing of a bill vetoed by the
President. [Article VI Section 27(1)]
d. Yeas and Nays on any question at the request of 1/5 of
members present [Article VI Section 16(4)]
4. Journal Entry Rule vs. Enrolled Bill Theory
5. Congressional Record - Article VI, Section 16(4) par.2
f. Session
1. Regular sessions
Article VI, Section 15 Id., Section 16(5)
2. Special sessions
Article VII, Sections 10-11 Id., Section 16
Article VII, Section 18 par. 2
3. Joint sessions
Article VII, Section 4 Id., Section 11 par. 4. Id., Section 9 Article VII
Section 23(1)
Article XVII, Section 1(1) Article VII, Section 18
4. Salaries, Privileges and Disqualifications
a. Salaries
Articles VI, Section 10
Article XVIII, Section 17
Phiconsa vs. Mathay, 18 SCRA 300 (1966)
Ligot vs. Mathay, 56 SCRA 823 (1974)
b. Freedom from Arrest
Article VI, Section 11
Revised Penal Code, Article 145
b. Speech and Debate Clause
Article VI, Section 11
Jimenez vs. Cabangbang 17 SCRA 876 (1966)
People v. Jalosjos, G.R. 132875, February 3, 2000
d. Disqualifications
1. Incomp. and Forbidden Officers - Id., Section 13 /
Adaza vs Pacana, Jr. 135 SCRA 431 (1985)
2. Other Prohibitions - Article VI, Section 14
Puyat vs De Guzman, 113 SCRA 31 (1982)
e. Duty to Disclose
Article XI, Section 17
Article VI, Section 12 Id., Section 20
5. Electoral Tribunals - Id., Sections 17-19
Abbas vs. SET, 166 SCRA 651 (1988)
Sampayan vs Daza, 213 SCRA 807 (1992)
Bondoc vs Pineda, 201 SCRA 792 (1991)
Pena vs. HRET, G.R. No. 123037, March 21, 1997
Guerrero v. Comelec, G.R. No. 137004 (July 26, 2000)
Codilla v. De Venecia, G.R. 150605, December 10, 2002
6. Commission on Appointments- Id., Sections 18-19
Cunanan v. Tan, 5 SCRA 1 (1962)
Daza v. Singson, 180 SCRA 496 (1989)
Coseteng vs. Mitra, Jr. 187 SCRA 377 (1990)
Guingona vs. Gonzales, 214 SCRA 789 (1992)
7. Powers of Congress
a. General Plenary Powers - Article VI, Section 1
b. Limitations on the Legislative Power
1. Substantive limitations
Article III (Bill of Rights)
Article VI, Sections 25 & 28
Article XIV, Section 4(3)
Article VI, Section 29
Id., Section 30 Id., Section 31
` Implied substantive limitations
Prohibition against delegation of legislative power
Prohibition against passage of irrepealable laws
2. Procedural limitations - Article VI. Sec. 27
8. Legislative Process
a. Requirements as to bills
1. As to titles of bills - Article VI, section 26(1)
Tio vs Videogram Regulatory Board, 151 SCRA 208
Lidasan vs. Comelec, 21 SCRA 479 (1967)
2. Requirements as to certain laws
a. Appropriation laws - Article VI, Section 25
Demetria vs. Alba, 148 SCRA 208 (1987)
Guingona vs. Caraque, 196 SCRA 221 (1991)
Tolentino vs. Sec. of Finance, G.R. 115455, Aug. 25, 1994
Philconsa vs. Enriquez, G.R. 113105, August 19, 1994
c. Tax laws – Art. VI, Section 28; Article XIV, Section 4(3)
Abakada Guro v. Ermita, G.R. No. 168207, October 18, 2005
Lung Center v. Q. C., G.R. No. 144104. June 29, 2004
Tan v. Del Rosario, 237 SCRA 324 (2000)
Garcia v. Executive Secretary, 211 SCRA 219 (1992)
John Hay PAC v. Lim, G.R. No. 119775, October 24, 2003
c) Appellate jurisd. of the Supreme Court (Art. VI, Sec. 30)
First Lepanto Ceramics v. CA, 237 SCRA 519 (1994)
