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WISENET

CONTENTS

1.ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………………….1

2.INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………2

3.SYSTEM DESCRIPTION……………………………………………………………...3

3.1PRIMARY SUBSYSTEMS…………………………………………………...4

3.1.1DATA ANALYSIS………………………………………………….4

3.1.2DATA ACQUISITION………………………………………………4

3.2SYSTEM COMPONENTS…………………………………………………….5

3.2.1CLIENT……………………………………………………………..5

3.2.2SERVER…………………………………………………………….6

3.3.3SENSOR MOTES…………………………………………………...8

4.HARDWARE DESIGN…………………………………………………………………9

5.SOFTWARE DESIGN-SHELF PRODUCTS…………………………………………13

6.SOFTWARE COMPONENTS-CUSTOM…………………………………………….17

7.FUTURE WORK………………………………………………………………………18

8.CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………………...19

9.REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………...20

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WISENET

ABSTRACT

WISENET is a wireless sensor network that monitors the

environmental conditions such as light, temperature, and humidity. This

network is comprised of nodes called “motes” that form an ad-hoc network

to transmit this data to a computer that function as a server. The server stores

the data in a database where it can later be retrieved and analyzed via a web-

based interface. The network works successfully with an implementation of

one sensor mote.

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WISENET

Introduction:

The last few years have seen the emergence of numerous new wireless

technologies, some of which (for example IEEE 802.11b, Bluetooth, etc...) have reached

the market recently. While the general trend is to offer higher and higher data rates, there

are many existing and new applications that do not require such a high bandwidth, but

would strongly benefit from a wireless communication link. Examples of such

applications are wireless sensor networks. In this perspective, the Microelectronics

Division has launched a project called WISENET. Its main objective is to develop a low-

power wireless ad-hoc network made of many distributed microsensors that are

energetically autonomous (usually battery operated) and able to communicate amongst

them and with the external world. WISENET will enable the monitoring and the control

of physical and environmental parameters for a variety of applications spanning the

home, the office, the clinic, the factory, in vehicle, over metropolitan area, and the global

environment. For example, WISENET will monitor security and safety in the future

homes and offices

The technological drive for smaller devices using less power with greater

functionality has created new potential applications in the sensor and data acquisition

sectors. Low-power microcontrollers with RF transceivers and various digital and analog

sensors allow a wireless, battery-operated network of sensor modules (“motes”) to

acquire a wide range of data. The TinyOS is a real-time operating system to address the

priorities of such a sensor network using low power, hard real-time constraints, and

robust communications.

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WISENET

The first goal of WISENET is to create a new hardware platform to

take advantage of newer microcontrollers with greater functionality and more features.

This involves selecting the hardware, designing the motes, and porting TinyOS. Once the

platform is completed and TinyOS was ported to it, the next stage is to use this platform

to create a small-scale system of wireless networked sensors.

System Description:

There are two primary subsystems (Data Analysis and Data

Acquisition) comprised of three major components (Client, Server, Sensor Mote

Network).

Primary Subsystems:

There are two top-level subsystems –

Data Analysis

Data Acquisition.

Data Analysis:

This subsystem is software-only (relative to WISENET). It relied on existing

Internet and web (HTTP) infrastructure to provide communications between the Client and Server

components. The focus of this subsystem was to selectively present the collected environmental data

to the end user in a graphical manner.

Data Acquisition:

The purpose of this subsystem is to collect and store environmental data for later

processing by the Data Analysis subsystem. This is a mix of both PC & embedded system software, as

well as embedded system hardware. It is composed of both the Server and Sensor Mote Network

components.

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System Components:

System components are Client, Server, and Sensor Mote Network.

CLIENT SERVER SENSOR MOTE NETWORK

Office2
Internet HTTP
RS232 SERIAL
980MHZ RF Comm.
Gateway
TCP/IP
HTTP Office1
Server
System
Wise
DB
Lab A Lab B
Web
Program
Web
Browser TCP/IP
SQL
Database
TCP/IP

Data Analysis Subsystem Data Acquisition Subsystem

Figure 1: WISENET System Block Diagram

Client:

The Client component is necessary but external to the development of WISENET.

That is, any computer with a web browser and Internet access could be a Client. It served only as a

user interface to the Data Analysis subsystem.

