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Basic operations in the blowroom:

1. opening
2. cleaning
3. mixing or blending
4. microdust removal
5. uniform feed to the carding machine
6. Recycling the waste

Blow room installations consists of a sequence of different machines to carry out the
above said
operations.Moreover Since the tuft size of cotton becomes smaller and smaller, the
required intensities
of processing necessitates different machine configuration.


 Opening in blowroom means opening into small flocks.Technological operation of

opening means the volume of the
flock is increased while the number of fibres remains constant. i.e. the specific density of
the material is reduced

 The larger the dirt particle , the better they can be removed
 Since almost every blowroom machine can shatter particles, as far as possible a lot of
impurities should
be eliminated at the start of the process.Opening should be followed immediately by
cleaning, if
possible in the same machine.
 The higher the degree of opening, the higher the degree of cleaning. A very high
cleaning effect is
almost always purchased at the cost of a high fibre loss. Higher roller speeds give a better
cleaning effect
but also more stress on the fibre.
 Cleaning is made more difficult if the impurities of dirty cotton are distributed
through a larger
quantity of material by mxing with clean cotton.
 The cleaning efficiency is strongly dependent on the TRASH %. It is also affected by
the size of the particle
and stickyness of cotton. Therefore cleaning efficiency can be different for different
cottons with the
same trash %.
 There is a new concept called CLEANING RESISTANCE. Different cottons have
different cleaning resistance.
 If cotton is opened well in the opening process, cleaning becomes easier because
opened cotton
has more surface area, therefore cleaning is more efficient
 If automatic bale opener is used, the tuft size should be as small as possible and the
machine stop time
should be reduced to the minimum level possible
 If Manual Bale openers are used, the tuft size fed to the feed lattice should be as small
as possible
 Due to machine harvesting , cotton contains more and more impurities, which
furthermore are shattered
by hard ginning. Therefore cleaning is always an important basic operation.
 In cleaning, it is necessary to release the adhesion of the impurities to the fibres and
to give hte particles
an opportunity to separate from the stock. The former is achieved mostly by picking of
flocks, the latter is
achieved by leading the flocks over a grid.
 Using Inclined spiked lattice for opening cotton in the intial stages is always a better
way of
opening the cotton with minimum damages. Ofcourse the production is less with such
type of machines.
But one should bear in mind that if material is recyled more in the lattice, neps may
 Traditional methods use more number of machines to open and clean natural fibres.
 Mechanical action on fibres causes some deterioration on yarn quality, particularly in
terms of neps .
Moreover it is true that the staple length of cotton can be significantly shortened .
 Intensive opening in the initial machines like Bale breaker and blending machines
means that shorter
overall cleaning lines are adequate.
 In a beating operation, the flocks are subjected to a sudden strong blow. The inertia of
the impurities
accelerated to a high speed, is substantially greater than that of the opened flocks due to
the low air resistance
of the impurities. The latter are hurled against the grid and because of their small size,
pass between the
grid bars into the waste box, while the flocks continue around the periphery of the
rotating beater.
 By using a much shorter machine sequence, fibres with better elastic properties and
spinnability can be produced.
 Air streams are often used in the latest machine sequence, to separate fibres from
trash particles
by buoyancy differences rather than beating the material against a series of grid bars.
 There are three types of feeding apparatus in the blowroom opening machines

1. two feed rollers( clamped)

2. feed roller and a feed table
3. a feed roller and pedals

 Two feed roller arrangements gives the best forwarding motion, but unfortunately
results in greatest
clamping distance between the cylinders and the beating element
 feed roller and pedal arrangement gives secure clamping throughout the width and a
small clamping
distance, which is very critical for an opening machine
 In a feed roller and table arrangement, the clamping distance can be made very small.
This gives intensive
opening, but clamping over the whole width is poor, because the roller presses only on
the highest points
of the web. Thin places in the web can be dragged out of hte web as a clump by the
 Honeydew(sugar) or stickiness in cotton affect the process very badly. Beacause of
that production
and quality is affected. Particles stick to metal surfaces, and it gets aggreavated with heat
and pressure.
These deposits change the surface characteristics which directly affects the quality and
running behavior.
 There are chemicals which can be sprayed to split up the sugar drops to achieve better
But this system should use water solutions which is not recommeded due to various
 It is better to control the climate inside the department when sticky cotton is used.
Low temperature
( around 22 degree celcius) and low humidity (45% RH). This requires an expensive air
conditioning set up.
 The easiest way to process sticky cotton is to mix with good cotton and to process
through two blending
machines with 6 and 8 doublings and to install machines which will seggregate a heavier
by buoyanccy differences.
 General factors which affect the degree of opening , cleaning and fibre loss are,

1. thickness of the feed web

2. density of the feed web
3. fibre coherence
4. fibre alignment
5. size of the flocks in the feed (flock size may be same but density is different)
6. the type of opening device
7. speed of the opening device
8. degree of penetration
9. type of feed (loose or clamped)
10. distance between feed and opening device
11. type of opening device
12. type of clothing
13. point density of clothing
14. arrangement of pins, needles, teeth
15. speeds of the opening devices
16. throughput speed of material
17. type of grid bars
18. area of the grid surface
19. grid settings
20. airflow through the grid
21. condition of pre-opening
22. quantity of material processed,
23. position of the machine in the machine sequence
24. feeding quantity variation to the beater
25. ambient R.H.%
26. ambient teperature