Fabian v. Desierto, G.R. No. 129742, September 16, 1998
b. Procedure for the passage of bills
Article VI, Section 26(b) Id., Section 27
Tolentino v. Secretary of Finance, supra
Philconsa v. Enriquez, supra
Gonzales vs Macaraig. G.R. No. 87636, Nov. 19, 1990
Bengzon vs Drilon, 208 SCRA 133 (1992)
INS v. Chadha, 462 U.S. 919 (1983)
Bowsher v. Synar, 476 U.S. 714 (1986)
Miller vs. Mardo, 2 SCRA 898 (1961)
c. Effectivity of laws - Civil Code, Article 2
Tanada vs. Tuvera, 136 SCRA 27 (1985)
PVB Empl. Union v. Vega, G.R. No. 105364, June 28, 2001
Same, resolution of motion for reconsideration, 146 SCRA 446
Executive Order No. 200, June 18, 1987
d. Question Hour - Article VI, Section 27
e. Legislative investigation - Article VI, Section 21
Senate v. Ermita, G.R. No. 169777, April 20, 2006
Sabio, v. Gordon, et al. - G.R. No. 174340, October 17, 2006
Armault vs. Nazareno, 87 Phil. 29 (1950)
Armault vs., Balagtas, 97 Phil. 358 (1955)
Bengzon vs. Sen. Blue Rib. Comm., 203 SCRA 767 (1991)
Other Powers:
a). Act as board of canvassers for presidential election
Article VII, Section 4 par. 4
Pimentel v. Joint Com., G.R. No. 163783. June 22, 2004
Brillantes v. Comelec, G.R. No. 163193. June 15, 2004
b) Call a special election for Presidency (Article VII, Section
c) Decide on disability of the President (Art. VI, Sec. 11)
d).Legislative veto or approval for habeas corpus or declaration of
material law Article VII, Section 18
e).Presidential amnesties - Article VII, Section 19
f). Concur in treaties - Article VII, Section 21
Pimentel v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 158988, July 6, 2005
g). Declaration of Existence of War
h) Delegation of emergency powers, Article VI, Section 23
i.) Utilization of natural resources, Article XII, Section 2
j). Amendment of Constitution, Article XVII, Sections 1-2
k) Power of Impeachment
1. Who are subject to impeachment - Article XI, Section 2
2. Grounds for impeachment - Article, Section 2
3. Procedure for impeachment - id., Section 3(1)-(6)
4. Consequences of impeachment - Id., Section 3(7)
Francisco v. House of Rep., G.R. No. 160261, Nov.10, 2003
Nixon v. U.S., 113 S. CT. 733 (1933)
B. Executive Department
1. The President
a. Qualifications, election, term and oath - Article VII, Sections 1,4 & 5
b. Privileges and salary - Article VII, Section 6
Republic v. SB, G.R. No. 152154, July 15, 2003
c. Succession
1. In case of vacancy at the beginning of term
Article VII, Section 7 Id., Section 10
2. In Case of vacancy during term
Article VII, Section 8 Id., Section 10
3. In case of temporary disability - Article VII, Sections 11-12
Estrada v. Arroyo, G.R. No. 146738, March 2, 2001
d. Removal - Article XI, Sections 2-23
e. Prohibitions - Article VII, Section 13
Article VI, Section 13 Article IX, Section 2
Article IX-B, Section 7
Exceptions to prohibition from holding another office:
a. Vice-President as member of the cabinet
Article VII, Section 3 par. 2
b. Sec. of Justice as member of Judicial and Bar Council
Article VIII, Section 8(1)
CLU vs. Exec. Secretary, 194 SCRA 317 (1991)
Cruz v. COA, G.R. No. 138489, Nov. 29, 2001
NAC v. COA. G.R. 156982, September 8, 2004
Powers and Functions of the President
1. Executive Power