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USER SERVER

Requests WEB page Requested WEB


CLIENT
page
Inputs &
Outputs
USER SERVER

Requested WEB page Requests WEB page

Figure 2: Client Component Inputs/Outputs

Server:

The Server is a critical component as the link between the Data Acquisition and

Data Analysis subsystems. On the Data Analysis side, an web (HTTP) server hosting a web

application. When a page request came in, the web server executes the web application, which

retrieved data from the database, processes it, and returns a web page that the web server

transmitted to the Client. For the Data Acquisition system there is a daemon (WiseDB) running to

facilitate communication with the Sensor Mote Network.

CLIENT SENSOR NETWORK


WEB page Requests SERVER Data packets

Inputs & (Via GATEWAY MOTE)


Outputs
CLIENT SENSOR NETWORK

Requested WEB page Commands

Figure 3: Server Components Inputs/Outputs

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This daemon is responsible for collecting raw data packets from the Sensor

Mote Network. These packets are then processed to convert the raw data into meaningful

environmental data. This processed data is then inserted into the database. Thus the database is

the link between the Data Analysis and Data Acquisition subsystems. The Server also had the

potential to send commands to the Sensor Mote Network (via the gateway mote), although this

functionality was not explored in WISENET.

It should be noted that since the SQL database connections can be made via

TCP/IP, only the web server and web-program (see figure 4) needed to be located on the same

physical machine. The web server, the database, and WiseDB could all be on different physical

machines connected via a LAN or the Internet. This allows a flexible Server component

implementation that is useful during WISENET development.

CLIENT HTTP
Server

SENSOR NETWORK
WEB TinyOS
Program Daemon
WISEDB (GATEWAY MOTE)

SQL
Database

TCP/IP TCP/IP

Figure 4: Server Component Block Diagram

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Sensor Motes:

The primary focus of WISENET is the development of the Sensor Mote

Network component. It is the component responsible for collecting and transmitting raw

environmental data to the Server. There is also the potential for the motes to receive commands

from the Server, although that functionality may not be implemented in WISENET. Uses for this

feature would include server-based synchronization and wireless network reprogramming.

SERVER PC SENSOR MOTES SENSOR NETWORK


COMMANDS SENSOR NETWORK DATA PACKETS

INPUTS
(GATEWAY MOTE) SENSOR NETWORK
ONLY
&
OUTPUTS DATA PACKETS

SERVER PC ENVIRONMENT
DATA PACKETS HUMIDITY, LIGHT etc.,

Figure 5: Sensor Mote Component Inputs/Outputs

This component consists of two parts. The first is the sensor mote. The primary

purpose of the sensor mote is to collect and transmit raw environmental data. When not doing this, it

went into a low-power idle mode to conserve energy. Another aspect of the sensor motes involved ad-

hoc networking and may be for multi-hop routing;

The gateway mote is the second part of the Sensor Mote Network. Its purpose is to

serve as the liaison between the Server and the Sensor Mote Network and deliver all the data packets

to WiseDB. In theory both standard and gateway motes could be implemented on the same hardware

PCB and with the same software. For WISENET, however, resource and time constraints necessitated

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the use of slightly different hardware and software configurations for gateway versus standard motes,

as described below.

Hardware Design:

The selection of components for the sensor motes is a critical process in

the development of WISENET. Great functionality and low power are two of the highest

priorities in evaluating the fitness of both the microcontroller and the sensor candidates.

WISENET is introduced to the new state-of-the-art Chipcon CC1010 microcontroller

with integrated RF transceiver. After a little research it was decided the CC1010 would

make the perfect microcontroller.

It had the following feature list:

1.Optimized 8051-core

Most of the early embedded microcontrollers use processor architectures

that were taken from eight bit microprocessors. This is the worst way because the

processor addressing is usually not optimized for accessing local hardware registers

and their individual bits. Two devices which buck this trend are the Microchip PIC

and the Intel 8051. The 8051 was designed from the prespective of what a

microcontroller is and what it has to do. It included in the basic design was 4K of

Read Only Program Memory, 128 Bytes of Internal RAM, a USART and 32 I/O Pins.

