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Copy 3 FM23
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY FIELD MANUAL
2. 3

RIFLE
MARKSMANSHIP

HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY


JULY 1964
*FM 23-71
FIELD MANUAL HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
No. 23-71 WASHINGTON, D. C., 27 July 1964

RIFLE MARKSMANSHIP

Paragraph*
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ........................... 1-6
2. RIFLE MARKSMA.VSHIP FUNDAMENTALS
Section I. General ........................ 6-8 5
II. Marksmanship fundamentals .......... ....... 9-19 6
III. Corrective instruction ........... ............ .. 20-21 37
IV. Conduct of firing ........ ........................ 22-23 44
CHAPTER 3. SIGHT ADJUSTMENTS, BATTLESIGHT ZERO, AND
PROGRESS CHECKS
Section I, Sight adjustment .... ............................... 24-27 48
II. Battlesight zero ................................. 28-31 51
III. Progress check ........... ..................................... 32-34 54
CHAPTER 4. FIELD FIRING
Section I. Conduct of instruction ............................... 35-41 57
II. Range operation ... ...................................... 42-44 60
CHAPTER 5. TARGET DETECTION
Section I. General . . .................................. 45-46 71
II. Range organization and management ........................... 47-50 71
III. Conduct of training ..................................... 51-63 73
IV. Practical exercises and tests ................................. 54-56 85
CHAPTER 6. RECORD FIRING
Section I. General .......................................... 57^59 90
II. Standard record firing procedures and requirements........... 60-32 91
III. Alternate record firing procedures and requirements............ 63-65 97
CHAPTER 7. INDIVIDUAL NIGHT FIRING
Section I. General ...................-.--.-.-.------.-..,-..-......-....-. 66-67 109
II. Fundamentals . ........--.------..-....-,..-.............. 68-70 109
III. Conduct of training .... .......................... ..... 71-73 111
CHAPTER 8. ADVANCED INDIVIDUAL MARKSMANSHIP (SNIPING)
Section I. General ...................................................... 74-76 116
II. Technique of sniping .......----.-...--,.-.............,....,. 77-81 116
III. Sniper exercises.......--.........---.-..-.--.-.-.......-........ 82-84 123
APPENDIX I. REFERENCES .....--...-.---...--.-.-,......-................ 126
II. SAFETY ....................................................... 127
III. RIFLE MARKSMANSHIP COURSES.......................... 129
IV. PREMOBILIZATION READINESS
PROFICIENCY "C" COURSES ............................. 169
V. INSTALLATION OF SILHOUETTE
TARGETS ON KNOWN DISTANCE RANGES............. 189
VI. TARGET DETECTION EXERCISES......................... 195
VII. TRAINING AIDS.............................................. 206
VIII. EVOLUTION OF INDIVIDUAL WEAPONS.................. 223
INDEX 227

1 This manual supersedes FM 23-71, 5 September 1957.

TAGO 6024-A
CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1. Purpose dividual rifle marksmanship, battlesight zero,


a. This manual provides training guidance field firing, target detection, record firing, in
in developing and maintaining the rifle marks dividual night firing, and sniping. Information
manship proficiency of the individual soldier on the mechanical operation, functioning, and
and is applicable to both nuclear and nonnuclear nomenclature of rifles may be found in the
warfare. field manuals appropriate to the particular
6. Users of this manual are encouraged to weapon (app. I).
submit recommended changes or comments to
4. Rifle Marksmanship Training Courses
improve the manual. Comments should be
keyed to the specific page, paragraph, and line In order to provide maximum flexibility in
of the text in which the change is recom accomplishing the overall objectives of the
mended. Reasons should be provided for each United States Army rifle marksmanship pro
comment to insure understanding and complete gram, several marksmanship courses have been
evaluation. Comments should be forwarded di developed. These courses can be broadly divided
rect to the Commandant, United States Army between those designed for active duty per
Infantry School, Fort Benning, Ga. sonnel and those designed for members of the
reserve components. Within each of these cate
2. Objectives gories, there are several distinct courses of
The objectives of the United States Army instruction, each tailored for specific range
rifle marksmanship program are facilities and/or the experience level of the
a. To develop in every soldier during basic soldiers receiving the training. The require
combat training ments and a synopsis of instruction for each
(1) The confidence, will, knowledge, and course are outlined in appendices III and IV.
skills required to fire a rifle and hit The courses of fire outlined in this manual will
enemy personnel in combat. not be changed except by permission of the
(2) The ability to apply correct techniques Commanding General, United States Continen
of rifle marksmanship when func tal Army Command.
tioning as an individual in a fire unit
engaged in combat. 5. Training Conditions
6. To insure that every soldier maintains a a. The procedures and techniques used in
continuing degree of proficiency in combat the United States Army rifle marksmanship
rifle firing, consistent with the mission of the training program are based on the concept that
unit to which he is assigned. riflemen must be proficient marksmen capable
c. To provide in time of peace a broad base of effectively applying their shooting skills in
of shooters from which potential precision combat. Initially during marksmanship train
marksmen can be selected and further trained ing, emphasis is placed on learning or reviewing
to successfully compete in interservice, civilian, shooting fundamentals. However, these funda
and international competition, and in time of mentals are taught in an environment designed
war to provide an instructor base or cadre for to prepare soldiers for later combat-type exer
sniper training if it is required. cises. For example, the soldier wears the nor
mal equipment of a combat rifleman during live
3. Scope fire exercises and practices fundamentals while
This manual contains detailed information firing from positions approximating those
on conducting training in fundamentals of in commonly used in combat. Later in the course,
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emphasis is gradually focused on the combat usually be firing from a foxhole posi
applications of marksmanship in addition to tion or other type defensive em
the fundamentals. These applications are based placement.
on conditions affecting marksmanship on the (7) Selecting an aiming point in elevation
battlefield. The more common of these are is difficult because of the low outline
(1) Enemy personnel are seldom visible and obscurity of most combat targets.
except in the assault. (8) The conditions of rifle fire in combat
(2) Most combat targets are linear in rarely require or permit mechanical
nature and will consist of a number adjustments of the rear sight.
of men or objects irregularly spaced
along covered or concealed areas such 6. Competition between individuals and units
as ground folds, hedges, and borders is an effective means of motivating the indi
of woods. vidual and engendering unit pride, but it should
(3) Most combat targets can be detected never be fostered at the expense of the ultimate
by smoke, flash, dust, noise, or move objective of the marksmanship program to
ment and will only be visible for a produce well-trained combat riflemen. Should
brief moment. this objective become secondary to obtaining
(4) Combat targets can be engaged by us high scores on the range or qualifying the maxi
ing nearby objects as reference points. mum number of soldiers, then it becomes a
(5) The range at which individual person matter of time before the more difficult aspects
nel targets can be detected and ef of the marksmanship courses are either
fectively engaged will rarely exceed eliminated or simplified to the point of being
300 meters. useless. None of the marksmanship courses,
(6) The nature of the target, irregularities techniques, requirements, or objectives out
of terrain, and vegetation will gen lined in this manual are beyond the capability
erally require a rifleman to use a po of any individual who has been found physi
sition other than prone in order to cally qualified for military service PROVIDED
fire effectively on the target. In a HE IS GIVEN GOOD INSTRUCTION AND
defensive situation, the rifleman will PROPER SUPERVISION.

TAGO 5024-A
CHAPTER 2

RIFLE MARKSMANSHIP FUNDAMENTALS

Section I. GENERAL

6. Purpose and Scope manship without becoming concerned with the


a. Rifle marksmanship fundamentals train recoil of the weapon. For planning purposes,
ing and 25-meter (1000-inch) firing teaches the five rounds of .22 caliber ammunition can be
soldier the habits of good shooting and pre substituted for three rounds of service ammuni
pares him for more advanced field firing exer tion. When .22 caliber rifles are used, instruc
cises. tors must exercise close supervision of firers
when the transition is made to the service rifle.
b. To be proficient, a combat rifleman must It is during the first few exercises with the serv
be able to detect targets, determine the ranges ice rifle that firers are most likely to begin
to targets, and hit the targets when he fires "flinching" or "bucking" (par. 96(8) (b)) be
upon them. There are many variables affecting cause of the added recoil. Such errors must be
an individual's ability to detect and determine quickly identified and corrected before they
the range to combat targets. These will be become habit.
discussed in chapter 5, Target Detection. How
ever, by comparison, the factors affecting a 8. Early Firing Exercise and
rifleman's ability to fire and hit the target are Recoil Demonstration
relatively constant. Essentially, the rifleman
An early firing exercise and recoil demon
must be able to assume a firing position which
stration should be conducted for soldiers who
affords him protection and at the same time
have little or no previous marksmanship ex
permits unrestricted observation of the target
perience. The early firing exercise is designed
area. He must hold the rifle in such a manner
to motivate soldiers toward the marksmanship
that he and his rifle form a single, steady unit.
training. The recoil demonstration clearly
He must know how to correctly align his rifle
shows the soldiers that if they handle the
on the target; and, finally, he must be able to
weapon properly, they will have nothing to fear
fire his rifle without disturbing this alignment.
from recoil.
The skills needed to accomplish these require
ments are known collectively as rifle marks a. Early Firing Exercises. After receiving a
manship fundamentals. brief orientation on range procedures, safety,
c. The degree of proficiency attained by a and the prone position, each soldier fires five
rifleman is largely dependent upon the correct rounds of .22 caliber ammunition (or three
teaching and application of marksmanship rounds of service ammunition if .22 caliber
fundamentals. Consequently, the sequence of rifles are not used) at a 25-meter target. When
instruction outlined in Army Subject Sched all soldiers have completed firing, they are as
sembled at a central location to witness a well-
ule 23-31 should be followed.
trained rifleman fire 10 rounds of .22 caliber
7. Use of .22 Caliber Rifles (or nine rounds of service ammunition) at a
Soldiers with little or no previous marksman 25-meter target. By comparing his target with
ship experience should be given fundamentals that of the well-trained rifleman, each soldier
training on the 25-meter (1000-inch) range will see a definite need for further marksman
using the .22 caliber rifle. By using this rifle, ship training.
the soldier can focus his attention on learning b. Recoil Demonstration. A recoil demon
and practicing the fundamentals of good marks stration should be conducted before the soldier
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fires the service rifle for the first time. The will usually convince even the most skeptical
demonstration is fired by a well-trained rifle since it is fired with the rifle butt pressed
man. He fires the first round while holding the firmly against the point of the demonstrator's
rifle to his side, in one hand. Next, he fires a chin. As long as the demonstrator keeps the
round while holding the butt of the weapon rifle butt pressed firmly against his body, he
tightly against his thigh. The third round is will have no difficulty in performing the demon
fired with the rifle butt pressed firmly against
the demonstrator's groin. A fourth round is stration. The soldiers should be instructed in
fired with the butt of the rifle placed firmly the principle of pressing the butt firmly against
against the pit of the stomach. The final round the body to avoid the affects of recoil.

Section II. MARKSMANSHIP FUNDAMENTALS

9. The Integrated Act of Shooting the front sight blade, and the target
Combat rifle firing is an integrated act in or aiming point in their proper rela
volving several techniques and procedures tionship. This relationship is known
necessary to fire the rifle and hit the target. as sight picture. Sight picture in
This means that the procedures used in firing volves two elements sight alignment
the rifle in combat are applied instinctively and and placement of the target or aiming
almost simultaneously. The integrated act of point.
shooting can be divided into two parts aiming (a) Correct sight alignment. To obtain
and the steady hold, correct sight alignment, the sights
should be aligned as shown in fig
a. Aiming. ure 1. Notice that the top center of
(I) In aiming, the firer is concerned with the front sight blade is exactly in
correctly pointing his rifle so the bullet the center of the rear sight aperture.
will hit the target when he fires. To If an imaginary horizontal line is
do this, he must have the rear sight, drawn through the center of the
rear sight aperture, the top of the
front sight blade will appear to
touch this line. If an imaginary
vertical line is drawn through the
center of the rear sight aperture, the
line will appear to bisect the front
sight blade.
(6) Correct placement of the target or
aiming point. The aiming point is
correctly placed when the target is
centered on and tangent to the
top of the front sight blade. An
imaginary vertical line drawn
through the center of the front sight
blade will appear to cut the target in
half (fig. 2).
(c) Correct sight picture. Correct sight
picture is obtained when the sights
are properly aligned and the aiming
point is in the correct relationship
to the front sight blade (fig. 3).
(2) Importance of sight alignment.
(a) At some point in his marksmanship
Figure 1. Correct sight alignment. training, a soldier may experience
TAGO 6024-A
wider as the range to the target in
creases. On the other hand, an error
in the placement of the aiming point
causes a miss that remains constant
regardless of the range. On the
battlefield, a near miss as a result
of an aiming point error can be as
effective as a point of aim hit. For
example, a soldier is approximately
20 inches wide. Consequently, a
rifleman could be several inches off
his desired aiming point and still
hit an enemy soldier. However, if
the error was due to sight align
ment, the bullet could miss a man-
size target by as much as several
feet, depending on the range. Sight
alignment, then, is more important
than the placement of the aiming
point.
To insure the correctness of sight
Figure 2. Correct placement of the aiming point.
alignment the eye must be focused
on the front sight blade at the in
stant the rifle fires. However, the
difficulty in hitting the target even target cannot be ignored, so the
firer must alternate the focus of his
though he appears to be applying
eye between the target and his
the proper marksmanship funda
front sight blade. Initially, the
mentals. The trouble may be either
incorrect sight alignment or im
proper placement of the aiming
point. If the firer understands the
principles of aiming, he will rarely
commit both errors simultaneously.
The reason for this lies in the pe
culiarities of the eye. The eye can
not focus on two objects at different
ranges at the same time. If the
firer focuses his eye on the target,
the rifle sights will appear hazy and
indistinct, greatly increasing the
possibility of incorrect sight align
ment. Conversely, focusing the eye
on the front sight blade causes the
target to become indistinct. There
fore, the problem is whether sight
alignment or placement of the aim
ing point is of the greater impor
tance to the firer. An error in either
will cause the bullet to miss the
aiming point (fig. 4). However, a
sight alignment error results in a
miss that grows proportionately Figure 3. Correct sight picture.

TAGO 6024-A
A A A
\
25O METERS 25O METERS

25 METERS 25 METERS

PERFECT SIGHT PICTURE ERROR IN PLACEMENT OF ERROR CAUSED BY


AIMING POINT IMPROPER SIGHT ALIGNMENT

Figure 4. Importance of correct sight alignment.

firer should focus on the front sight distinct while the target and rear
blade and properly align his sights. sight aperture appear to be slightly
Then he shifts his focus to the tar blurred.
get and completes the sight picture.
Finally, as he presses the trigger, (3) Location of the eye in relation to the
he again shifts the focus of his eye rear sight aperture. The firer should
to the front sight blade thus in keep his eye as close to the rear sight
suring correct sight alignment as aperture as possible without straining
the rifle fires. At this moment, the the muscles of the neck to do so. The
firer should see a sight picture simi closer his eye is to the aperture, the
lar to that shown in figure 3. No more of the target area the firer will
tice that the front sight blade is be able to see.

8 TAGO 5024-A
(4) Clean and blackened sights (fig. 5). (a) First aiming exercise. The instruc
A firer can experience difficulty in tor explains the proper way to ob
obtaining a proper sight picture be tain the correct sight picture using
cause of shiny or dirty sights. A shiny the M15 sight device (fig. 6). Each
front or rear sight will glare and firer is then issued a device and re
partially blind the firer. Dirt can quired to establish correct sight
change the distinctive sight outline alignment and correct placement of
and cause errors in alignment. Thus, the aiming point. The coach checks
it is important in training and in the firer's results and determines
combat to continually inspect rifle if a correct sight picture has been
sights, cleaning and blackening them obtained. Assistant instructors
as necessary. During marksmanship should continually check the work
training, materials for this purpose of firers and coaches. The coach
should be available on the range. In and/or assistant instructor points
combat, the soldier can use a cleaning out errors as they occur and in
patch or handkerchief to clean the structs the firer on how to correct
sights, and he can blacken them with them. This exercise should be con
an ordinary match. tinued until the instructors are sat
(5) Aiming exercises. There are three isfied that all soldiers understand
aiming exercises which may be used to the principles and are capable of ob
effectively teach the principles of cor taining a correct sight picture.
rect sight picture. These exercises are (b) Second aiming exercise. The aim
best conducted by organizing the unit ing bar (fig. 7) is designed to teach
into two distinct groups called sight alignment and placement of
"orders." One order is designated as the aiming point. Continual visual
firers, while the other acts as coaches. checks are made by the assistant
As each training phase is completed, instructors to insure that coaches
the orders should exchange functions; and firers apply the correct prin
that is, the firer becomes the coach and ciples of sight alignment and place
the coach becomes the firer. One cadre ment of the aiming point. This ex
assistant instructor should be avail ercise is conducted as follows:
able for each eight to twelve points to 1. The firer moves the sights on the
supervise practical work exercises. aiming bar until he considers the
The first exercise is conducted using sight alignment to be correct. The
an Ml5 sighting device, the second an coach checks the result. If the
aiming bar, and the third a rifle rest alignment is incorrect, the coach
and target box. determines the error and makes

SHINY DIRTY CLEAN AND BLACKENED

Figure 5. Importance of clean and blackened sights.


TAGO 5024-A
of correct fight alignment are
clearly understood by both orders.
£. In the second step of the exercise,
a small metal target is placed on
the aiming bar, and the soldier is
required to complete the sight pic
ture by placing the aiming point
in correct relation to the sight
alignment. As in the first part of
the exercise, the firer's completed
work is checked by the coach, and
IN SI6MTIN6 AN! AIMING, TNBFS both are continually checked by
NO Sld TNUI6 AS ALMOST RIGHT the assistant instructors. The
coach again corrects the errors of
the firer. If the sight picture is
correct, the coach moves the tar
get and sights to cause improper
sight alignment and placement of
the aiming point. The firer must
then repeat the exercise.
(c) Third aiming exercise. To conduct
this exercise, a rifle, a rifle rest, a
target box, and a target disc are re
quired for each coach and firer team
(fig. 8). Blank paper attached to
m Sim picrm is mm the target box is used to record
mm OR rr is sight pictures. A miniature 25-
meter (1000-inch) target is painted
on the disc. A small hole is made in
the center of the disc so the coach
can insert the point of a pencil and
mark the firer's sight picture. The
exercise is conducted as follows:
1. The rear sight is set at 12 clicks
of elevation and zero windage, and
the rifle is then braced in the rest.
The firer assumes a position be
side the rifle so his eye is posi
tioned as close as possible to the
Figure 6, M15 sighting device. rear sight without touching the
rifle. He places both elbows on
the ground and rests his chin in
the necessary corrections. If the the palm of his left hand. The
alignment is correct, the coach coach sits on the target box locat
moves the sights to cause a mis ed 15 meters from the firer. The
alignment and returns the aiming coach holds the target disc against
bar to the firer. The firer must the paper on the target box. The
then correct the misalignment. firer signals the coach with his
Assistant instructors should con right hand to move the disc until
tinually check the performance of the correct sight picture is ob
coaches and firers. This exercise tained. He then gives the com
is continued until the principles mand, MARK. The coach records
TAGO 5024-A
10
Figure 7. Aiming bar.

TAGO 5024-A 11
Figure 8. Setup for third aiming exercise.

the sight picture by marking the 2. An assistant instructor critiques


paper with his pencil through the the shot group, using the target
hole in the disc. This procedure is analysis card (fig. 25) as a guide.
repeated until three sight pic A good shot group can be covered
tures, called a shot group, have by the unsharpened end of a
been recorded. The firer must pencil.
keep his eye in the same position b. Steady Hold Factors. As the name im
with relation to the sight aperture plies, steady hold is the technique of holding the
for each exercise. rifle as steady as possible while aligning the
Caution: To obtain valid re sights and firing the weapon. There are eight
sults, there must be no movement factors which affect holding a rifle steady.
of the rifle, the rifle rest, or the These factors are the same for all firing posi
target box until all three sight tions ; however, the precise manner in which
pictures have been recorded. If they apply differs slightly with the various po
any of these items are accidentally sitions.
moved before three sight pictures (1) Grip of the left hand. The rifle should
have been recorded, the firer must lie across the heel of the left hand and
repeat the entire exercise. rest in the "V" formed by the thumb

12 TAGO 6024-A
and forefinger. The grip on the rifle The trigger finger is positioned on the
should be relaxed but, at the same time, trigger so there is no contact between
exert a slight rearward pressure. The the finger and the side of the stock.
rifle is held at a point which suits both This permits' the trigger to be pressed
the conformation of the firer's body straight to the rear without disturb
and the location of the target. If the ing the aim of the rifle.
target is high, the left hand is moved (4) Right elbow. The location of the right
closer to the body thereby raising the elbow is important since it provides
muzzle of the rifle. Conversely, if the balance to the firer's position. Cor
target is low, the left hand is moved rectly positioned, the elbow helps form
forward causing a corresponding drop a pocket in the shoulder for the rifle
in the muzzle of the rifle. The left butt. The exact location of the right
wrist should be as straight as possible. elbow varies in each position and will
The left elbow should be directly under be described in the explanation of the
the receiver of the rifle or as close to positions.
this position as the conformation of (5) Spot weld. When the right hand and
the firer's body will permit. With the elbow are in the correct positions, the
left elbow directly under the rifle, the firer lowers his head until his cheek
bones (rather than the muscles) of the is touching his right thumb. He press
arm support the rifle's weight. The es against his thumb, rolling up a small
further away from this position that pad of flesh between the cheek and
the elbow is located, the greater will thumb. There should then be firm
be the muscular effort needed to sup contact from the firer's cheek, through
port the rifle. The resulting tensed his right thumb to the stock of the
muscles cause trembling and a cor rifle (fig. 9). Thus, when the rifle is
responding movement of the rifle. On fired, the head and rifle will recoil as
the other hand, firers must avoid ex one unit. This eliminates the possibil
cessive muscular strain in positioning ity of the thumb striking the cheek or
the elbow as this will also cause trem face and perhaps injuring the firer. In
bling. Consequently, inexperienced addition, it facilitates rapid recovery
firers must, of necessity, undergo a between shots and assists the firer in
trial and error period until they find habitually keeping his eye the same
the position best suited to them. distance from the rear sight aperture.
(2) Rifle butt in the pocket of the shoulder. The soldier should try to place his eye
The firer must place the rifle butt in the same location regardless of his
firmly into the pocket formed in the position. In the standing and kneel
right shoulder. The proper placement ing positions, a soldier whose arms are
of the butt lessens the effect of recoil, relatively short may not be able to
helps steady the rifle, and prevents obtain the spot weld as described
the rifle butt from slipping on the above. In this case, he must press his
shoulder during firing. cheek tightly against the stock of the
(3) Grip of the right hand. The firer's rifle. He should practice this tech
right hand should grip the small of nique so he will consistently place his
the stock firmly but not rigidly. A cheek against the same spot on the
firm rearward pressure must be ex rifle stock. This is necessary so his
erted by the right hand to keep the eye will always be the same distance
rifle butt in its proper position in the from the rear sight aperture.
pocket of the shoulder, and keep the (6) Breathing. If the firer continues norm
butt secure enough against the shoul al breathing while aiming and firing
der to avoid effects of recoil. The the rifle, the movement of his chest
thumb extends over the small of the will cause a corresponding movement
stock in order to obtain a spot weld. of the rifle. To avoid this, the soldier
TAGO 6024-A
13
Fitjure 9, Spot weld.

must learn to hold his breath for the must use relaxation to check that he
few seconds required to aim and fire has a natural position. This is accom
the rifle. Initially, the firer takes a plished by relaxing when in position
normal breath, releases part of it, and and checking to see if the sight picture
holds the remainder in his lungs by is correct. If the sight picture is not
locking his throat. He should not hold correct the body is moved until in a
his breath for more than ten seconds; relaxed position the desired point of
otherwise, his vision may begin to aim is achieved. Muscle tension should
blur, and lung strain may cause muscu not be used to position the weapon.
lar tension. (8) Trigger control.
(7) Relaxation. The soldier must learn to (a) Trigger control is the independent
relax as much as possible in the var action of the forefinger on the trigger.
ious firing positions. Undue muscle The trigger must be brought straight
strain or tension causes trembling to the reai' with a heavy initial pres
which is transmitted to the rifle. If he sure to take up the slack, followed by
finds that a particular position causes a continuous increase of pressure. The
excessive strain, he should vary the po trigger finger should contact the trig
sition slightly until the cause of the ger at some point between the tip and
strain has been eliminated. The firer second joint of the finger (fig. 10).

14 TAGO 5024-A
DAYLIGHT BETWEEN TRIGGER
FINGER AND STOCK

Figure 10. Correct trigger finger position.