Article VII, Sections 1 & 17
Laurel vs. Garcia, G.R. No. 92013, July 25, 1990
Marcos vs. Manglapus, 178 SCRA 760 (1989)
DENR v. DENR Empl., G.R. No. 149725, August 19, 2003
2. Control of executive departments - Article VII, Section 17
De Leon v. Carpio. 178 SCRA 457 (1989)
Blaquera v. Alcala, G.R. 109406, September 11, 1998
Hutchison Ports V. SBMA, G.R. No. 131367, Aug. 31, 2000
NEA v. COA, 377 SCRA 233 (2002)
Rufino v. Endriga, G.R. No. 139554, July 21, 2006
3. General supervision over local governments/autonomous regions
Article X, Section 4; Id., Section 16
Pimentel v. Aguirre, G.R. 132988, July 19, 2000
4. Power of Appointment
Bermudez v. Torres, G.R. No. 131429, August 4, 1999
a. With consent of Commission on Appointment
i. Heads of Departments - Article VII, Section 16
ii. Ambassadors, public Ministers and Consuls
Article VII, Section 16
iii. Officers of Armed Forces from the rank of Colonel and Naval
Captain - Article VII, Section 16
iv. Chairman and members of Constitutional Commissions
Article IX-B, Section 1(2) Id., C., Section 1(2)
Id., D, Section 1(2)
v. Regular members of the Judicial and Bar Council
Article VIII, Section 8(2)
Sarmiento vs. Mison, 156 SCRA 549 (1987)
Concepcion-Bautista vs. Salonga, 172 SCRA 160 (1989)
Calderon vs. Carale, G.R. No. 91636, April 23, 1992
Manalo v. Sistoza, G.R. 107369, August 11, 1999
Soriano v. Lista, G.R. No. 153881, March 24, 2003
b. Upon recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council
c. Those whose appointments are not otherwise provided by law
d. Those whom he may be authorized by law to appoint
Limitations on appointing power of the President - Article VII, Sections 13 &
15
Interim or recess appointments - Article VI, Section 19;
Pimentel v. Ermita, G.R. 164978, October 13, 2005
Article VII, Section 16 par. 2
In Re Valenzuela, A.M. No. 98-5-01-SC, Nov. 9, 1998
De Rama v. CA, G.R. No. 131136, February 28, 2001
Matibag vs. Benipayo,. G.R. No. 149036 , April 2, 2002
The Removal Power
Larin v. Exec. Secretary, G.R. 112745, October 16, 1997
Limitations on appointing power of Acting President - Article VII, Sections 14
& 16
5. Exec. Clemencies - Article VII, Section 19 Article IX-C, Section 5
a. Pardon distinguished from probation
b. Pardon distinguished from parole
c. Pardon distinguished from amnesty
d. Reprieves, Commutations and Remissions of Fines
e. Effects of Pardon
Echegaray v. Secretary of Justice, 301 SCRA 96) (1999)
People vs. Casido, G.R. 116512, March 7, 1997
People v. Nacional, G.R. No. 11294, September 7, 1995
Monsanto vs. Factoran, 170 SCRA 190 (1989)
Sabello vs. DECS, 180 SCRA 623 (1989)
Llamas v. Orbos, 202 SCRA 844 (1991)
Cristobal vs. Labrador, 71 Phil. 34 (1941)
Pelobello vs. Gonzales, 152 SCRA 27 (1987)
In Re Lontok, 43 Phil 293 (1923)
Garcia vs. Chairman, COA G.R. 75025, September 14, 1993
Torres v. Gonzales, 152 SCRA 273 (1987)
6. Powers as Commander-in Chief
Article VII, Section 18 Article II, Section 15
Article VIII, Section 1 par. 2
IBP v. Zamora, G.R. No. 141284, August 15, 2000
Sanlakas v. Exec. Sec., G.R. No. 159085. Feb. 3, 2004
Aquino v. Enrile, 59 SCRA 183 (1974)
Olaquer vs. MC No. 4, 150 SCRA 144 (1987)
