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MODUL 3: PEMBELAJARAN

INOVATIF
LALA SEPTEM RIZA
OUTLINE KEGIATAN DI MODUL
1. PEMBELAJARAN STEAM
2. PEMBELAJARAN BERBASIS NEUROSAINS
3. PEMBELAJARAN DIGITAL
4. PEMBELAJARAN BLENDED LEARNING
ANALISIS: PEMBELAJARAN STEAM
1. STEAM: Science, Technology, Engineering, Art and Mathematics
• Apa itu Science, Technology, Engineering, Art, dan Matematika?
• Apa itu Silo, Embedded (Tertanam), dan Integrated (Terpadu)? Contohnya?
• Contoh implementasi STEAM dalam kelas Teknik Komputer dan Informatika?
2. Problem Based Learning dan Project Based Learning
• Sintak/urutan Langkah pada Problem Based Learning dan Project Based
Learning?
• Apa LANGKAH yang krusial yg perlu disiapkan oleh Guru?
• Hubungan PBL dan PjBL dengan Scientific Approach?
• Apa kebutuhan untuk implementasi model pembelajaran ini?
• Contohnya?
ANALISIS: PEMBELAJARAN BERBASIS
NEUROSAINS
1. Cara kerja otak manusia?
2. Information Processing?
3. Tahapan pembelajaran berbasis neurosains menurut Jensen
(2008)?
4. Contoh implementasinya?
5. TPACK (Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge)?
ANALISIS: PEMBELAJARAN DIGITAL
1. Prinsip penerapan pembelajaran digital?
2. Hambatan dalam penerapan pembelajaran digital? Dan solusinya?
3. Apa persiapan yang harus dilakukan dalam pembelajaran digital?
4. Perbedaan (pro dan con) pembelajaran digital vs tatap muka?
5. Tools/teknologi yang biasa digunakan dalam pembelajaran digital?
ANALISIS: MODEL PEMBELAJARAN “BLENDED
LEARNING”
• Apa kelebihan dan kelemahan blended learning vs full tatap muka vs
full online?
• Model pembelajaran blended learning?
• Faktor apa yang mempengaruhi penerapan suatu tipe model
pembelajaran blended learning?
• Bagaimana mengevaluasi siswa dalam pembelajaran blended
learning?
• Tools/teknologi yang bisa digunakan untuk blended learning?
Pengayaan Materi
Lala Septem Riza
Outline Pengayaan
1. Science Vs Engineering Vs Technology
2. Information Processing Theory
3. Higher Order Thinking Skill (HOTS)
4. Computational Thinking
Science Vs Engineering Vs
Technology
Introduction to Science
Science from the Latin scientia (knowledge) is a system of
acquiring knowledge based on the scientific method, as well as the
organized body of knowledge gained through such research.

Science refers to a system of acquiring knowledge.


This system uses observation and experimentation to describe and
explain natural phenomena.
Fields of science are commonly classified along two major lines:
• Natural sciences, which study natural phenomena (including biological life),
• Social sciences, which study human behavior and societies.
• Formal Science: mathematics.
Introduction to Engineering
• Engineering is the application of mathematics, empirical
evidence and scientific, economic, social, and practical knowledge in
order to invent, innovate,design, build, maintain, research, and
improve structures, machines, tools, systems, components, materials,
and processes.
• Engineering is often characterized as having four main branches:
• Chemical Engineering
• Civil Engineering
• Electrical Engineering
• Mechanical Engineering
Methodology of Engineers
• Engineers apply mathematics and sciences such as physics to find suitable
solutions to problems or to make improvements to the status quo.
• According to Billy Vaughn Koen, the "engineering method is the use of
heuristics to cause the best change in a poorly understood situation within
the available resources."
• Engineers use their knowledge of science, mathematics, logic, economics,
and appropriate experience or tacit knowledge to find suitable solutions to
a problem.
• Engineers typically attempt to predict how well their designs will perform
to their specifications prior to full-scale production.
• Engineers use, among other things: prototypes, scale
models, simulations, destructive tests, nondestructive tests, and stress
tests.
Relationship between Science and
Engineering
• Scientists study the world as it is; engineers create the world that has
never been.
• Engineering is quite different from science:
• Scientists try to understand nature.
• Engineers try to make things that do not exist in nature. Engineers stress
invention.
Introduction to Technology
Technology is a term with origins in the Greek "technologia", "τεχνολογία"
— "techne", "τέχνη" ("craft") and "logia", "λογία" ("saying").

However, a strict definition is elusive; "technology" can refer to material


objects of use to humanity, such as machines,hardware or utensils, but can
also encompass broader themes, including systems, methods of
organization, and techniques.