The finger must not touch the side of throughout rifle marksmanship train
the stock as this will cause pressure ing.
to be applied at a slight angle rather (b) Since trigger control is not only the
than straight to the rear. Such a side most important steady hold factor
pressure on the rifle, no matter how but is also the most difficult marks
slight, will tend to pull the sights off manship fundamental for the inex
the aiming point. Correctly applied perienced f irer to master, the major
pressure on the trigger causes no ity of shooting errors stem directly
movement of the rifle barrel. It also or indirectly from the improper ap
prevents the rifleman from knowing plication of this technique. Failure
exactly when the rifle will fire, thus to hit the target frequently results
helping him to avoid flinching. Trig from the firer jerking the trigger
ger control is the most important of or applying pressure on both the
the steady hold factors and without its trigger and the side of the rifle.
proper application, the other marks Either of these actions can produce
manship skills are practically useless. misses. Therefore, instructors
Therefore, instructors should continu should always check for indications
ally emphasize this fundamental of improper trigger control since an
TAGO 6024-A IS
error in this technique can start a e. During training in fundamentals, posi
chain reaction of other errors. By tions are taught as a step-by-step process. That
so doing, the instructor can avoid is, the soldier is guided through a series of pre
wasting time correcting a symptom cise movements until he is in the correct posi
rather than the true cause of a tion. The purpose of this is to insure that he
firer's difficulty. Some of the indi correctly applies all of the steady hold factors.
cations of improper trigger control Through practice, the soldier will gradually be
are come accustomed to the feel of the positions,
1. The flinch. This is the firer's re and eventually he will know instinctively
action to the anticipated recoil of whether his position is correct. This is particu
the exploding round. It is indi larly important in combat since the soldier
cated by the firer moving his must be able to assume positions rapidly. There
head, closing his eyes, tensing his are any number of intermediate positions a
left arm, moving his shoulders to combat rifleman might use before assuming his
the rear, or a combination of final firing position. Consequently, he must
these. know instinctively whether his position is cor
2. The buck. This is an attempt by rect rather than follow a set sequence of move
the firer to take up the recoil, ments to insure its correctness.
just before the weapon fires, by d. Throughout position training, the soldier
tensing his shoulder muscles and should be continually checked on the proper ap
moving his shoulder forward. plication of the eight steady hold factors, par
3. The jerk. This is an attempt by ticularly trigger control. This check is the re
the firer to make the rifle fire at sponsibility of the coach who must closely ob
a certain time by rapidly applying serve the firer's actions during all phases of
pressure on the trigger. He may fundamentals training.
either try to fire the instant he e. The methods of assuming the positions and
has a correct sight picture, or he the conditions governing their use are as fol
has been holding- his breath too lows:
long, and he rapidly presses the (1) Prone position. The prone position
trigger before he has to exhale. (fig. 11) is a relatively steady position
and is easy to assume. Therefore, it
10. Firing Positions should be the first position the soldier
a. The eight standard firing positions taught learns. The position presents a low
in the rifle marksmanship program are prone, silhouette and is easily adapted to the
prone supported, sitting, kneeling, kneeling sup use of cover and support. However, its
ported, squatting, standing, and the foxhole. effectiveness as a battlefield firing
On the battlefield, a rifleman must assume the position is frequently limited since
steadiest possible position which can provide vegetation and irregularities of ter
observation of the target area and some protec rain will often limit the soldier's field
tion and/or concealment. Considering the many of vision.
variables of terrain, vegetation, and tactical (a) Assuming the prone position. To
situations, there are innumerable possible po assume the prone position, the firer
sitions that might be used. However, in most stands facing his target, spreads his
instances, they will be variations of those listed feet a comfortable distance apart,
above. and drops to his knees. With his
b. Some soldiers will have more difficulty in right hand at the heel of the stock,
assuming a particular position than will others. he places the rifle butt well out to
So long as the firer applies the fundamentals his front on an imaginary line
of maximum support for his rifle, relaxation, drawn between the target and his
and trigger control, he should be permitted to right knee. Using the rifle butt
adjust the position to'fit his own body confor as a pivot, the firer rolls down on his
mation. left side, placing: his left elbow as
TAGO 5024-A
Fiyure 11. The prone position.

nearly under the rifle as possible. the rifle to absorb recoil without
He positions the rifle butt into the unduly disturbing his sight picture.
pocket formed in his right shoulder, (I)) Assuming the prone supported po
grasps the small of the stock with sition. To assume the prone sup
his right hand, and lowers his right ported position (fig. 12), the firer
elbow. His right elbow should be first assumes the prone position. He
placed well out from his body and then adjusts the position to fit the
slightly forward so his shoulders available support, placing his left
are approximately level. The fire) forearm against the support. Wheth
exerts a firm rearward pressur er the left elbow is directly under
with his right hand. To comple' 3
the rifle is of less importance in this
the position, the firer obtains a spot
weld and relaxes. His spine is position because now the support,
straight, and his legs are spaced a rather than the arm, sustains the
comfortable distance apart. Norm weight of the rifle. No part of the
ally, the angle made by the firer's rifle should be touching the support
spine and the axis of his rifle is ap as this reduces the firer's control of
proximately 30 degrees. This places his rifle and hinders rapid recov
enough of the firer's weight behind ery between shots.
TACO 6024-A 17
(2) Sitting position. The sitting position hand. To complete the position, he
is especially suitable for use on a slope obtains a spot weld and relaxes.
where the target is at approximately (b) Cross-ankle position. To assume the
the same level or lower than the firer. cross-ankle sitting position (fig.
It may be used when the firer needs 14), the firer faces his target, exe
better observation than he can get cutes a half-right face, and sits
from the prone position. The firer down. With his legs extended, he
should use the variation of this posi crosses his left ankle over his right
tion which best fits the conformation ankle, keeping both ankles straight.
of his body. He places his left upper arm across
(a) The open-legged position. To as the shin bone of his left leg. He
sume the open-legged sitting posi positions the rifle butt into the
tion (fig. 13), the firer faces his pocket formed in his right shoulder
target, executes a' half-right face, and takes a proper grip on the small
and spreads his feet a comfortable of the stock with his right hand. The
distance apart. He sits down, break firer lowers his right elbow so his
ing his fall with his right hand. right upper arm is in contact with
The feet are placed so the toes are the shin bone of his right leg. To
pointing inward and the weight of complete the position, he obtains a
his legs is on the inside of the heels. spot weld and relaxes. This position
He bends his body forward from can be adjusted for a particular in
the hips and places his left upper dividual by varying the distance the
arm on the flat portion of his shin. legs are extended from the body.
He places the rifle butt into the (c) The cross-legged position. To as
pocket formed in his right shoulder sume the cross-legged position (fig.
and takes the proper grip on the 15), the firer faces his target, exe
small of the stock with his right cutes a half-right face, and sits
hand. He locks his right elbow on down. He crosses his left leg over
the inside of his right knee. The firer his right leg and draws both feet up
then exerts a slight rearward pres close to his body. He places his left
sure on the rifle with his right upper arm against the shinbone and

Figure 12. The prone supported position.

18 TAGO 5024-A
Figure 13. The open-legged sitting position.

his left leg. The rifle butt is placed sition (fig. 16) is a relatively steady
into the pocket formed in his right position which can be assumed rapidly.
shoulder. After properly grasping Since only the feet contact the ground,
the small of the stock with his right it is an excellent position to use in
hand, he lowers his right elbow so mud, shallow water, or a contaminated
his right upper arm is against the area. It is best suited for use on level
shinbone of his right leg. To com ground or on ground which slopes
plete the position, the firer obtains gently downward. In assuming the
a spot weld and relaxes. squatting position, the firer faces the
(d) Comparison of the sitting positions. target and executes a half-right face.
Notice that in the open-legged posi He spreads his feet a comfortable dis
tion, the body contacts the ground at tance apart and squats as low as possi
three distinct points the heel of ble. He must keep both feet flat on
each foot and the buttocks. In the the ground. The left upper arm is
cross-ankle position, the body has a placed firmly against the inside of the
two-point contact; and in the cross- left knee and the rifle butt is posi
legged position, a one-point contact. tioned in the pocket formed in the
Firers should use the position which right shoulder. He grips the small of
affords them the greatest stability. the stock with his right hand, lowers
(3) Squatting position. The squatting po his right elbow, and blocks it against
TAGO 6024-A
Figure 14. The cross-ankle sitting position.

Figure 15. The cross-legged sitting position.

20 TAGO 5024-A.
Figure 16. Squatting position.

the inside of his right knee. To com hand, he places the rifle butt into
plete the position, the firer obtains a the pocket formed in the right
spot weld and relaxes. shoulder. His right elbow should be
(4) Kneeling position. This position is horizontal or slightly above the hor
suitable on level ground or on ground izontal to aid in forming a pocket in
which slopes gently upward. This po the right shoulder. To complete the
sition can be adjusted in height and position, he shifts his weight for
is readily adapted to supports such as ward, obtains a spot weld, and re
trees, corners of buildings, and ve laxes. The inserts in 2, figure 17
hicles. show two additional methods of po
(a) Kneeling unsupported position. To sitioning the right foot when as
assume the kneeling unsupported po suming the kneeling position. A
sition (1, fig. 17) the firer faces his firer experiencing difficulty with
target and executes a right face. the normal position should try these
He places his left foot to his left variations to determine the best po
front with the toe pointing toward sition.
the target. He kneels on his right (6) Kneeling supported position. To as
knee, sitting on his right heel as he sume the kneeling supported posi
does so (2, fig. 17). He mounts his tion (fig. 18), the firer first assumes
left elbow over his left knee so his the kneeling position. He then shifts
left upper arm rests on the flat por his weight forward, allowing his left
tion of the knee. With his right shoulder, left arm, and left leg to
TAGO 6024-A
21
1 Unsupported

Figure 17. Kneeling position.

TAGO 5024-A
2 Position and alternate positions of right foot
Figure 17—Continued.

TAGO 6024-A 23
come in contact with the support. shoulder so the sights are level with
The rifle must not touch or rest on his eyes. He holds his right elbow
the support since the friction of the high to form a good pocket in his right
rifle against the support would slow shoulder for the rifle butt. This also
recovery between shots and limit permits him to exert a strong upward
the firer's ability to rapidly shift and rearward pressure with his right
his point of aim. arm and hand. He holds most of the
(5) Standing position. The standing posi rifle weight with his right arm and
tion (fig. 19) is used in the assault, to places his left hand under the rifle in
engage targets when no other position a position to best assist in supporting
can be used and for surprise targets. and steadying the rifle. To complete
To assume the standing position, the the position, the firer shifts his feet
firer faces his target, executes a right until he is aiming naturally at the
face, and spreads his feet a comfort target and distributes his weight even
able distance apart. With his right ly on both hips. If the firer cannot
hand at the small of the stock, he obtain a spot weld without straining,
places the rifle butt high against his he should press his cheek firmly

Figure 18. Kneeling supported position.

24 TAGO 6024-A
Figure 19. Standing position.

TAGO 6024-A 25
against the side of the stock. He parapet of the foxhole or sandbags
should consistently make this contact placed beside the foxhole. Finally, he
as far forward as possible without obtains a spot weld and relaxes. As in
causing undue muscular strain or the other supported positions, the rifle
tension. must not rest on or touch the support.
(6) Foxhole position. The foxhole position
(fig. 20) is used whenever such pre 11. Wobble Area
pared positions are available. The sol "Wobble" is the slight movement of the rifle
dier enters the foxhole, adds or re that occurs during aiming. "Wobble Area" is
moves dirt, sandbags, or other sup the extent of this movement in all directions.
ports to best fit his height, and then From the firer's viewpoint, the wobble area is
assumes a comfortable firing position. indicated by the movement of the front sight
He assumes this firing position by blade on and around the aiming point. This
placing his right foot to the rear as movement is a natural occurrence and can never
a brace and then leaning forward until be completely eliminated. The size of the wob
his chest is against the forward wall ble area depends upon the firing position.
of the foxhole. He extends his left a. Firing Positions. The more support a firer
arm and elbow over the forward side has for his rifle, the smaller his wobble area
of the foxhole, allowing the parapet or will be. Therefore, if a firer has a choice of
sandbags to support the left forearm. positions, he should select the most stable posi
The firer places the rifle butt into tion that affords observation of the target area.
the pocket formed in the right shoul b. Trigger Control. Wobble is a relative
der and grasps the small of the stock matter, the prone position affording more stead
with his right hand. He places the iness than standing. Since the body, and thus
right elbo\v on solid support using the the weapon will tend to move back and forth and

Figure 20. Foxhole position.

26 TAGO 6024-A
•'HIT'
'LOW LEFT" "HIGH RIGHT"
(ANYWHERE ON
BLACK TARGET)
Figure 21. Calling the shot.
or up and down, the inexperienced f irer must be there is no undue movement of the rifle until
taught to apply pressure to the trigger during after the round is fired and from a training
his wobble and not attempt to jerk the trigger viewpoint, can assist the firer to correct his own
when the sight picture "looks perfect," The errors. By knowing his sight picture the in
application of this principle of squeezing stant the round is fired, the soldier can analyze
through or during the wobble will greatly re his shot group in relation to this sight picture
duce the tendency of the shooter to jerk or snap and correct himself accordingly. In combat,
the shot and which may result in a miss. Es follow-through allows the soldier to observe
sentially, the firer must learn to control the the strike of his bullet in relation to his aiming
pressure on the trigger so the rifle will fire point, enabling him, if necessary, to adjust his
during the few moments it is wobbling the least. aiming point and fire a second round.
As soon as the firer has obtained a correct
sight picture, he begins applying pressure to 13. Colling the Shot
the trigger. Through training, he has learned When a soldier "calls his shot" (fig. 21), he
to shift the focus of his eye to the front sight is indicating the place on the target at which he
blade. It is at this time that the wobble area was aiming the instant the rifle fired. In the
becomes most readily apparent. So long as the case of 25-meter or 1000-inch range targets, a
size of the wobble area does not exceed the size shot is "called" by indicating the relationship
of the target, pressure should continue to be between where the rifle was pointing at the
applied on the trigger. However, if the wobble instant of firing, and the aiming point on the
becomes excessive, causing the front sight target. If his sights were aligned anywhere on
blade to move completely off the target, the the aiming point, the firer would call "HIT."
firer should hold the trigger pressure, reestab Over or under the aiming point, the call would
lish the correct sight picture and again steadily be either "High" or "Low" and to the sides,
increase the trigger pressure. He should con "Right" or "Left." These calls can also be com
tinue applying pressure to the trigger even after bined, such as "High-right" or "Low-left." As
the rifle fires. This procedure helps to prevent the firer becomes more experienced, he can
excessive wobbling at the instant the rifle is become even more precise in his "calls." For
fired. example, "Hit, high-right" would mean the
firer hit the upper right portion of the black
12. Follow-Through rectangular square. "Low, slightly left" would
Follow-through is the continued application mean the firer was well beneath the aiming
of the fundamentals after each round has been point but just barely off its left edge. During
fired. That is, the firer does not shift his posi 25-meter or 1000-inch firing, the soldier must
tion, move his head, or let the muzzle of the immediately record his call of the shot on his
rifle drop until a few moments after the rifle firing data card.
has been fired. This procedure will insure that a. Initially, soldiers may have difficulty in
TAGO 5024-A
27
calling: their shots. The primary reason for this had a combination of the two errors. However,
is that many soldiers will not properly follow- the fact that an obviously incorrect sight pic
through and thus have no idea of their sight ture occurred at the instant of firing does not
picture at the instant of firing. Such firers necessarily mean that the only mistake was
must receive close supervision if they are to aiming. For example, incorrect application of
correct this fault. pressure on the trigger will almost always pull
the sights out of alignment and or off the aim
b. A second problem in calling the shot oc ing point. Improper breathing or undue mus
curs during the initial firing exercises of marks cular strain can also cause aiming errors, al
manship fundamentals training. These exer though these are less common mistakes than
cises are conducted before the rifles have been improper trigger control. Coaches and or in
zeroed; consequently, a firer might call a hit, structors must keep in mind that any of sev
but the sight setting on his rifle is such that the eral improperly applied fundamentals can dis
bullet strikes the lower left portion of the tar
arrange the sight picture and cause unsatisfac
get paper. Firers should be aware of this fact; tory shot groups. Consequently, they should
otherwise, they are likely to become discour
carefully observe a firer's application of all
aged and discount the importance of calling
fundamentals to in? "e that the actual mistake
their shots. The soldier should be informed that is identified.
calling the shot is a means to assist him in ap
plying the principles of follow-through, and c. Assuming that all fundamentals except
until he has zeroed his rifle, he cannot expect to aiming have been eliminated as the cause of a
hit the point at which he aims. Later in the firer's unsatisfactory shot groups, the coach
course, during battlesight zero, calling the shot or instructor can then use the size and config
has a direct and important application. In this uration of the shot group patterns to determine
type of firing, soldiers who consistently call the specific type of aiming error. The rela
their shots correctly will have considerably less tionship of these patterns to the type of aiming
difficulty and will be able to make much more errors is as follows:
accurate sight adjustments than will those who (1) Long, vertical shot groups are the re
neglect this technique. Without the ability to sult of improper horizontal sight align
call his shots the firer will never be able to get ment. That is, the firer has positioned
his zero on a weapon. the front sight blade too high or too
low in the rear sight aperture (fig.
14. Shot Group Analysis 22).
a. A perfect shot group is one in which all (2) Long, horizontal shot groups are the
rounds hit the target at exactly the same point. result of improper vertical sight align
However, factors such as wind, the ability of ment. That is, the firer has positioned
the firer, and the slight manufacturing differ the front sight blade too far to the
ences between rounds make such a shot group right or left in the rear sight aperture
virtually impossible. Shot groups are analyzed (fig. 23).
by studying the arrangement of the bullet holes
on the target. The distance between these holes (3) A small or "tight" shot group indicates
and the overall pattern made by the shot group proper application of the eight steady
are considered in determining the proficiency of hold factors, and correct sight pic
the firer. As a general rule, the smaller the pat ture (fig. 24).
tern, the better the shot group. d. During fudamentals training, each soldier
6. Most unsatisfactory shot groups are usu should be given a target analysis card (fig. 25)
ally elongated, either vertically or horizontally, to assist him in determining and correcting his
and are the direct result of incorrect sight pic own mistakes. These cards depict several dif
tures. That is, at the instant of firing, the sol ferent types of unsatisfactory shot groups, the
dier had an error in sight alignment or in the probable errors that caused them, and the
placement of the aiming point, or he may have necessary corrective action.

TAGO 6024-A
Figure 82. Long, vertical shot group.
TAGO 6024-A
29
Figure 2S. Long, horizontal shot group.

30 TAGO 6024-A
Figure 24. Good shot group.

TAGO 5024-A 31
SHOT GROUP ANALYSIS CARD
CIRCLE **A"-3 CM DIAMETER
SATISFACTORY SHOT GROUPS FIRED FROM THE PRONE SUPPORTED
OR FOXHOLE POSITION AT 25 METERS MUST FALL WITHIN OR TOUCH
THIS CIRCLE.
CIRCLE "B"-5 CM DIAMETER
SATISFACTORY SHOT GROUPS FIRED FROM THE KNEELING SUPPORTED
AND ALL UNSUPPORTED POSITIONS AT 25 METERS MUST FALL WITHIN
OR TOUCH THIS CIRCLE.

SCORING TEMPLATE

IF YOUR SHOT GROUP


LOOKS LIKE THIS THIS IS A POSSIBLE
CAUSE
LONG VERTICAL

ERROR IN SIGHT ALINEMENT

LONG HORIZONTAL

SHORT VERTICAL

ERROR IN PLACEMENT
OF AIMING POINT

B
SHORT HORIZONTAL

LONG VERTICAL IMPROPER BREATHING

IMPROPER TRIGGER CONTROL


LOW RIGHT
LEFT ELBOW SLIPPING OUT.

SCATTERED RE-EXAMtNE ALL STEADY HOLD FACTORS

Figure 25. Target analysis card.

32 TAGO 6024-A
CALL TARGET HIT TARGE! CALL TARGE! CALL TARGET 1 MIT TARGET

21 CALL TARGET 8 I CALL TARGET CALL TARGET HIT TARGET

CALL TARGET HIT TARGET 9 CALL TARGET 5J CALL TARGET HIT TARGET

CALLTARGET HIT TARGET IO CALL TARGET > CALL TARGET HIT TARGET

CALLTARGE1 IN CALL TARGET CALL TARGET HIT TARGET

6 CALL TARGET HIT TARGET 121 CALL TARGET HIT TARGET 81 CALL TARGET HIT TARGET

FIRING DATA CARD

1 Front
Figure &6. Firing data card.
TAGO 5024-A
33
191 CALL TARGE MIT TARGET 3 CALL TARGE. 1

CALL TARGET HIT TARGET 26 CALL TARGET HIT TARGET 32j CALL TARGET HIT TARGET

El___ W
11 CALL TARGET HIT TARGET 27 CALL TARGET HIT TARGET 33] CALL TARGET HIT TARGET

CALL TARGET HIT TARGET 281 CALL TARGET HIT TARGET BATTLESlGHT ZEROING
2nd GROUP

23J CALL TARGET HIT TARGET 29 CALL TARGET HIT TARGET

CALL TARGET HIT TARGET CALL TARGET HIT TARGET NAME


UNIT
ASN

250 METER
BATTLESIGHT ZERO

2 Back
Figure 26—Continued.

34 TAGO 5024-A
00| CALL TARGET HIT TARGET

X \

**m

•• \ I f1 1 [ ^

2 1 ft
§
ft

POSITION PRONE Pi 12 w 0

3 Example of firing data card entry

Figure 26—Continued.

15. Firing Data Card 16. Progress Envelope


o. The firing data card is used in each firing Each soldier should be required to maintain
exercise throughout marksmanship fundamen a progress envelope throughout his marksman
tals training. This card provides a record of the ship training. The envelope should contain all
"calls," "hits," positions fired, the sight setting of his 25-meter (1000-inch) range targets, his
used for each, and the battlesight zero ('fig. 26). firing data card, target analysis card, and field
b. Properly used, the firing data card is a firing score cards. With this information, in
valuable aid to the firer and the instructor. For structors can accurately review a soldier's per
example, when used in conjunction with the formance and identify those areas that are
targets retained in the progress envelope (par. causing difficulty.
16), the card provides an excellent means for
analyzing each soldier's progress and marks 17. Coaches
manship proficiency. a. During fundamentals training, each sol
c. The "call" is plotted on the call target of dier will perform the duties of a coach approxi
the firing data card immediately after each mately 50 percent of the time. The degree of
shot is fired. "Calls" are plotted in numerical proficiency attained by the individual firer
order (i.e., 1, 2, 3, etc.) until all rounds of the depends on how well the coach performs his du
shot group exercise have been fired. After the ties. He is the only man who can continually
firing line has been cleared, firers will go for observe the same individual, and, therefore, is
ward, check their targets, and record the exact in the best position to detect and correct errors
location of each hit as a penciled dot on the hit as they occur.
target (3, fig. 26). b. The major obstacle to effective coaching
TACO G024-A
35
is the attitude of the individual. Some soldiers b. Ball and dummy exercises are conducted
may feel that only expert marksmen can per as follows:
form the duties of a coach with any degree of (1) The coach secures dummy rounds and
success while they, as inexperienced firers, are live rounds and assumes the proper
of little value in critiquing and advising their coaching position alongside the firer.
fellow soldiers. This reasoning is completely (2) The firer is directed to look away while
in error. The purpose of the coach is to con the coach loads a dummy or a live
tinually check and assist the firer in the proper round into the rifle.
application of marksmanship fundamentals. (3) The coach allows the bolt to go for
The coach needs only to be attentive and follow ward.
the instructor's directions to satisfactorily per
form this duty. He closely observes the firer's (4) The firer is told to aim, apply the
position and the manner in which the firer ap steady hold factors correctly, and fire.
plies the steady hold factors to the various po (5) The coach observes the firer's eyes and
sitions. The coach is particularly valuable in face for evidence of flinching, the trig
checking those factors which the firer is unable ger finger for improper trigger con
to observe for himself. Above all, the coach must trol, and the back and chest for im
prevent the firer from repeating the same proper breathing techniques. When a
errors. soldier attempts to fire a dummy
c. Initially during an exercise, the coach round, any of these errors will become
should be in a location where he can best ob apparent to an observant coach.
serve the firer going into position. He then 19. Rapid Reloading
should move to various points at the sides and
rear of the firer and check the correctness of a. A skill of utmost importance to the combat
the position. rifleman is the ability to reload his weapon as
rapidly as possible. How well the soldier per
Caution: During live firing exercises, coaches forms this skill on the battlefield cannot only
must never move forward of the firer or the affect the success of his unit, but can also spell
firing line. the difference between inflicting casualties or
The coach requires the firer to make such becoming one himself.
adjustments as may be necessary to obtain a b. Rapid reloading exercises are conducted on
correct position. When the coach is satisfied the 25-meter (1000-inch) range. The exercise
with the firing position, he assumes a coaching begins with the firers in the standing position.
position alongside the firer. As a general rule, On command from the control tower, one round
the coach assumes a position similar to that is loaded into the rifle. On the command to com
of the firer (fig. 27). mence fire, firers assume the designated posi
tion (prone or sitting) and fire one round. If
18. Boll and Dummy Exercises the Ml rifle is used, the firer reloads an eight-
a. In ball and dummy exercises, the coach round clip, resumes his position, and fires one
loads a dummy round or a live round into the additional round.
rifle. Note. For the initial exercise using Ml rifles, each
Note. If ball and dummy exercises are conducted coach should draw three live and six dummy rounds.
using caliber .22 rifles, dummy rounds as such are not One live round will be loaded singly by the firer. The
necessary. The coach simply closes the bolt on an empty remaining rounds are loaded into a clip so that a live
chamber. round will be the first and last round of the clip. In this
way, the firer need not be concerned with which side of
The firer must not watch the coach load his the clip is loaded into the rifle first. For subsequent
rifle, since the value of the exercise is based on exercises, only two rounds need be drawn since the
the^firer not knowing if a live round is in the clip will still contain one live round from the previous
exercise.
chamber. This is a particularly effective exer
cise in detecting errors in aiming, trigger con If the firer is armed with the M14 rifle, he
trol, and those caused by the firer attempting reloads a magazine containing one round, re
to compensate for recoil. sumes his position, and fires the second round.
TAGO 5024-A
The maximum time to conduct a complete exer manship fundamentals, particularly trigger con
cise, beginning with the command to commence trol, are being applied. Firers must learn not
firing, is 24 seconds. to sacrifice accuracy for speed, but at the same
c. Close supervision is essential during this time, they must not use excessive time in firing
training to insure that all of the correct marks the second shot.

Section III. CORRECTIVE INSTRUCTION

20. Purpose be designated to conduct corrective instruction.


During some phase of marksmanship funda They must be well grounded in marksmanship
mentals training, a few soldiers will have more fundamentals, alert to common shooting errors,
difficulty understanding and applying the var and have a thorough understanding of how to
ious techniques than others. To provide the quickly correct these errors. In some cases,
extra instruction required by the less skillful the instructor can determine the cause of the
firers without delaying the progress of the en firers' deficiencies simply by discussing the
tire unit, a concurrent, corrective training area problem with them and examining their shot
should be used. If a separate range is not avail groups and other data contained in the
able for this concurrent training, a number of progress envelopes. However, in the majority
firing points should be set aside on the 25-meter of cases, the instructor must closely observe
(1000-inch) range for this purpose. the soldier fire several rounds before the cause
of his errors can be determined. The reason for
21. Conduct this is that the instructor might hastily con
" a. In practically every instance, the size and clude that the firer's poor shot groups are a
configuration of shot groups will identify those result of incorrect sight picture when, in fact,
firers having difficulty. Once they have been the error in sight picture (like the poor shot
identified, assistant instructors should be as groups) is actually brought about by improper
signed to provide individual corrective instruc trigger control. (See par. 96(8) for discussion
tion. Only the best qualified instructors should of trigger control.)

Figure 27. Positions of the coach.


TAGO 6024-A
37
Figure S7—Continued.

38 TAGO 6024-A
Figure 27—Continued.

TAGO 5024-A
Figure 27—Continued.