Navales v. Abaya, G.R. No. 162318, October 25, 2004
Lansang vs. Garcia, 42 SCRA 448 (1971)
In Re De Villa, G.R. No. 158802, November 17, 2004
David v. Arroyo, G.R. No. 171390, May 3, 2006
7. Emergency Powers - Article XII, Section 2
8. Contracting and guaranteeing foreign loans
Article VII, Section 20 Article XII, Section 21
Republic Act No. 4860
Constantino v. Cuisia, G.R. No. 106064, October 13, 2005
9. Power over foreign affairs
a. Treaty making - Article XII, Section 21
People's Movement vs. Manglapus, September 13, 1988
Comm. of Customs vs. Easter Sea, 3 SCRA 351 (1961)
b. Deportation of undesirable aliens
Go Tek vs Deportation Board, 79 SCRA 17 (1977)
10. Power over-legislation
a. Address Congress - Artcle VII, Section 23
b. Preparation and submission of the budget - Id., Section 22
c. Veto-Power - Article VII, Section 23(2)
d. Emergency Powers- Article VI, section 23(2)
11. Executive Privilege
Senate v. Ermita, G.R. No. 169777, April 20, 2006
Gudani v. Senga, G.R. No. 170165. August 15, 2006
12. Immunity from suit
Beltran vs. Macasiar, G.R. 82585, November 14, 1998
Gloria v. CA, G.R. No. 119903, August 15, 2000
Estrada v. Desierto, G.R. No. 146710-15, March 2, 2001
Nixon v. Fitgerald, 457 U.S. 731 (1982)
Harlow v. Fitgerald, 457 U.S. 800 (1982)
Clinton v. Jones, 117 S. Ct. 1636 (1997)
Vice President
a. Qualifications, election, term and oath
Article VII, Section 3 Id., Section 4
Id., Section 5
b. Privileges and salary - Article VII, Section 6
c. Prohibitions - Article VII, Section 13; Id., Section 3 par. 2
d. Succession - Article VII, Sections 2-3
B. The Judicial Department
Judicial Power
Miranda v. Aguirre, G.R. No. 133064, September 16, 1999
1. The Supreme Court
a. Composition - Article VII, Section 4
b. Mode of Sitting
MMDA v. Jancom, G.R. 147465, April 10, 2002
People v. Gacott, G.R. No. 116049, July 13, 1995
c. Appointments and qualifications
Article VII, Section 7(1) Id., Section 8(5)
Id., Section 9
SB v. J. Estrella, A.M. No. 01-1608-RJT, January 16, 2001
d. No nonjudicial work for judges - Article VIII, Section 12
Meralco vs. Pasay Trans Co., 57 Phil. 600 (1933)
Garcia vs. Macaraig, 30 SCRA 106 (1969)
e.Salary
Article VIII, Section 10; Article XVIII, Section 17
Nitafan vs. CIR, 152 SCRA 284 (1987)
f. Tenure
Article VII, Section 11 Id., Section 1 Id., Section 2 par. 2
g. Removal - Article XI, Section 3
In Re Gonzales, 160 SCRA 771 (1988)
h Fiscal autonomy - Article VIII, Section 3
i. Jurisdiction
Article VIII, Section 1, Id., section 2 par. 1 Id., Section 5 Article VI, Section
30
Article VII, Section 18
Tirol v. CA, G.R. Bo. 133954, August 3, 2000
People vs. Ramos, 88 SCRA 486 (1979)
People v.Teng, G.R. No. 141496, October 3, 2001
Santiago vs. Bautista, 32 SCRA 188 (1970)
Felipe vs. Leuterio, 91 Phil. 482 (1952)
j. Deliberations
Prudential Bank v.Castro. 158 SCRA 646 (1988)
Consing v. Court of Appeals, 177SCRA 14 (1989)
k. Voting
Cruz v. DENR, G.R. No. 135385, December 6, 2000
l. Requirements as to decisions - Article VIII, Sections 13-14
Valladolid vs. Inciong, 121 SCRA 205 (1992)
Nunal vs. COA, 169 SCRA 356 (1989)
People v. Bugarin, 273 SCRA 384 (1996)
Hernandez v. Court of Appeals, 228 SCRA 429 (1993)
