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State of the Art of Information Systems:

New Directions of Research and

Oleh: Prof. Zainal A. Hasibuan, PhD
Ketua Umum Aptikom
Universitas Dian Nuswantoro

Materi ini disampaikan pada acara Webinar Series #1: Sistem Informasi
pada Program Studi Sistem Informasi, Universitas Hasanuddin, 13 Feb 2021
• Apa itu Sistem Informasi?
• Perubahan Organisasi dan Perilaku Manusia
• Adaptasi Disiplin Ilmu Sistem Informasi Terhadap
Perubahan Yang Terjadi
• Peran Data Science dan Artificial Intelligence
dalam Disiplin Ilmu Sistem Informasi
• Komputasi dalam Sistem Informasi: Features
Selection dan Pattern Analysis
• Implementasi Sistem Informasi: Business Insight
dan Business Intelligent dalam Organisasi
• Penutup
Apa Itu Sistem Informasi?
 Fokus pada teknik
Pengguna dan Organisasi mengintegrasikan solusi
teknologi informasi dengan
proses bisnis organisasi.
 Menekankan pada “informasi”
sebagai sebuah sumber daya
penting dalam pencapaian visi ,
Teknologi misi dan tujuan organisasi.
 Memastikan bagaimana
“informasi” diciptakan,
diproses, dan didistribusikan ke
seluruh pemangku kepentingan
Innovasi ke Aplikasi organisasi.
 Memastikan agar teknologi dan
sistem informasi selaras dengan
strategi bisnis perusahaan,
sehingga tercipta keunggulan
Information Systems: ACM/IEEE Curricula
Modifikasi dari
Information Systems in the Context of Computing
Kurikulum Rumpun Ilmu Informatika & Komputer

12-Feb-21 5
Pengetahuan Inti Dalam Disiplin Ilmu Sistem
Informasi dalam ACM/IEEE 2005
• Information Systems Development
• Analysis of Business Requirements
• Management of Information Systems
• Information Management Practice
• Programming Fundamentals
• Integrative Programming
• Software Modeling and Analysis
• Distributed Systems
Pengetahuan Dasar Yang Diperlukan Dalam
Disiplin Ilmu Sistem Informasi
• Dasar2 Matematika
• Teori Peluang dan Statistika Parametrik
• Logika
• Aljabar Linear
• Kalkulus Dasar
• Dasar2 Pemrogaman
Pengembangan Pengetahuan Inti Disiplin Ilmu
Sistem Informasi di Era Revolusi Industri 4.0
• Information Systems Development Based on Big Data and Artificial
Intelligence (AI)
• Analysis of Business Requirements Based on Business Insight
Derived from Big Data
• Management of Information Systems Organization → Management
of Business Intelligent Organization
• Information Management (Database) Practice → Big Dataset
Production and Management
• Programming Fundamentals → Statistical Programming Languages
(Python, R, etc.).
• Integrative Programming → Design Pattern
• Software Modeling and Analysis → Software Design
• Distributed Systems → Cloud Computing, IoT, AI, Blockchain, etc.
Pengembangan Pengetahuan Dasar Yang
Diperlukan Dalam Disiplin Ilmu Sistem Informasi
• Dasar2 Matematika
• Data: data diskrit, data kontinu, data kategori,
pengambilan data, penyusunan data, penyajian
data, dll.
• Teori Peluang, Statistika Parametrik, dan Statistika
• Logika dan Estetika
• Aljabar Linear, dan Komputasi Matriks
• Kalkulus Dasar, Differential, dan Integral
• Dasar2 Pemrogaman
Perubahan Organisasi dan Perilaku
Perubahan Dipicu Oleh Kemajuan Teknologi
Cara Bekerja Berubah
Cara Berbisnis Berubah…

Dua kategori bisnis saat ini:

1) Bisnis yang terganggu dan direformasi oleh digital dan
2) Bisnis yang belum terganggu
… pada akhirnya hanya perusahaan yang adaptif terhadap
perubahan yang akan bertahan dan memenangkan persaingan
Sources:, 2017
Hampir Semua Aspek Kehidupan
• Life Styles
• Governance for Good Government
• The Way of Doing Business
• Education
• Healthcare
• Threat and Security
• Environment
• …etc.
Force to Change our Mindset and Culture