40 TAGO 6024-A
Figure 27—Continued.

TAGO 6024-A 41
b. Time is a definite factor in corrective more shot groups at a standard target
instruction. While a firer is receiving- corrective before being released.
instruction, he will, of necessity, miss the regu (2) Metal disc exercise (Ml rifle only).
larly scheduled training of his unit. In view of The metail disc exercise is an excellent
this, the instructors should provide intensified method of correcting those soldiers
training on those subjects the firer has missed who jerk the trigger because of im
before he rejoins his unit. proper breathing or muscular tension.
c. If the instructor determines improper This is a dry fire exercise in which
trigger control to be the source of the firer's any of the eight standard firing posi
difficulty, he may be able to correct this simply tions can be used. When the firer has
by telling the firer his specific error. A firer cocked his weapon and assumed the
who flinches can sometimes overcome this designated position, the assistant in
tendency by using earplugs. However, if these structor places a dime size metal disc
procedures fail to produce the desired results, on the front end of the barrel. The
the following exercises can be used to improve disc must not touch the gas cylinder
trigger control techniques: lock. The soldier then simulates firing
trying not to dislodge the disc as he
(1) Blank target fifing exercise. This ex does so. If the firer is in a relaxed
ercise is designed to correct firers position and breathing properly, the
who jerk the trigger once their sights disc should remain in position
are aligned on the aiming point (par. throughout the entire cycle of breath
9b(8)). The cause of this error is ing, sight alignment, firing, and follow-
that the firer is concentrating more through.
on the aiming point than he is on (3) Trigger. This exercise is designed to
either sight alignment or trigger con prove the value of proper trigger con
trol. In order to correct this error, trol. After the firer is in position, he
the firer must learn that the aiming is told to remove his finger from the
point is of secondary importance to trigger and grasp the small of the
sight alignment and trigger control. stock with all fingers of his right hand.
This can best be accomplished by Using the thumb and forefinger of his
removing the aiming point, that is, right hand, the coach applies pressure
replacing the standard target with to the trigger until the rifle fires.
a blank sheet of paper. The blank The soldier has no control over when
paper provides a background on which the rifle fires and, therefore, is free
the firer can align his sights; however, to concentrate on obtaining a proper
there is no specific aiming point which sight picture.
would cause him to hurry his shot. The
assistant instructor should carefully d. M2 Aiming Device. This device (fig. 28)
check the soldier's trigger control as operates on the principle of a periscope, fitting
he fires. If the aiming point was the over the rear sight so the coach can observe
cause of the firer's error, the assistant the same sight picture as does the firer. With
instructor should note an almost im this device, the coach can check the correctness
mediate improvement. If there is no of the sight picture, the effect of the firer's
apparent improvement after the sol trigger control on sight alignment, and whether
dier has fired several rounds, the as the firer is correctly calling his shots. So far
sistant instructor should check other as the coach is concerned, the device reflects
possible causes of incorrect trigger images exactly opposite from what the firer
control, such as improper breathing sees. That is, if the firer correctly calls his
or muscular tension. When the as shot "Right," in the device, it will appear to be
sistant instructor is satisfied that the left. To gain the most benefit from the device,
error has been corrected, the soldier the coach must look directly into the device and
should be required to fire one or two continually adjust his position as necessary.

42 TAGO 6024-A
FIRER'S COACH'S LINE
LINE OF OF VISION
VISION

TOP VIEW-SCHEMATIC

Figure 28. MS aiming device.

TAGO 6024-A
43
Once in position, the coach must hold his cises should be used extensively throughout
breath in order to have minimum body move corrective instruction. Initially, some type of
ment while checking the firer's sight picture. exercises, such as positions and aiming, are
Finally, he must watch closely for any sudden better conducted without live ammunition.
changes in sight picture the moment before However, regardless of the training technique
firing. Any such sudden change will indicate used, each soldier should be required fo fire
that the firer is either flinching or bucking.
This device may be used during any phase of several ball and dummy exercises before being
preparatory marksmanship and is particularly returned to the regular class. Instructors must
valuable in conducting corrective instruction. closely supervise this firing to insure that the
e. So far as possible, ball and dummy exer soldier has, in fact, overcome his difficulties.

Section IV. CONDUCT OF FIRING


22. General 23. Range Management
a. During training in marksmanship funda a. Organization and Procedure.
mentals, all live firing exercises are conducted (1) Based on a 200-man unit, the range
on either 25-meter or 1000-inch ranges (fig. should have 110 firing points. The unit
29). Determination of battlesight zero and the is divided into two orders, and soldiers
progress check are also fired on these ranges. in the first order are paired with
Although there is slightly more distance be soldiers in the second order. Each pair
tween the firing line and the targets on 1000- of soldiers is then assigned a firing
inch ranges than on 25-meter ranges, the differ point, beginning with point number
ence is negligible and may be discounted for one and extending through point num
purposes of sight adjustment. However, most ber one hundred. One order is desig
25-meter ranges have foxholes and simulated nated as firers and the other as
tree stumps constructed along the firing line, coaches. The extra ten firing points
whereas 1000-inch ranges do not. Since these are used to conduct corrective instruc
features are necessary to conduct firing from tion.
supported positions, 25-meter ranges should be (2) On 25-meter ranges, a foxhole and
used in preference to 1000-inch ranges when stump are provided at each firing
ever possible. point so instruction in firing from
b. The 25-meter target (fig. 34) is used for supported positions can be conducted.
all 25-meter or 1000-inch range firing. Targets Since 1000-inch ranges do not contain
are fastened to standard target panels or to "E" these features, exercises involving the
type silhouettes located 25 meters or 1000 foxhole and kneeling supported posi
inches from the front numbered stakes. tions are not conducted on ranges of
c. Soldiers using service rifles during marks this type.
manship fundamentals training will fire three (3) A control tower should be centrally
rounds to form a shot group, while those using located in the rear of the firing line. It
.22 caliber rifles will fire five rounds. As each should be sufficiently elevated to per
firing exercise is completed, the soldier removes mit unrestricted observation of the
his target from the panel or silhouette and range, both in rear of the firing line
places it in his progress envelope. These targets and a reasonable distance behind the
then serve as a basis for critiques and/or cor line of targets. All firing commands
rective instruction. are issued from the control tower and
d. Firing data cards should be filled out by must be obeyed immediately. The
the firer for each exercise conducted on the 25- single exception to this is in the event
meter or 1000-inch range. an unsafe act occurs which escapes the
e. Sufficient target analysis cards (fig. 25) attention of the tower operator. In this
should be available so each firer may have one case, the first individual to see such an
for reference while examining his shot groups. act should command, "CEASE FIRE."

44 TAGO 6024-A
1
25 METERS

FIRING POSITIONS

NUMBERED STAKES

6 METERS

o o
FOXHOLES 2 METERS
t

STUMPS

TARGETS

1OOO IN. 1OOO IN.

FIRING LINE

25 55 56 57 7/58 1O97/11O

Figure 29. 25-meter and 1000-inch ranges.

(4) To provide both efficient range opera (e) Ordnance small arms repairman.
tion and effective instruction, the (/) One assistant instructor per seven
following personnel are required: to ten points.
(a) Control officer. (g) Medical personnel.
(b) Safety officer. (5) Prior to beginning each live fire exer
(c) Noncommissioned officer in charge. cise, all personnel must be briefed on
(d) Ammunition detail. the range safety regulations (app. II).
TAGO 5024-A
45
(6) As a soldier completes firing a shot the prone position. You will be re
group, his rifle is checked and cleared quired to assume the prone position,
by an assistant instructor. When all fire one round, reload rapidly and fire
soldiers have completed firing, and a second round. You will have 24
their rifles have been individually seconds to complete this exerciser Tim
cleared by the assistant instructors, ing begins on the command, COM
the control tower operator announces MENCE FIRING. This is also your
that the firing line is clear, and command to assume the prone position
coaches and firers may move down and fire the exercise."
ranjfe and stand by their targets until (a) Fire commands for magazine fed
critiqued by an assistant instructor. rifles.
b. Fire Commands. In order to simplify fir FIRERS STAND.
ing procedures, fire commands should be brief THE FIRING LINE IS NO
and standardized as much as possible from one LONGER CLEAR.
exercise to the next. Type commands for exer COACHES SECURE TWO
cises are as follows: ROUNDS OF AMMUNITION
(1) Shot group exercises. AND TWO MAGAZINES.
FIRERS ASSUME THE .____.___— LOAD ONE ROUND IN EACH
POSITION. MAGAZINE.
COACHES SECURE THREE (OR LOCK.
FIVE) ROUNDS OF AMMUNI ONE MAGAZINE LOAD.
TION. YOU WILL FIRE AT THE (NUM
THE FIRING LINE IS NO LONGER BER OR LOCATION) TARGET.
CLEAR. READY ON THE RIGHT?
LOCK. READY ON THE LEFT?
ONE EMPTY MAGAZINE LOAD READY ON THE FIRING LINE.
(For magazine fed weapons only).
UNLOCK WEAPONS.
ONE ROUND LOAD.
COMMENCE FIRING.
YOU WILL FIRE AT THE (NUM
BER OR LOCATION) TARGET. CEASE FIRING.
COMMENCE FIRING WHEN CLEAR ON THE RIGHT?
READY. CLEAR ON THE LEFT?
CEASE FIRING. THE FIRING LINE IS CLEAR.
CLEAR ALL WEAPONS. COACHES AND FIRERS MOVE
CLEAR ON THE RIGHT? DOWN RANGE AND CHECK
YOUR TARGETS.
CLEAR ON THE LEFT?
THE FIRING LINE IS CLEAR. (b) Fire commands for clip fed rifles.
COACHES AND FIRERS MOVE FIRERS STAND.
DOWN RANGE AND CHECK THE FIRING LINE IS NO
YOUR TARGETS. LONGER CLEAR.
COACHES SECURE THREE
(To conserve time, instructions for the " (TWO) ROUNDS OF AM
next exercise may be given as the MUNITION.
coaches and firers are returning from
the line of targets.) Note. For the initial exercise, each
(2) Rapid reloading exercise. Preliminary coach should draw three live and six
instructions to describe the exercise dummy rounds. One live round will be
loaded singly by the firer. The remaining
should be given prior to the actual fire two live rounds are loaded as the first and
command. For example, "The next last round of the clip in order that the
exercise will be from the standing to firer need not be concerned with which side

TAGO 6024-A
46
of the clip is loaded into the rifle first. For READY ON THE RIGHT?
subsequent exercises, only two rounds need
be drawn since the clip will still contain READY ON THE LEFT?
one live round from the previous exercise. THE FIRING LINE IS READY.
UNLOCK WEAPONS.
COACHES LOAD THE CLIP COMMENCE FIRING.
WITH TWO LIVE AND SIX
DUMMY ROUNDS—A LIVE CEASE FIRING.
ROUND MUST BE THE FIRST CLEAR ON THE RIGHT?
ROUND ON BOTH SIDES OF CLEAR ON THE LEFT?
THE CLIP. THE FIRING LINE IS CLEAR.
FIRERS PLACE THE CLIP IN COACHES AND FIRERS MOVE
YOUR BELT. DOWN RANGE AND CHECK
LOCK. YOUR TARGETS.
ONE ROUND LOAD.
YOU WILL FIRE AT THE ___
_____... TARGET. c. Range Safety. See appendix II.

TAGO 6024-A
47
CHAPTER 3

SIGHT ADJUSTMENT, BATTLESIGHT ZERO. AND PROGRESS CHECKS

Section I. SIGHT ADJUSTMENT

24. General is the size of shot groups and not the location
Following fundamentals training, the soldier that governs the proficiency of the firer.
must zero his service rifle. In order to ac
complish this, the soldier must first learn the 26. Elevation and Windage Rule
operation of the rear sight, the use of the eleva One click of elevation or windage will move
tion and windage rule, and how to compute the strike of a bullet a specific distance at a
sight changes. specific range. For example, at a range of 25
meters, one click of either elevation or wind
age will move the strike of a bullet .7 centi
25. The Rear Sight meter. At 100 meters, one click will move the
a. The rear sight (fig. 30) of the service rifle strike of the bullet approximately 3 centimeters.
has an elevation knob and a windage knob To compute the distance one click will move the
which are used to move the rear sight aperture strike of a bullet at any given range, multiply
up or down and right or left respectively. the range in hundreds of meters times 3. For
Changing the position of the rear sight aperture example, to compute the distance one click of
causes a corresponding change in where a bullet elevation or windage will move the strike of
will strike the target. The elevation knob affects the bullet at a range of 250 meters, multiply 2.5
the vertical location of the shot while the wind by 3. The answer in this case is 7.5 centimeters.
age knob affects the horizontal location. Both
knobs make an audible click when they are 27. Sight Changes
turned. Each click changes the strike of the a. To make sight changes, the firer first lo
bullet a definite distance, depending on the cates the center of his shot group (fig. 31) and
range to the target. The elevation knob is ad then estimates the distance between it and the
justable from 0 to 72 clicks. The windage knob desired location. The distance in elevation is
can be adjusted to either 16 clicks to the right estimated vertically, while the windage is esti
or 16 clicks to the left of the center index line. mated horizontally. These distances are con
6. During training in marksmanship funda verted to clicks by using the elevation and wind
mentals, soldiers should conduct all firing ex age rule. As a general rule, bold adjustments
ercises with the rear sights of their service will prove more advantageous to the firer. For
rifles set at twelve clicks of elevation and zero example, if there is a question whether to
windage. This setting should not be changed move two or three clicks, the firer should nor
until the soldier is ready to determine the bat- mally make the adjustment requiring the great
tlesight zero of his rifle. The reason for this er number of clicks.
is twofold: first, untrained firers will tend to b. To raise the strike of the bullet, the firer
focus their attention on manipulating the sight must increase the number of clicks of elevation.
rather than learning to properly apply marks Conversely, he decreases the elevation to lower
manship fundamentals. Second, during funda the strike of the bullet on the target. Right
mentals training, the precise location of shot windage moves the strike of the bullet to the
groups on the target is unimportant since it right, and left windage moves it to the left.

48 TAGO 6024-A
Figure SO. Rear sight.

TAGO B024.A 49
DESIRED LOCATION

CENTER OF SHOT GROUP IS 1.4 CENTIMETERS


HIGH AND 5.6 CENTIMETERS TO THE LEFT .
FIRING CONDUCTED AT 25 METERS (ONE CLICK
WILL MOVE STRIKE OF THE BULLET .7 CENTIMETERS)
1.4 CENTIMETERS - 2 CLICKS
5.6 CENTIMETERS - 8 CLICKS
SIGHT CHANGES NECESSARY-
8 CLICKS RIGHT
2 CLICKS DOWN

Figure 31. Example of computing sight changes.

50 TAGO 5024-A
Section II. BATTLESIGHT ZERO
28. Principles of Zeroing 250 meters should hit his aiming point at that
a. In order to understand the principles of range.
zeroing, the soldier should have a basic knowl d. One method of determining the 250-meter
edge of ballistics; specifically, the relationship battlesight zero would be to fire at a 250-meter
between the path of the bullet in flight and the aiming point, making the necessary adjust
line of aim. In flight, a bullet does not follow a ments to place the center of the shot group on
straight line but travels in a curve or arc. This the aiming point. However, such a method
curved flight path of the bullet is called its would require extensive terrain and waste train
trajectory (fig. 32). The maximum height of a ing time while firers moved between the firing
bullet's trajectory depends on the range to the line and the targets to check the location of shot
target. The greater the distance a bullet travels groups.
before impact, the higher it must travel in its e. A more suitable method of determining the
trajectory. On the other hand, the line of aim 250-meter battlesight zero can be accomplished
is a straight line distance through the rear at a range of 25 meters or 1000 inches (fig. 33).
sight aperture, across the front sight, to the This method is based on the principle that bul
aiming point or target. lets of the same type and caliber fired at the
6. After the bullet leaves the rifle, it is ini same range have the same trajectory. That is,
tially moving in an upward path, above the if several bullets were fired from the same rifle
line of aim. As the bullet travels farther, it and all hit the same 250-meter aiming point,
begins to drop and will eventually intersect the the trajectories of all these bullets are the same.
line of aim. The range at which this intersec Therefore, when each of these bullets reach a
tion occurs is the zero for that sight setting. distance of 25 meters or 1000 inches from the
c. Current doctrine of the United States muzzle of the rifle, they are all the same height
Army prescribes a battlesight zero for 250 above the firer's line of aim. Thus, by placing
meters. That is, the rear sight of a rifle should an aiming point at a range of 25 meters or
be so adjusted that the trajectory of the bullet 1000 inches, the firer has only to adjust his
and the line of aim intersect at a range of 250 shot group the prescribed height above his 25-
meters. To phrase it another way, a soldier meter or 1000-inch aiming point to obtain a
firing a rifle properly zeroed for a range of zero for 250 meters.

TRAJECTORY-LINE OF SIGHT RELATIONSHIP

LINE OF SIGHT

25O METERS

Figure 32. Trajectory.

TAGO 5024-A SI
PRINCIPLES OF ZEROING

STRIKE
OF BULLET v
A
STRIKE
OF BULLET

POINT POINT
OF AIM OF AIM

TRAJECTORY

LINE OF SIGHT

25 M 25O M

Figure 33. Principles of battlesigkt zeroing.

29. BatHesight Zero Target adjusts his rear sight until the center of his
The battlesight zero target is identical to shot group is located 4.6 centimeters directly
the 25-meter targets previously used during above the aiming point. This point is desig
fundamentals training (fig. 34). However, in nated by an "X" printed on the target. With
order to use the elevation and windage rule this sight setting, an aiming point at a range of
effectively, the firer must know the dimensions 250 meters will coincide with the bullet's point
of the target. Vertical and horizontal lines are of impact. The average soldier will need to fire
printed on the target, forming 1.4 centimeter three or four shot groups in order to accurately
squares. As indicated in paragraph 26, one determine the battlesig-ht zero of his rifle.
click of elevation or windage will move the b. Once the zero has been established, there
strike of the bullet .7 centimeter at a range should be no further adjustments of the rear
of 25 meters. (Although 25 meters is slightly sight. In later field firing exercises, the soldier
less distance than 1000 inches, the difference is will learn to hit targets located at ranges other
insignificant and the same adjustment data can than 250 meters by adjusting his point of aim
be used for 1000-inch firing). Thus, in terms slightly above or below the desired point of
of the 25-meter target, one click of elevation or impact.
windage will move the strike of the bullet one- c. Either of the two most stable firing1 posi
half of one square. tions, the foxhole or prone supported, may be
used for obtaining the battlesight zero. How
30. Determining the Battlesight Zero ever, the position selected must be located the
a. The 250-meter battlesight zero is deter prescribed 25 meters (1000 inches) from the
mined by firing a series of 3-round shot groups target.
at the 25-meter target described in paragraph d. Firing is conducted in the same manner
29. The firer aims at the distinctive aiming prescribed for the other 25-meter (1000-inch)
point at the bottom of the black rectangle and firing exercises.

52 TAGO 5024-A
Figure 34. 25-wieter (1000-inch) target.
TAGO 6024-A
53
31. Calibration of the Rear Sight of the 250-meter battlesight zero
setting.
a. After the soldier has obtained the battle-
sight zero for his rifle, he must calibrate the (e) Hold the elevation knob in position
rear sight. This procedure is necessary since, and tighten the center screw. Next,
throughout the marksmanship course, the sol turn the elevation knob to the rear
dier must continually check the rear sight and, until it is at its highest possible
if necessary, reestablish the correct setting if setting and again tighten the center
the adjusting knobs have been moved. screw.
(/) To check the adjustment, set the
b. Although the rear sights of all service rifles 250-meter index line on the eleva
are essentially the same, some have a locking tion knob opposite the index line
nut on the elevation knob while others do not. on the receiver. Then turn it for
Whether a sight has this locking nut governs ward, counting the clicks. The num
the procedure used to calibrate the sight. ber of clicks will be equal to the bat
tlesight setting if the sight has been
(1) Calibration procedure for sights with
out locking nuts on the elevation knob calibrated correctly.
is as follows: (2) Calibration procedure for sights with
(a) Turn the elevation knob forward a locking nut on the elevation knob is
until the rear sight aperture is at as follows:
its lowest possible setting. The firer (a) Turn the elevation knob forward
should count the clicks as he does until the aperture is at its lowest
this and compare the number to that possible setting.
recorded on his firing data card (b) Set the 250-meter battlesight zero
as the battlesight zero of his rifle. by turning the elevation knob to the
This procedure is simply a means of rear the required number of clicks.
checking the accuracy of the infor Lock the rear sight at this setting
mation on the firing data card. by tightening the locking nut.
(&) Loosen the screw in the center of (c) Loosen the screw in the center of
the elevation knob until the knob can the elevation knob so the knob can
again be turned forward. turn without moving the aperture.
(c) Turn the elevation knob forward Turn the knob until the battlesight
until the 250-meter index line (the index is opposite the index line on
long line between the numbers 2 the receiver.
and 4 on the elevation knob) is op (d) Tighten the screw in the center of
posite the index line on the receiver. the elevation knob.
(d) From this point, turn the elevation (e) Check the setting as described for
knob forward the number of clicks the other type of sight in (1) above.

Section III. PROGRESS CHECK

32. Purpose periods. For some marksmanship courses, the


Prior to beginning field firing, each soldier unit is divided into two groups; one group re
should fire an exercise to determine his pro ceiving field firing while the other group con
ficiency in correctly applying the fundamentals ducts additional training on the 25-meter range.
of marksmanship. This exercise is called a prog By placing those firers having the most dif
ress check. In addition to identifying errors ficulty in the group remaining on the 25-meter
that may still exist, the results of the progress range, many of their errors can be corrected
check enable instructors to take advantage of without altering the training sequence of either
scheduling procedures in subsequent field firing the individual or the unit. However, this use

54 TAGO 5024-A
of the progress check is of secondary import the eight standard firing positions. Assistant
ance to the primary objectives of measuring the instructors check the results after each shot
fundamental shooting skills of each soldier group is fired, using a scoring template (fig.
and identifying specific individual deficiencies.
35). This template is made of transparent plas
33. Application tic with two circles imprinted on it. One circle
As a separate exercise, the progress check is is three centimeters in diameter and the other
optional except for units conducting basic train five centimeters. In checking shot groups fired
ing. New recruits must receive a formal prog from the two most stable positions, prone sup
ress check as an integral part of their marks
manship training. Units which do not conduct ported and foxhole, the three rounds must lie
a progress check as a separate and distinct ex on or within the 3-centimeter circle to be con
ercise, should incorporate the principles and sidered satisfactory. The 5-centimeter circle is
techniques into all marksmanship fundamentals used to check shot groups fired from the other
training. That is, the scoring template should six positions. Again, the three rounds must lie
be continually used to check and critique shot on or within the 5-centimeter circle to be con
groups during all 25-meter firing. sidered satisfactory. Soldiers should be given
34. Conduct of Exercise an opportunity to refire from those positions
To conduct a progress check, each soldier found to be unsatisfactory if there is sufficient
must fire one 3-round shot group from each of time and ammunition available.

TAGO 8024-A
55
CLEAR
.ACETATE,

Figure 35. Scoring template.

56 TAGO 6024-A
CHAPTER 4

FIELD FIRING

Section I. CONDUCT OF INSTRUCTION

35. Purpose and Scope b. Principle of Using Adjtisted Aiming


Field firing provides the soldier with prac Points. In zeroing his rifle, the soldier learns
tical experience in firing at realistic targets lo that the trajectory of the bullet is above the
cated at ranges comparable to those of the line of aim until it reaches the range for which
battlefield. Field firing begins with simple ex the rear sight is set (par. 28). In the case of
ercises designed to familiarize the soldier with the battlesight zero, this range is 250 meters.
the range, the targets, and the scoring system. At this point, the trajectory of the bullet and
It is during these initial exercises that the sol the line of aim intersect. Thus the bullet will
dier learns to compensate for the sight setting be above the line of aim until it reaches a dis
or zero of his rifle by adjusting his point of aim tance of 250 meters (fig. 33). Beyond this
on the target. He does this by firing at targets range, it will be moving below the line of aim.
located at ranges other than 250 meters, the Applying this fact to the target then, the soldier
zero established for his rifle. During the first should aim below the desired point of impact
field firing exercise, the soldier will have a for targets located at ranges of less than 250
reasonable time to check his position, sight meters. By lowering his point of aim, he also
picture, and fire at the target. However, in lowers the flight path of the bullet. Conversely,
subsequent exercises, speed becomes an increas at ranges beyond 250 meters, he should aim
ingly important factor since a time limit is im above the desired point of impact and subse
posed on the firer. In later exercises, there are quently raise the flight path of the bullet. Ob
added requirements such as rapid reloading, viously, pinpoint accuracy is not possible using
reducing a stoppage, and firing at multiple tar a technique such as this. A minor error in range
gets. Initially, the soldier fires from the more determination or selection of an aiming point
stable positions and gradually progresses to the will cause the bullet to miss the precise point
less stable positions. Toward the end of his a firer might wish to hit. However, on the bat
field firing training, he is required to physically tlefield, the job of the rifleman is to eliminate
advance toward the targets, quickly move in the combat capability of enemy soldiers as
to position, and fire when the targets appear. quickly as possible. A rifle bullet hitting any
where on an enemy soldier's body, even the
36. Adjusted Aiming Point arms and legs will usually accomplish this.
a. General. Using an adjusted aiming point Whether a combat rifleman intended to hit
means that the firer is compensating for the an enemy soldier in the chest and actually hit
battlesight zero of his rifle by aiming above him in the region of the belt buckle is unim
or below the actual desired point of impact. portant as long as the enemy has been elimi
The reason for this procedure is that once the nated from the fight.
soldier has established his battlesight zero for c. Rules for Applying Adjusted Aiming Point.
250 meters, he should not change the sight set Considering the problems of range determina
ting throughout the remainder of the marks tion and the fact that pinpoint accuracy is not
manship course. Thus, he must learn to com usually required on the battlefield, it is possible
pensate for his 250-meter sight setting when to use a "rule of thumb" in teaching the prin
he fires at targets located at ranges other than ciples of the adjusted aiming point. This rule
250 meters. is: "For targets located at ranges up to 200
TAGO 6024-A 57
(2^*$
/Hr R
*<r >*•
/•44. ^~-^.
U,!
•-x..