 Cotton contains very little dust before ginning. Dust is therefore caused by working of
the material on
the machine. New dust is being created through shattering of impurities and smashing
and rubbing of fibres.
However removal of dust is not simple. Dust particles are very light and therefore float
with the cotton
in the transport stream. Furthermore the particles adhere quite strongly to the fibres. If
they are to be
eliminated they are to be rubbed off. The main elimination points for adhering dust
therefore, are those
points in the process at which high fibre/metal friction or high fibre/fibre friction is
 Removal of finest particles of contaminants and fibre fragments can be accomplished
by releasing the
dust into the air, like by turning the material over, and then removing the dust-
contaminated air.
Release of dust into the air occurs wherever the raw material is rolled, beaten or thrown
about. Accordingly
the air at such positions is sucked away. Perforated drums, stationary perforated drums, ,
stationary combs etc.
are some instruments used to remove dust

"Card is the heart of the spinning mill" and "Well carded is half spun" are two proverbs
of the experts. These proverbs inform the immense significance of carding in the spinning
process. High production in carding to economize the process leads to reduction in yarn
quality. Higher the production, the more sensitive becomes the carding operation and the
greater danger of a negative influence on quality. The technological changes that
has taken place in the process of carding is remarkable. Latest machines achieve the
production rate of 60 - 100 kgs / hr, which used to be 5 - 10 kgs / hr, upto 1970.


1. to open the flocks into individual fibres

2. cleaning or elimination of impurities
3. reduction of neps
4. elimination of dust
5. elimination of short fibres
6. fibre blending
7. fibre orientation or alignment
8. sliver formation


 There are two types of feeding to the cards

1. feeding material in the form of scutcher lap

2. flock feed system (flocks are transported pneumatically)

 lapfeeding

1. linear density of the lap is very good and it is easier to maintain(uniformity)

2. the whole installation is very flexible
3. deviations in card output will be nil, as laps can be rejected
4. autolevellers are not required, hence investment cost and maintenace cost is less
5. transportation of lap needs more manual efforts( more labour)
6. lap run out is an additional source of fault, as it should be replaced by a new lap
7. more good fibre loss during lap change
8. more load on the taker-in, as laps are heavily compressed

 flock feeding

1. high performance in carding due to high degree of openness of feed web

2. labour requirement is less due to no lap transportaion and lap change in cards
3. flock feeding is the only solution for high prouduction cards
4. linear density of the web fed to the card is not as good as lap
5. installation is not felxible
6. autoleveller is a must, hence investment cost and maintenance cost is more

 Type of flock feed(chute feed)

1. there are two basic concepts of flock feed

1. one piece chute without an opening device
2. two piece chute with an opening system
2. one piece chute is simple, economical and requires little maintenance
3. two piece chute is complex, expensive, but delivers a uniform batt.
4. One piece chut is a closed system, i.e.excess flock returns to the distrbutor, if too
much material is present, Neps can be increased
5. one piece chute is not flexible to run different mixings
6. layout restrictions are more with one piece chute

 A feeding device is a must to feed the web to the Taker-in region and it should
perform the following tasks

1. to clamp the batt securely throughout its width

2. to grip the fibres tightly without slippage during the action of taker-in
3. to present the fibres in such a manner that opening can be carried out gently

 The divertor nose(sharp or round) and the length of the nose(guide surface) have a
significant influence on quality and quantity of waste removed. Shart nose divertor
avoids fibre slippage but the opening action is not gentle. If the length of the guide
surface is too short, the fibres can escape the action of the taker-in. They are scraped
off by the mote knives and are lost in the waste receiver.
 Feed roller clothed with sawtooth is always better , because it gives good batt
retention. Thus the opening effect of the taker-in is more as it is in combing
 Rieter has devloped a "unidirectional feed system" where the two feed devices(feed
roller and feed plate are oppositely arranged when compared with the conventional
system. i.e. the cylinder is located below and the plate is pressed against the cylinder by
spring force. Owing to the direction of feed roller, the fibre batt runs downwards without
diversion directly into the teeth of the taker-in(licker-in) which results in gentle
fibre treatment. This helps to reduce faults in the yarn.
 The purpose of the taker-in is to pluck finely opened flocks out of the feed batt, to
lead them over the dirt eliminating parts like mote knives, combing segment and waste
plates, and then to deliver the fibres to the main cylinder. In high production cards the
rotational speed ranges from 700-1400
 The treatment for opening and cleaning imparted by Taker-in is very intensive, but
unfortunately not very gentle. Remember that around 60% of the fibres fed to the main
cylinder is in the form of individual fibres.
 The circumferential speed of Taker-in is around 13 to 15 m/sec and the draft is more
than 1000.It clearly shows that fibre gets deteriorated at this opening point. Only the
degree of deterioration can be controlled
by adjusting the following

1. the thickness of the batt

2. the degree of openness of the rawmaterial
3. the degree of orientation of the fibres
4. the aggressiveness of the clothing
5. the distance between the devices
6. the rotational velocity of the taker-in
7. the material throughput

