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AEP/EPRI Smart Grid Demo

Virtual Power Plant Simulation


Project Overview

Smart Grid Advisory Meeting


June 23, 2009

Tom Jones / Tom Walker

AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

Virtual Power Plant Simulation Project


•Virtual Power Plant (VPP)
•VPP Simulation (VPPS)
•Real world components
•Practical application of VPPS
•Conclusion

Smart Grid Advisory Meeting 06/23/09 22


AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

Our Operational Mission

Our Operational Mission

Sustaining the Balance of


Energy Supply and Demand
in “Real Time”

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AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

Before Smart Grid:


One-way power flow, simple interactions

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AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

Growing complexity = challenge and opportunity

Central Generating Step-Up


Station Transformer

Transmission Transmission
Substation Substation Cogeneration
Gas Turbine
Turbine
Micro- Distribution
turbine Substation

Photovoltaic systems Commercial


Diesel Fuel
Engine cell
Industrial

Cogeneration Commercial
Residential
Wind Power

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AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

Enter The Smart Grid


Two-way communication network
Smart meters at customer locations
Remote control of end-use devices
Information exchange between customers and utility
Remote monitoring and control of distribution line devices
Integration and control of distributed energy resources

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AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

1.Power System Infrastructure


Next Generation of Operators,
Planners, and Engineers

Central Generating Step-Up


Station Transformer
2. Communications and Information Infrastructure

Transmission Transmission
Substation Substation Cogeneration
Gas Turbine
Turbine
Micro- Distribution
turbine Substation

Photovoltaic systems Commercial


Diesel Fuel
Engine cell
Industrial

Cogeneration Commercial
Residential
Wind Power

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AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

After Smart Grid:


Two-way power flow, multi-stakeholder interactions

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AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

Putting It All Together:


The Virtual Power Plant
Storage

Residential
Industrial

Commercial

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AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

Putting It All Together:


The Virtual Power Plant Simulator

Storage

Residential
Industrial

Commercial

Smart Grid Advisory Meeting 06/23/09 10 10


AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

Virtual Power Plant Simulation Project Objective

Assess the functionality, performance and benefits of


a fully integrated and robust smart grid as a Virtual
Power Plant, from end-use to RTO, by leveraging
Real system and device information and data
with a comprehensive modeling and Simulation tool

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AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

Tariff Flat Rate Real Time Pricing


Demand No Control Critical Load Only
Storage Daily Cycle Instant Response
PHEV On-Peak Charge On-Peak Discharge

Fossil DG Backup Only On-Peak Supply


Solar Cloudy Sunny
Wind Calm Windy
Fuel Cell Min Base Supply Max Base Supply

External Backup Only Full Demand Supply

Output Month Year


$ 24.57
(e.g. Cost)

Energy
Internal Power

Supply
Deficiency
Demand

Surplus Energy
Optimize for Cost

Optimize for Efficiency

Daily Time Cycle


Smart Grid Advisory Meeting 06/23/09 12 12
AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

Virtual Power Plant Simulation Project Objective

Assess the functionality, performance and benefits of


a fully integrated and robust smart grid as a Virtual
Power Plant, from end-use to RTO, by leveraging
Real system and device information and data
with a comprehensive modeling and Simulation tool

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AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

Resource Types for Integration


Distributed energy resources that are in operation or under test across
AEP will be assessed on location and will be virtually installed on the
South Bend VPPS foundational system, including:
MW-scale battery installations (e.g. sodium sulfur or NaS),
kW-scale flat panel photovoltaic systems (e.g. roof-top),
kW-scale concentrating solar systems (electrical and thermal),
kW-scale natural gas fired reciprocating engines (with CHP)
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles,
Ice Bear air conditioning system,
kW-scale wind turbines,
kW-scale community energy storage systems,
and others.
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AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

Virtual Power Plant Simulation Project Objective

Assess the functionality, performance and benefits of


a fully integrated and robust smart grid as a Virtual
Power Plant, from end-use to RTO, by leveraging
Real system and device information and data
with a comprehensive modeling and Simulation tool

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AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

Regional Market Structure


Wholesale
PJM “Time-Stamped” Pricing
Aggregated “Time-Stamped” VPP Resources
Calculate Wholesale Market Value of VPP
Retail (South Bend Pilot)
Summer on-peak period during the weekday for the months of May
through September with an associated off-peak rate during the
remaining hours
Incentive for participation in thermostat control program

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AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