2OO METERS OR LESS MORE THAN 2OO METERS


Figure 36, Aiming points at ranges not exceeding 500 meters.

meters, the rifleman should aim at the bottom 200 meters. The discussion in b above,
of the center of mass. At ranges between 200 illustrates the lack of practical im
and 500 meters, he should aim at the center portance in the small deviation that
of mass (fig. 36)." To effectively engage tar does exist.
gets beyond 500 meters, the rifleman must ap d. Effects of Wind. Winds blowing across the
ply advanced individual marksmanship tech firer's front will cause some lateral movement
niques (sniping). These techniques are dis of the bullet while in flight. However, at ranges
cussed in chapter 8. By aiming at the bottom up to 300 meters (the maximum range for the
of center of mass for targets out to a range majority of point targets engaged in combat),
of 200 meters and at the center of mass for it would require a wind of gale force to cause
targets between 200 and 500 meters, a rifle a properly aimed bullet to miss a man-size tar
man should usually be firing low on the target. get. Unless the soldier is engaged in long range
It follows then that a miss will probably be sniping (ch. 8), he should discount the effects
short of the target rather than beyond it. Of of wind in selecting an aiming point.
the two, a short miss is the more desirable since e. Demonstration of Adjusted Aiming Point.
the bullet will frequently ricochet into the tar The need for using an adjusted aiming point
get, producing the same effect as a direct hit. can be demonstrated with tracer ammunition.
A second advantage of hitting short is that the To conduct this demonstration, the class should
firer is usually better able to see the bullet's be assembled on one side of the range so they
actual point of impact. Knowing- this, he can will have an oblique view of both the demon
quickly readjust his aiming point and fire a strator and the targets. When the demonstrator
second, more accurate round. The range of 200 fires, the class will be able to see the curved
meters is used as the dividing line for adjust path made by the bullet in flight. The demon
ing the aiming point (rather than 250 meters) stration should only be fired at the longer range
for the following reasons: targets as this will give the most pronounced
(1) Determining ranges in 100-meter in arc to the trajectory.
crements is much easier than deter /. Adjusted Aiming Point Training. The
mining ranges in 50-meter increments. soldier receives initial practical training in ap
(2) The point of aim very nearly coin plying the principle of the adjusted aiming
cides with the strike of the bullet at point during the first field firing exercise. Tar-
TAGO 5024-A
gets are located at ranges either greater or ing in firing from both supported and unsup
lesser than 200 meters, requiring the firer to ported positions. However, greater emphasis is
adjust his aiming point accordingly. In the placed on the combat application of these fir
initial field firing exercise, soldiers are allowed ing positions. Since the combat rifleman may
ample time to fire, and should conduct "self- be moving or in a stationary position when
experiments" in selecting aiming points to fit he encounters the enemy, he must be proficient
the range of the targets. in rapidly assuming a firing position and en
gaging targets in either situation. Field firing
37. Rapid Reloading exercises provide practical training in both
During 25-meter (1000-inch) range firing, techniques. In some exercises, the firer engages
the soldier receives initial training and practi targets from stationary positions, while in
cal exercises in the techniques of rapid reload others he is required to walk forward and,
ing. To continue his training in this skill, the when targets appear, rapidly assume a position
soldier will fire several exercises during which and fire. Speed is emphasized by limiting tar
he must rapidly reload. To conduct these ex get exposure times. As he progresses through
ercises, the ammunition is issued in two maga field firing, each soldier should eventually be
zines or clips. The rifle is loaded with one of able to effectively engage targets at ranges out
the magazines or clips, and the firer carries the to 200 meters within 5 seconds and targets be
other in his ammunition pouch or belt. As soon yond 200 meters within 10 seconds.
as he has expended all of the ammunition in 6. The purpose of imposing different time
the first magazine or clip, he must rapidly re limits for targets at different ranges is to em
load and be ready for the appearance of the phasize the fleeting nature of combat targets,
next target. If the soldier is armed with the and that a definite correlation exists between
M14 rifle, it is possible that he will run out of the range to the target and the time require to
ammunition and not realize it until he attempts hit it. Through practical experience, firers will
to fire. In such cases he should still attempt to find that a slight error in sight picture will
reload and engage the target within the pre still produce a hit at a range of 75 meters,
scribed time limit. In any event, there is no but the same error will cause a miss at a range
time added to the exercise for the purpose of of 300 meters. Hence, as a general rule, it re
reloading. quires more time to fire an effective round at
longer ranges since the firer must take extra
38. Reduction of Stoppages care in his application of fundamentals. From
During the later field firing exercises, one the combat rifleman's viewpoint, this relation
dummy round should be placed among the live ship between range and time must also take in
rounds in the firer's magazine or clip. When to consideration the degree of personal danger
this round fails to fire, the soldier must rapid posed by enemy targets. Normally, the closest
ly pull the bolt handle to the rear, eject the enemy targets are the most dangerous, and the
dummy round, release the bolt so a new round speed with which they are engaged becomes
is loaded, resume his position, and fire at the increasingly important as the range decreases.
target. This procedure is known as "immediate Considering all of these factors then, the com
action." Unless the soldier learns to perform bat rifleman must possess both speed and ac
this action rapidly and instinctively, the target curacy in firing on enemy targets. At shorter
will be gone before he can fire. In combat, a ranges (200 meters and less) speed must be
slight hesitation in performing immediate ac emphasized and at longer ranges (over 200
tion might well give an enemy soldier just time meters) accuracy must be emphasized. For sol
enough to fire a killing round. Since speed is diers moving in the open, these factors have
so important, the firer must not be given ad an added application in determining the best
ditional time during the exercise to perform firing position from which to engage surprise
the immediate action required. enemy targets. In such situations, the standing
position is obviously the quickest and easiest
39. Positions and Engaging Single Targets firing position to assume. However, it is also
a. Field firing continues the soldier's train the least stable. Experience has shown that in
TAGO 6024-A.
59
the standing- position, the chances of hitting tar 41. Application of Marksmanship Funda
gets beyond 100 meters within five or ten sec mentals and Corrective Instruction
onds are extremely remote. The prone position,
on the other hand, is the most stable of all the a. Although field firing exercises are primari
unsupported positions; however, it too has ly designed to teach skills which cannot be
limited application on the battlefield. The rea logically conducted on 25-meter (1000-inch)
son is that once in the prone position, the ranges, the fundamentals learned during this
firer will usually discover the terrain and/or earlier training phase must continue to be em
vegetation has masked the target. Thus, firers phasized. Instructors should particularly check
moving in the open who detect targets beyond firers for indications of improper trigger con
a range of 100 meters should normally assume trol. Many soldiers firing under time pressure
either the sitting, squatting; or kneeling posi will develop a tendency to jerk the trigger. This
tion to engage them. Through practice, the error must be stopped before it becomes a
firer can determine which of the positions pro habit.
vide the best combination of speed, accuracy, b. A second fundamental frequently slighted
and observation for various target situations on the field firing range is that of position.
and his own capabilities. Continued emphasis must be placed on the im
portance of correct body position. Since time
40. Engaging Multiple Targets is a factor in field firing exercises, it is a good
If a combat rifleman observes three enemy technique to emphasize that it requires no long
soldiers, fires, and hits one of them, he can er to assume a correct position than it does an
expect the other two to quickly seek cover. incorrect one, and that firing results are con
Consequently, the rifleman must be able to rap siderably better from a correct position.
idly shift his point of aim and fire at a second c. Although coaches are not designated for
and even a third enemy soldier before they field firing exercises, assistant instructors
have an opportunity to reach a protected posi should perform this function for firers having
tion. The last exercises conducted during field unusual difficulty. Trigger control and ball and
firing training are designed to present just dummy exercises can be conducted on an in
such multiple target situations to the firer. As dividual basis. However, firers committing
in the single target exposure exercises, the firer major errors in fundamentals should be re
must engage the targets within prescribed time moved from the firing line and returned to the
limits and from various firing: positions. 25-meter range for corrective instruction.

Section II. RANGE OPERATION


42. Range Facilities 43. Operation of Standard Field Firing
Whenever possible, field firing exercises Ranges
should be conducted on standard field firing The standard field firing range is constructed
ranges constructed for this specific purpose. If on open, flat terrain having a minimum depth
such ranges are not available, field firing can of 300 meters (fig. 37). The vegetation is re
be conducted on a known distance range. How moved so targets will be clearly visible to the
ever, both the known distance range and course firer. The standard range consists of 35 lanes
of fire must be modified to accomplish this. and will accommodate a maximum of 115 sol
Even with these modifications, the firing con diers in three 35-man firing orders. Foxholes
ducted on the known distance range is, at best, and stumps are placed along the firing line in
expedient training and cannot be considered order to continue training in firing from both
comparable to the benefits gained from train supported and unsupported positions. Control
ing on standard field firing ranges. Therefore, points are also required to regulate the forward
if there is a need for establishing a priority of progress of firers during movement-type ex
range use, the standard field firing range should ercises. The stumps and foxholes are used as
be given preference over the modified known two of these control points. Numbered stakes
distance range. are placed forward of the foxholes and other
60 TAGO 5024-A
300
M

A A A A A A A

17 5
V

A A A A A A A

'5
M

-CONTROL POINTS:

FORWARD
•NUMBERED
STAKES

. ^J*
—fW-^W^O
——f^
U ^ /""Y /"N
(J-——(J
Mi

>
*{J -\J {J s~\
——j———' •FOXHOLES

3X HC
JPS rt i^s rt fw fat tM7/ Jl
iii——
AL Ii M. Jl M A -STUMPS

REAR
•NUMBERED
STAKES

X ^ ^ CONIHUL •-- --
0' STARTING POINTS
FF: NOT TO SCALE TOWER ——————————————————————— —

Figure 37, Standard field firing range.


TAGO 5024-A
61
stakes are placed in rear of the stumps to pro-
vide additional control points. The starting
points are located behind the rear numbered
stakes and can be designated by stakes, a line
placed on the ground, or reference points such
as the line of ready chairs.
a. Targets, Target Devices, and Scoring.
(1) There are three rows or banks of tar
gets on the standard field firing range.
One bank is located at a range of 75
meters, the second at 175 meters, and
the third at 300 meters. The targets
are silhouettes shaped in the general
outline of a man. At the 75-meter
range, the "F" type silhouette target
is used. This depicts the head and
shoulders of an average size man.
The "E" type, or full body silhouette,
is used at ranges of 175 and 300
meters.
(2) Each target is fastened to an auto
matic target device (fig. 38). These
are electrically operated devices that
can be centrally or individually con
trolled. The most satisfactory control
method is to connect all of the tar
gets in one bank into one switch. This
switch will then raise or lower the
entire target bank at one time. Ex
cept for the initial field firing exer
cise, targets are exposed for a pre
scribed period of time and then drop
ped. Since it requires one or two
seconds for the mechanism to phys
ically raise the targets, timing should
begin when the targets are fully ex
posed rather than the moment the
switch activates the mechanism. Time
limits and sequence of target expo
sures are prescribed by the scorecard
for the exercise being conducted.
(3) When a target is hit by a bullet, the
vibration activates a mechanism in the
device which causes the target to drop
or "kill." Each kill is scored as a hit
for the firer. If the target does not
drop, he receives a miss. During
timed exercises, an audible signal such
as a buzzer, whistle, or bell should be Figure 38. Automatic target device (M31A1).
used to designate the expiration of the
time limit. Rounds fired after the sig
nal has sounded are scored as misses.
TAGO 5024-A
62
b. Range. Organization. The organization of (/) One assistant instructor per seven
firers and range personnel to conduct field fir to ten points. Primarily responsible
ing is as follows: to insure that all firing personnel
(1) Firers. Normally, the training sched observe safety procedures and regu
ule requires half of a 200-man unit lations. They should also assist those
to receive training on the field firing firers having unusual difficulty in
range while the remainder of the unit hitting the targets.
either fires on the 25-meter range, re (g) Medical personnel. Provide medical
ceives instruction in target detection, support as required by regulations
or participates in other training deem governing live fire exercises.
ed appropriate by the commander. c. Range Procedures.
Those on the field firing range are (1) Orientation. Prior to beginning live
divided into three orders. Initially, the fire exercises, all personnel must re
first order is designated as firers, the ceive an orientation on range safety.
second as scorers, and the third as In addition, the orientation should out
the ammunition detail. These duties line the procedures for conducting the
are rotated at the end of each exer exercise to include the responsibilities
cise. of the two nonfiring orders. In gen
(2) Range personnel. For best training eral, these responsibilities are:
results, the following personnel are (a) Scorers. Responsible for maintain
required to conduct field firing. ing the score of the firer. He may
(a) Range control officer. Responsible assist the firer by indicating the
for all the training and range opera impact of the bullet in relation to
tion. Responsible for conducting the target—e.g., "short—right" or
safety orientation prior to each "over—left."
scheduled period of instruction. (b) Ammunition men. Issue ammuni
(6) Range safety officer. Responsible tion to firers and, if necessary, fill
for the safe operation of the range. empty magazines for subsequent ex
He insures that all personnel comply ercises.
with safety regulations and proce (2) Master score chart. A master score
dures. This officer should not be as chart (fig. 39) indicating individual
signed any duty except that of scores for each exercise is an effective
safety. method of maintaining a competitive
(c) Target control operator. Responsi spirit within a unit. It also provides a
ble for the raising, lowering and means of determining those individu
timing of the automatic target de als in need of closer supervision
vices. If possible, two men should and/or corrective instruction.
be designated to perform this duty (3) Conduct of firing. During field firing,
so one can maintain the target ex soldiers will fire from both stationary
posure times while the other con positions and positions which they as
trols the targets. sume rapidly while moving forward.
(d) Ammunition detail. Responsible for In either of these two types of exer
the distribution of ammunition to cises, targets may be exposed singly
central points behind the firing line. or in multiples of two or three. The
This detail should not be confused positions of the firer and the sequence,
with the ammunition men desig type, and time of target exposures
nated from among the firing orders. are prescribed on the scoreboard for
(e) Ordnance detail. Should be com each exercise (app. III). Unless pre
posed of two segments, one to con scribed otherwise, only one round
duct small arms repair and the other should be fired at each exposed target
to perform minor maintenance on regardless of whether or not it is hit.
the automatic target devices. (a) Stationary position exercises. On
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vidual firers do not get ahead of or avoid confusion during field firing
behind the other firers. exercises. Example fire commands
As the line of firers nears the are as follows:
designated control point, targets are 1. Fire commands for exercises fired
exposed and firers rapidly assume from stationary positions.
the designated position and engage (a) FIRERS, ASSUME THE __
them. Firers should remain in this ______________ POSITION.
position and continue to observe
(b) LOCK, ________ ROUNDS
their lanes for other targets to ap
LOAD.
pear. If the firing position is not
designated, firers may select their (c) READY ON THE RIGHT?
.own position (par. 39). (d) READY ON THE LEFT?
(c) Single and multiple target exercises. (e) WATCH YOUR LANES.
For the first several exercises, tar (f) CEASE FIRE, LOCK YOUR
gets are exposed singly in each lane WEAPON.
and all 35 firers engage the targets (g) Repeat (a) through (e) above
in their respective lanes. Later in or give (h) through (k) below.
the training, multiple target exer
(h) CEASE FIRING, CLEAR
cises are conducted. These exercises
ALL WEAPONS.
require firers to make a major shift
in aiming points, both horizontally (i) CLEAR ON THE RIGHT?
and in range. Consequently, the (j) CLEAR ON THE LEFT?
firers' zone of responsibility must be (k) THE FIRING LINE IS
increased. To accomplish this, the CLEAR.
range operation is modified so only (1) Give instructions for next ex
half of the 35 firers are conducting ercise.
an exercise at any one time. How
ever, this half is responsible for the 2. Fire commands for movement-type
targets appearing on two lanes. To exercises. Before the initial ex
avoid confusion, not all of the tar ercise of this type, explain the use
gets are used for multiple target of control points and the need for
exercises. The odd-numbered 75- maintaining alignment while ad
meter targets and the even-num vancing.
bered 175-meter targets are either (a) FIRERS, MOVE TO THE
removed or disconnected. No STARTING POINT
changes are made to the 300-meter (b) LOCK, ________ ROUNDS
targets. Each firer can have any LOAD.
combination of a 75-meter target, a
(c) READY ON THE RIGHT?
175-meter target, and two 300-
meter targets presented to him (fig. (d) READY ON THE LEFT?
40). A training technique to use in (e) THE FIRING LINE IS
conjunction with multiple target ex READY.
ercises is to require the firers on (f) BY THE (control point), THE
odd-numbered lanes to dry fire while (position), MOVE OUT. Or
firers on even-numbered lanes are BY THE (control point),
conducting the exercise. Upon com MOVE OUT.
pleting an exercise, the firers on
the odd-numbered lanes fire the ex
ercise while those on the even-num Note. This command is repeated for
bered lanes dry fire. each control point as prescribed on the
(d) Fire commands. Simple, standard scorecard.
ized fire commands are essential to
TAGO 5024-A
A fl A A fl
3OO
M

CONTROL
POINTS:

FORWARD
NUMBERED
STAKES
FOXHOLES
FOXHOLE
STUMPS

REAR
NUMBERED
STAKES

x x STARTING POINTS
NOTE: NOT TO SCALE

Figure 4O. Field firing range organized for multiple target firing.

66 TAGO 5024-A
LOCK YOUR WEAPON, targets is the same as prescribed
FACE ABOUT, KEEPING for standard field firing ranges
THE MUZZLE DOWN (par. 43a.). On known distance
RANGE, RETURN TO ranges, there is the added require
STARTING POINT, ment of replacing "F"-type silhou
(h) Repeat (c) through (g) above ette targets with the "E"-type tar
or (i) through (1) below. gets when the firing line moves from
(i) CLEAR ALL WEAPONS, the 100- to the 200-yard line.
(j) CLEAR ON THE RIGHT? (b) If manually operated targets are
used, a pit detail is required to raise
(k) CLEAR ON THE LEFT? and lower the targets. Targets are
(1) THE FIRING LINE IS raised at the time designated by the
CLEAR. officer in charge of the range. A buz
(m) Give instructions for next ex zer in the pits (controlled from the
ercise. firing line) can be used as a means
of control. Upon receiving a signal,
44. Operation of Modified Known target operators raise their tar
Distance Ranges gets. When a target is hit, it is
On known distance ranges, one row or bank lowered by the operator and a chalk
of targets is used. Fifty firing points are re mark is made over the bullet hole
quired to accommodate a 200-man unit. In or in the back of the target. At the
der to provide practical experience in firing end of the time limit, a command
from different ranges, successive exercises are or signal is given from the firing
conducted from the 100-yard (92-meter), 200- line and those targets which have
yard (184-meter), and 300-yard (276-meter) not been hit are lowered. Scoring
firing lines (fig. 41). is based on one point for each tar
a. Targets. When firing at a range of 100 get hit. At the end of an exercise,
yards, the "F" or half-silhouette target is used. the target operator signals the
The "E" or full-silhouette is used for the other number of misses using a red flag.
two ranges. (3) Target exposure time limits. During
(1) Target installation. Silhouette targets all field firing exercises conducted on
can be attached to either automatic the known distance range, targets are
target devices (M31, M31A1) or the exposed according to time limits pre
standard target holding frames of the scribed on the scorecards (app. III).
known distance range (see app. V for Initially, firers are allowed sufficient
methods of installing devices or modi time to become accustomed to the
fying target frames). Of the two new target situations and range pro
methods, automatic target devices are cedures. As the training progresses,
the more desirable because they elim these time limits are gradually re
inate the need for large pit details. duced in order to emphasize the neces
Regardless of the method used, the sity for both accuracy and speed in
manner of installing silhouette tar engaging combat targets.
gets must not interfere with the use b. Range Organization. The organization of
of known distance ranges for com firers and range personnel to conduct field fir
petitive firing. ing on known distance ranges is as follows:
(2) Target operation and scoring. The (1) Firers. Based on a strength of 200
operation and scoring of targets de soldiers, a unit scheduled to fire on a
pends upon whether automatic target known distance should be divided into
devices or manually operated targets four platoons of equal size. The two
are used. platoons which initially fire the exer
(a) If automatic target devices are cise are divided into two orders. One
used, the operation and scoring of order fires while the other scores. The
TAGO 5024-A
67
PITS OR TARGET BANK

92 METERS

1OO YARD FIRING LINE

READY LINE

184 METERS
2OO YARD FIRING LINE

276 METERS
3OO YARD FIRING LINE

CONTROL TOWER

Figure 41. Known distance range organized for field firing.

68 TA60 5024-A
scorers are also used to issue ammuni (2) Master score chart. As prescribed in
tion. If automatic target devices are paragraph 43c(2).
used on the range, the two nonfiring (3) Conduct of firing. Firing tables and
platoons receive instruction in target scorecards for known distance field
detection or such other training as firing are contained in appendix III.
prescribed by the commander. If man The conduct of field firing on modified
ually operated targets are used, one known distance ranges follows the
platoon must be used as a pit detail to same general procedures as prescribed
operate the targets, leaving one pla for standard field firing ranges. How
toon to conduct target detection or ever, because known distance ranges
other type training. When a pit detail have only one target bank and lack
is required, the schedule should pro foxholes and stumps for supported
vide for a changeover between the pit position firing, the procedures outlined
detail and the platoon conducting in paragraph 43c(3) must be modified
training so each spends equal time as follows:
performing both activities. Ideally, all (a) Stationary position exercises. No
four platoons should spend equal time change in procedures; however, fir
firing, acting as pit detail, and receiv ing is not conducted from either fox
ing target detection or other training. hole or kneeling supported positions.
(2) Range personnel. The range personnel ( b) Movement-type exercises. No
required to conduct field firing on change in procedures except in the
known distance ranges are the same as use of control points. The distance
prescribed for standard field firing which firers can move on modified
ranges with the following additions: known distance ranges depends on
(a) If automatic target devices are the width of the firing lines. If the
used, a detail is required to replace firing lines are constructed at ap
the "F"-type silhouette targets with proximately ground level, it may be
the "E"-type targets when the firing possible to use four stakes placed
is moved from 100 to 200 yards. 2 meters apart as control points
This detail should be composed of (fig. 41). The rearmost stake is
one noncommissioned officer in designated "SP" (starting point),
charge and one soldier for every the next two stakes as "A" and "B"
three to five targets to be changed. respectively (letters rather than
(b) If manually operated targets are numbers are recommended to avoid
used, a pit detail is required as confusion with firing point num
follows: bers) , and the forward stake as the
1. Pit officer. Responsible to the "limit of advance" (on most ranges,
range officer for the operation of the stake indicating the firing point
the pits. number can be used to designate the
2. Pit noncommissioned officers. limit of advance). If the firing line
(One per eight to ten targets.) is elevated and relatively narrow,
Supervise target operators. firers may be able to move only a
3. Target operators. (One per few steps during the entire exercise.
target.) Raises, lowers and scores In this instance, the only control
targets. features required are a starting
c. Range Procedures. point and a stake indicating the
(1) Orientation. Prior to beginning live limit of advance. With only two
fire exercises, all personnel must re control features, target control
ceive an orientation on range safety. operators must gauge when to ex
In addition, the orientation should out pose the targets by the number of
line the procedures for conducting the steps taken by the firers rather than
exercise. their nearness to a control point.
TAGO 5024-A 69
(e) Single and multiple target exercises. to make a lateral shift of his aiming
No change in procedures except that point.
required by the single bank of tar
(d) Fire commands. Fire commands for
gets. During single target exercises,
exercises fired from stationary posi
firers engage the same target from
tions are the same as those outlined
each firing line. The organization of
for standard field firing (par. 43c
the firing line for multiple target
(3) (rf)). The same fire commands
exercises is the same as prescribed
for movement-type exercises on the
for standard field firing. That is,
standard field firing range can also
firers on the even numbered points
be used on the modified known dis
engage targets appearing on two
tance range provided the firing line
lanes while firers in the odd num
can accommodate four control
bered points dry fire the same exer points. If only two control points
cise. Upon completion of the exer can be used (starting point and
cise, firers on the odd numbered limit of advance), that portion of
points conduct the exercise while the fire command designating the
those on the even numbered points control point is eliminated.
dry fire. Thus each firer can engage
two adjacent targets, requiring him d. Range Safety. See appendix II.

TAGO 5024-A
70
CHAPTER 5
TARGET DETECTION

Section I. GENERAL
45. Purpose 46. Training Concepts
Even the most skilled marksman is useless if Target detection training is based on concepts
he cannot find the target. For the combat rifle governing the usual behavior and employment
man, finding the target can be even more of a of infantry units and the individuals within
problem than hitting it. Except during the those units on the battlefield. These concepts
are—
assault it is a rare soldier who fails to use some a. Enemy personnel are seldom seen except
cover and/or concealment when he is in the in the assault.
vicinity of enemy 'inits. Consequently, consider b. The range at which individual enemy
able emphasis must be placed on teaching soldiers can be detected rarely exceeds 300
soldiers the techniques of detecting targets as meters.
they will appear on the battlefield. As used in e. There are many indications that can re
veal the location of the enemy. Among the more
this manual, the term "target detection" means common are movement, sounds of movement,
the process of locating, marking, and determin sound and/or muzzle flash of a firing weapon,
ing the range to combat targets. These targets and reflection of light from shiny objects. How
may be either single or multiple, stationary or ever, any of these indications will usually be
moving. They can also be completely visible, visible for only a brief moment.
partially visible, or completely hidden. The d. A combat target does not have to be
visible in order to be hit by rifle fire. An enemy
purpose of this chapter is to outline procedures soldier who has been observed moving into a
for teaching soldiers how to detect enemy per concealed position can be effectively engaged by
sonnel on the battlefield under varying degrees using a nearby terrain feature as a reference
of mobility and concealment. point.