 Latest TRUTZSCHLER cards work with three licker-ins compared to one liker-
in.The first one is constructed as needle roll. This results in very gentle opening and an
extremely long clothing life for this roll. The other two
rollers are with finer clothing and higher speeds, which results in feeding more %of
individual fibres and
smallest tufts compared to single lickerin, to the main cylinder. This allows the maing
cylinder to go high
in speeds and reduce the load on cylinder and flat tops. There by higher productivity is
achieved with good
quality. But the performance may vary for different materials and different waste levels.
 between the taker-in and main cylinder , the clothings are in the doffing disposition. It
exerts an influence
on the sliver quality and also on the improvement in fibres longitudinal orientation that
occurs here.
The effect depends on the draft between main cylinder and taker-in.The draft between
main cylinder and taker-in
should be slightly more than 2.0.
 The opening effect is directly proportional to the number of wire points per fibre. At
the Taker-in
perhaps 0.3 points/ fibre and at the main cylinder 10-15 points /fibre.If a given quality of
yarn is required,
a corresponding degree of opening at the card is needed. To increase production in
carding, the number of points
per unit time must also be increased. this can be achieved by

1. more points per unit area(finer clothing)

2. higher roller and cylinder speeds
3. more carding surface or carding position
speeds and wire population has reached the maximum, further increase will result in
design and technological
problems. Hence the best way is to add carding surface (stationary flats). Carding plates
can be applied at

1. under the liker-in

2. between the licker-in and flats
3. between flats and doffer

 Taker-in does not deliver 100% individual fibres to main cylinder. It delivers around
70% as small flocks
to main cylinder. If carding segments are not used, the load on cylinder and flats will be
very high and carding
action also suffers. If carding segemets are used, they ensure further opening, thinning
out and primarily,
spreading out and improved distribution of the flocks over the total surface area.carding
segments bring the following advantages

1. improved dirt and dust elimination

2. improved disentanglement of neps
3. possibility of speed increase (production increase)
4. preservation of the clothing
5. possibility of using finer clothings on the flats and cylinder
6. better yarn quality
7. less damage to the clothing
8. cleaner clothing

 In an indepth analysis, all operating elements of the card were therefore checked in
regard to their
influence on carding intensity. It showed that the "CYLINDER-FLATS" area is by far the
most effective
region of the card for.

1. opening of flocks to individual fibres

2. elimination of remaining impurities(trash particles)
3. elimination of short fibres( neps also removed with short fibres)
4. untangling the neps
5. dust removal
6. high degree of longitudinal orientation of the fibres

 The main work of the card, separation to individual fibres is done between the main
cylinder and the flats
Only by means of this fibre separation, it is possible to eliminate the fine dirt particles
and dust.
When a flat enters the working zone, it gets filled up very quickly. Once it gets filled,
after few seconds,
thereafter , hardly any further take-up of fibres occurs, only carding.Accordingly, if a
fibre bundle does
not find place at the first few flats, then it can be opened only with difficulty.It will be
rolled between
the working surfaces and usually leads to nep formation
 In princile, the flats can be moved forwards or backwards, i.e. in the same direction as
or in opposition
to the cylinder.In reverse movement, the flats come into operative relationship with the
clothing on the doffer side. At this stage, the flats are in a clean condition. They then
move towards
the taker-in and fill up during this movement.Part of their receiving capacity is thus lost,
but sufficient
remains for elimination of dirt, since this step takes place where the material first enters
the flats.
At this position, above the taker-in, the cylinder carries the material to be cleaned into the
flats. The
latter take up the dirt but do not transport it through the whole machine as in the forward
movement system.
Instead , the dirt is immediately removed from the machine. Rieter studies show clearly
that the greater part
of the dirt is hurled into the first flats directly above the taker-in.
 Kaufmann indicates that 75% of all neps can be disentagled, and of these about 60%
are in fact
disentagled. Of the remaining 40% disentaglable nep

1. 30-33% pas on with the sliver

2. 5-6% are removed with the flat strips
3. 2-4%are eliminated with the waste

The intensity of nep separation depends on

1. the sharpness of the clothing

2. the space setting between the main cylinder and the flats
3. tooth density of the clothing
4. speed of the main cylinder
5. speed of the flat tops
6. direction of flats with reference to cylinder
7. the profile of the cylinder wire

 The arrangement of the clothing between the cylinder and the doffer is not meant for
stripping action,
It is for CARDING ACTION.This is the only way to obtain a condensing action and
finally to form a web. It has both
advantages and disadvantages.The advantage is that additional carding action is obtained
here and it differs
somewhat from processsing at the flats.A disadvantage is that leading hooks and trailing
hooks are formed
in the fibres , beause the fibres remain caught at one end of the main cylinder(leading
hook) and some times on
the doffer clothing(trailing hook).
 There are two rules of carding

1. The fibre must enter the carding machine, be efficiently carded and taken from it
in as little time as possible.
2. The fibre must be under control from entry to exit

 Carding effect is taking place between cylinder and doffer because, either the main
cylinder clothing rakes
through the fibres caught in the doffer clothing, or the doffer clothing rakes thro the fibres
on the main cylinder.
Neps can still be disentangled here, or non-separated fibre bundles can be opened a bit in
this area and
can be separated during the next passage through the flats
 A disadvantage of web-formation at the card is the formation of hooks. According to
an investigation by
morton and Yen in Manchester, it can be assumed that

1. 50% of the fibres have trailing hooks

2. 15% have leading hooks
3. 15% have both ends hooked
4. 20% without hooks

 Leading hooks must be presented to the comber and trailing hooks to the ring
spinning frame.
There must be even number of passages between card and comber and odd number
between the card and ringframe

1. Through doubling the slivers are made even

2. doubling results in homogenization(blending)
3. through draft fibres get parallelised
4. hooks created in the card are straightened
5. through the suction ,intensive dust removal is achieved
6. autoleveller maintains absolute sliver fineness

 Quality of the drawframe sliver determines the yarn quality.