Digital Transformation
Adaptasi Disiplin Ilmu Sistem Informasi
Terhadap Perubahan Yang Terjadi
Fenomena ‘Big Data’
Big Data Drivers:
▪ The proliferation of data More Content More Devices

capture and creation

▪ Increased
drives consumption More New & Better

(creating more data) Consumption Information

▪ Inexpensive storage
makes it possible to keep
more, longer
▪ Innovative software and
Sumber: IDC 2011
analysis tools turn data
into information
Pergeseran Paradigma dalam Komputasi Big Data: Dari
Faktual ke Potensial
Advanced, Predictive


• What are potential

• What will scenarios?
happen? • What is the best course?
• How one data
• What will be the • How can we pre-empt and
• What happened? relates to another
impact? mitigate the crisis?
• When and where? • Big Data Analysis • Structure and unstructure
• Rules and
• How much? method • Strategic data
Data Direction • Future Direction
Data Data Data
reporting integration analytics Predictive
• Descriptive • Interpretative • Enterprise analytics • Population behavior
• Basic reporting • Enterprise data • Evidence-based medicine • Innovation
Role of
• Outcomes analytics Big Data
Source: (Hasibuan 2016)
Big Data: 5 V’s


Peran Data Science dan Artificial
Intelligence dalam Disiplin Ilmu Sistem
Data Science is Multidisciplinary
• deals with both structured and
unstructured data
• a field that includes everything that
is associated with the cleansing,
preparation and final analysis of
• combines the programming, logical
reasoning, mathematics and
• cleanses, prepares and aligns the
• an umbrella of several techniques
that are used for extracting the
information and the insights of data

Source: Leonard Heiler, 2017.

Relationship Between Big Data,
Data Science, and
Artificial Intelligence

Source: adaptation from Ian Goodfellow, 2016 & and Matthew Mayo, 2016
Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence is
the theory and
development of
computer systems able
to perform tasks that
normally require
human intelligence,
such as visual
perception, speech
recognition, decision-
making, and
translation between
Memerlukan Data Science dan AI
Capturing Big Data
School College

School High School

Machines Family Any-


Friends Music
We are Networked Society, Most of Our Interactions Recorded
Digitally to Becomes Big Data & Needs Data Science to Compute
Inherent Structure of Big Data and

Information Systems Development

Business Insight Embed in Big Data
Become Input to Train Machine Learning


Artificial Intelligence
AI-Automation System:
Q/A System, Machine Learning…
Universal Big Data and Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Data Computation
AI Applications:
Machine Learning
Raw Data Collection Data Organization and Deep Learning
Komputasi dalam Sistem Informasi:
Features Selection dan Pattern
Pada Intinya, Sistem Informasi Berbasis Data
Science dan AI Digunakan Untuk…
• Identifikasi
• Diagnosa
• Kategorisasi
• Klasifikasi
• Prediksi
• Preskripsi
• Dll.
End-to-End Cycle of Meaningful Insights and
Automation Systems

From all the experiences, the stages in AI R&D Using Universal Big Data is established
Dasar teorinya tetap menggunakan
berbagai teknik Regresi, Klasifikasi,
Clustering, PCA, dll
The Big Principle for Machine Learning

Machine learning algorithms are described as learning

a target function (f) that best maps input variables (X)
to an output variable (Y): Y = f(X)

• General learning task is to make predictions in the

future (Y) given new examples of input variables (X)
• The most common type of machine learning is to
learn the mapping Y = f(X) to make predictions of Y
for new X.
Letting the Data Speak
• The change of scale has led to a change of state.
• The quantitative change has led to a qualitative one.
• By changing the amount, we change the essence.
• Big data is about predictions.
• Amazon can recommend the ideal book, Google can
rank the most relevant website, Facebook knows our
likes, and LinkedIn devines whom we know.
• The same technologies will be applied to diagnosing
illness, recommending treatments, perhaps even
identifying “criminals” before one actually commits a
10 Algorithms for Big Data Experts
1. K-Means Clustering
2. Association Rule Mining
3. Linear Regression
4. Logistic Regression
5. C4.5
6. Support vector machine (SVM)
7. Apriori
8. EM (expectation-maximization)
9. AdaBoost
10. Naïve Bayesian
1. K-Means Clustering