Section II. RANGE ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT


47. Location location of all down range panels, sound sys
Since target detection training is usually con tems, and any necessary trimming of foliage
ducted concurrently with firing exercises, the depends on the degree of visibility from the
target detection ranges should be located within observation line. The observation line should
ten minutes movement time of the combat firing be wide enough to accommodate 50 points.
ranges. It is also essential that target detection These points are sufficient for 50 two-man
ranges be located in areas having good natural teams or half of a 200-man unit.
vegetation (fig. 42). The observation lines of b. The fan of observation should cover the
target detection ranges must be placed on area between 30 degrees left of the left flank
terrain which will approximate good defensive point of the observation line to 30 degrees right
locations for units occupying that particular of the right flank point. Ideally, to provide
area. maximum flexibility in conducting exercises in
range determination, the target detection range
48. Construction should have a depth in excess of 500 meters. In
a. The observation line should be among the stallations having limited training space can
first areas of the target detection range to be conduct satisfactory training on ranges having
constructed. The reason for this is that the a depth of at least 300 meters.
TAGO 5024-A
71
c. Both lettered and numbered panels are they are for the sole use of instructors and
placed throughout the observation area. The target men in presenting various target situa
lettered panels serve two purposes: first, they tions. As in the case of the panels, the number
divide the range into sectors defining a rifle of stakes required will depend upon the depth
man's area of responsibility; and second, they of the range. As a guide, a range having a
serve as reference points for marking targets. depth of 300 meters should have approximately
The numbered panels are used during exercises 150 stakes. In placing numbered stakes, a
to locate sound targets only. Consequently, method should be used to provide easy reference
these panels should be constructed so they can to stake locations. One such method is to divide
be easily raised or lowered as required. the range into three sectors, "A," "B," and "C."
d. The number of panels needed depends Stakes are then numbered numerically begin
upon the size of the range. For a range having ning at the maximum depth of the range and
a 50-point observation line and a depth of 300 proceeding forward to the observation line. All
meters, approximately seven lettered panels stakes in one sector would have the sector letter
and 14 numbered panels will be required. following the number. For example, if the right
e. In addition to the panels, numbered stakes sector is designated "A," all numbers on stakes
are also placed down range. These stakes should in that sector will be followed by the letter "A."
not be visible from the observation line since Stakes in the center and left sectors will have

5O POINT OBSERVATION LINE

Figure 42. Target detection range.


TAQO 6024-A
72
the letters "B" and "C," respectively, after the SO. Range Personnel and Equipment
number. a. The following personnel are required to
/. The location of all panels and stakes must conduct and supervise target detection training:
be recorded on the master trial sheets.
g. For proper control of target men, it is (1) Officer in change and/or principal in
necessary to use sound equipment throughout structor.
the observation area. Since problems of ade (2) Four assistant instructors (based on
quate sound vary according to location, it 50-point observation line).
is best that a sound survey be conducted of each (3) Target men as required by the exer
target detection range before the equipment is ts cise.
installed. (4) Medical personnel.
h. The exact positioning of panels, stakes,
and sound equipment should be checked from b. The following equipment is required to
the observation line. It is desirable that sound conduct target detection training:
equipment be concealed from the observation (1) One master trial sheet per instructor
line; however, this is not an absolute necessity. and assistant instructor (fig. 49).
(2) One target trial sheet per target man
49. Use of Fiekf Expedient Areas for (fig. 50).
Target Detection Training (3) One answer sheet per observer.
If standard target detection ranges are not (4) One aiming device per observation
available, the principles can be applied to parks, point as required by the exercise (fig.
open field, or other sparsely vegetated areas. 51).
The following considerations provide a check (5) One camouflage suit per target man.
list when adapting such areas for target detec
tion training: (6) Camouflage paint tubes as required
a. There should be more depth to the range (at least one tube with each of the
than for a standard target detection range. In four basic colors).
addition, the fan of observation should be in (7) For exercises in which observers
creased depending on the degree of camouflage simulate firing on target men, there
in the area. should be one rifle (which has had the
b. Target men should be spaced wider apart firing pin removed) per observation
in areas having little natural vegetation. In point.
this regard, it may even be necessary to bring (8) Target men should have their normal
in piles of brush, logs, and man-made objects combat field equipment, including steel
to add to the number of concealed positions. helmet and rifle.

Section III. CONDUCT OF TRAINING

51. Training Conditions 52. Fundamentals of Target Detection


a. As in the case of firing exercises, personnel Initially, target detection is taught in three
receiving target detection training should wear distinct phases: first, how to locate a target;
combat field equipment, including packs and second, how to mark the location of the target;
steel helmets. A portion of the target detection and third, how to determine the range to the
training is devoted to teaching methods of target. Later, these phases are combined into
camouflaging this equipment. practical exercises which test the overall target
detection ability of the soldier.
b. Demonstrators for target detection train a. Locating Targets. The ability to locate a
ing should Wear combat field equipment, includ combat target depends upon the observer's posi
ing packs and steel helmets. This will increase tion, his skill in search and/or maintaining
their value as target men simulating the move observation over the area, and the type of indi
ments and appearance of enemy soldiers. cations made by the target.
TAGO 6024-A
73
(1) Selection of a position. particular in his area will generally
(a) Depending upon the situation, the see nothing in particular. The
individual rifleman may or may not history of warfare records many ex
select his own position. In most de amples of positions being surprised
fensive situations, the rifleman is and overwhelmed, even during day
told where to prepare his position. light in open terrain, simply because
However, there are situations, such observers were inattentive and
as the attack and reorganization of failed to use proper searching
the objective, which require the in techniques.
dividual to select his own position. (b) If the soldier fails to locate the
Although target detection training enemy during the initial search, he
courses prescribe conferences and must then begin a systematic ex
demonstrations on selection of posi amination of the same area (fig.
tions, the instruction does not 43). Normally, the area nearest the
normally include practical applica soldier offers the greatest potential
tion of this skill. Consequently, in danger to him. Therefore, the
structors must continually refer to search should begin with the terrain
and emphasize the importance of nearest the observer's position.
the observer's position when con Beginning at either flank, the
ducting- practical exercises in other soldier should systematically search
target detection techniques, the terrain to his front in a 180
(o) A good position is one that offers degree arc, 50 meters in depth.
maximum visibility of the area After reaching the opposite flank,
while affording cover and/or con the soldier should search the next
cealment. As used in this case, area nearest his position. This
"position" is both the observer's search should cover the terrain
location on the ground and the posi located between approximately 40
tion of his body at that location. and 90 meters of his position. The
(2) Searching and maintaining observa second search of the terrain includes
tion of an area. about 10 meters of the area exam
(a) When a soldier moves into a new ined during the first search. This
area, he must quickly check for technique insures complete coverage
enemy activity which may be of im of the area. The soldier continues
mediate danger to him. This is a searching from one flank to the
very rapid search, lasting approxi other in 50-meter overlapping strips
mately 30 seconds. The search as far out as he can see.
should be conducted by making (c) To again take advantage of his side
quick glances at various specific vision, the soldier should focus his
points throughout the area rather eyes on specific points as he searches
than just sweeping the eyes across from one flank to the other. He
the terrain in one continuous pano should make mental notes of prom
ramic view. The reason for this is inent terrain features and areas
that the eyes are sensitive to any that may offer cover and/or con
slight movements occurring within cealment to the enemy. In this way,
a wide arc of the object on which he becomes familiar with the
they are focused. This is commonly terrain as he searches it.
called "seeing something out of the (d) After completing his detailed
corner of the eye." However, THE search, the soldier may be required
EYES MUST BE FOCUSED ON to maintain observation of the area.
A SPECIFIC POINT IN ORDER To do this, he should use a method
TO HAVE THIS SENSITIVITY. similar to his initial quick search of
A soldier looking at nothing in the area. That is, he uses quick

74 TAGO 5024-A
Search ittf/ the terrain in overlnpijiny strips.

glances at various points through ically repeat a systematic search of


out the entire area, focusing his the area as described in (b) above.
eyes on specific features. As he con This systematic search should also
ducts this search, he should devise a be conducted anytime the attention
set sequence of searching the area of the observer has been distracted
to insure complete coverage of all from his area of responsibility.
terrain. Since it is entirely possible (3) Target indications. As a general defi
that this quick search may fail to nition, a target indication is anything
detect the initial movement of an a soldier does or fails to do that will
enemy, the observer should period- reveal his position to an enemy. Since
TAGO 6024-A
75
these indications apply equally to both during the day. Consequently,
aides on the battlefield, a soldier must objects which reflect light should
learn target indications from the either be discarded or dulled with
standpoint of locating the enemy but, mud or camouflage.
at the same time, preventing the £. Regularity of outline. The human
enemy from using the same indica body and most types of military
tions to locate him. These indications equipment are familiar outlines
can be grouped into three general to all soldiers. The outlines of
areas for instruction purposes. These such things as rifles, steel
are sound, movement, and improper helmets, and vehicles are all easily
camouflage. identified. The reliability of this
(a) Sound. Targets indicated by sounds indicator depends upon the visi
such as footsteps, coughing, or bility and the experience of the
equipment noises provide only a observers. On a clear day, most
direction and general location. Con soldiers can easily identify enemy
sequently, it is difficult to pinpoint a riflemen or equipment if a dis
target's location by sound alone. tinctive outline is presented. At
However, the fact that a sound has night or during other periods of
alerted an observer greatly in poor visibility, it is not only more
creases the possibility that he will difficult to see outlines but inex
eventually locate the target through perienced troops will frequently
subsequent target indications (FM mistake stumps and rocks for
21-75). enemy soldiers. This is an added
(b) Movement. The degree of difficulty reason for soldiers to become com
in locating moving targets depends pletely familiar with the terrain
primarily on the speed of movement. during periods of good visibility.
Slow, deliberate movements are S. Contrast with the background.
much more difficult to notice than (a) Suppose a soldier wearing a dark
those which are quick and jerky. uniform moved into a position in
The techniques outlined in (2) (a) front of a snowbank. The contrast
above are the best procedures for between the white snow and the
locating moving targets (FM 21- dark uniform would make him
75). clearly visible. However, if he is
(c) Camouflage. The lack or improper wearing a white (or light-colored)
use of camouflage and/or conceal uniform, he will be more difficult to
ment are indications which reveal see. Contrast with the background
the majority of targets detected on is among the most difficult of the
the battlefield. Such things as light target indicators for a soldier to
reflecting from shiny surfaces, pre avoid. The reason for this is that
senting a clearly defined outline, or during operations in which the
a contrast with the background are soldier is moving, he is usually ex
indicators easily noticed by an alert posed to any number of different
observer. For instructional pur types and colors of backgrounds.
poses, camouflage indicators are Since there is no one kind of per
divided into three general groups: sonal camouflage which blends in all
shine, regularity of outline, and con areas, a moving soldier must be con
trast with background. tinually aware of the surrounding
1. Shine. Items such as belt buckles, terrain and vegetation.
eyeglasses, or shiny metal sur (b) Contrasts in background are also a
faces will reflect light and act as common deficiency of defensive
a beacon to the soldier's position. positions. A parapet of freshly dug
This is as true at night as it is earth around a foxhole is as notice-
H TAGO 6024.A
able as a flag waving over it. Even point on the busH, the soldier should
if the positions are camouflaged, it hit the enemy rifleman even though he
is still possible to locate them from can't see him. However, suppose the
the very materials used to provide enemy rifleman moves into a concealed
concealment. For example, a hill position which has no distinguishable
having no vegetation except a row terrain feature in front of it. The
of evenly spaced bushes along the soldier must then select a nearby fea
military crest leaves little doubt in ture and determine its range and
an observer's mind as« io the general direction from the target. Of
presence of defensive positions. the two, an aiming point is usually the
Even camouflage which blends with most effective means of delivering
the area can indirectly disclose a accurate fire.
position. Since camouflage materials (3) The difficulty in using reference
are usually cut from vegetation points or aiming points to mark
within the immediate vicinity, an targets moving from one location to
observer seeing an area which has another depends on the following
been stripped of natural growth can factors.
logically deduce the presence of (a) Number of targets. If several
nearby camouflaged emplacements. targets appear and disappear at ap
Another problem of using vegeta proximately the same time, it is
tion for camouflage is that it will very difficult to note the point^of—
eventually wilt and turn brown. disappearance of each.
This produces a contrast similar to (b) Exposure time of target. Usually,
those positions having no camou moving targets are only exposed for
flage at all. a brief moment. Thus, the observer
b. Marking Targets. must be alert to note the point of
(1) Once a target has been located, the disappearance for all of the targets.
soldier may have to mark its location In such situations, the soldier should
in relation to some visible terrain mark the location of as many
feature. There could be several targets as possible before engaging
reasons for this. The enemy may have any of them. By so doing, he will
only briefly disclosed his position be know the location of several targets
fore again becoming hidden from and can engage each of them in
view. In some situations, the rifleman rapid succession.
may be under orders not to fire and (c) Spacing of targets. The greater the
disclose his position. Probably the interval between targets, the more
most common reason is that if the difficult it is to note the movements
soldier observes several targets at the of each. When there is considerable
same moment, he can obviously fire distance between targets, the ob
on only one of them at a time. Con server should accurately locate the
sequently, he must mark the location one nearest his position and note the
of the others until he is ready to en general area of the others.
gage them. (d) Good and poor aiming points. Tar
(2) To mark the location of a target, the gets disappearing behind good aim
soldier uses an aiming point or a ing points can be easily marked for
reference point. An aiming point is future reference. On the other
a terrain feature directly on line be hand, targets disappearing behind
tween the soldier and the target. For poor aiming points are difficult to
example, suppose a soldier observes mark accurately and are easily lost.
an enemy rifleman moving into a com If two targets offer about the same
pletely concealed position behind a degree of danger to the soldier, but
bush. By selecting a proper aiming one disappears behind a good aim-

TAOO BW4-A 77
ing point and the other behind a must be able to visualize a dis
poor aiming point, the soldier should tance of 100 meters on the ground.
mark the location of the target be For ranges up to 500 meters, he
hind the good aiming point and determines the number of 100-
engage the other target first. meter increments between the
e etermining Range. two points he wishes to measure
i.) Simply stated, range determination is (fig. 44). Beyond 500 meters, the
the process of finding the distance soldier must select a point half
between two points. In most situa way to the target, determine the
tions, one of these points will be the number of 100-meter increments
observer's own position. The other to this halfway point, and then
point may be a target or prominent double it to find the range to the
terrain feature. THE ABILITY target (fig. 45).
TO ACCURATELY DETERMINE 2. During training exercises, the
RANGE IS A KEY SKILL NEEDED soldier must become familiar with
BY THE COMBAT RIFLEMAN TO the effect that sloping ground has
ACCOMPLISH HIS VARIOUS MIS on the appearance of a 100-
SIONS. Not only does the accurate meter increment. Ground which
determination of range affect his slopes upward gives the illusion
combat marksmanship proficiency, but of greater distance and observers
it is also required in the reporting of have a tendency to underesti
information and the adjusting of mate a 100-meter increment.
artillery and mortar fire. That is, they may select two
2) There are any number of methods for points as being 100 meters apart
determining; range. Measuring dis when they are, in fact, 140 or
tances on maps, pacing the distance 150 meters apart. Conversely,
between two points, using an optical ground which slopes downward
range finder, and firing a round at gives the illusion of shorter dis
the point in question. However, the tances. In this case, the ob
combat rifleman does not usually have server's tendency is to overesti
a map, and he rarely has access to an mate; that is, to apply a 100-
optical range finder. Pacing the dis meter unit of measure between
tance between two points is one two points which are actually less
method a soldier can use, provided the than 100 meters apart.
enemy is not in the vicinity. Firing S. To become proficient in the 100-
a round just to determine the range is meter mental unit of measure
usually not desirable since it imme method requires constant prac
diately reveals the firer's position to tice. Throughout the training
enemy observers. For the most part, in this technique, comparisons
then, the rifleman must use techniques should be continually made be
which require no equipment other than tween the range as determined
that which he normally carries and by the soldier and the actual
which can be accomplished without range as determined by pacing
exposing himself or revealing his po or other more accurate means of
sition. There are two methods of measurement. The best training
determining range which meet these technique is to require the soldier
requirements; the 100-meter mental to pace the range after he has
unit of measure method and the ap visually determined it. (For"the
pearance of objects method, average soldier, 132 paces equals
(a) 100-meter mental unit of measure 100 meters.) In this way, he dis
method. covers the actual range for him
1. To use this method, the soldier self, which makes a much greater

78 TAGO 5024-A
Figure 44. 100-meter mental unit of measure ranges up to 500 meters.

TAGO 6024-A
HALFWAY
POINT

Figure 45. 100-meter mental unit of measure ranges greater than 500 meters.

impression than if he is simply acteristic details of the object in


told the correct range. question. This is a common
4. The greatest limitation of the method of determining distances
100-meter mental unit of measure and is used by most people in
is that its accuracy is directly their every-day living-. For ex
related to how much of the ter ample, a motorist attempting to
rain is visible to the observer. pass another car must judge the
This is particularly true at the distance of oncoming vehicles
greater ranges. If a target ap based on his knowledge of how
pears at a range of 500 meters or vehicles appear at various dis
more and the observer can only tances. Of course, in this exam
see a portion of the ground be ple, the motorist is not interested
tween himself and the target, it in precise distances, but only that
becomes very difficult to use the he has sufficient road space to
100-meter mental unit of measure safely pass the car in front of
method of range determination him. Suppose, though, the motor
with any degree of accuracy. ist knew that at a distance of one
(6) Appearance of objects method. mile an oncoming vehicle ap
1. The appearance of objects meth peared to be one inch wide and
od is a means of determining two inches high, with about a
range by the size and other char half inch between the headlights.
80 TAGO 5024-A
Then, any time he saw other on same man in a kneeling position
coming vehicles which fitted these and then in a prone position. By
dimensions he would know they comparing the appearance of
were about one mile away. This these positions at known ranges
same technique can be used by from 100 to 500 meters, the sol
riflemen to determine ranges on dier can establish a series of
the battlefield. If he knows the mental images which will help
characteristic size and detail of him determine range on unfamil
personnel and equipment at iar terrain. Training should also
known ranges, then he can com be conducted in the appearance
pare these characteristics to of other familiar objects such as
similar objects at unknown weapons or vehicles. Because the
ranges. When the characteristics successful use of this method de
match, so then does the range. pends upon the visibility, any
thing which limits the visibility
2. To use the appearance of objects (such as weather, smoke, or
method with any degree of accu darkness) will also limit the ef
racy, the soldier must be thor fectiveness of this method (fig.
oughly familiar with the charac 46).
teristic details of objects as they (c) Under proper conditions, either the
appear at various ranges. For 100-meter mental unit of measure
example, the soldier should study or the appearance of objects method
the appearance of a man when is an effective way of determining
he is standing at a range of 100 range. However, proper conditions

FACTORS AFFECTING THE APPERANCE OF OBJECTS


FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED IN OBJECTS APPEAR NEARER THAN THEY REALLY ARE. OBJECTS APPEAR MORE DISTANT THAN THEY
DETERMINING RANGE BY EYE. REALLY ARE.

THE TARGET—ITS CLEARNESS WHEN MOST OF THE TARGET IS VISIBLE AND WHEN ONLY A SMALL PART OF THE TARGET MAY BE

OF OUTLINE AND DETAILS. OFFERS A CLEAR OUTLINE. SEEN OR IS SMALL IN RELATION TO ITS SURROUNDINGS.

NATURE OF THE TERRAIN OR WHEN LOOKING ACROSS A DEPRESSION. MOST WHEN LOOKING ACROSS A DEPRESSION. ALL OF WHICH
POSITION OF THE OBSERVER. OF WHICH IS HIDDEN FROM VIEW. IS VISIBILE.

WHEN LOOKING DOWNWARD FROM HIGH GROUND. WHEN LOOKING FROM LOW GROUND TOWARD HIGH GROUND

WHEN LOOKING DOWN A STRAIGHT. OPEN ROAD WHEN FIELD OF VISION IS NARROWLY CONFINED AS IN

OR ALONG A RAILROAD TRACK. TWISTED STREETS. DRAWS. OR FOREST TRAILS.

LIGHT AND ATMOSPHERE. WHEN LOOKING OVER UNIFORM SURFACES LIKE IN POOR LIGHT SUCH AS DAWN AND DUSK. IN RAIN.

WATER. SNOW. DESERT. OR GRAIN FIELDS. SNOW. OR FOG. OR WHEN THE SUN IS IN THE OBSERVER'S

IN BRIGHT LIGHT OR WHEN THE SUN IS EYES.

SHINING FROM BEHIND THE OBSERVER. WHEN THE TARGET BLENDS INTO THE BACKGROUND OR

WHEN THE TARGET IS IN SHARP CONTRAST WITH TERRAIN.

THE BACKGROUND OR IS SILHOUETTED BY

REASON OF SIZE. SHAPE. OR COLOR.

WHEN SEEN IN THE CLEAR ATMOSPHERE OF

HIGH ALTITUDES.

Figure 46. Factors affecting the appearance of objects.

meters. He fixes his appearance do not always exist on the battle


firmly in his mind, carefully not field. Consequently, the soldier will
ing details of size and the char be required to use a combination of
acteristics of his uniform and methods. The terrain might limit
equipment. Next, he studies the using the 100-meter mental unit of
TAGO 5024-A
81
measure method and the visibility experienced observer should arrive
could limit using the appearance of at a figure close to the true range,
objects method. However, the sol rf. Sector Sketch. A sector sketch is a rough
dier might still be able to determine schematic map of an observer's area of respon
ranges with a reasonable degree of sibility (fig. 47). It shows the range and di
accuracy using both methods. For rection from the observer's position to easily
example, an observer may not be recognizable objects, terrain features, avenues
able to see all of the terrain out to of approach, and possible enemy positions. If
the target; however, he may see practicable, the observer should pace the dis
enough to get a general idea of the tance between his position and reference points
distance, say, within 100 meters. in order to minimize range errors. By referring

FIRERS POSITION

Fif/nre 47. Sector sketch.

A slight haze may obscure many of to this sketch, the observer can quickly find
the target details; however, the ob the range to a target appearing in the vicinity
server should still be able to judge of a reference point.
its size. Thus by carefully con
sidering the approximate ranges as 53. Engaging Targets
determined by both methods, an Unless a rifleman has specific orders to the
TAGO 6024-A
contrary, targets are engaged as soon as they for this is that a few steps are needed to gather
are detected. In the case of enemy personnel, momentum to begin the rush and, by the same
there are essentially three types of target token, a few steps are required to slow down-
situations which confront the rifleman: a sta to avoid overrunning the new position. It is
tionary target, a rapidly moving target, or a at either of these two moments that a moving-
slowly moving target. target is most vulnerable to aimed rifle fire.
a. A stationary target can be engaged using c. A target moving directly toward the rifle
reference or aiming points. Since stationary man can be engaged in the same manner as a
targets are normally in a concealed position, stationary target. However, to hit a target
engaging them is usually as much a problem moving laterally across his front, the rifleman
of target detection as it is of marksmanship. lAust aim far enough in advance of the target
so the bullet will meet the target (fig. 48).
b. Although there are less detection prob To hit a man walking laterally at ranges 200
lems involved in locating moving targets, the meters and less, the rifleman should aim at the
movement itself complicates the selection of an forward edge of the body. For ranges beyond
accurate aiming point. Unless the enemy is 200 meters, the rifleman should select an aiming
completely unaware of the rifleman's presence, point approximating one body width in front
he will normally move by rushes from one of the target. If the target is running, these
covered or concealed position to another. target leads are doubled. That is, at ranges
While making the rush, the enemy soldier pre less than 200 meters the rifleman aims approxi
sents a rapidly moving target. However, for mately one body width in front of the target,
a brief moment as he begins and ends the and beyond 200 meters he aims approximately
rush, the movement is usually slow. The reason two body widths in front of the target.

TAGO 6024-A
OVER 2OO METERS
AIM HERE

2OO METERS OR LESS


AIM HERE

Figure 48. Target leads.

TAGO 5024-A
84
Section IV. PRACTICAL EXERCISES AND TESTS

54. Trial Sheets formed by the target men, the duration of the
a. Master Trial Sheets. The master trial actions, and the panel or stake locations where
sheet (fig. 49) shows the number of target men the actions will occur. A master trial sheet
required for an exercise, the actions to be per should be made for each exercise.

MASTER TRIAL SHEET


!•'
<
Trial Range
Nr>. (meters) Description of requirements
1 200 Standing exposed by- tree. Down to kneeling, exposed. Slow movement to out-of-sight
position. Out-of-sight fire round for smoke indications.
2 150 Same as above with a poor aiming point.
3 175 Start standing. Disappear on command. Reappear in same position. Make five 4-second
rushes with a good aiming point. Fire one round from last position.
4 300 Start from kneeling position behind bush. Make five 4- to 5-second rushes. Disappear
where there is a poor aiming point. Reappear from same position. 5-3-3-5-5-seconds.
Fire round from last position.
5 300 Start prone. Make five 4-5-8 second rushes. Disappear after each rush and roll or
crouch to new position. Three-second rush, crawl left. Six-second rush, crawl right.
Cross small draw. Appear and make 8-second rush, crawl left. Three-second rush,
crawl right. Fire one round from last position.
6 175 Start prone. Make three 4-second and two 6-second lateral rushes to new concealment.
Reappear at same point of disappearance. Vary time between rushes. Fire one round
from last position.
7 175 Do same in reverse. Crawl or roll tc new position after disappearing. Fire round from
last position.
8 200 Run 200 yards from tree to position with a poor aiming point. Fire 2 blanks 1 minute
after disappearance.
9 300 Start prone. Three-second rush, crawl left. Five-second rush, crawl right. 5-L-3-3-6-
R-4-5, through draw. Fire round from last position. (Numbers indicate duration of
rush; letters L and R indicate direction of roll or craw after each rush.)
10 300 Start behind bush. 6-8-R-3-R-4-3. Fire round from last position.
Note. Target trial sheets should be prepared from a master trial sheet similar to the one above containing
only the trials and target indications performed by a specific target.

Figure 49. Master trial sheet.

b. Target Trial Sheets. A target trial sheet tion training. These are stationary target
(fig. 50) is issued to each man who will act trials, moving target trials, stationary sound
as an enemy target in the area of observation. target trials, and multiple moving and sound
These men, called "target men," use the target target trials.
trial sheets as a basis for their location and a. Stationary Target Trials. Normally, there
actions throughout an exercise. All actions are four phases in each stationary trial. The
performed by a target man which lead to his first three phases last 30 seconds each. In
eventual disclosure are termed a "trial." phase one, the target man remains motionless
in a slightly exposed position that will enable
55. Conduct of Trials him to observe the heads and chests of soldiers
Before a trial is conducted, observers should along the observation line. In the second phase,
face away from the range area so target men the same target man slowly raises his head and
can assume their positions unobserved. When shoulders until he can observe the soldiers on
the target men are in position, the observers are the observation line from the ground up. In
told to again face down range. There are four phase three, the same target man makes
types of trials conducted during target detec rapid, jerky movements continuously for 30
TAGO 5024-A 85
TARGET TRIAL SHEET

RANGE J
PERIOD 16
OBSERVATION LINE
TARGET MAN NO. 1

FRONT SIDE

1 Front
Figure 50. Target trial sheet.

TAGO 6024-A
TARGET MAN NO. 1

TRIAL NO. OGATION


1
5 25-25 A-25B-3C-! 5D-25C
6 13-13A-13B-13C-13D
8 9-9A-9B-9C

TRjAL (PHASE) ACTIONS.,


1- 1- MOTIONLESS IN PRONE POSITION
2- SLOWLY RAISE AND LOWER HEAD AND SHOULDERS
3- SLOWLY RAISE HEAD AND SHOULDERS, DROP ABRUPTLY
4- FIRE TWO BLANKS

5-RUSH TO EACH POSITION. AWAIT COMMANDS TO STAND, DISAPPEAR.