 Drawing is the final process of quality improvement in the spinning mill

 Drafting is the process of elongating a strand of fibres, with the intention of orienting
the fibres
in the direction of the strand and reducing its linear density.In a roller drafting system, the
strand is passed
throgh a series of sets of rollers, each successive set rotating at a surface velocity greater
than that of the previous set.
 During drafting, the fibres must be moved relative to each other as uniformly as
possible by overcoming the
the cohesive friction. Uniformity implies in this context that all fibres are controllably
rearranged with a
shift relative to each other equal to the degree of draft.
 In drawframe, the rollers are so rotated that their peripheral speed in the throughflow
direction increases from
roller pair to roller pair, then the drawing part of the fibres, i.e.the draft, takes place. Draft
is defined
as the ratio of the delivered length to the feed length or the ratio of the corresponding
peripheral speeds.
 Drawing apart of the fibres is effected by fibres being carried along with the roller
surfaces. For this to
occur, the fibres must move with the peripheral speed of hte rollers. This transfer of the
roller speed to
the fibres represents one of the problems of drafting operation. The transfer can be
effected only by
friction, but the fibre strand is fairly thick and only its outer layers have contact with the
rollers, and furthermore various, non-constant forces act on the fibres.
 Roller drafting adds irregularities in the strand.Lamb states that,though an irregularity
causing mechanism does exist
in drafting, drafting also actually reduced the strand irregularities by breaking down the
fibre groups.
Drafting is accompanied by doubling on the drawframe, this offsets the added

Variance(sliver out) = Variance(sliver in) + Variance(added by m/c)

In Statistics , Variance is the square of standard deviation

 Two passages of drawing with eight ends creeled each time would produce a single
sliver consisting of 64 ribbons
of fibre in close contact with each other.In the ultimate product, each ribbon may be only
a few fibres thick,
and thus the materials of the input slivers are dispersed by the drawing process. The term
doubling is also used
to describe this aspect of drawing
 Drafting arrangement is the heart of the drawframe. The drafting arrangement should

1. simple
2. stable design with smooth running of rollers
3. able to run at higher speeds and produce high quality product
4. flexible i.e suitable to process different materials , fibre lenths and sliver hanks
5. able to have good fibre control
6. easy to adjust
 Roller drafting causes irregularities in the drafted strand since there is incomplete
control of the motion
of each individual fibre or fibre group.The uniformity of the drafted strand is determined

1. draft ratio
2. roller settings
3. material characteristics
4. pressure exerted by the top roller
5. hardness of top roller
6. fluting of the bottom rollers
7. distribution of draft between the various drafting stages

 drafting is affected by the following rawmaterial factors

1. no of fibres in the cross section

2. fibre fineness
3. degree of parellelisation of the fibres
4. compactness of the fibre strand
5. fibre cohesion which depends on
1. surface structure
2. crimp
3. lubrication
4. compression of the strand
5. fibre length
6. twist in the fibre
7. distribution of fibre length

 3-over-3 roller drafting arrangements with pressure bar is widely used in the modern
Bigger front rollers are stable and operated at lower speeds of revolution, this
necessitated pressure bar
arrangement for better control of fibres. Some drawframes are with 4-over-3 drafting
arrangement, but
strictly speaking it behaves like a 3-over-3 drafting system except for the fact that fourth
roller helps
to guide the sliver directly into the delivery trumpet.


Roving machine is complicated, liable to faults, causes defects, adds to production costs
and delivers
a product that is sensitive in both winding and unwinding. This machine is forced to use
by the spinner for
the following two reasons.

1. Sliver is thick, untwisted strand that tends to be hairy and to create fly. The draft
needed to
convert this is around 300 to 500. Drafting arrangements of ringframes are not
capable of processing
this strand in a single drafting operation to create a yarn that meets all the normal
demands on such yarns.
2. Drawframe cans represent the worst conceivable mode of transport and
presentation of feed material to
the ring spinning frame.


1. Attenuation- drafting the sliver into roving

2. twisting the drafted strand
3. winding the twisted roving on a bobbin

 Fibre to fibre cohesion is less for combed slivers. Rollers in the creel can easily create
false drafts.
Care must be taken to ensure that the slivers are passed to the drafting arrangement
without disturbance.
Therefore, a perfect drive to the creel rollers is very important.
 The drafting arrangement drafts the material with a draft between 5 and 15.The
delivered strand is too thin
to hold itself together at the exit of the front bottom roller.
 Bobbin and flyer are driven separately, so that winding of the twisted strand is carried
by running the bobbin at a higher peripheral speed than the flyer.
 The bobbin rail is moving up and down continuously, so that the coils must be wound
closely and
parallel to one another to ensure that as much as material is wound on the bobbin.
 Since the diameter of the packages increases with each layer, the length of the roving
per coil
also will increase. Therefore the speed of movement of bobbin rail must be reduced by a
small amount after
each completed layer
 Length delivered by the front roller is always constant. Owing to the increase in the
diameter of the
package for every up and down movement, the peripheral speed of package should keep
on changing , to maintain
the same difference in peripheral speeds between pakcage and flyer.
 There are two types of drafting systems.