Yao v. CA, G.R. No. 132428, October 24, 2000
Dizon v. Judge Lopez, A.M. 96-1338, September 5, 1997
Asiavest v. CA, G.R. No. 110263, July 20, 2001
m. Petition for Review/Motion for Reconsideration
Tichangco v. Enriquez, G.R. No. 150629, June 30, 2004
Mendoza vs. CFI, 51 SCRA 369 (1973)
Martinez v. CA, G.R. 123547, May 21, 2001
n. Periods for deciding cases
Article VIII, Section 15 Article VII, Section 18 par. 3
Article XVIII, Section 12-14
Maquiran v. Judge Lopez, A.M. RTJ=00=1606
RE: Delays in the SB, A.M. No. 00-8-05-SC, Nov. 28, 2001
o. Act as PET - Article VII, Section 4 par. 4
p. Administrative powers
1. Supervision of lower courts - Article VIII, Section 6
Maceda v. Vasquez, 221 SCRA 464 (1993)
Caoibes v. Ombudsman, G.R. No. 132177, July 19, 2001
In re Demetria, A.M. No. 00-7-09-CA, March 27, 2001
2. Temporarily assign judges to other stations in public interest
` Article VIII, Section 5(3)
3. Order a change of venue or place of trial to avoid miscarriage of
justice - Article VIII, Section 5(4)
People v. Sola, 103 SCRA 393 (1981)
4. Appointment of officials and employees of entire judiciary
Article VIII, section 5(6)
5. Promulgate rules concerning the enforcement and protection of
constitutional rights
RE: Req. for Special Div., A.M. 02-1-09-SC, Jan. 21, 2002
6. Promulgate Rules Concerning Pleading, Practice and Procedure
7. Admission to the Practice of Law
Zaldivar vs. Gonzales, 166 SCRA 316 (1988)
In re : Cunanan, 94 Phil. 534 (1954)
Aguirre v. Rana, Bar Matter No. 1036, June 10, 2003
8. Integration of the Bar
In re : Edillion, 84 SCRA 554 (1978)
In re : IBP Elections Bar Matter No. 491 (October 6, 1989)
9 Legal Assistance to the Underprivileged
q. Report on the Judciary - Article VIII, Section 16
2. Lower courts
a. Qualifications and appointment
Article VIII, Section 7(1)(2) Id., Section 7(5)
Id., Section 9
b. Tenure - Article VIII, Section 11; Id., Section 2 par. 2
De La Llana vs. Alba, 122 SCRA 291 (1983)
3.The Judicial and Bar Council - Article VIII, Section 8
4.Automatic release of approp. for the judiciary - Article VIII, Section 3
D. The Constitutional Commissions
a) Guarantees of Independence
b) Qualifications
Cayetano v.Monsod, G.R. No. 100113, September 3, 1991
c) Appointment & Term
d) Rotational Scheme
Gaminde v. COA, G.R. No. 140335, December 13, 2000
e) Vacancies
Brillantes vs. Yorac, G.R. No. 93867, December 18, 1990
f) Disqualifications
g) Salary/Removal/Appointment of Personnel
h) Fiscal Autonomy
CSC v. DBM, G.R. 158791, July 22, 2005
CHREA v. CHR, G.R. 155336, November 25, 2004
CHREA v. CHR, G.R. 155336, July 21, 2006
i) Submission of Reports and Recommendations
j) Rule Making
K) Decisions
Cua v. Comelec, 156 SCRA 582 (1987)
Sarmiento v. Comelec, 212 SCRA 307 (1992)
l) Appeals
Ambil v. Comelec, G.R. 143398, October 25, 2000
Reyes v. COA, G.R. No. 125129, March 29, 1999
E. The Civil Service Commission
A.. Scope of the Civil Service - Article IX-B, Section 2(1)
Camporedondo v. NLRC, G.R. No. 129049, August 6, 1999
NSC vs. NLRC, 168 SCRA 122 (1988)
SSSEA vs. CA, 175 SCRA 686 (1989)
Leyson v. Ombudsman, G.R. No. 134990, April 27, 2000
Baluyot v. Holganza, G.R. No. 136374, February 9, 2000
PNCC v. Fabion, G.R. No. 131715, December 8, 1999