AND MAKE NEXT MOVEMENT.

6-CRAWL TO EACH POSITION. AWAIT COMMANDS TO STAND, DISAPPEAR.


AND MAKE NEXT MOVEMENT.

8-RUSH TO EACH POSITION, STOPPING TWO SECONDS AT EACH.

RANGE J PERIOD 16

BACK SIDE

50— Continued,

seconds. Finally, in phase four, the same phases of stationary trials. (See app. IV for
target man fires one or two blank rounds to examples of scoresheets.)
ward the observation line (safety permitting). b. Mociny Taryet Trials.
The command to begin a stationary target trial (1) The target trial sheets for moving
is TRIAL ONE, PHASE ONE, OBSERVE. trials must indicate the specific trials
If, during the first phase, the observer thinks in which the target man will par
he has located the target, he notes the letter ticipate, the stake location at which
of the panel nearest the target and determines he begins the trial and the stake loca
the range from his position to the target. He tion to which he must move, and
enters this information on his scoresheet and finally, the type of movement and/or
aft assistant instructor checks his solution. A other specific actions to be performed
range error of not more than ten percent is by the target man. An example tar
considered satisfactory. If the observer has get trial sheet for target man number
selected the wrong panel or the error in range one might indicate that he would
exceeds ten percent, he should be told his an participate in trials 1, 3, 5, 9, 12, and
swer is incorrect and to continue his observa 15. In trial one, the instructions state
tion, if the answer is correct, the observer that he will make one long rush from
should continue his observation of the area, stake 6B to stake 12B. In trial three,
recording the required information on his he is told to make three short rushes
scoresheet for the subsequent phases. This from stake 12 to stake 15B.
is followed throughout the four (2) In order to check the accuracy of ob-

87
servers, aiming devices should be used men may fire blank rounds after
to mark the point of disappearance of reaching a new location. Observers
multiple moving targets (fig- 51). are allowed 30 seconds to mark the
point of disappearance with the aim
ing device. The instructor then com
mands, TARGETS STAND UP, AL
TERNATE OBSERVERS CHECK
ALIGNMENT. The observer then
checks the accuracy of his work. This
procedure is continued until all of the
trials have been conducted.
c. Sound Target Trials. Before the trials
begin, the observers should draw a sector
sketch of the area. All of the numbered panels
should then be raised for sound target trials.
Each target man occupies a concealed position
in the vicinity of one of the numbered panels.
The instructor then informs the observer that
a shot will be fired from one of the reference
points. The observers must determine the
panel location nearest the sound and record the
information on their scoresheets. The com
mands to conduct the exercise are, TRIAL
NUMBER (ONE): READY, AIM, FIRE.
STUDENTS RECORD YOUR ANSWERS.
Should it be necessary to reposition target men
for subsequent trials, the observers should face
away from the range while the movement is
taking place. In some trials, several target men
should fire simultaneously in order to demon
strate the difficulty in locating similar sounds
coming from several directions at the same
Figure 51. Aiming device.
time.
d. Multiple Moving and Sound Targets. To
conduct multiple moving and sound target ex
The observer simply aligns the two ercises, eight target men are required (two
sight knobs on the bar on the point 4-man teams). Observers are divided into
where he thinks the targets are lo coaches and pupils with each pair having one
cated. Normally, two students are aiming device. The command to begin the ex
assigned to an aiming device, one to ercise is, MOVING TARGETS STAND UP;
act as the observer and the other to DISAPPEAR AND BEGIN YOUR MOVE
check the observer's work. MENT. The moving target men expose them
(3) To begin a moving trial, the command selves, resume their concealed position, and be
is MOVING TARGET(S) STAND gin their rushes forward. After making their
UP, DISAPPEAR, AND BEGIN movement, some of the target men should fire
YOUR MOVEMENTS. On these one or more blank rounds. The observer acting
commands, the applicable target men as the pupil must use the aiming device to mark
reveal themselves to the observers, the point of disappearance of as many moving
move back into their concealed posi targets as possible. He also notes the panel
tions, and begin the movements as di location of sound targets on his scoresheet.
rected by their target trial sheets. Upon completing a trial, the instructor com
During some exercises, the target mands, TARGETS STAND UP, CHECK
TAGO COX4-A
ALIGNMENT USING COACH AND PUPIL Master trial sheets, target trial sheets, and
METHOD. At this time the target men stand range procedures are the same as prescribed
up and the coach checks the accuracy of the for the practical exercises in detecting sta
pupil's work. In the next trial, the coach be tionary targets. Each observer should be given
comes the pupil and the pupil becomes the approximately 16 trials involving detection of
coach. stationary targets in order to provide enough
information to adequately judge his ability.
56. Target Detection Tests
As the final stage of their target detection b. Test Number Tivo—Moving Targets.
training, soldiers should be tested on their Target detection test number two requires the
ability to detect and determine ranges to single observer to mark the points of disappearance
stationary targets, marking the points of dis of multiple moving targets. These tests are
appearance of single and multiple moving tar- conducted in the same manner as the practical
gets, and locating targets by sound. exercises for moving targets (par. 556). Af
a. Test Number One—Stationary Targets, ter the target men have completed their move
Test number one is conducted using the same ments, observers are allowed 30 seconds to
four phases prescribed for the target detection mark the points of disappearance, using the
trials of stationary targets (par. 55a). In this aiming device. Assistant instructors check the
case, the observer receives points in propor results and award one point for each correctly
tion to the number of phases needed to detect marked target location.
the target. If the observer detects the target c. Test Number Three—Sound Targets.
in phase one, he receives four points; in phase Test number three involves sound targets only.
two, three points; and so on down to zero The test is conducted in the same manner as
points if he fails to detect the target after four practical exercises for locating sound targets
phases. To be considered correct, the observer (par. 55c). On command, one or two target
must again select the lettered panel nearest the men fire their rifles, and the observer attempts
target and then determine the range from his to locate the sound using the numbered panels
position to the target. A range error of ten as reference points. One point is awarded for
percent or less is considered satisfactory. each correct answer.

TAGO 6024-A.
89
CHAPTER 6

RECORD FIRING

Section I. GENERAL

57. Purpose range nor a combat positions range. Of these


Record firing is a series of practical exercises record courses, the course conducted on a
which requires the soldier to apply individual standard record range provides the greatest
rifle marksmanship techniques learned in pre training benefit since it requires the soldier to
vious instruction. Although the soldier re apply all of the combat marksmanship skills.
ceives a qualification rating based on the num If there is a choice or a need for establishing a
ber of targets which he hits, record firing priority system, preference should be given the
should not be considered so much a test as it course conducted on the standard record range.
is an extremely valuable training exercise. If
59. Training Concepts
record firing is correctly organized and con
ducted, any soldier can gain much valuable a. Uniform and Equipment. While firing the
experience and become an effective combat rifle record course, soldiers should wear combat
man regardless of his qualification rating. equipment, including combat packs and steel
Properly used, qualification ratings are impor helmets.
tant since they provide goals for the individual 6. Assistance to the Firers.
soldier to literally "shoot for." They also aid
(1) Record firing is strictly an individual
the commander in identifying the more pro
effort of each soldier. The firer should
ficient marksman of his unit. This can be a
not receive coaching or any other
significant consideration in the assignment of
assistance during the exercises. This
personnel, since the better marksman should
is particularly true of detecting tar
be evenly divided among all elements of a
gets, determining ranges, and locating
combat unit. However, the ultimate objective
the impact of bullets. If a rifle sus
of record firing, like all combat marksmanship
tains a malfunction, it is the firer's
training, is to produce combat proficient marks
responsibility to apply immediate ac
men—not award qualification ratings.
tion and attempt to eliminate the
58. Record Courses of Fire stoppage.
Several record courses of fire have been de (2) The single exception to not assisting
veloped in order to provide flexibility in adapt the firer is in the interests of safety.
ing local facilities and training situations to A firer attempting to clear a stoppage
the marksmanship program. Record firing for may inadvertently point the muzzle of
active Army units can be conducted on either his rifle to the flanks or rear. In such
of two types of range complexes: a standard instances, the scorer or other range
record range specifically constructed for com personnel should immediately caution
bat record firing or a combination of a modified the firer or, if need be, physically take
known distance range and a combat positions hold of the rifle and correct the dan
range. Aa expedient-type record course, de ger themselves. During exercises in
signed solely for use on modified known dis which the firer is moving, the scorer
tance ranges, may be conducted at those in should also caution the firer to stay
stallations which have neither a standard record on line with adjacent firers.
TAGO B024-A
S«eHmi If. STANDARD RECORD RUING PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS
60. General required), it is moved to the target
The standard record range achieves realism detection range for testing and the
by presenting the firer with various target sit second group moves to the record
uations he will likely encounter in combat. range for record firing. This proce
Except where modification is necessary to in dure is used for both Record Firing I
stall and maintain targets, the natural cover of and Record Firing II.
the terrain is left undisturbed. Single (Record b. Range and Range Personnel. There are
Firing I) and multiple (Record Firing II) four general areas needed to form a record
camouflaged targets are exposed briefly, ir range complex. These are an "Orientation
regularly, and at ranges unknown to the firer. area/' "ready area," "firing area/' and a "re-
The exercises require firing from the foxhole tiigwi area." The requirements for these areas
position and unsupported positions of the firer's to include the necessary range personnel are as
own choosing. Upon completion of record fir follows:
ing, the number of targets hit by each firer is (1) Orientation area.
totaled. Based on this score, marksmanship (a) Location and purpose. The location
qualification ratings are awarded. of the orientation area for Record
Firing I should permit soldiers to
61. Organization observe a demonstration of detect
a. Firers. ing and firing on single targets. The
(1) For scheduling purposes, the average demonstration should be conducted
company/battery of approximately from both supported and unsup
200 men must be divided in half. ported firing positions. The orienta
While half of the unit is firing the tion for Record Firing II need not
record course or is tested on target be conducted in the same area since
detection (ch. 5), the other half re it does not include a demonstration.
ceives such other training as pre However, the orientation for both
scribed by the commander. Since only Record Firing I and Record Firing
half of a unit can be scheduled for II should include instructions on
firing and target detection testing at safety, range operations to include
one time, two training days are re procedures in the ready and retired
quired to conduct Record Firing I and areas, and scoring procedures.
II using one record range. To equalize (6) Range personnel.
light conditions, the half which con 1. Principal instructor. Conducts
ducts Record Firing I in the morning orientation. Can also be officer in
of the first day should fire Record charge of record firing.
Firing II in the afternoon of the 2. Safety officer. Supervises safety
second day. Conversely, the half requirements for firing demon
which conducts Record Firing I in the stration conducted during the
afternoon of the first day should con Record Firing I orientation. Can
duct Record Firing II in the morning also be the safety officer for rec
of the second day. ord firing, however, he should not
(2) The half of the unit scheduled for have any other additional duties
record firing must be further sub except those directly concerned
divided into two approximately equal with safety.
groups. Following the record firing S. Two demonstrators. Conduct
orientation, the first group begins rec demonstration of firing at single
ord firing while the second group targets from both supported and
moves to the target detection range for unsupported positions. One dem
testing. After the first group com onstrator is the firer and the other
pletes firing (approximately two hours is the scorer. Following the ori-
TAGO 6024-A
*entation, they can be used as lane are used for record firing. Seven
scorers or to provide other as targets are placed at 50-meter in
sistance as required. tervals in each lane beginning at a
(2) Ready area. range of 50 meters from the line of
(a) Location and purpose. The ready foxholes and extending to a range
area should be located in the imme of 350 meters. The "F" type or half-
diate vicinity of the firing range, silhouette, is used at ranges of 50
however; firers should not be able and 100 meters. The "E" type, or
to see the targets on the range from full-silhouette, is used at all other
this area. While in the ready area, ranges. Targets must be camou
eaclTsoldier should be allowed suffi flaged in positions approximating
cient time to blacken his rifle sights, those which enemy soldiers might
check the sight tension and battle- occupy. They must not be com
sight zero setting, apply rifle grease pletely hidden, but rather situated
as needed, and visually check his so an alert observer can reasonably
rifle for any apparent defects which expect to detect their location. In
might cause malfunctions. An ord the raised position, targets must not
nance small arms repairman should provide a distinctive outline against
also be available in this area to the horizon or any other contrast
service those rifles requiring more with the background. In this re
technical repairs. gard, the color of the target must
(6) Range personnel. blend with the surrounding area.
1. Noncommissioned officer in (b) Range personnel.
charge. Supervises the activities 1. Officer in charge. Senior officer
of firers in the ready area. on the range. Responsible for the
2. Ordnance small arms repairman. conduct of firing and the overall
Replaces damaged or broken operation of the range complex.
parts discovered prior to or dur 2. Safety officer. Enforces safety
ing record firing. regulations.
Caution: The replacement of S. Noncommissioned officer in
certain rifle parts will change the charge. Supervises and coordi
battlesight zero of the weapon. nates the actions of the target
The ordnance small arms repair control operator, lane scorers,
man should so inform the non ammunition detail, target repair
commissioned officer in charge of men, and the noncommissioned
the ready area so provisions for officers in charge of the ready
rezeroing the rifle can be made. and retired areas.
U. Target control operator. Respon
(3) Firing area. sible for raising and lowering
(a) Location and construction. Ideally, targets within the prescribed time
a record firing range (fig. 52) should limits as indicated on the score-
be located on ground which has a card. Issues fire commands and
gradual slope downward for ap sounds the signal denoting the
proximately 200 meters and then a time limit for a target exposure
gradual upward slope for an addi has expired. Continually checks
tional 160 meters, giving a total firing lanes and target areas for
range depth of 36O meters. The safety violations.
standard record rangre is divided in 5. Lane scorers. One lane scorer is
to 16 lanes, each 30 meters wide required for each lane (total of
with one foxhole in each lane. The 16 for the standard record
"E" and "F" type silhouette targets range.) The lane scorers have the
attached to automatic target devices following duties:

n TAGO 6024-A
900

J90

too

00

SO

1 TMMT LINK

Figure 52. Standard record range.

(a) Check the location, proper opera 6. Ammunition detail. Responsible


tion, and camouflage of targets for the issue and accounting of
within their lanes before firing be ammunition.
gins. (4) Retired area.
(b) Point out the right and left flank (a) Location and purpose. The retired
limits of the lane to each firer. area is also located in the immedi
(c) Record the hits, misses, and no fires ate vicinity of the firing range,
on the scorecard of each firer. Rule usually about 100 meters behind the
on the validity of alibis and the ready area. Soldiers completing
number of alibis to be fired (par. record firing move to the retired
62e). If in doubt, the lane scorers area where they are checked for live
should request the noncommissioned ammunition and brass. They may
officer in charge or the officer in also clean their rifles in this area.
charge to rule on the alibi.
(d) Require each firer to observe all Caution: Until all phases of rec
safety precautions. During the ord firing have been completed, the
moving phases of record firing, the firer should not disassemble his rifle
lane scorer continually cautions the because this will affect the zero of
firer to stay on line with firers in the weapon.
adjacent lanes. (b) Range personnel. One noncommis-
TAGO 5024-A
93
sioned -officer in charge is required rotating four firers between each block of tour
to cheek firers for live ammunition lanes should be used. For example, in the first
and brass cartridge cases, and to block of four lanes, the firer on lane one rotates
supervise the cleaning of rifles. to lane two. The firers on lanes two and thre*
move to lanes three and four, respectively. The
42. Conduct of Rring firer on lane four moves to lane one. The
a. Target Operation. same system is followed by the next block of
(1) Control tower. All targets are operated four lanes beginning with lane five. Again, all
from the control tower. The control firers rotate one lane except the firer on lane
tower should be located in the center eight who moves to lane five. There are other
and slightly to the rear of the line of rotation systems which can be used; however,
foxholes. It should be high enough to the above system is least confusing to firers.
permit the target control operator to Note. In order to provide maximum target and ter
observe firers conducting both sup rain situations, soldiers should fire Record Firing II
ported and unsupported firing phases. on lanes different from those on which they conducted
For safety purposes, the tower should Record Firing I.
also be high enough to permit obser c. Record Firing I (single target exposures).
vation of the entire target area. Record Firing I consists of a supported position
(2) Target exposure times. firing phase followed by an unsupported posi
(a) In Record Firing I (single target tion firing phase. The same sequence of lane
exposures), targets located at ranges rotation is used throughout both phases.
of 200 meters and less are exposed (1) Supported position phase of Record
for five seconds. Targets beyond Firing I.
200 meters are exposed for ten (a) After receiving an orientation and
seconds. completing preparations in the
(6) In Record Firing- II (multiple tar ready area, the soldier moves to the
get exposure), exposure times are firing area. Unless told otherwise,
based on the number of targets the soldier moves to his designated
raised and the range to the targets. lane and stands or sits behind the
The target control operator should foxhole facing away from the target
follow the time and target sequence area. On command, the firer hands
prescribed by Record Firing II his scorecard to the lane scorer and
scorecards for each target situation moves into the foxhole. There
(app. III). should be several sandbags at each
(3) Signals. When the prescribed target foxhole so the firer can adjust the
exposure time has elapsed, the target emplacement to fit the conformation
control operator sounds a signal such of his body. After making these ad
as a bell, buzzer, or whistle which is justments, the firer should be given
audible to all firers and scorers. time to search his lane, using those
Rounds fired after this signal are techniques learned in target detec
scored as misses. To eliminate confu tion training. Although the targets
sion resulting from targets being hit must not be raised while the firer
at the same moment the signal is is performing this search, such a
sounded, target control operators must procedure will familiarize him with
allow a few seconds interval between the terrain, likely target locations,
the signal and the actual lowering of and most important, place added
targets. emphasis on previous target detec
6. Rotation of Firers Between Lanes. In tion training.
order to provide several different terrain situa (b) On command, the firer is issued
tions, firers should be rotated between several eight rounds of ammunition and
lanes during the course of Record Firing I and loads his rifle. The target control
II. To facilitate this movement, a system of operator then gives the command
TAGO 6024-A
WATCH YOUR LANES. Imme WARD UNTIL HE RECEIVES AN
diately following this command, the OTHER COMMAND TO MOVE OUT.
target operator begins raising and While waiting: for this command, the
lowering targets according to the firer should continue to search his lane
time and sequence prescribed by the since other targets may appear. Dur
scorecard. Eight targets are pre ing movements, the lane scorer should
sented singly to the firer in each lane continually caution the firer to main
and he may only fire one round at tain alignment with firers in adja
each target. Upon completing this cent lanes. The procedures for clear
exercise to include alibi firing ing rifles and rotating to subsequent
(par. 62e), the target control opera lanes are the same as prescribed for
tor requires a safety clearance of the supported firing phase.
the firing line. At this time, the d. Record Firing II (multiple target expo-
firer clears his rifle and returns un surtG). The sequence of actions for Record Fir
expended ammunition to the lane ing II is similar to that of Record Firing I.
scorer. The lane scorer checks the The firers receive an orientation prior to mov
clearance of the rifle, hands the ing to the ready area (Record Firing II does
firer his scorecard, and points out not include a demonstration). In the ready
the next lane to which the firer area, they again inspect and otherwise prepare
should move. On order, the firer their rifles for firing. On order, they move to
moves to the designated lane and their designated lanes in the firing area, facing
follows the same sequence pre away from the targets until told to move into
scribed for the initial exercise. This the foxholes. Firers should again adjust their
procedure is repeated until firers body position in the foxhole and then be given
have conducted a supported position time to search their lanes. Targets should not
exercise on each of four lanes. be exposed while firers are making this search.
(2) Unsupported position phase of Rec Like Record Firing I, Record Firing II also
ord Firing I. When the firer completes consists of a supported and an unsupported
the fourth exercise of the supported phase. However, the firer is required to engage
phase, he again receives the command two or three targets appearing simultaneously
to rotate. This time, however, he is in his lane. These targets may be any combina
told to move to a standing position tion of the 50-meter through the 350-meter
directly in front of the foxhole. The targets. Because of the added difficulties of
lane scorer takes up a standing posi engaging multiple targets, there are more
tion immediately behind the firer. On rounds of ammunition issued for each exercise
command, the firer is issued eight than there are targets. In the first exercise,
rounds of ammunition and loads his eight rounds are issued to each firer to engage
rifle. The command to begin the exer six targets, 16 rounds are issued to hit 12
cise is MOVE OUT. On this command, targets in the second exercise, and 16 rounds
the firer and scorer begin moving are issued to hit 10 targets in the third exer
slowly toward the 50-meter targets. cise. Thus, the firer may fire two rounds at
The target control operator begins some targets but not at all of them. Each
raising and lowering targets singly soldier must decide for himself which targets
according to the times and sequence he is most likely to hit with a second round.
prescribed by the scorecard. As the The firer is not permitted to carry over un
firer detects a target, he assumes a expended ammunition from one exercise to
position of his own choosing and fires another, nor does he receive an added score for
at the target. As in the supported unexpended rounds.
phase, he may fire only one round at (1) Supported position phase of Record
each target. After firing at a target, Firing II. The supported position
the firer may change his position, phase of Record Firing II consists of
BUT HE MUST NOT MOVE FOR two exercises fired from the foxhole
TAGO 6024-A 95
position. In the first of these exer FIBERS WATCH YOUR LANES. Targets are
cises, only single and double target then exposed singly regardless of whether the
situations are presented to the firer. alibi occurred in Record Firing I or Record
Following this exercise, the firer Firing II. As a general rule, alibi firing in Rec
rotates to another lane for the second ord Firing I should be conducted using mid.
supported position exercise. In this range targets (150-250 meters) as the majority
exercise, double and triple target of the targets exposed during the regular exer
situations are presented to the firer. cises are located at these ranges. In the case of
(2) Unsupported position phase of Record Record Firing II, the difficulties of scoring and
Firing II. Following the second sup providing additional ammunition preclude the
ported position exercise, the firer use of multiple target situations for alibi firing.
rotates to another lane for the un Therefore to provide some degree of compar
supported position firing phase. This able difficulty to the standard Record Firing- II
phase consists of one exercise fired exercises, only the longer range targets (250-
from unsupported positions of the 35O meters) should be used. Since alibi firing
firer'a own choosing. The unsupported can never approximate the identical target
position phase of Record Firing II be situation of the regular exercise, range per
gins with the firer and lane scorer sonnel must insure alibis are legitimate before
standing in front of the foxhole. On they are allowed. Examples of bona fide alibis
the command MOVE OUT, the firer are—
and scorer begin moving toward the (1) Malfunctioning of target devices. This
50-meter target. The target control includes targets which fail to appear
operator activates the targets, creat and targets which fail to drop when
ing double and triple target situations they are hit.
as prescribed by the scorecard. When (2) Malfunctioning of rifles provided the
the firer detects the targets, he as firer attempted to apply correct im
sumes an unsupported position and mediate action to eliminate the mal
begins firing. After firing at those function. However, alibis for mal
targets he has detected, the firer should functions are valid only if they were
continue searching his lane for other not due to improper maintenance or
targets. UNDER NO CIRCUM failure to prepare the rifle for firing.
STANCES SHOULD HE MOVE A general rule to follow in awarding
FORWARD UNTIL A FURTHER alibis for rifle malfunctions is to allow
COMMAND TO MOVE OUT IS an alibi for each target appearing dur
GIVEN. Throughout the unsupported ing and subsequent to the moment the
firing phase, the lane scorers should firer applies immediate action, pro
continually caution the firer to main vided the target drops before the
tain alignment with firers in adjacent soldier can fire. However, if the firer
lanes. was slow in taking action to reduce
e. Alibi Firing. If a firer is unable to fire at a the stoppage, an alibi should not be
target through no fault of his own, he receives allowed.
an "alibi" for that particular target. This /. Fire Commands. Simple, standardized fire
means he will be given another opportunity to commands are essential to avoid confusion and
fire at a target. For best results, alibi firing misunderstandings during the conduct of record
should be conducted after each exercise and firing. Type commands which may be used are
before the firer rotates to the next lane. To con as follows :
duct alibi firing-, the target control operator first (1) Supported phases (Record Firing I
asks, "ARE THERE ANY ALIBIS?" Those and II).
scorers whose firers have bona fide alibis give FIRERS ASSUME THE FOXHOLE
an affirmative signal (raising their hands or POSITION.
holding up the scorecard). If there are alibis, LANE GRADERS POINT OUT THE
the target control operator commands ALIBI LIMITS OF THE LANE.
TAGO 5024-A
LOCK, ONE (MAGAZINE OR THE FOXHOLE.
CLIP) OF EIGHT ROUNDS LOCK, ONE (MAGAZINE OR
LOAD. CLIP) OF EIGHT ROUNDS
WATCH YOUR LANES. LOAD.
CEASE FIRING. MOVE OUT (see scorecards, app.
ARE THERE ANY ALIBIS? III).
* ALIBI FIRERS WATCH YOUR CEASE FIRING.
LANES. ARE THERE ANY ALIBIS?
*CEASE FIRING. *ALIBI FIRERS WATCH YOUR
CLEAR ALL WEAPONS. LANES.
CLEAR ON THE RIGHT? *CEASE FIRING.
CLEAR ON THE LEFT? CLEAR ALL WEAPONS.
THE FIRING LINE IS CLEAR. CLEAR ON THE RIGHT?
FIRERS ROTATE TO THE NEXT CLEAR ON THE LEFT?
LANE. THE FIRING LINE IS CLEAR.
(2) Unsupported phases (Record Firing I * Commands given only if alibis are indicated
and 11). by scorers.
FIRERS, STAND IN FRONT OF g. Range Safety. See appendix II.
Section III. ALTERNATE RECORD FIRING PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS
63. General d. Range safety procedures are outlined in
Alternate record firing is an expedient course Appendix II.
of fire designed for use at installations which
do not have standard record ranges. Like the 65. Alternate Record Firing II
standard record course, the alternate record a. Range Characteristics. The combat posi
course also requires soldiers to apply the funda tions range required for Alternate Record Fir
mentals of combat marksmanship learned in ing II is essentially the same facility previously
previous instruction. From a training view used in conjunction with known distance marks
point, alternate record firing is less challeng manship courses. The range has a minimum
ing than the standard course, primarily because depth of 400 yards (368 meters) and an approx
targets are easier to detect. However, alter imate width of 100 yards (92 meters). There
nate record firing provides considerable train are two targets in each lane except lane number
ing benefits in other skills and is a fair means six which has one target. Figure 53 shows the
of determining the combat marksmanship pro physical arrangement of the combat positions
ficiency of the individual soldier. Alternate rec range for Alternate Record Firing II. A com
ord firing is conducted in two phases, each of parison of this arrangement to the combat
which requires a specific type of range. Alter positions ranges of the known distance marks
nate Record Firing I is conducted on a modified manship courses will reveal the following
known distance range, and Alternate Record differences—
Firing II is conducted on a combat positions (1) The "window position" on lane four
range. has been moved to lane ten, and the
"log position" on lane ten has been
*4. Alternate Record Firing I moved to lane four. This change is
a. Range organization, procedures, target necessary so firers in the standing
operation, and fire commands are the same as position have the closer range targets
prescribed for known distance field firing (par. while those in a prone position fire at
44). the more distant targets.
b. Sequence and time of target exposures are (2) The "B" type target on lane six has
prescribed by the Alternate Record Firing I been replaced by an "E" type sil
scorecards (app. III). houette target. The "E" target has al
c. Procedures for awarding "alibis" are dis so been moved forward so the range
cussed in paragraph 62e. is reduced to 400 yards (368 meters).
TAGO 5W4.A *7
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SILHOUE LEGEND
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O 1
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3