1. 3/3 drafting system

2. 4/4 drafting system

In general 3/3 drafting system is used, but for higher draft applications 4/4 drafting
system is used.
 The draft often has limits not only at the upper limit (15 to 20), but also at lower limit.
It is around 5 for cotton and 6 for synthetic fibres. If drafts below these lower limits are
attempted, then
the fibre masses to be moved are too large, the drafting resistance becomes too high and
the drafting operation
is difficult to control.

It is advisable to keep the break draft(predarft) as low as possible, because lower

always improves roving evenness.

 In general two condensers are used in the drafting arrangement. The purpose of this
condensers is
to bring the fibre strands together. It is difficult to control, Spread fibre masses in the
drafting zone and they
cause unevenness. In addion, a widely spread strand leaving the drafting arrangement
leads to high fly
levels and to high hairiness in the roving. The size of condensers should be selected
according to the volume of
the fibre sliver.
 Flyer inserts twist. Each flyer rotaion creates one turn in the roving. Twist per unit
length of roving
depends upon the delivery rate.
Turns per metre = (flyer rpm)/(delivery speed (m/min))
Higher levels of roving twist, therefore, always represent production losses in Roving
frame and possible
draft problems in the ring spinning machine. But very low twist levels will cause false
drafts and roving
breaks in the roving frame.
 Centrifugal tension is created at the bobbin surface as the layers are being wound and
is created
by the rotation of the package. Each coil of roving can be considered as a high-speed
rotating hool of
roving on which centrifugal tension increases with increasing diameter of the package.
centrifugal tension in the roving is proportional to the square of the winding surface
velocity.In this context,
ccentrifugal force acts in such a manner as to lift the top roving strand from the surface of
the package
so that the radial forces within the strand that hold the fibres together are reduced and the
can be stressed to the point of rupture. Breaks of this type may occur at the winding-on
Point of the presser
or in strands that have just been wound on the top surface of the package. This
phenomenon is known as "bobbin-bursting".
This phenomenon will be prominent if the twist per inch is less or the spindle speed is
extremely high
when the bobbin is big.
 Apart from inserting twist, the flyer has to lead the very sensitive strand from the
flyer top to the
package without introducing false drafts. Latest flyers have a very smooth guide tube set
into one flyer leg
and the other flyer leg serves to balance the flyer. The strand is completely protected
against air flows
and the roving is no longer pressed with considerable force against the metal of the leg,
as it is in
the previous designs. Frictional resistance is considerably reduced, so that the strand can
be pulled through
with much less force.
 False twisters are used on the flyers to add false twist when the roving is being
twisted between the
front roller and the flyer.Because of this additional twist, the roving is strongly twisted
and this reduces the
breakage rate. Spinning triangle is also reduced which will reduce the fibre fly and lap
formation on
the front bottom roller.
 Because of the false twister, the roving becomes compact which helps to increase the
length wound
on the bobbin. This compactness helps to increase the flyer speed also.
 Roving strength is a major factor in determining winding limitations. It must be high
enough for the fibres
to hold together in a cohesive strand and low enough for satisfactory drafting at the
spinning machine.
The factors affecting roving strength are as follows:

• the length, fineness, and parallelisation of fibres

• the amount of twist and compactness of the roving
• the uniformity of twist and linear density.

 BUILDER MOTION: This device has to perform the following tasks

1. to shift the belt according to the bobbin diameter increase

2. to reverse the bobbin rail direction at top and bottom
3. to shorten the lift after each layer to form tapered ends

 Shifting of the belt is under the control of the ratchet wheel. The ratchet wheel is
permitted to rotate
by a half tooth. The bobbin diameter increases more or less rapidly depending upon
roving hank. The belt
must be shifted through corresponding steps. The amount of shifting, which depends
upon the thickness of the
roving, is modified by replacement of the ratchet wheel or by other gears.If a ratchet
wheel with fewer teeth
is inserted, then the belt is shifted through larger steps, i.e. it moves more rapidly, and
vice versa.
 To form a package, the layer must be laid next to its neighbours. For that the lay-on
point must continually
be moved. The shift of the winding point is effected by moving the bobbin rail. This
raising and lowering is
done by rails.Since the package diamter is steadily increasing, the lift speed must be
reduced by a small
amount after each completed layer.
 During winding of a package, the ratchet is rotated at every change-over.Reversal of
the bobbin layer occurs
little earlier for every reversal.This gives a conitnuous reduction in the lift of the rail .
Thus bobbins are built with taper

The ring spinning will continue to be the most widely used form of spinning machine in
the near future,
because it exhibits significant advantages in comparison with the new spinning processes.

 Following are the advantages of ring spinning frame

• It is universaly applicable, i.e.any material can be spun to any required count

• It delivers a material with optimum charactersticss, especially with regard to
structure and strength.
• it is simple and easy to master
• the know-how is well established and accessible for everyone

 Functions of ringframe

• to draft the roving until the reqired fineness is achieved

• to impart strength to the fibre, by inserting twist
• to wind up the twisted strand (yarn) in a form suitable for storage, transportaion
and further processing.