The only major problem with the 8051 architecture is the twelve clock cycles per

instruction cycle. This has made the 8051 appear non-competitive to other

microcontrollers which can have as few as one clock cycle per instruction cycles

2. Active (14.8 mA), Idle (29 _A) and sleep (0.2 _A) power modes

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3.32 kB flash memory

Flash memory is a form of EEPROM (Electrically-Erasable Programmable Read-

Only Memory) that allows multiple memory locations to be erased or written in one

programming operation. Normal EEPROM only allows one location at a time to be

erased or written, meaning that flash can operate at higher effective speeds when the

systems using it read and write to different locations at the same time. All types of

flash memory and EEPROM wear out after a certain number of erase operations.

Flash memory is made in two forms: NOR flash and NAND flash.. This makes it

suitable for storage of program code that needs to be infrequently updated, as in

digital cameras and PDAs. However its I/O interface allows only sequential access to

data. This makes it suitable for mass-storage devices such as PC cards and various

memory cards, and somewhat less useful for computer memory.

4. 2 kB +128 bytes SRAM

5. Three channel 10-bit ADC

10bit Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) uses a four wire SPI interface.

The 8515 processor has SPI hardware support built in and using it would have been fast

with minimum software overhead. 10 bits is pretty high resolution. To avoid digital noise

on the analog signals, added a separate +5V supply (78L05) devoted just to the ADC and

the photodiodes used as inputs. The ground for all of the above was tied into one point

where the power came into the regulator. With minimal bypass capacitors on the ADC

inputs easily get stable readings

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6. Four timers / Two PWM's

There are two essentially different versions of PWM: the original very lightweight

window manager, and the newer Ion-based PWM2. PWM was the first window manager

to implement "tabbed frames" or the back then unique feature allowing multiple client

windows to be attached to the same frame. This feature helps keeping windows,

especially the numerous xterms, organized. A look at the screenshots below might clarify

the idea. Being a lightweight window manager with emphasis on usability, PWM

discards some features common in window managers these days: only window shading in

lieu of iconification is supported, there are no close and other window buttons (these

actions are available conveniently through a menu), simple and elegant look instead of

pixmapped themes, et cetera. PWM does have workspaces, menus and Window Maker

dockapp support. It has pretty good keyboard support and almost all the functionality is

configurable.

7. Hardware DES encryption/decryption

8. Hardware random bit-generator

9. Fully integrated UHF RF transceiver (433 MHz / 868 MHz nominal)

The wireless transceiver contains at least two physical links, each with its

own transmitter-receiver circuit in addition to digital and analog signal processing

circuits to communicate with other wireless units using Orthogonal Frequency-Division

Multiplexing (OFDM) protocol. The design approaches address the issues of noise

interference between analog and digital subsystems, noise interference between two links

on the same chip, and high-frequency self-test, measurement of funtional parameters

(SNR, jitter, etc.), and interface between on-chip test facilities and external low-cost

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testers. The methodology is validated by a complete design, fabrication, and test of a case

study selected in consultation with industry partners.

_ Programmable output power (-20 to 10 dBm)

_ Low current consumption (11.9 mA for RX, 17.0 mA for TX at 0dBm)

_ RSSI output that can be sampled by the on-chip ADC

WISENET includes a socketed evaluation board (CC1010EB) and

two evaluation modules (CC1010EM). CC1010 - The industry's first truly complete RF

System-on-Chip solution! On a single die, the award winning 300 to 1000 MHz CMOS

CC1000 RF Transceiver has been integrated with an industry standard 8051

microcontrollercore The CC1010 integrates a very low-power 300 to 1000 MHz RF

transceiver and a 8051-compatible microcontroller that has 32 kB in-system

programmable Flash, hardware DES encryption/decryption and a three channel 10-bit

ADC. This means only a few external passive components are necessary to make a

powerful embedded system with wireless communication capabilities, sensor interfacing

possibilities and a lot of processing power.The evaluation board provided access to all of

the analog and digital pins on the CC1010, as well as two serial ports, a parallel

programming port, RF network analysis ports, and other peripherals. Each evaluation

module featured the CC1010, RF network hardware, an antenna port, and an analog

temperature sensor. The modules connected to the evaluation board via two sockets.

These sockets also allowed the possibility of designing a custom expansion board.

WISENET is designed to measure light, temperature, and humidity.