Technology is a broad concept that deals with a species' usage and


knowledge of tools and crafts, and how it affects a species' ability to control
and adapt to its environment.
Is Technology Related to Science?
• The practical applications of science.
• Science is knowing, technology is doing.
• Technology, refers generally to items of use, created from "Applied
Science".
• Goal:
Science: Pursuit of knowledge and understanding for its own sake
(New knowledge)
Technology: The creation of artifacts and systems to meet people's
needs (New products)
Contributions of Science for Technology
• Science as a direct source of new technological ideas
• Science as a source of engineering design tools and techniques
• Instrumentation, laboratory techniques, and analytical methods
• The development of human skills
• Technology assessment
• Science as a source of development strategy
Scientific Method
Scientific Method
• The scientific method seeks to explain the events of nature in
a reproducible way.
• The scientific method is a body of techniques for
investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting
and integrating previous knowledge.
• To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry is commonly based
on empirical or measurable evidence subject to specific principles of
reasoning
Salah satu karakteristik dari scientists adalah mereka
sangat getol ("keen on") pada metode:
• Inductivism (induktif) dan
• Deduktif.
Inductive
• Arti sederhananya adalah generalisasi.
• Misalkan:
• Anda dapat mangga dari pohon tetangga. Anda kupas dan makan, dan
ternyata rasanya manis. Trus, tetangga yang kasih mangga itu bilang: "Buah
mangga dari pohon ini memang selalu manis rasanya".
• Angsa selalu berwarna putih.
Langkah – langkah Inductive
Pada dasarnya ada 2 langkah, yaitu:
1. Lihat/observasi SATU data/fakta. Misalkan, angsanya pak Ali berwarna putih.
Cuman ada 1 angsa yg kita lihat, yaitu miliknya pak Ali saja. Sehingga kita punya
hipotesa, misal: "angsa selalu berwarna putih".
2. Kemudian, lakukan GENERALISASI. Syarat melakukan generalisasi adalah:
• Pengambilan sample untuk observasi harus banyak. Misal, kita kumpulkan banyak angsa yg
lain.
• Sample harus mencerminkan berbagai kondisi. Misal, kita ambil angsa dari indonesia,
Belanda, Australia, dll.
• Tidak boleh satupun dari observasi tersebut memiliki kesimpulan yang berbeda.

Dan ternyata hipotesa kita salah yg menyatakan bahwa "angsa selalu berwarna
putih", karena setelah observasi tyt angsa Australia berwarna hitam!.
Contoh Lain
e.g. The sum of even integers is even.

2x+2y = 2(x+y);
The sum of integers is an integer and x and y are integers,
so 2x+2y=2z where z is an integer, thus 2z is an even integer,
so the sum of even integers is even.
Deductive
• Jika hipotesa induktif di bangun dari proses generalisasi atau bottom
up, maka deduktif adalah top down.
• Misalkan: Ketika, saya jalan-jalan di suatu tempat yang tak saya kenal,
tiba - tiba saya lihat ada pohon mangga yang berbuah lebat, saya
katakan pada pemiliknya (dimana saya juga tak kenal beliau): "Pak,
saya yakin deh mangga di pohon ini pasti manis rasanya". Saat itu
juga, saya punya hipotesa deduktif bahwa mangga di pohon tersebut
manis, karena saya belum pernah mencicipi satupun dari mangga itu.
• Bagaimana kita tahu kalau hipotesa kita benar ttg mangga tersebut ?
Jawabannya adalah selama anda belum bisa menemukan mangga
yang tak manis rasanya, maka hipotesa anda diterima sebagai
kebenaran.
Contoh Lain Deductive
e.g. X is human and all humans have a face so X has a face.
Information Processing Theory
HOTS (Higher Order Thinking
Skill)
Cognitive Process
Dimensions
1.
Remembering
menarik kembali informasi yang tersimpan dalam memori
jangka panjang
2.
Understanding
mengkonstruk makna atau pengertian berdasarkan pengetahuan awal
yang dimiliki, mengaitkan informasi yang baru dengan pengetahuan
yang telah dimiliki, atau mengintegrasikan pengetahuan yang baru
ke dalam skema yang telah ada dalam pemikiran siswa
3.
Applying
Mencakup penggunaan suatu prosedur guna menyelesaikan suatu
masalah
4.
Analysing
Menguraikan suatu permasalahan atau objek ke dalam unsur-unsur
pembentuknya dan menentukan bagaimana keterkaitan antar
unsur-unsur tersebut
5.
Evaluating
Membuat suatu pertimbangan berdasarkan kriteria dan standar yang
ada
6.
Creating
Menggabungkan beberapa unsur menjadi suatu bentuk kesatuan
Lower and Higher Order Questions
• Lower level questions are those at the remembering,
understanding and lower level application levels of the
taxonomy.
• Usually questions at the lower levels are appropriate for:
• Evaluating students’ preparation and comprehension
• Diagnosing students’ strengths and weaknesses
• Reviewing and/or summarising content
Lower and Higher Order Questions
• Higher level questions are those requiring complex
application, analysis, evaluation or creation skills.
• Questions at higher levels of the taxonomy are usually
most appropriate for:
• Encouraging students to think more deeply and critically
• Problem solving
• Encouraging discussions
• Stimulating students to seek information on their own
Computational Thinking
1. Decomposition
• Decomposition means for breaking down a
complex problem into a smaller and more
manageable parts. For example, when you are
going to school tomorrow, you have to think
about what time you have to wake up, prepare
the books and stuffs to bring, iron the uniform,
and count the fare to get there and back home.
2. Pattern Recognition
• Pattern recognition is about looking for
similarities among or within problems. You
are able to make a cup of hot coffee because
it’s similar with the way to make a cup of hot
tea. Also you know the way to get home from
your school because it has the same route
with the one you use to go to school.
3. Abstraction
• Doing abstraction is focusing on the
important information only and ignoring
irrelevant detail. For example, you use the
same way to make a cup of coffee with the
way you make a cup of tea, the shape of the
glass is not important so you don’t have to
include it to the process.
4. Algorithm
• Here, algorithm means to develop a step-by-
step solution to the problem. When you follow
recipes and directions for preparing food, and
that’s an algorithm.

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