 Drafting arrangement is the most important part of the machine. It influences mainly
evenness and strength
The following points are therefore very important

• drafting type
• design of drafting system
• drafting settings
• selection of drafting elements like cots, aprong, traveller etc
• choice of appropriate draft
• service and maintenance

 Drafting arrangement influence the economics of the machine - directly by affecting

the end break rate
and indirectly by the maximum draft possible.
 If higher drafts can be used with a drafting arrangement, then coarser roving can be
used as a feeding material.
This results in higher production rate at the roving frame and thus reducing the number
roving machines required,
space, personnel and so on.
 In fact increase in draft affects the yarn quality beyond certain limit. Within the limit
some studies
show that increase in draft improves yarn quality. The following draft limits have been
established for
practical operation:

• carded cotton- upto 35

• carded blends - upto 40
• combed cotton and blends(medium counts) - upto 40
• combed cotton and blends(fine counts) - upto 45
• synthetic fibres - upto 50

 The break draft must be adapted to the total draft in each case since the main draft
should not exceed
25 to 30. It should be noted that higher the break draft, more critical is the break draft
 The front top roller is set slightly forward by a distance of 2 to 4mm relative to the
front bottom roller,
while the middle top roller is arranged a short distance of 2mm behind the middle bottom
 Overhang of the front top roller gives smooth running of the top rollers and shortens
the spinning triangle.
This has a correspondigly favourable influence on the end break rate.
 Rubber cots with hardness less than 60 degrees shore are normally unsuitable because
they can not recover
from the deformation caused by the pressure on the top roller while running.
 Soft rubbercots for toprollers have a greater area of contact, enclose the fibre strand
more completely
and therefore provide better guidance for the fibres.However softer cots wear out
significantly faster
and tend to form more laps.
 Normally harder rubbercots are used for back top rollers, because the roving which
enters the back
roller is compact , little twisted and it does not require any additional guidance for better
fibre control.
 In the front top roller, only few fibres remain in the strand and these exhibit a
tendency to slide apart.
Additional fibre guidance is therefore necessary.Therefore rubbercots with hardness
levels of the order 80 degrees
to 85 degrees shore are mostly used at the back roller and 63 degrees and 65 degrees at
the front roller.
 If coarse yarns and synthetic yarns are being spun, harder rubbercots are used at the
front roller because
of increased wear and in the case of synthetic yarns to reduce lapups.
 Three kinds of top roller weighting(loading) are presently in use

• spring loading
• pneumatic loading
• magnetic weighting

 With pneumatic loading system, the total pressure applied to all top rolers is obtained
by simple adjustment
of the pressure in the hose using pressure reducing valve. Moreover the rubbercots will
not get deformed if
the machine is stopped for a longer duration, because the pressure on top rollers can be
released to the
minimum level.
 The fibre strand in the main drafting field consists of only a few remaining fibres.
There is hardly
any friction field and fibre guidance provided by the rollers alone is inadequate. Special
fibre guiding devices
are therefore needed to carry out a satisfactory drafting operation. Double apron drafting
arrangements with
longer bottom aprons is the most widely used guding system in all the modern
 In doube apron drafting system two revolving aprons driven by the middle rollers
form a fibre guiding
assembly. In order to be able to guide the fibres, the upper apron must be pressed with
controlled force
against the lower apron. For this purpose, a controlled spacing (exit opening), precisely
adapted to the fibre
volume is needed between the two aprons at the delivery. This spacing is set by "spacer"
or "distance clips".
Long bottom aprons have the advantage in comparison wiht short ones, that they can be
easily replaced in the
event of damage and there is less danger of choking with fluff.
 Spindles and their drive have a great influence on power consumption and noise level
in the machine
The running characteristics of a spindle, especially imbalance and eccentricity relative to
the ring flange, also affect
yarn quality and of course the number of end breakage. Almost all yarn parameters are
affected by poorly
running spindles. Hence it should be ensured that the centering of the spindles relative to
the rings is as
accurate as possible. Since the ring and spindle form independent units and are able to
shift relative to
each other in operation, these two parts must be re-centered from time to time.
Previously, this was done
by shifting the spindle relative to the ring, but now it is usually carried out by adjusting
the ring.
 In comparison with Tangential belt drive, the 4-spindle drive has the advantages of
lower noise level
and energy consumption, and tapes are easier to replace.
 Lappet guide performs the same sequence of movements as the ringrail, but with a
shorter stroke, this
movement of the guide ensures that differences in the balloon height caused by changes
in the ring rail
positions do not become too large. This helps to control the yarn tension variation with in
control, so that
ends down rate and yarn charactersitics are under control.
 Spindles used today are relatively long. The spacing between the ring and the thread
guide is correspondigly
long, thus giving a high balloon. This has two negative influence

• A high balloon results in large bobbin diameter leading to space problems

• Larger the balloon diameter , higher the air drag on the yarn.This inturn causes
increased deformation
of the balloon curve out of hte plane intersecting the spindle axis.This
deformation can lead to balloon stability,
there is increase danger of collapse.