O
O
(3) Other modifications involve replacing Caution: Until all phases of record
some "F" type targets with "E" tar firing have been completed, the firer
gets. The arrangement of targets in should not disassemble his rifle because
dicated in figure 53 are recommended this will affect the zero of the weapon.
but may be changed to meet local ter c. Range Organization.
rain; however, the range to the fur (1) Targets. The "E" and "F" type sil
thest target must not exceed 400 houette targets are used in all lanes
yards (368 meters). of the combat positions range. Tar
b. Administrative Areas. In addition to the gets can be attached to automatic tar
firing range, a combat positions range complex get devices or operated manually by
should include two "orientation areas," a "ready pit details. Of the two methods, auto
area," and a "retired area." matic target devices are more desir
(1) Orientation areas. Ideally, there able since they provide for more ef
should be two orientation areas used ficient range operation, eliminate the
in connection with the combat posi ** need for pit details, and facilitate
tions range. One of these areas must camouflage of the targets. The method
be in the immediate vicinity of the of control depends upon whether tar
firing area so instructions can be gets are operated automatically or
given on safety and range procedures manually.
just prior to conducting the exercise. (a) Control of automatic target devices.
The other orientation area consists of The target control operators raises
a mock firing line along which all the and lowers the targets attached to
emplacements and objects of a combat the automatic devices. Depending
positions range have been constructed. upon the skill of the operator, it
This second orientation area should be may be feasible to use a second
located near the modified known dis operator to control the target on
tance range. In this way, that portion lane six. The sequence and time of
of a unit not participating in known exposure for this target is not the
distance field firing can receive con same as targets on the other lanes
current training on the various posi and might cause confusion if only
tions used on the combat positions one operator is available. In either
range. Since there is no live firing case, target control operators must
conducted in either orientation area, allow a second or two for targets to
they may be located on any suitable become fully exposed before timing
terrain without regard for impact is begun.
areas. (b) Control of manually operated tar
(2) Ready area. The ready area should be gets. If manually operated targets
located near the firing area. Here, sol are used, one down range target
diers waiting to fire check their rifles operator is required for each target.
for serviceability, make necessary ad Each target operator must have tele
phone communication to a telephone
justments to their rear sights, and operator on the firing line. Normal
blacken the sights. There should also ly, there should be at least one tele
be an ordnance small arms repairman phone operator for every two lanes.
in this area to assist firers in making Upon command from the tower
more technical adjustments and/or operator, the telephone operator
repairs. notifies the target operators when
(3) Retired area. Soldiers completing rec to raise and lower their targets.
ord firing move to a retired area where (c) Sequence and time of target expo
they are checked for live ammunition sures. As prescribed by the Alter
and brass. They may also clean their nate Record Firing II scorecards
rifles in this area. (app. III).
TAGO 5024-A
<2) Range pewonnel The following range should have completed fundamentals
personnel are required to conduct Al training, known distance field firing,
ternate Record Firing II. and Alternate Record Firing I before
(<*) Officer in charge. Responsible for they fire on the combat positions
the conduct of firing. range. Since all of this firing has been
(/>) Safety officer. Enforces safety regu conducted on either a 1000-inch or
lations. modified known distance range, many
(<?) Noncommissioned officer in charge. soldiers will be unfamiliar with the
Supervises enlisted range personnel. operation and requirements of firing
Coordinates movement of firers be on a combat positions range. In order
tween ready area, firing range, and that soldiers are not penalized for
retired area. this lack of familiarity, the following
(d) Target control operator (automatic training should be conducted prior to
devices only). Issues fire commands record firing on the combat positions
and raises and lowers targets ac range:
cording to the sequence and time (a) The initial combat positions train
prescribed on the scorecard (app. ing is conducted in an orientation
III). area near the modified known dis
(e) Tower operator (manual targets tance range (6(1) above). This
only). Issues fire commands and training is conducted concurrent
signals telephone operators when to with known distance field firing and
raise and lower targets. provides soldiers with practical ex
(/) One lane scorer per lane. Records perience in assuming each of the
hits, misses, and no-fires on the ten positions used on the combat
scorecard of each soldier firing on positions range. For best results,
his lane. this training should be conducted
(g) One telephone operator per tivo using the "coach and pupil" method.
lanes (manual targets only). Main At least three noncommissioned of
tains telephone contact with pit de ficers (one principal instructor and
tails; directs raising and lowering two assistant instructors) should be
of targets as prescribed by the tower available to conduct the instruction.
operator. The orientation should consist of
(h) One target operator per target a short conference and demonstra
(manual targets only). Raises and tion on assuming each position fol
lowers targets on signal from tele lowed by practical exercises.
phone operators. (b) The second training period on com
(i) Target device repairman (automat bat positions firing should be an
ic device only). Performs on-the- actual practice firing of the Alter
spot repairs of target devices which nate Record Firing II course. The
have minor malfunctions. average soldier will find the target
(j) Ordnance small arms repairman. situations presented on the combat
Provides technical assistance in re positions range considerably differ
pairing rifles. Located in or near ent from those previously encoun
the ready area. tered. Here, he must locate the tar
(k) Ammunition detail. Responsible for get and subsequently determine the
the issue and accounting of ammuni range, two skills not required of
tion. him on the known distance range.
(I) Medical personnel. Provides medical Thus, instructional firing on the
support during live firing. combat positions range exposes the
d. Preparation for and Conduct of Firing. soldier to more of the problems of
(1) Preparatory training. Soldiers con combat marksmanship. Record fir
ducting the alternate record course ing on the combat positions range
100 TAGO 5024-A
provides further training in this .one more man in each order than th«re
technique and tests how well the are firing points, an exercise can b«
soldier has adapted to it. For best fired while a soldier on point ten Is
training results, instruction firing moving to point one.
and record firing on the combat posi (3) Positions. When a firer arrive* at hi*
tions range should be scheduled on designated lane, he immediately a»-
successive days. sumes the position prescribed for that
(2) Organization for firing. Normally, point. The positions, with a brief de
only half of a unit will be firing on scription of each, are as follows:
the combat positions range while the
other half is receiving target detec
(a) Lane No. 1—foxhole position (fig.
tion training or such other instruction 20). The foxhole position is dis
prescribed by the commander. The cussed in paragraph 10,
half firing on the range should be di (6) Lane No. 2—rubble pile position
vided into 11-man orders. By having (fig. 54). The firer must present

Figure 54. Rubble pile position.

TAGO 5024-A 101


the lowest possible silhouette be wall. The firer assumes a position
hind the rubble but at the same time, which permits him to fire over the
use the rubble to achieve maximum wall while presenting a low silhou
support. ette. The height of his position will
(c) Lane No. 3—stump position (fig. depend on his own height in rela
18). The stump position is assumed tion to the height of the wall.
in the same manner as the kneeling Lane No. $—forward slope (sit
supported position (par. 10). ting) position (fig. 58). Fircrs
(rf) Lane No. 4—log position (fig. 55). adapt the standard sitting position

Figure 55. Log position.

Soldiers who are right-handed to the slope of the mound. The sit
should fire from the right end of ting position is discussed in para
the log and those who are left- graph 10.
handed from the left end of the log. (i) Lane No. 9—rooftop position (fig.
This insures a comfortable position 59). The firer places his left arm
while making maximum use of the over the apex of the roof in such a
cover provided by the log. Firers manner that he can hold the weight
should not rest their rifles against of his body but not expose too much
the log. of head and shoulders.
(e) Lone No. 5—bunker position (fig. (;) Lane No. 10—window position (fig.
56). The firer leans against the 60). The window is constructed high
forward wall of the bunker. The enough so the firer must use the
parapet supports his left arm and standing position. This position is
hand, and his right arm. The rifle explained in paragraph 10. To con
must not rest against any part of ceal his position from the enemy,
the bunker. the firer must stand well back from
(/) Lane No. 6—prone position (figs. the window so his rifle does not pro
11 and 12). The prone position is trude through the window.
discussed in paragraph 10. (4) Conduct of firing,
(g) Lane No. 7—barricade position (fig. (a) Range operation. Four targets will
57). The barricade represents a be exposed to the firer on each lane.

102 TAGO 5024-A


With the exception of lane number THE FIRING LINE IS NO LONG
six, the two targets in each lane will ER CLEAR.
first be exposed singly and then LOCK, (ONE CLIP OR MAGA
simultaneously. The single target in ZINE) LOAD,
lane six is exposed four times, READY ON THE RIGHT?
Firers are allowed four rounds of READY ON THE LEFT?
ammunition per lane or a total of THE FIRING LINE IS READY.
40 rounds. Upon completing an ex WATCH YOUR LANES.
ercise, firers rotate to the lane with CEASE FIRE.
the next higher number, except the ARE THERE ANY ALIBIS?
firer on lane ten who moves to lane *ALIBI FIRERS WATCH YOUR
one. Since one exercise is fired while LANES.
the soldier on lane ten is moving "CEASE FIRE.
to lane one, it requires eleven ex CLEAR ALL WEAPONS.
ercises to complete firing for one CLEAR ON THE RIGHT?
order. CLEAR ON THE LEFT?
(6) Alibis. See paragraph 62e. THE FIRING LINE IS CLEAR.
(c) Fire commands. Simple standard ROTATE.
ized fire commands are essential to
avoid confusion and misunderstand
* Commands given only if a scorer indi
ings on the combat positions range. cates his firer has an alibi.
A type fire command which may be
used is as follows: (5) Range safety. See appendix II.

TAGO 5024-A
103
Figure 56'. Bunker position.

104 TACO 6024-A


Figure 57. Barricade position.

105
Figure 58. Forward slope (sitting) position.

TAGO 5024-A
<*»,

Figure S9. Rooftop position.

107
TAGO B024-A
Figure 60. Window position.
108
TAGO 5024-A
CHAPTER 7

INDIVIDUAL NIGHT FIRING

Section I. GENERAL
66. Purpose similar to those used during the day.
Individual night firing training teaches the b. Night firing training should be scheduled
soldier to detect and hit targets at night or only under conditions of half-moonlight or less.
during other periods when conditions of limited If there is greater light intensity, some indi
visibility prevent the conventional use of viduals will discover they can use their sights
sights; e.g., smoke or fog. in the same manner as in daytime firing. By so
doing, they will fail to learn the proper night
67. Training Conditions firing techniques and thus be ineffective during
a. Individual night firing training should be periods of limited visibility.
conducted immediately following daytime c. Individual night firing courses, ammuni
marksmanship training since many of the pro tion requirements and scorecards are contained
cedures used at night are the same or very in appendix III.

Section II. FUNDAMENTALS

68. General principles in firing his weapon. Essentially,


Firing a rifle at night is similar in many this involves two techniques, hold the head
respects to firing during the daytime. With the high above the rifle and keep both eyes open
single exception of "spot weld," the steady at all times.
hold factors discussed in chapter 2 apply equal (1) Hold the head high. If the head is
ly as well at night as during the day. Although held close to the rifle (such as in day
target detection and weapon alignment can be time firing), the rifle will tend to block
a problem during the day, the absence of light the firer's view of the target area.
makes these two techniques even more difficult By raising the head so the eyes are
at night. Consequently, night firing training is well above the weapon, the field of
focused on teaching soldiers the night applica vision is increased and sharpness of
tion of target detection and weapon alignment. detail is improved.
(2) Keep both eyes open. By keeping both
69. Target Detection eyes open and applying the principles
a. Principles of Night Vision. The principles of night vision, the firer uses his
of night vision are dark adaptation, off-center "night eyes" to their full potential and
vision, and scanning. These principles are dis has maximum visual coverage of the
cussed in chapter 2, section V, FM 21-75. Ap target area. Another important con
pendix II, FM 21-75 outlines facilities and ex sideration is that depth perception de
ercises required to conduct night vision train pends to a great extent on the use of
ing. This training is a necessary prerequisite both eyes.
to night firing exercises.
6. Application of Night Vision to Night Fir 70. Weapon Alignment
ing. Once the soldier understands the principles a. A natural pointing technique is used to
of night vision, he must learn to apply these align the rifle on the target (fig. 61). The
TAGO 5024-A
109
HI. N iff fit firhii/ prone position.

sights cannot normally be seen at night, and firer to obtain correct horizontal align
any attempt to use them in the conventional ment on the target. If the firer places
manner will usually cause the firer to lose the his chin on either side of the stock,
target. The pointing technique can be applied to he will have a tendency to pull the
any position; however, for training, either the muzzle of the rifle to the right or left
foxhole or prone supported position should be to intersect his line of sight to the
used. The reason for this is that these positions target. This will cause the bullet to
are the most difficult from which to detect go right or left of the target.
targets at night and therefore offer the great (2) He must keep both eyes open at all
est challenge to the individual's night firing times (par. 69b).
ability.
b. To assume a correct firing1 position at night, (3) He makes a bold depression of the
the soldier first assumes the position just as muzzle of the rifle. Because his eyes
he would during the daytime. However, once are above the rifle, the firer will have
in position, he must make the following a natural tendency to raise the muzzle
changes: until it intersects his line of sight to
(1) He raises his head high above the the target. This will cause the bullet
rifle (par. 69/>). A good technique is to pass over the target. A method
to rest the chin on the comb of the of avoiding this error is to slide the
stock. This serves two purposes: first, left hand slightly forward just prior
it insures that the eyes are well above to aligning the rifle on the target.
the rifle; and second, it assists the This action forces the muzzle to drop.

no TAGO 6024-A
Section III. CONDUCT OF TRAINING

71. Training Facilities and Equipment firing on the wrong targets.


a. Ranges. (6) A seventy-point range will accommo
(1) The night firing range (fig. 62) should date a maximum of 210 firers divided
be constructed on level or slightly roll into three orders.
ing terrain. It should be located away (7) The firing line should not be elevated.
(or shielded) from artificial light The higher the firer is located above
sources. ground level, the easier it is for him
(2) The range should have an approxi to see the target.
mate depth of at least 100 meters. (8) Only red or black lights should be
Targets are placed at ranges of either used for orientations, charts, and
25 and 50 meters or 50 and 75 meters, demonstrations prior to the practical
depending upon the light conditions. exercises in night firing. White lights
(3) To support the targets, canisters are should be used only after all firing
sunk into the ground at ranges of 25, is completed or in event of an emer
50, and 75 meters from each firing gency.
point. b. Targets. The "M" type silhouette targets
(4) The range should have a dark back are used for all live firing conducted as part of
ground (such as a tree line) to pre the night firing training program, including
vent skylining of targets. daytime instruction firing.
(5) There should be at least ten meters c. Equipment. The equipment needed to con
between firing points. With this inter duct night firing training is listed below. The
val, there is less chance of individuals designation "day" or "night" after each item

75 METERS V Q 0

SO METERS
0 0

25 METERS I

Figure 62. Night firing range.

TAGO 6024-A 111


indicates whether it is required for daytime using night firing techniques. (If Ml
instruction firing, night firing, or both. rifles are used, rounds are loaded
Item £*y Night singly.) Following each three-round
One "M" type silhouette target per point X X shot group the firing line is cleared,
Three white spotters per target X
White chalk X* X*
and the firer is directed to move down
One empty magazine per firing point range and check his target. The firer
(MU only) X draws a chalkline through each hole
Public address system X X on the target and then places the
One flashlight with red filter per safety spotters in the holes. By analyzing the
officer and noncommissioned officer X
Safety equipment as required by AR location of the bullet holes, the firer
385-63 and local regulations ......... X X will be able to determine how he has
been holding his rifle and adjust his
* Fur students during daytime tiring and for rang* NCO's during
night firing.
position accordingly. For example, if
all rounds struck high on the target,
72. Daytime Instruction Firing the firer knows he must lower his
a. Organization. rifle muzzle. Holes on the extreme
(1) Range personnel. right or left edge of the target indi
(a) One officer in charge of the range. cate a need for better horizontal align
(b) One safety officer. ment. After noting the type of correc
(c) One noncommissioned officer in tion needed to move the shot group
charge. into the center of the target, the firer
(d) One instructor (NCO) per five fir returns to the firing line and on com
ing points. mand, fires another 3-round shot
(e) Ammunition detail. group. When the shot group falls with
(/) Medical personnel. in the center of target mass, the firer
(2) Organization of firers. Firers are di attempts to duplicate the exact same
vided into three orders. Initially, the relationship between his head and the
first order is designated the firers, the alignment of his weapon in firing sub
second order the coaches, and the third sequent exercises. When the firer is
order the ammunition men. When the able to do this consistently, he has
first order completes firing, it becomes determined his own "feeling zero."
the ammunition men; the second or That is, he will be able to hit the
der becomes the firers; and the third same general area on the target re
order becomes the coaches. This pro gardless of the light conditions just
cedure is continued until all orders by knowing how his weapon "feels"
have completed firing. when it is properly aligned.
b. Conduct of Firing. (2) During daytime instruction firing, the
(1) Prior to beginning the practical live coaches assume a coaching position
fire exercises, the firers should receive alongside the firers. They should ob
an orientation on the pointing tech serve the firers for proper application
nique, range procedures, and range of all steady-hold factors except "spot
safety. Following this orientation, weld." Again, special emphasis must
firers are divided into three orders be placed on trigger control.
and moved to the firing line. Targets c. Fire Commands. Fire commands should be
are placed at a range of 50 meters. simple and include only the information and in
The order acting as ammunition men structions required to conduct the exercise. A
are directed to secure one empty type fire command for daytime instruction fir
magazine and three loose rounds of ing is as follows:
ammunition and issue them to the ______„__ ORDER, MOVE TO THE
firer. The firer loads all three rounds FIRING LINE AND ASSUME A
into the magazine and on command, (FOXHOLE) (PRONE SUPPORTED)
fires at the "M" type silhouette target POSITION.
112 TAGO 6024-A
_.._.„. ORDER, ASSUME THE 73. Night Practice wd R«eord Rrteg
COACHES' POSITION. a. Organization. Night firing can be extremely
_______ ORDER, SECURE (*ONE hazardous unless the range is properly organ
EMPTY MAGAZINE AND) THREE ized and the firers closely supervised. For this
ROUNDS OF AMMUNITION. reason, the range organization and supervisory
THE FIRING LINE IS NO LONGER personnel listed below are essential for the safe
CLEAR. conduct of night firing. Although some modi
LOCK, (*ONE MAGAZINE OF THREE fications in the organization of the range may
ROUNDS) (**ONE ROUND) LOAD. be required, night firing should not be at
THIS WILL BE YOUR (FIRST) tempted without an adequate number of super
(SECOND) (THIRD) (FOURTH) visory personnel.
(FIFTH) SHOT GROUP. (1) Range organization (fig. 63).
COMMENCE FIRING WHEN READY. (a) The firing points on the night firing
CLEAR ON THE RIGHT? range (fig. 62) should be divided
CLEAR ON THE LEFT? into three alphabetical sections.
THE FIRING LINE IS CLEAR. There are 20 firing points each in
FIRERS AND COACHES MOVE DOWN "Alfa" and "Bravo" sections, and
RANGE, MARK AND SPOT YOUR 30 firing points in "Charlie" sec
TARGETS. tion. Each section is further sub
divided into blocks of five firing
* MU rifle* only.
•• Ul rifle* only. points. These blocks are given a let-

1
\
f j 75 METERS 1
U [ 1/4 1/2
r» v MOON
f } 5O METERS / 10O M ETERS

LESS THAN

u
1/4 MOON
A
(I 25 METERS

\
t
1234567 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 2O 21-40
——•"———^-———-••••--
41 -7O
- mf——-^~~- -
.——•——————-S^———' • J"' ~-^___________ III ——— .————- ——— •" '^^-^talH.^^^V 1 " -h. ^———'^^^^f'

ALFA ONE ALFA TWO ALFA THREE ALFA FOUR BRAVO CHARLIE
.(SAFETY NCO) (SAFETY NCO) (SAFETY NCO) (SAFETY NCO

ALFA
(SAFETY OFFICER)

OFFICER IN CHARGE

Figure 6S. Organization of night firing range.

TAGO S024-A 113


ter and numerical designation. For (3) For the first exercise, targets are
example, there are 20 firing points placed at the closest range permitted
or four 5-point blocks in Alfa sec by the light conditions, and each sol
tion. The first block is designated dier fires eight rounds at this target.
"Alfa One"; the second, "Alfa Following the first eight rounds, the
Two"; and so on. firing line is cleared and the firer is
(6) A safety officer should be assigned directed to move down range and stand
responsibility for each alphabetical by his target until it is scored by the
section, and one safety noncom block safety NCO. The block safety
missioned officer should be assigned NCO uses a red filtered flashlight to
responsibility for each numerical check the results of the firers within
block. his block. Upon completion of scor
(2) Range personnel. ing, all firers and safety NCO's re
turn to the firing line and the next
(a) One officer in charge of the range, order is called forward to fire the
(o) One safety officer per alphabetical exercise. After the third order has
section. completed firing, they are directed to
(c) One noncommissioned officer in remove the targets from the canisters
charge. and move them to the further range.
(d) One safety NCO per numerical When the third order and safety
block. NCO's have returned to the firing line,
(e) Ammunition detail. the first order is again called for
(/) Medical personnel. ward to fire. The firing procedures
(3) Organization of firers. Firers are di outlined above are repeated until the
vided into three orders. However, un three orders have completed all of the
like daytime instruction firing, the exercises.
nonfiring orders remain on the ready
line until called forward to fire. There c. Fire Commands. Fire commands should
is no coaching of firers at night, and be simple and include only the information and
ammunition is issued to the firer by instruction required to conduct the exercise. A
the block safety noncommissioned of type fire command for night practice and night
ficer. record firing is as follows:
b. Conduct of Firing. Night practice firing ARE RANGE PERSONNEL READY TO
and night record firing are conducted in the FIRE? (Block safety NCO's signify
same manner except that during record firing "up" to the section safety officer. Safety
block safety NCO's record the number of hits officers in turn signify "up" to the of
on the firer's scorecards. ficer in charge; e.g., "Alfa is up,"
(1) The range at which targets are placed "Bravo is up," etc.)
at night depends upon the degree of IS THERE ANYONE DOWN RANGE?
illumination. If there is one-quarter (Repeat three times.)
or less moonlight, targets are placed THE FIRING LINE IS NO LONGER
at ranges of 25 and 50 meters. If there CLEAR.
is more than one-quarter moonlight __________ ORDER, MOVE TO THE
but less than half-moonlight, targets FIRING LINE AND ASSUME A FOX
are placed at 50 and 75 meters. Night HOLE (PRONE SUPPORTED)
firing training cannot be effectively NIGHT FIRING POSITION.
conducted under light conditions _______ ORDER AND ____________
greater than half-moonlight. ORDER, REMAIN ON THE READY
(2) Initially, ftrers should receive a re LINE.
view on the pointing technique. This SAFETY NCO's ISSUE (*ONE MAGA
should be followed by an orientation ZINE) (**ONE CLIP) OF EIGHT
on safety and range procedures. ROUNDS.
TAGO 5024-A
114
CLIP)
STAND BY YOUR TARGETS UNTO,
wk WHEN READY. CHECKED BY THE SAFETY NCO.
( When firing IB completed, each section (After third order completes firing on toe
saiety officer signifies his section is
T0 (50) (75) MET
near targets) PIRERS MOVE TAR-

THE FIRING LINE IS CLEAR. Iriflw


** Ml rifle* only.

TAGO 5084-A
CHAPTER 8

ADVANCED INDIVIDUAL MARKSMANSHIP (SNIPING)

Section I. GENERAL
74. Purpose 76. Scope
The ability of an individual rifleman to hit a. Training Program.
selected targets at long range has long been (1) The advanced marksmanship training
recognized as an effective means of disrupting program is prescribed by ATP 7-18-1.
enemy morale and delaying his operations. The This program is optional during peace
history of warfare records many examples of time. During mobilization, sniper
one or two expert riflemen delaying large num training is mandatory for a minimum
bers of enemy troops simply through their of three riflemen per rifle platoon or
ability to consistently hit whatever or whom a rifle company.
ever they wished. The purpose of advanced (2) Although proficiency in marksman
individual marksmanship training is to teach ship is the principal basis for selecting
selected riflemen the techniques of hitting tar a sniper, it is but one of the skills re
gets at long ranges. quired of an effective sniper (ch. 8,
FM 21—75). Information on subjects
75. Selection of Personnel other than marksmanship which re
Each individual selected to receive advanced late to sniper training are contained
marksmanship training should be carefully in other training publications (app. I).
screened to insure he possesses the skills and b. Sniper Marksmanship Training. The suc
personal attributes necessary to become an ef cess of sniper marksmanship training is con
fective sniper. He should be intelligent, self- tingent upon the detailed application of funda
reliant, and an expert marksman. In addition mentals. Although these fundamentals are the
to firing at enemy personnel, snipers are an same for any marksmanship course, snipers
excellent source of intelligence information. must pay closer attention to details if they are
Consequently, they must know or learn how to to consistently deliver accurate fire at all
use a map and compass and the proper methods ranges. In addition to a thorough knowledge
and means of reporting information. Perhaps and proficiency in the application of funda
the most important personal attribute of a mentals, snipers must have an understanding of
sniper is patience, for he may be required to external ballistics, sight adjustments, and tar
occupy one position for several days. A detailed get detection. The ability to accurately deter
discussion of the duties and tactical employment mine ranges is a particularly important snip
of snipers is contained in chapter 8, FM 21—75. ing skill.