Real Time Wholesale Price From RTO


Smart Grid Advisory Meeting 06/23/09 17 17

AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

Virtual Power Plant Simulation Project Objective

Assess the functionality, performance and benefits of


a fully integrated and robust smart grid as a virtual
power plant, from end-use to RTO, by leveraging
Real system and device information and data
with a comprehensive modeling and simulation tool

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AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

Communication & Control Infrastructure


Assess impacts and
performance of protocols


and standards ~ ~


Control
Point
Determine requirements Storage Residential

for hierarchical control



system (communication
within and across Monitoring &
Optimization

“zones”) Center


NO/NC Industrial

Evaluate requirements ≈ ≈ ≈
for and impacts of Win Sol
control prioritization d ar
Regional
Aggregation/ Commercial


Fuel Cell
(e.g. transmission Control

constraint within
regional system vs. ≈
energy efficiency

~
targets)

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AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

Virtual Power Plant Simulation Project Objective

Assess the functionality, performance and benefits of


a fully integrated and robust smart grid as a virtual
power plant, from end-use to RTO, by leveraging
Real system and device information and data
with a comprehensive modeling and simulation tool

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AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

Zone 1
Customer
Premise

Customer
Portal or Meter

LG Electronics

Zone 2 PHEV

Utility
Secondary

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AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

Station Zone 4
Distribuition
Circuit
Line
Breaker
Recloser

Zone 3
Distribution
Line
Devices

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AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

Zone 6
Regional
Power
System

Zone 5
Distribuition
Station
Transformer

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AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

Virtual Power Plant Simulation Project Objective

Assess the functionality, performance and benefits of


a fully integrated and robust smart grid as a virtual
power plant, from end-use to RTO, by leveraging
Real system and device information and data
with a comprehensive modeling and simulation tool

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AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

VPPS Foundational System


South Bend, Indiana

AMI / AMR

10,000 Smart Meters


Mesh Network
Communications
End-use Tariffs
End-use Controls
(Thermostat)

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AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

South Bend Distribution Automation


Dynamic circuit reconfiguration
8 Circuits
18 Reclosers

VAR Automation
24 Capacitor Banks

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AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

Columbus, Ohio
Integrated Volt VAR Control

6 Stations
17 Circuits

Two control schemes

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AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

Integrated Volt VAR Control Concept:

1. Utilize communications and computerized intelligence to control voltage


regulators and capacitors on the distribution system, resulting in lower
demand and increased energy efficiency

2. Optimize power factor and voltage levels based on selectable parameters

3. Finer control of voltage levels can Studies indicate a 1% voltage


reduction is likely to cause a 0.7% reduction in KW demand and a
similar or better reduction kVAR demand

4. Benefits are highly predictable because customer consumption is reduced


with no action required on their part

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AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

St Joseph, Michigan
Community Energy Storage

1 MW, 40 – 25 kW units

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AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

CES is a distributed fleet of small energy storage units connected to the


secondary of transformers serving a few houses or small commercial loads.

STATION

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AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

Community Energy Storage Unit Specifications


Key Parameters Value
Power 25 kW
Energy 50 kWh
Voltage 240 / 120V
Round Trip AC > 85%
Efficiency
Life > 3000 cycles, 15 years
Audible Noise < 48dBA (no fans or filters)
Size Comparable to a
Pad-mount transformer

www.aeptechcenter.com/ces

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AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

Community Energy Storage Fleet Deployment


ƒ Capital deferral of Transmission, Station, and Circuit
improvements
ƒ Scalable, flexible deployment by location and phase
ƒ Integration into circuit voltage and VAR control
ƒ Improved reliability, including reduction of momentary interruptions
ƒ Improved operations including reduction of cold load pick-up
ƒ Improved power quality, flicker (transformer size)

STATION

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AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

Tariff Flat Rate Real Time Pricing


Demand No Control Critical Load Only
Storage Peak Shaving Reliability
IVVC VAR Control Demand Reduction

Fossil DG Backup Only On-Peak Supply


Solar Cloudy Sunny
Wind Calm Windy
Fuel Cell Min Base Supply Max Base Supply

External Backup Only Full Demand Supply

Output Month Year


$ 24.57
(e.g. Cost)

Energy
Internal Power Supply
Deficiency
Optimize for Reliability Demand

Surplus Energy
Optimize for Cost

Optimize for Efficiency

Daily Time Cycle


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AEP / EPRI Virtual Power Plant Simulator

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