There are many digital temperature sensors available, but there is a much smaller

selection of digital humidity and light sensors. A larger selection of analog sensors are

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available; however, analog sensors tended to require more power and be less precise than

their digital counterparts, in addition to requiring more complex circuitry. For these

reasons, digital sensors are given higher priority. Two new sensors provided the required

functionality. First, Sensirion released the SHT11, a digital temperature and humidity

sensor with ultra low power consumption (550 MicroA while measuring, 1 MicroA when

in sleep mode), a 14 bit analog to digital converter, and the desired accuracy (±5%

relative humidity, ±3ºC). It also featured a simple serial interface. The light sensor chosen

was the Texas Advanced Optoelectonic Solutions (TAOS) TSL2550 ambient light sensor

with SMBus interface. This sensor also featured ultra-low power (600 MicroA active, 10

MicroA power down), a 12-bit analog to digital converter, and dual photo diodes. The

TSL2550 uses both photo diodes to compensate for infrared light and to produce a

measurement that approximates the human eye response.

The final stage of hardware design involved creating the Add-on

module. The WISENET Add-On Module has the two digital sensors described above.

The Sensirion SHT-11 humidity and temperature sensor has a 2-wire proprietary serial

interface. The TAOS TSL2550 digital light sensor uses an SMBus serial interface.

SMBus is a standardized 2-wire serial interface. The layout must be carefully designed

such that the light, temperature and humidity sensors does not underneath the evaluation

module when it is plugged into the board, which would make them useless.

Software Design-shelf products:

The server using for WISENET should have four commercial off the shelf

applications installed on it that worked together to create the Data Analysis portion of the

Server component.

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Apache, MySQL, and PHP are open-source products freely available on the

Internet. In addition, Chart-Director the trial version of the commercial application Chart-

Director was used.

Apache is a standard web-server, which makes a web document available on the

Internet. The Apache http server is a powerful, flexible, implements the latest protocols is

highly configurable and extensible with third-party modules can be customised by

writing 'modules' using the Apache module API provides full source code and comes

with an unrestrictive license runs on Windows NT/9x, Netware 5.x and above, OS/2, and

most versions of Unix, as well as several other operating systems is actively being

developed encourages user feedback through new ideas, bug reports and patches

implements many frequently requested features, including:

 DBM databases for authentication

allows you to easily set up password-protected pages with enormous numbers of

authorized users, without bogging down the server.

 Customized responses to errors and problems

Allows you to set up files, or even CGI scripts, which are returned by the server in

response to errors and problems, e.g. setup a script to intercept 500 Server Errors

and perform on-the-fly diagnostics for both users and yourself.

 Multiple DirectoryIndex directives

Allows you to say DirectoryIndex index.html index.cgi, which instructs the server to either

send back index.html or run index.cgi when a directory URL is requested, whichever it

finds in the directory.

 Unlimited flexible URL rewriting and aliasing

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Apache has no fixed limit on the numbers of Aliases and Redirects which may be

declared in the config files. In addition, a powerful rewriting engine can be used to

solve most URL manipulation problems.

 Content negotiation

i.e. the ability to automatically serve clients of varying sophistication and HTML

level compliance, with documents which offer the best representation of information

that the client is capable of accepting.

 Virtual Hosts

A much requested feature, sometimes known as multi-homed servers. This allows the

server to distinguish between requests made to different IP addresses or names

(mapped to the same machine). Apache also offers dynamically configurable mass-

virtual hosting.

 Configurable Reliable Piped Logs

You can configure Apache to generate logs in the format that you want. In

addition, on most Unix architectures, Apache can send log files to a pipe,

allowing for log rotation, hit filtering, real-time splitting of multiple hosts into

separate logs, and asynchronous DNS resolving on the fly.

PHP is a web programming language, which allows dynamic web-pages. It

should also be designed to use along with a database and included many built-in

functions for interfacing with MySQL.

MySQL is a database that can contain any type of data and is accessed by a

TCP/IP (Internet) call.

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Chart-Director is a program that generates a graph from raw data. It is available

in many languages such as PHP, ASP, C++, and others. General features are:

Fast and Efficient

Multi-threaded architecture specially designed for the demanding requirements of

server side usage.

 Flexible

Object oriented API allows you to control and customize chart details, enabling

you to design the charts you want.