B. The Career and Non-Career Service
De Leon v. CA, G.R. No. 127182
General v. Roco, G.R. No. 143366, January 29, 2001
C. Terms and conditions of employment in the Civil Service
1. Oath and allegiance to the Constitution
Article IX-B , Section 4 Article XI, Section 18
2. Merit system
CSC v. Salas, G.R. No. 123708, June 19, 1997
PAGCOR v. Rilloraza, G.R. No. 141141, June 25, 2001
Cadiente vs. Santos, 142 SCRA 280 (1986)
Grino v. CSC, 194 SCRA 458 (1991)
Samson v. CA, 145 SCRA 654 (1986)
Triba v. Sto. Tomas, 199 SCRA 833 (1991)
Corpus vs. Cuaderno, 15 SCRA 591 (1965)
3. Appointment of lameducks - Article IX-B, Section 6
4. Appointment and designation of elective/appointive officials
Article IX-B, Section 7 Article VII, Section 13
Article VI, Section 13
5. Exemptions from exam requirement
Office of the Ombudsman v. CSC, G.R. No. 159940February 16, 2005
6. Standardization of pay and ban on double compensation
Article IX-B, Section 5Id., Section 8
CB Empl. Assoc. v. BSP, G.R. No. 148208, Dec. 15, 2004
NAC v. COA, G.R. No. 156982, Sept. 8, 2004
7. Ban on partisan political activities
Article IX-B, Section 2(4)
Compare Article XVI, Section 5(3) (with respect to members of the AFP)
Trinidad v. Valle, 105 SCRA 606 (1981)
Vistan v. Nicolas, 201 SCRA 524 (1991)
8. Removal or suspenson only for cause - Article IX-B, Section 3
Pastor v. City of Pasig, G.R. No. 146873, May 9, 2002
Domingo v. Zamora, G.R. No. 142283, February 6, 2003
David v. Gania, G.R. No. 156039, August 14, 2003
Miranda v. Carreon, G.R. No. 143540, April 11, 2003
Office of the Pres. v. Buenaobra, G.R. No. 170021, Sept. 8, 2006
9. Summary Removal
10. . Right of self-organization
Article III, Section 8 Article IX, Section 2(5)
11. Review of decisions of the CSC - Article IX, Section 7
12. Fiscal independence - Article IX-A, Section 5
U.P. vs. Regino, G.R. 88167, May 3, 1993
Luego v. CSC, 143 SCRA 327 (1986)
Central Bank vs. CSC, 171 SCRA 744 (1989)
2. Commission on Elections
a. Composition and qualifications of Commissioners
Article IX-C, Section 1(1) Article VII, Section 13 par. 2
b. Appointment, term of office and decisions
Article IX-C, Section 1(2)
c. Appointment of personnel - Article IX-A, Section 4
d. Salary - Article IX-A Section 3; Article XVII, Section 17
e. Disqualification - Article IX-A, Section 2
f. Impeachment - Article XI, Section 2
g. Powers and Functions - Article IX-C, Section 2
1. Enforce election laws - Article IX-C, Section 2(1) ; Id Sec. 10
Brillantes v. Comelec, G.R. No. 163193. June 15, 2004
Typoco v. Comelec, G.R. No. 136191, Nov. 29, 1999
Loong v. Comelec, G.R. No. 133676, April 14, 1999
Pangandaman v. Comelec, G.R. 134340, Nov. 25, 1999
Domino v. Comelec, G.R. No. 134015, July 19, 1999
Sandoval v. Comelec, G.R. No. 133842, January 26, 2000
Al Haj v. Comelec, G.R. 151046, February 5, 2002
R.A. No. 9189 (2003), The Overseas Absentee Voting Act
2. Decide administrative question pertaining elections, except the right
to vote./ Article IX, Section 2(3)
Guevarra v. Comelec, 104 Phil 269 (1968)
Jaramilla v. Comelec, G.R. No. 155717, October 23, 2003
Petition for inclusion or exclusion of voters - Article IX-C, Section 2(6)