Both these disadvantages result in higher yarn tension, thereby higher endbreaks.In order
to avoid this,
balloon control rings are used. It divides the balloon into two smaller sub-balloons.
Inspite of its large overall
height, the double-balloon created in this way is thoroughly stable even at relatively low
yarn tension.
 Balloon control rings therefore help to run the mahcine with long spindles(longer lift)
and at high spindle
speed, but with lower yarn tension. Since the yarn rubs against the control ring, it may
cause roughening
of the yarn.
 Most ends down arise from breaks in the spinning triangle, because very high forces
are exerted on a
strand consisting of fibres which have not yet been fully bound together in the spinning


 The following factors should be considered

• materials of the ring traveller

• surface charecteristics
• the forms of both elements
• wear resistance
• smoothness of running
• running-in conditions
• fibre lubrication

 For the rings two dimensions are of primariy importance. 1.internal diameter 2. flange
 Antiwedge rings exhibit an enlarged flange inner side and is markedly flattened on it
upper surface.
This type of profile permitted to use travellers with a lower centre of gravity and
precisely adapted bow(elliptical
travellers), which in turn helped to run the machine with higher spindle speeds.
Antiwedge rings and elliptical
travellers belong together and can be used in combination.
 Low crown profle has the following advantage. Low crown ring has a flattened
surface top
and this gives space for the passage of the yarn so that the curvature of the traveller can
also be reduced
and the centre of gravity is lowered.In comparison with antiwedge ring, the low crown
ring has the advantage
that the space provided for passage of the yarn is somewhat larger and that all current
traveller shapes
can be applied, with the exception of the elliptical traveller. The low crown ring is the
most widely
used ring form now.
 The ring should be tough and hard on its exterior. The running surface must have high
and even hardeness
in the range 800-850 vikcers. The traveller hardness should be lower (650-700 vickers),
so that wear occurs
mainly on the traveller, which is cheaper and easier to replace. Surface smoothness
should be high, but not too
high, because lubricating film can not build up if it too smooth.
 A good ring in operation should have the following features:

• best quality raw material

• good, but not too high, surface smoothness
• an even surface
• exact roundness
• good, even surface hardness, higher than that of the traveller
• should have been run in as per ring manufacturers requirement
• long operating life
• correct relationship between ring and bobbin tube diameters
• perfectly horizontal position
• it should be exactly centered relative to the spindle

 In reality, the traveller moves on a lubricating film which builds up itself and which
consists primarily
of cellulose and wax. This material arises from material abraded from the fibres.If fibre
particles are caught
between the ring and traveller, then at high traveller speeds and with correspondingly
high centrifugal forces,
the particles are partially ground to a paste of small, colourless, transparent and extremely
thin platelets.
The platelets are continually being replaced during working. The traveller smoothes these
out to form a
continuous running surface.The position, form and structure of lubricating film depends

• yarn fineness
• yarn structure
• fibre raw material
• traveller mass
• traveller speed
• heigh of traveller bow

Modern ring and traveller combination with good fibre lubrication enable traveller speeds
upto 40m/sec.
 Traveller imparts twist to the yarn. Traveller and spindle together help to wind the
yarn on the bobbin.
Length wound up on the bobbin corresponds to the difference in peripheral speeds of the
spindle and traveller.
The difference in speed should correspond to length delivered at the front rollers. Since
traveller does
not have a drive on its own but is dragged along behing by the spidle.
 High contact pressure (upto 35 N/square mm)is generated between the ring and the
traveller during
winding, mainly due to centrifugal force. This pressure leads to generation of heat. Low
mass of
the traveller does not permit dissipation of the generated heat in the short time available.
As a result the
operating speed of the traveller is limited.
 When the spindle speed is increased, the friction work between ring and traveller
(hence the build up)
increases as the 3rd power of the spindle rpm. Consequently if the spindle speed is too
high, the traveller
sustains thermal damage and fails. This speed restriction is felt particularly when
spinning cotton
yarns of relatively high strength.
 If the traveller speed is raised beyond normal levels , the thermal stress limit of the
traveller is exceeded,
a drastic change in the wear behaviour of the ring and traveller ensues. Owing to the
strongly increased
adhesion forces between ring and traveller, welding takes place between the two. These
seizures inflict
massive damage not only to the traveller but to the ring as well.Due to this unstable
behaviour of the ring
and traveller system the wear is atleast an order of magnitude higher than during the
stable phase. The traveller
temperature reaches 400 to 500 degrees celcius and the danger of the traveller annealing
and failing is very great.
 The spinning tension is proportional

• to the friction coefficient between ring and traveller

• to the traveller mass
• to the square of hte traveler speed

and inversely proportional

• to the ring diameter

• and the angle between the connecting line from the traveller-spindle axis to the
piece of yarn between the traveller and cop.

 The yarn strength is affected only little by the spinning tension. On the other hand the
diminishes with increasing tension, for every tensile load of hte fibres lessens the residual
elongation in the
fibres and hence in the yarn. Increasing tension leads also to poorer Uster regularity and
IPI values.
 If the spinning tension is more, the spinning triangle becomes smaller . As the
spinning triangle gets smaller,
there is less hairiness.


 The traveller must be shaped to match exactly with the ring in the contact zone, so
that a single
contact surface, with the maximum surface area is created between ring and traveller. The
bow of the
traveller should be as flat as possible, in order to keep the centre of gravity low and
thereby improve
smoothness of running. However the flat bow must still leave adequate space for passage
of the yarn. If
the yarn clearance opening is too small, rubbing of the yarn on the ring leads to
roughening of the yarn,
a high level of fibre loss as fly, deterioration of yarn quality and formation of melt spots
in spinning
of synthetic fibre yarns.