 Comprehensive Chart Styles

Pie, bar, line, spline, step line, trend line, curve-fitting, inter-line coloring, area,

scatter, bubble, box-whisker, HLOC, candlestick, simple gantt, radar, polar. XY

axis swapping (rotated charts) and 3D effects.

 Layer Architecture

Synchronized chart layers allow chart styles to overlay for arbitrary combo

chart and special effects. For example, box-whisker layers can be used to add

error symbols to any XY chart styles, and scatter layers can be used to highlight

data points with custom symbols

 CDML

The innovative ChartDirector Mark Up Language (CDML) technology allows

rich formatting of text with embedding icons and images. CDML is supported in

all ChartDirector text positions, including chart titles, legend keys, axis labels,

data labels, etc.

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 Advancedcolorsystem

In additional to ARGB colors (true color with alpha transparency), all objects in

ChartDirector can be painted using "magic colors" - colors that depend on

position. Generates image maps to support tool tips and other mouse interactions.

Ideal for "drill-down" capabilities. Tool tips are customizable and can include

custom text or data. Image maps are "open-ended" and can include user-defined

regions, such as for company logos, icons and buttons.

 Internationalization

Unicode characters support. Configurable number and date/time formats.

Software Components – Custom:

WISENET is also composed of three custom software components:

The Web program, WiseDB, and a port of TinyOS.

WISENET’s web program was written in PHP and utilized the Chart-

Director charting software. The web application queried MySQL database for the data in

the requested date range, then we use a Chart-Director to generate a graph of that data.

WiseDB is the custom software component that interfaced with the

Sensor Mote Network via a serial link to the gateway mote and with the MySQL database

via a TCP/IP link to the MySQL server application. Already we know about how

WiseDB interacted with the rest of the system. WiseDB was written in C++ and utilized

two open-source API’s (application programming interface).

The final custom software component involves porting TinyOS to the

CC1010-based hardware platform described in the Hardware Design section. As

previously mentioned, TinyOS is a real-time operating system designed for use in sensor

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network applications where low-power, limited resources and hard real-time constraints

are critical parameters. After implementing all the software and embedding in a single

system other important goal of WISENET is to completely replace the lower-layer

functionality to permit existing higher-level components and applications to be

immediately implemented on the new hardware platform without modification.

Future Work:

There are a number of future extensions for this WISENET. A few are:

We can expand the sensor mote network by adding more motes. This

would allow the development and testing of advanced network-layer functions, such as

multi-hop routing.

By creating a new PCB design that integrates the CC1010EM design with

the sensors and power hardware on a single-board another interesting feature can be

developed or adopt a standard expandable plug-in sensor interface in both hardware and

software

In researching alternative energy sources to extend mote battery life.

Possibilities include solar cells and rechargeable batteries.

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Conclusions:

Wireless sensor networks are getting smaller and faster, increasing their

potential applications in commercial, industrial, and residential environments.

WISENET, as implemented, represents one commercial application. However, the limit

of applications depends only upon the sensors used and the interpretation of the data

obtained. As the technology improves and new low-power digital sensors become more

readily available, motes will increase functionality without increasing power

consumption and will expand the wireless sensing market.

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References:
1.Atkinson, MySQL++: A C++ API for MySQL, vers 1.7.9,

<http://www.mysql.com/downloads/api-mysql++. html>.

2.Gay Levis, The nesC Language: A Holistic Approach to Network Embedded

Systems,

<http://today.cs.berkeley.edu/tos/papers/nesc.pdf>.

3.Mainwaring, Polastre, et al. Wireless Sensor Networks for Habitat Monitoring,

http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~polastre/papers/wsna02.pdf

4.Hill, Szewczyk, et al. System architecture directions for network sensors,

http://today.cs.berkeley.edu/tos/papers/tos.pdf

5.Torvmark, Application Note AN017: Low Power Systems Using the CC1010,

http://www.chipcon.com/files/AN_017_Low_Power_Systems_Using_The_CC1010_1_1.

pdf

6.Ye, Heidemann, et al. An Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor

Networks,

http://www.isi.edu/%7Eweiye/pub/smac_infocom.pdf

For software shelf products downloads, websites are:

www.apache.org

www.php.net

www.mysql.com

www.advsofteng.com/index.html

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http://Internetmaster.com/installtutorial/index.html

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