• A simple,
learning algorithm
that is often used
with big data sets
• Best suited to large-

scale, high-level
2. Association Rule Mining

– A learning algorithm
that looks for
associations that co-
occur with a high
degree of frequency
– Can identify
associations that

you might not

expect in a random
3. Linear Regression

• One of the most widely-

used methods of
statistical analysis
• Applicable to many
problems, particularly
when the expected
output is a score rather
than a category
• Good for predicting
trends and to forecast
the effects of a new
policy or other change.
4. Logistic Regression

• Used to find the likelihood of

success of failure of a given
• A classification algorithm.
• a powerful statistical way of
modelling a binomial outcome
with one or more explanatory
• measures the relationship
between the categorical
dependent variable and one
or more independent
variables by estimating
probabilities using a logistic
Source: James Le, 2016
5. C4.5

– A supervised learning
– C4.5 is an algorithm
developed by John
Ross Quinlan that
creates decision tress
– Create decision trees
from the already-
classified input
– Decision trees can be
used as diagnostic
6. Support vector machine (SVM)

• Learns to define a
hyperplane to separate
data into two classes
• Can help figure out an
underlying separation
mechanism between
• some of the biggest
problems that have been
solved using SVMs (with
suitably modified
implementations) are
display advertising, human
splice site recognition,
image-based gender
detection, large-scale
image classification
Source: James Le, 2016
7. Apriori
• A similarity matching
• Commonly used in
transactional databases
with a large number of
transactions, sparse
matrices, with items
(attributes) along the
horizontal axis, and
transactions (instances)
along the vertical axis.
• Run with a high degree

of computational
8. EM (expectation-maximization)

• A clustering algorithm
used for knowledge
• Find (local) maximum
likelihood parameters of
a statistical model in
cases where the
equations cannot be
solved directly.
• Predict data models that
can be used in other
statistical analysis
8. EM (expectation-maximization)

• EM clustering of Old
Faithful eruption data.
• The random initial model
(which, due to the
different scales of the
axes, appears to be two
very flat and wide
spheres) is fit to the
observed data.
• In the first iterations, the
model changes
substantially, but then
converges to the two
modes of the geyser.
9. Adaptive Boosting (AdaBoost)

• The general method that can be applied to a number

of classifiers
• An algorithm which constructs a classifier and then
boosts it
• Optimizes the ability to learn of participating

Source: Brendan Marsh,2016

10. Naïve Bayesian

• Not one algorithm, but a

family of simple
probabilistic classifiers
based on applying Bayes’
theorem with strong (naive)
independence assumptions
between the features.
• The algorithm learns to
predict an attribute based

on other, known features.

• Assumes all attributes of an
item are independent of
each other
Implementasi Sistem Informasi:
Business Insight dan Business
Intelligent dalam Organisasi
Prinsip Dasar: Kenali Arsitektur Sistem Informasi

Dashboard → Pengambilan Keputusan


Rekapitulasi Data Dalam Grafik

HRD FINANCE …… Functions Tabel-2 Berisi Data

Sistem Informasi Tradisional ke Sistem Business
Sistem Business

Enterprise Resource Planning

(ERP)→Sistem Terintegrasi

Sistem Informasi
HRD Finance …… Functions Tradisional
Berdasarkan Body of Theory in Information Systems
Explains How and Why. (IV) Theory for (V) Theory for Explains How to:
E.g. Technology adoption model explaining and Design E.g. Business model
(Bhatarjee & Premkumar) predicting (EP) and action method (Osterwalder 2004)

(IV) Theory for

(IV) Theory for predicting

(I) Theory for


Explains What is:

E.g. Classification framework of IS development
Adapted from Gregor (2006) approaches (Iivari, Hirscheim & Klein, 2001)

Disertasi Panca Hadi Putra 2017

Metodologi dalam Paradikma Baru: Integrasi
Behavioral Science and Design Science

Behavioral Design science

research research

Rooted in Science Rooted in Engineering

Traditions Traditions
E.g. Behavioristic E.g. Technological/
models/theories methodological solutions

• This study seeks to bridge between behavioral (social) and design science (technical)
research and address problems in the domain of e-business for SME.
• Behavioral and design research can co-exist and supplement each other (Hevner et al.
2004; Baskerville et al. 2018).
• Design research typically seeks to address some of the issues identified in behavioral
research by proposing new technological or methodological solutions (Markus et al.
• “The goal of design science is to create innovations.” (Sidorova et al., 2013, p. 10)

Panca Hadi Putra 2017

Tahapan Analisis (Behavioral Science): Identifikasi
Commonality & Variability pada Berbagai Aplikasi 52

Piramid Sistem Informasi Berdasarkan Commonality dan

Variability Aplikasi E-Business
Hasil analisis:
Beberapa e-
application dan

Hasil analisis
dalam bentuk
Piramid Sistem

Ni Made Satvika Iswari, Eko Budiarjo, Zainal A. Hasibuan, 2017

external Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
input ▪ Dilihat dari hirarki
▪ Dilihat dari fungsi



Organization and Information System: Trends and Interaction (Rasben & Hasibuan, 2012)

Contoh: Pemetaan Aplikasi E-business ke dalam
Portfolio Aplikasi

Panca Hadi Putra dan Hasibuan, Z.A. 2017

Integrating Supply Chain Management Using
Blockchain and Artificial Intelligence

Blockchain Materials Flow

Suppliers Purchasing Production Distribution Customers

AI: Identification, Detection, Classification, Prediction

Modified from Zainal A. Hasibuan, 2018

Application of Blockchain and AI in Systems
Thinking of Circular Economy
Tahapan Design 57

Pada tahap ini dirancang

sebuah conceptual
framework untuk
mengidentifikasi dan
mendefinisikan variable-
variable penting yang
diangkat dalam penelitian ini,
dan hubungan antar variable
satu sama lainnya.

Adapun variable yang dibahas

dalam penelitian ini terdiri
dari :
1. Keberagaman UMKM
2. Plug and Play Services
3. Service Push

Ni Made Satvika Iswari, Eko Budiarjo, Zainal A. Hasibuan, 2017

SME Classification vs. Implementation Patterns

Through the uncovered implementation patterns, we can see clearer e-business

implementation tendencies of the three clusters of SMEs than those using traditional SME
classification, implying that SMEs should not be treated as homogenous groups.
Enterprise Resource Planing (ERP)

Sales Distribution Advertising


Accounting Research
Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

Learn Increasing


Row Data
• Revolusi Industri 4.0 merubah perilaku manusia dan
• Disiplin ilmu Sistem Informasi dalam konteks ACM/IEEE
Computing berhadapan dengan manusia dan organisasi (disisi
• Perubahan perilaku manusia, dan proses bisnis organisasi
yang bersifat multidimensi, dikumpulkan kedalam Big Data.
• Big Data diolah dan diproses dengan menggunakan berbagai
teknik dalam Data Science, untuk mendapatkan inherent
structure dan new insight
• Pola-pola yang konsisten dan persisten pada inherent
structure dan new insight dari dalam Big Data tersebut
digunakan untuk “mengajari” Machine Learning untuk:
identifikasi, diagnosa, klasifikasi, prediksi, dan preskripsi.
• Implementasi Sistem Informasi berbasis Big Data, Data
Science, dan AI digunakan dalam Business Intelligent System,
CRM, SCM, ERP, dll.
Confucius says…
“I hear, and I forget
I see, and I remember
I do, and I understand”

The more you do, the easier it will be and the better it will
become. Semoga Bermanfaat.

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