3. Prosecution election law violators - Article IX-C, Section 2(6)
EO 134, Section 11, February 27, 1987
De Jesus vs. People, 120 SCRA 760 (1983)
People vs. Judge Inting, 187 SCRA 788 (1990)
Baytan v. Comelec, G.R. No. 153945, February 4, 2003
4. Recommend pardon, parole or suspension of sentence of election law
violators. Article IX-C, Section 5
5. Deputize law enforcement agents, etc
Article IX-C, Section 2(4) Id., Section 2(8)
People v. Judge Basilia, 179 SCRA 87 (1989)
6. Registration of political parties, organization/coalitions and accreditation of
citizens' arms - Article IX-C, Section 2(5)
Registration under the party-list
Article IX-C, Section 6 Id, Section 7; Id., , Section 8
Article VI, Section 5(2) Article XVIII, Section 7
7 Regulation of public utilities and media of information
Article IX-C, Section 4Id., Section 9
UNIDO vs. Comelec, 104 SCRA 17 (1981)
8. Decide election contest and cases
Article IX-C, Section 2(2) Id., Section 3
Sebastian vs. Comelec, G.R. No. 139573, March 7, 2000
3. Commission on Audit
a. Powers and Functions
Article IX-D, Section 2 Id., Section 3
Article VI, Section 20
DBP v. COA, 231 SCRA 202, (1994)
Sambeli vs. Province of Isabela, 210 SCRA 80 (1992)
Albert v. COA, G.R. No. No. 126537, March 6, 2001
Bustamante v. COA, 216 SCRA 164 (1992)
DBP v. COA, G.R. No. 88435, January 16, 2002
E. Sandiganbayan - Article XI, Section 4
P.D. 1606, December 10, 1979
Nunez vs. Sandiganbayan, 111 SCRA 433 (1982)
F. Office of the Ombudsman
See also P.D. 1630, July 18, 1979 ; R.A. 6770, Nov. 17, 1989
1. Composition - Article XI, Section 5
2. Qualifications - Article XI, Section 8
3. Appointment and term - Article XI, Sections 9 & 11
4. Rank and salary - Article XI, Section 10
5. Disqualifications - Article XI, Section 8; Article IX-A, Section 2
6. Jurisdiction - Article XI, Section 12
Roxas v. Vasquez, G.R. No. 114944, June 19, 2000
PCGG v. Desierto, G.R. No. 140232, January 19, 2001
People v. Velez, G.R. No. 138093, February 19, 2003
7. Powers and Functions - Article XI, Section 13
Ledesma v. CA, G.R. 161629, July 29. 2005
Ombudsman v. Madriaga, G.R. No. 164316, September 27, 2006
8. Fiscal autonomy - Article XI, Section 14
9. Appointment of personnel - Article XI, Section 6
G. Office of the Special Prosecutor - Article XI, Section 7
Zaldivar vs. SB, 160 SCRA 843/Resolution, May 19, 1988
Orap vs. Sandiganbayan, 139 SCRA 252 (1985)
See P.D. No. 1630, Sections 10, 12-15 (admin. investigations)
Section 17 (criminal investigation)
H. Central Monetary Authority
1. Composition and qualifications of members - Article XII, Section 20
2. Functions - Article XII, Sections 20-21
I. Economic and Planning Agency - Article XII, Section 9-10
J. National Commissions
1. Commission on Human Rights
a. Composition and qualifications of members - Article XIII, Section 17
b. Powers and Functions - Article XIII Section 18-19
c. Fiscal autonomy - Article XIV, Section 17(4)
Carino v. CHR, G.R. No. 96681, December 2, 1981
2. National Language Commission - Article XIV, Section 9
3. National Police Commission - Article XVI, Section 9
Canonizado v. Aguirre, G.R. No. 133132. January 25, 2000
3. Comm. on Indigenous Peoples - Article XVI, Section 12