 Wire profile influences both the behaviour of the traveller and certain yarn
characteristics, they are

• contact surface of the ring

• smooth running
• thermal transfer
• yarn clearance opening
• roughening effect
• hairiness


 The traveller should

• generate as little heat as possible

• quickly distribute the generated heat from the area where it develops over the
whole volume of the traveller
• transfer this heat rapidly to the ring and the air
• be elastic, so that the traveller will not break as it is pushed on to the ring
• exhibit high wear resistance
• be less hard than the ring, because the traveller must wear out in use in preference
to the ring
 In view of the above said requirements, traveller manufacturers have made efforts to
improve the running
properties by surface treatment. "Braecker" has developed a new process in which certain
finishing components
diffuse into the traveller surface and are fixed in place there. The resulting layer reduces
rise and increases wear resistance.
 Traveller mass determines the magnitude of frictional forces between the traveller
and the ring,
and these in turn determine the winding and balloon tension. Mass of the traveller
depends upon

• yarn count
• yarn strength
• spindle speed
• material being spun

If traveller weight is too low, the bobbin becomes too soft and the cop content will be
low. If it is
unduly high, yarn tension will go up and will result in end breaks. If a choice is available
between two traveller
weights, then the heavier is normally selected, since it will give greater cop weight,
smoother running of
the traveller and better transfer of heat out of traveller.

 When the yarn runs through the traveller, some fibres are liberated. Most of these
fibres float away
as dust in to the atmosphere, but some remain caught on the traveller and they can
accumulate and
form a tuft. This will increase the mass of traveller and will result in end break because of
higher yarn
tension. To avoid this accumulation , traveller clearers are fixed close to the ring, so that
accumulation is prevented. They should be set as close as possible to the traveller, but
without affecting
its movement. Exact setting is very important.
 Specific shape of the cop is achieved by placing the layers of yarn in a conical
arrangement. In the
winding of a layer, the ring rail is moved slowly but with increasing speed in the upward
and quickly but with decreasing speed downwards. This gives a ratio between the length
of yarn in the main
(up) and cross(down) windings about 2:1.
 The total length of a complete layer (main and cross windings together) should not be
than 5m (preferably 4 m) to facilitate unwinding. The traverse stroke of the ring rail is
ideal when it
is about 15 to 18% greater than the ring diameter.
 End break suction system has a variety of functions.

• It removes fibres delivered by the drafting arrangement after an end break and
thus prevents mulitple
end breaks on neighbouring spindles.
• It enables better environmental control, since a large part of the return air-flow of
the aircondition
system is led past the drafting system, especially the region of the spinning
• In modern installations, approx. 40 to 50 % of the return air-flow passes back into
the duct system of the
airconditioning plant via the suction tubes of pneumafil suction system.
• A relatively high vacuum must be generated to ensure suction of waste fibres
o for cotton - around 800 pascals
o for synthetic - around 1200 pascals
• A significant pressure difference arises between the fan and the last spindle. This
pressure difference
will be greater , the longer the machine and greater the volume of air to be
transported. The air flow rate is
normally between 5 and 10 cubic meter/ hour.
• Remember that the power needed to generate an air-flow of 10 cubic meter/ hour ,
is about 4.5 times
the power needed for an air-flow of 6 cubic meter/ hour, because of the
significantly higher vacuum
level developed at the fan.


 From Roving bobbin to cop, the fibre strand passes through drafting arrangement,
thread guide, balloon
control rings and traveller. These parts are arranged at various angles and distances
relative to each other.
The distances and angles together are referred to as the spinning geometry,has a
significant influence
on the spinning opeartion and the resulting yarn. They are

• yarn tension
• number of end breaks
• yarn irregularity
• binding-in of the fibres
• yarn hairiness
• generation of fly etc.
 Spinning Triangle:
Twist in a yarn is generated at the traveller and travel against the direction of yarn
movement to the
front roller. Twist must run back as close as possible to the nip of the rollers, but it never
completely to the nip because, after leaving the rollers, the fibres first have to be diverted
inwards and
wrapped around each other. There is always a triangular bundle of fibres without twist at
the exit of the
rollers, this is called as SPINNING TRIANGLE. Most of the end breaks originate at this
point. The length of the
spinning triangle depends upon the spinning geometry and upon the twist level in the
 The top roller is always shifted 3 to 6 mm forward compared to bottom roller. This is
called top roller
overhang.This gives smoother running and smaller spinning triangle. The overhang must
not be made too large,
as the distance from the opening of the aprons to the roller nip line becomes too long
resulting in poorer
fibre control and increased yarn irregularity.
 Continuous variation of the operating conditions arises during winding of a cop.The
result is that
the tensile force exerted on yarn must be much higher during winding on the bare tube
than during winding on
the full cop, because of the difference in the angle of attack of the yarn on the traveller.
When the ring rail
is at the upper end of its stroke, in spinning onto the tube, the yarn tension is substantially
than when the ring rail is at its lowermost position. This can be observed easily in the
balloon on any
ring spinning machine.
 The tube and ring diameters must have a minimum ratio, between approx. 1:2 and
1:2.2, in order to
ensure that the yarn tension oscillations do not become too great.
 Yarn tension in the balloon is the tension which finally penetrates almost to the
spinning triangle and
which is responsible for the greater part of the thread breaks. It is reduced to a very small
degree by
the deviation of the yarn at the thread guide. An equilibrium of forces must be obtained
between the yarn
tension and balloon tension.