Section II. TECHNIQUE OF SNIPING

77. Positions slight error in trigger control which would cause


a. The sniper fires from any position that a round to strike a few inches higher than the
allows him to obtain support and steadiness for point intended at 100 meters, would be several
himself and his rifle. The steady hold factors feet over the target at 600 meters. The same
outlined in chapter 2 have an even greater ap holds true for the application of the other
plication when firing at the longer ranges. A steady hold factors. An error which would be

116 TAGO 6024-A


insignificant at the shorter ranges will result 79. Sight Adjustments
in a complete miss at the longer ranges. a. External Ballistics. When a rifleman be*
/>. In preliminary firing, the sniper uses a gins sniper training, he will have already deter
sandbag rest to provide support. In field firing, mined the 250-meter zero of his rifle. With this
he uses whatever support that is available. sight setting, he can deliver highly effective fire
78. Application el Hie Integrated Act on combat targets appearing out to ranges of
350 meters. He has also learned that within
of Shooting this range span, he can compensate for range
a. Riflemen who have become sufficiently differences (trajectory) by using an adjusted
expert with the rifle to be selected as snipers aiming point. The effects of wind need not be
will have already developed individual shoot considered for targets at ranges of 350 meters
ing characteristics. In most cases, these charac or less. However, as a sniper, he must be able
teristics will be based on their application of to consistently hit targets at ranges beyond 350
the integrated act of shooting (par. 9). meters. At these ranges, both the trajectory
b. Because of his method of employment, the and the wind must be given due consideration
sniper will frequently have an opportunity to if the sniper is to hit the target.
engage enemy personnel who are unaware of (1) Trajectory (par. 28). In firing at tar
his presence. In such situations, there is usually gets beyond 350 meters, it is possible
no necessity for him to fire as quickly as pos for a soldier whose rifle is zeroed for
sible, and speed becomes much less important 250 meters to compensate for the tra
than precision. Therefore, the sniper should jectory (fig. 64) by using an adjusted
take extra care in checking his position and aiming point. However, from a prac
proper application of fundamentals to insure tical standpoint, such a procedure in
the greatest possible accuracy. This is best ac troduces the possibility of too many
complished by following a set sequence of pro human errors for the consistent de
cedures as follows: livery of accurate fire. For example,
(1) Locate the aiming point. to hit a 600-meter target using a rifle
(2) Relax enough to avoid muscular and zeroed for 250 meters would require a
mental tension. In this connection, firer to select an aiming point over
once the firer has obtained a steady, two meters (six feet plus) above the
relaxed position but finds the sights desired point of impact. A vertical
are slightly off in elevation, he can measurement of this size at such a far
make minor adjustments by either in range is extremely difficult to judge.
haling or exhaling enough to bring To avoid this wide difference between
the sights to the aiming point. aiming points and points of impact,
(3) Lock the breath in the throat as the the sniper must be able to adjust his
aim is completed. rear sight for a range as near that of
(4) Take up the slack in the trigger and the target as possible. Known sight ad
apply a continuous increase in pres justments for 400, 500, and 600 meters
sure without disturbing the sight in addition to the 250-meter zero, pro
alignment. vide sufficient flexibility in sight set
(5) Shift the focus of the eye from the tings for the majority of target situa
target to the front sight blade to in tions occurring out to a range of 600
sure proper sight alignment. meters.
(6) As the rifle fires, follow through (still (2) Effects of wind. If a soldier fired at
relaxed) and pick up the target or a 250-meter target while a 15 mile per
target area as quickly as possible. hour wind was blowing from his right
Depending on the range to the target, flank, the bullet would strike the tar
the firer may or may not be able to get approximately six inches to the
see the strike of his bullet. If not, he left of his line of aim. Since the aver
should continue to observe the target age soldier is approximately 20 inches
for signs of movement. wide, such a shot would still hit an
TAGO 6024-A
117
aoo soo eoo aoo IOOO
METERS
M-MAXIMUM ORDINATE——HIGHEST POINT OF TRAJECTORY (APPROXIMATE ONUY»

1/4 METER-9.5 INCHES


1/2 METER-1 FOOT 7 INCHES
1 METER-3 FEET 3 INCHES
3 METERS-9 FEET 9 INCHES
6 METERS-19 FEET 6 INCHES

Figure 64. Trajettory.

enemy soldier. However, if a soldier hour 3-o'clock wind. For combat fir
fired at a 600-meter target under the ing, the effect of a no-value wind on
same wind conditions, the round would the bullet is negligible and may be dis
strike approximately 36 inches to the counted.
left of his line of aim, or almost twice (b) Wind Velocity. There are three com
the width of an average soldier. Con mon field expedient methods of de
sequently, the sniper must compen termining wind velocities. Since the
sate for the effects of wind at ranges tactical situation may limit the use
beyond 35O meters. To do this, he of some methods, snipers must be
must be able to "classify" the wind, thoroughly familiar with all tech
determine its velocity, and finally, con niques.
vert this information into "clicks" ;. "Flag" method (fig. 66). If a snip
which can be placed on the rear sight, er can observe a flag (or any
(a) Classification of winds. Winds are clothlike material similar to a
classified according to the direction flag) hanging from a pole, he
from which they are blowing in rela should estimate the angle (in de
tion to the direction of fire. The grees) formed at the juncture of
"clock system" (fig. 65) is used to the flag and the pole. Dividing
indicate this direction. A wind blow this angle by the constant number
ing from right to left directly across "4" will give the wind velocity in
the firer's front is called a "3-o'clock miles per hour.
wind." A wind blowing toward the 2. "Pointing" method (fig. 67). If no
firer from his left front is called an flag is visible, a piece of paper or
"11-o'clock wind." The direction from other light material may be drop
which the wind is blowing also denotes ped from the shoulder. By point
the value of the wind. Winds from ing directly at the spot where it
either flank are "full-value winds," lands, the angle (in degrees) can
those from the oblique are "half-value be estimated. This figure is again
winds," and winds blowing from either divided by the number "4" to de
the front or rear are "no-value winds." termine the approximate wind ve
A half-value wind will affect the bullet locity in miles per hour.
approximately half as much as a full- 3. "Observation" method. If the tac
value wind. That is, a 1-o'clock wind tical situation prevents the use of
having a velocity of 10 miles per the above two methods, snipers
hour is equivalent to a 5-mile per can use the following information

T18 TAGO 00Z4-A


I NO
| VALUE
HALF HALF
VALUE VALUE
WIND

'
HALF HALF
VALUE VALUE
WIND WIND
NO
VALUE

Figure 65. Wind direction by the clock system.

in determining wind velocities. RxV


(a) Under three miles per hour, is determined by the formula ———
winds can hardly be felt, but the 15
presence of slight wind can be number of clicks of windage to be
determined by drifting smoke. placed on the rear sight for a full-
(b) A three to five mile per hour value wind. In this formula R =
wind can just be felt on the range in hundreds of meters, V =
face. velocity in miles per hour, and the
number "15" is a constant figure
(c) Winds of five to eight miles per
hour keep tree leaves in con computed mathematically. For half-
value winds, divide the answer by
stant motion. two. In placing the computed ad
(d) At eight to twelve miles per justment on the rear sight, THE
hour, winds will raise dust and REAR SIGHT APERTURE MUST
loose paper. ALWAYS BE MOVED INTO THE
(e) A 12- to 15-mile per hour wind WIND. That is, for winds blowing
will cause small trees to sway. from 12:30 through 5:30 o'clock, the
(c) Determination of windage adjust rear sight aperture must be moved
ment. After finding the wind direc to the right. Conversely, the rear
tion and velocity, the windage cor sight aperture must be moved to the
rection to be placed on the rear sight left for winds blowing from 6:30 to

TAGO 6024-A
WIND

60
= 15 MPH

Figure 66. Determining wind velocity by the flag method.

WIND

Ftgure 67. Determining wind velocity by the pointing method.

120 TAGO 6024-A


11:30 o'clock. An example of com aiming point and the point of im
puting a windage adjustment is as pact necessary to obtain a zero for
follows: A 10-mile per hour wind is ranges of 400, 500, and 600 meters
blowing from 9 o'clock. The range are listed below. The method for ob
to the target is 600 meters. Con taining a 250-meter zero is discussed
verting this information for use in in chapter 3.
the wind formula, R — 6 and V 1. 400 meters: point of impact 7.3 cen
— 10. Thus, timeters above the aiming point.
RxV 6 x 10 60 2. 500 meters: point of impact 9.2 cen
timeters above the aiming point.
15 15 15 3. 600 meters: point of impact 11 cen
four clicks (left windage). To place timeters above the aiming point.
this adjustment on the sight, the (b) Firing at a range of 25 meters to
windage knob is turned four clicks obtain a zero sight setting for great
to the rear, moving the rear sight er ranges is not as precise as firing
aperture four clicks to the left or at the actual range. Characteristic
into the wind. differences between firers, their
b. Sight Manipulation. The ability to proper weapons, and the ammunition cause
ly manipulate the rear sight is extremely im the exact relationship between the
portant to the sniper. When a shot or shot 25-meter aiming point and the point
group is fired and is not in the desired location of impact for a precise zero at a
in relation to the aiming point, the sights must specific range to vary between each
be moved in order to move the shot or group to firer. In the case of the 250-meter
the correct location. Training in this skill must battlesight zero, these variances are
include an explanation and demonstration of insignificant and may be discounted.
the elevation and windage rule and the charac However, at greater ranges the
teristics of the rear sight (paras. 25, 26, and small error at 25 meters becomes
27). Following this, the sniper should practice greatly magnified and could result
rear sight manipulation until the procedure be in a miss even though the sniper
comes second nature to him. fired a well-aimed shot. Therefore,
when possible, zeros obtained on the
80. Zeroing 25-meter range should be confirmed
a. In addition to the 250-meter battlesight by firing at the actual range.
zero, snipers must know the proper adjustment (3) Field expedient zeroing. A third meth
for ranges of 400, 500, and 600 meters. These od of zeroing may be used under field
zeros can be obtained by using one or a combi conditions. The sniper will require an
nation of the following methods: observer equipped with fieldglasses to
(1) Measured distance. The most precise assist him in this procedure. This
method of zeroing a rifle is to place method is conducted as follows:
distinctive aiming points at measured (a) The sniper and observer pick out an
ranges of 250, 400, 500, and 600 me aiming point in the center of an area
ters. The sniper then fires 3-round where the observer can see the strike
shot groups at each aiming point, ad of the bullet. This can be a hillside,
justing the rear sight until the center a brick house, or any dry surface
of the shot group and the aiming point where the strike of the bullet can be
coincide at each range. observed. The range to this point
(2) 25-meter zero. can be determined by map survey,
(a) The principles of firing at a 25- the range card of another weapon,
meter aiming point in order to ob or by ground measurement.
tain a zero for greater ranges are (b) The sniper sets the estimated range
discussed in paragraph 28. The com and windage adjustment on his rear
puted distances between a 25-meter sight and fires one round. The ob-

TAGO 8024-A 121


server notes the strike of the bullet on a day when there is no wind is two clicks
and gives the elevation and windage left windage. This procedure is very important
change necessary to bring it to the since the sniper must make adjustments for
point of aim. He does this by esti winds of different velocities and from different
mating the distance between the bul directions on subsequent days.
let strike and the aiming point—
right or left, high or low. He con 81. Adjusted Aiming Point
verts these distances to clicks by Even though the sniper has zeroed his rifle
dividing the error in inches by the for various ranges, it would be virtually impos
number of inches one click will move sible for him to determine the precise sight set
the strike of the bullet at that range. ting for every target appearing on the battle
For example, a sniper fires at a field. In addition, the fleeting nature of some
chimney on the side of a brick house combat targets may prevent the sniper from
at a range of 400 meters. The left computing and setting the correct windage ad
edge of the chimney, even with the justment on his rear sight in sufficient time to
top of the second story windows is fire. Consequently, snipers must understand
his aiming point. The sniper sets and be able to apply adjusted aiming points at
the elevation knob at 400 meters and all ranges and under various wind conditions.
the windage knob at zero and fires a. Adjusting Aiming Points for Range. For
one shot. The observer sees a puff targets appearing at ranges other than those
of brick dust about four feet to the for which he has a prezeroed sight setting, e.g.,
right and two feet low of the aiming 450 meters, 575 meters, the sniper should use
point. He gives these corrections: the nearest sight adjustment which is beyond
"up six clicks (24 inches at that the range to the target. In this way, the adjust
range) and left 12 clicks" (48 inches ed aiming point will be below the desired point
at that range). The sniper places of impact. Besides being an easier point to lo
these corrections on his sight and cate, this procedure increases the probability of
fires a confirming round. a ricochet hit if the round strikes short of the
Note. It is extremely important when target.
zeroing or confirming a zero by this field
expedient method that the shot be well b. Adjusting Aiming Points for Wind.
aimed and correctly fired, because the (1) Under field conditions, winds may be
sniper is making a sight change on the hastily characterized as either medium
basis of one shot. He should use the best
support available. If he feels that he has or strong. A medium full-value wind
jerked the trigger or if he calls it a "bad has a velocity of approximately 10 to
shot," it should be disregarded, 15 miles per hour and is characterized
ft. As the sniper obtains the proper sight ad by leaves and grass being in constant
justment for each range, he should count the motion. A full-value strong wind has
number of clicks back to zero to determine the an approximate velocity of 15 to 20
correct sight setting for that range. If a full miles per hour and is characterized by
er half-value wind is blowing at greater than the swaying trees and bushes. The
one mile per hour, he should also recompute his sniper adjusts his aiming point by
windage setting on the basis of zero or no-value aiming into the wind. That is, if the
wind. For example, suppose during zero firing wind is blowing from the right, he
at 400 meters there is a 15-mile per hour wind aims to the right of the target or if
blowing from 9 o'clock. Using the wind formula, the wind is blowing from the left, he
the sniper finds that this would require four aims to the left of the target. The firer
clicks left windage to compensate for drift. In can use the width of the front sight
checking the actual windage adjustment of his post as a measure to obtain the approx
rear sight, the sniper finds it required six clicks imate distance he should aim into the
left windage to obtain the correct zero. By sub wind. The scale below indicates the
tracting four clicks from six clicks, the sniper approximate widths to be used at var
then knows that the 400-meter zero of his rifle ious ranges in a full-value wind.

122 TAGO 5Q24-A


flange
range at which targets are most likely
Number of Host
(meters) widths to use to appear.
Medium winds Strong winds (3) Windage adjustments, whether
100 0 0 through sight manipulation or use of
200. 0 0 an adjusted aiming point, are always
300. 0 0
400. 1 2
based on an estimate of the wind velo
500. 2 3 city. Only practice in wind shooting
600 2 4 will develop proficiency in determin
ing the proper sight setting or using
Example: A sniper firing at an enemy the proper adjusted aiming point. If
target at a range of 400 meters with a the situation permits, the best method
strong wind blowing from 9 o'clock of determining the effects of wind is to
would aim to the left twice the width fire a well-aimed shot at the target.
of the front sight post. The observed lateral error between the
(2) If there is a constant wind from a aiming point and the point of impact
given direction, the sniper may set the will be the distance to change the
proper windage adjustment for the sights or adjust the aiming point.

Section III. SNIPER EXERCISES


82. Range Determination Exercises eral sniper posts are predesignated on
Range determination exercises follow the pro the terrain by panels or flags. Each
cedures and precepts outlined in chapter 5. sniper is directed to select the two best
These exercises can be conducted on a target positions as a primary and alternate
detection range; however, the standard target sniping post. They must then give the
detection range and the exercises for range de reasons which caused them to select or
termination should be modified to permit prac reject each of the possible positions.
tice in determining ranges out to 1,000 meters. After each sniper has given his solu
Greatest emphasis should be placed on deter tion, the instructor discusses the ad
mining target ranges of 600 meters and less. vantages and disadvantages of each
position, summarizing by giving his
83. Selection of Position, Movement, and own selection of the best positions.
This exercise should be repeated on
Sight Adjustment Exercises varied and unfamiliar terrain. Even
a. Methods. tually, the panels used to designate
(1) A specific target is designated to the sniper positions should be eliminated.
sniper. He must then select and oc An added requirement could be to de
cupy the best sniping position in the termine the sight setting based on the
immediate vicinity from which to en location of the position, the terrain,
gage the target. He adjusts the rear and a simulated enemy situation.
sight based on his determination of the (3) The sniper is shown a sector assumed
range and wind velocity and simulates to be occupied by the enemy. The snip
firing a shot at the target. The in er is then told to study the terrain,
structor then comments on the good select a route forward, and move to a
and bad points of the sniper's actions, designated sniping position. Upon ar
the position he selected, and his sight riving at the sniping post, a target sit
adjustment. In subsequent exercises, uation is indicated to the sniper, and he
the situation can be expanded by in must perform the necessary actions to
forming the sniper whether the target simulate firing a round. Following this
is likely to remain visible or quickly simulated shot, the sniper must select
disappear. a new position and a route to it. When
(2) Prior to the start of this exercise, sev the sniper has presented his solution
TAGO 6024-A. 123
to this last requirement, the exercise 38) provide the most efficient target
is concluded, and the sniper's actions operation; however, pit details can be
and decisions are critiqued. used if the devices are not available.
b. Common Errors. The following are the (c) Considering the magnitude of the
most common errors committed by inexperi sniper range requirement in relation
enced personnel. Instructors may use this list to the number of snipers to be trained
as a checksheet in critiquing individual per and the time required to conduct such
formance. training, it will probably be necessary
(1) The selected route and/or position is to superimpose this facility over a
too exposed or conspicuous. range designed for other type train
(2) The selected position does not have ing. Consequently, the target arrange
good observation and/or fields of fire. ment and the requirements for range
(3) The sniper is not properly concealed and safety officers, safety NCO's, and
from all directions and can be detected other supervisory and support person
by the outline of his helmet, shoulder, nel must be based on the type of facil
ity available and the number of snip
forearm, or leg; depending upon the
angle froitt which he is seen. ers to be trained.
(3) Range procedures. In order to provide
(4) The selected position is in the sunlight the most realistic training environ
instead of the shade. ment, range commands to commence
(5) The sniper's movements to and from and cease firing are not used in sniper
a position are jerky and abrupt, thus exercises. The only exception to this
attracting- attention. is in the event of an unsafe condition,
(6) The selected position does not have a the command CEASE FIRE should be
covered route of withdrawal. given immediately. Snipers must be
given a thorough orientation on each
exercise to include safety requirements
84* Firing before they are permitted to move into
a. Zeroing. Zero firing is conducted as indi position. Any time after the sniper has
cated in paragraph 80. assumed his firing position in the des
b. Field Firing. ignated location, he should be permit
(1) Sniper's equipment. In addition to nor ted to fire without further command.
mal combat equipment, each sniper Therefore, the range must be cleared
must be equipped with field glasses. for firing before the exercises actually
(2) Range organization. begin. An NCO (assistant instructor)
(a) Ideally, a sniper range should be lo must accompany each sniper as a
cated on terrain which has been left scorer and to insure the safe conduct
primarily in its natural state. The of the exercise. When the sniper com
range should be at least 600 meters in pletes firing, the NCO clears the snip
depth and, if possible, 1,000 meters. er's rifle and signals the range officer
There should be provisions along the that the weapon is clear.
firing line for several sniper positions, (4) Conduct of field firing,
each situated to provide a slightly dif (a) Adjusted aiming point exercise.
ferent perspective of the target area. Snipers initially set their sights for
(6) "E" and "F" silhouette targets are a range of 400 meters. Without
used for all field firing. "F" targets changing this sight setting, they fire
are placed at ranges of 100 through at various targets appearing at
200 meters. "E" targets are used from ranges between 100 and 600 meters.
200 meters through 600 meters. Tar The sniper is required to determine
gets should be arranged to provide the range to each target and the
varying degrees of concealment at var proper adjusted aiming point for
ious ranges. Automatic devices (fig. that range in relation to his setting.

124 TAGO 5024-A


If there is a wind of sufficient velo For each target hit with the
city, snipers should be required to first round.-..-,--...---.- 10 potato
make mechanical sight adjustments For each target hit with the
second round.------------ 5 polnti
for some targets and use adjusted
Possible score-..-..-. 80 point*
aiming points for others. Similar
exercises should be conducted with 2. Second exercise. This exercise is
the sights set for 250, 500, and 600 conducted and scored the same as
meters. the first exercise except that the
(b) Instruction firing. Instruction fir sniper is allowed only 30 seconds
ing is designed to develop speed in to locate and fire at targets out
locating various targets, determin to 200 meters and one minute for
ing their range, selecting adjusted targets located between 200 and
aiming points, and accurately en 600 meters.
gaging them. In order to provide 3. Third exercise. In this exercise, the
training under various light condi sniper is allowed 12 rounds to hit
tions, the exercises should be con four "E" silhouette targets placed
ducted at least three times by each at ranges between 400 and 600
sniper — once at dawn, once at mid meters. For each target situation,
day, and once at dusk. Instruction the sniper is required to adjust
firing is composed of three exercises his rear sight based on his own de
as follows: termination of the range and
1. First exercise. The sniper is al wind conditions. Target operation
lowed 16 rounds of ammunition to is the same as in the first exer
hit eight targets. (Four "F" and cise. Scoring is conducted as fol
four "E" silhouette targets are lows :
used for this exercise.) Targets
are exposed singly without time For each target hit with the
first round--,--..--,------ 10 points
limit; however, after the target is For each target hit with the
hit or two rounds have been fired second round----.-.---.-- 5 points
at it, the target should be dropped. For each target hit with the
The interval between target ex third round-,.--.--.------ 2 points
posures and the location of tar- Possible score.-.-...- 40 points
gets should be continuously (c) Record firing. The same three exer
changed so the sniper does not cises outlined above are fired once
know when or where the next tar for record. Range operation and
get will appear. The scorer con scoring are the same as prescribed
tinually checks the sniper's posi for the instruction firing exercises.
tion to insure he is properly con Qualification scores and ratings are
cealed. If he is not, the scorer contained in appendix III.
does not let the sniper fire. The
sniper is scored as follows: (d) Range safety. See appendix II.

TAGO 6024-A
125
APPENDIX 1

REFERENCES

AR 370-5 Qualification and Familiarization.


AR 385-63 Regulations for Firing Ammunition for Training, Target Practice, and
Combat.
FM 21-6 Techniques of Military Instruction.
FM 21-75 Combat Training of the Individual Soldier and Patrolling.
FM 23-5 U. S. Rifle, Caliber .30, Ml.
FM 23-8 U. S. Rifle, 7.62-mm, M14.
TM 9-1005-223-12 Operator and Organizational Maintenances Manual; 7.62-mm Rifle, M14
and Rifle Bipod M2.
TM 9-1005-223-34 Field Maintenance Manual; 7.62-mm Rifle, M14 and Rifle Bipod M2.
TM 9-1275 Ordnance Maintenance; U. S. Rifles, Caliber .30, Ml, MIC (Sniper's),
and M10 (Sniper's).
TM 9^1305-200 Small Arms Ammunition,
TM 9-2205 Fundamentals of Small Arms.
TM 9-6920-210-14 Operator, Organizational and Field Maintenance Manual: Targets, Target
Material, and Training Course Layout.
ATP 7-18-1 Hifle Company, Infantry Airborne and Mechanized Infantry Battalions.
ATP 21-114 Male Military Personnel Without Prior Service.
ASubjScd 23-31 Rifle Marksmanship.
DA Pam 23-2 Hits Count.
DA Pam 108-1 Index of Army Motion Pictures, Film Strips, Slides and Phono-Recordings.

12* TAGO 6024-A


APPENDIX II

SAFETY

1. Purpose g. During night firing exercises, a red flash


This appendix lists the standard safety pre ing light and a red streamer will be displayed
cautions to be observed during rifle marksman from prominent locations.
ship training. These safety precautions have h. Live firing will not be conducted until all
general application and must therefore be sup prescribed roadblocks have been established and
plemented by local regulations governing the all necessary range guards posted.
operation of specific facilities, e.g., night firing L Ammunition will be issued only on com
ranges. mand from the control tower.
2. Mechanical Training j. Rifles will be loaded (or simulated loaded)
a. All rifles must be cleared prior to conduct only on command from the control tower.
ing mechanical training. k. Prior to firing, all individuals to include
6. A careful check of dummy rounds must be range personnel will be informed of the safety
made to insure that no live ammunition is limits of the range.
among them. L When not being used, rifles will be placed
c. Toolboxes, spare parts boxes, or other con in racks or in such a position as to be easily in
tainers in the vicinity of the training area must spected to insure bolts are open and safeties en
be checked to insure the absence of live ammu gaged.
nition. m. Dry firing will not be conducted in rear of
3. Range Firing the firing line unless supervised by an officer
or NCO.
a. Dummy rounds must be checked to insure
no live ammunition is among them. n. Smoking is not permitted on the firing
b. Each rifle will be inspected by an officer line or near ammunition.
or NCO prior to firing to insure there is no ob o. Running is not permitted on the range.
structions in the bore. Upon completion of fir p. Personnel will not move forward of the fir
ing, each rifle will be inspected to insure that ing line until given clearance by the officer in
all live ammunition has been removed from the charge.
weapon. q. Anyone observing an unsafe condition dur
c. Except while being used to conduct live
ing firing exercises is authorized to give the
or dry fire exercises, all rifles will have bolts
command, CEASE FIRING. When this com
open and safeties locked to the rear in any
area where live ammunition is being used or is mand is given, it will be relayed immediately to
the control officer who will command, CEASE
available.
d. When carrying a rifle on the range, the FIRING. The range safety officer is then re
muzzle will be pointed up and down range. sponsible for investigating the unsafe condition,
e. During live fire exercises, all rifles present taking necessary corrective action, and verify
on the range will be presumed to be loaded and ing to the officer in charge that the unsafe con
must therefore never be pointed at anyone or dition has been corrected and firing may be
anything except the authorized targets. resumed.
/. During daytime live fire exercises, a red r. All personnel will be inspected for brass
streamer will be displayed from a prominent lo and ammunition and their weapons cleared
cation on the range. prior to leaving the range.

TAGO 5024-A 127


weapons upon completion of firing to insure
4» Pit Operation they can be safely removed from the firing line,
a. The command to commence firing will not Safety NCO's may also be used to critique and
be given until clearance has been received from correct the firers' application of fundamentals
the pit officer. provided this duty does not interfere with their
6. All members of the pit detail will wear principal task of enforcing safety regulations.
steel helmets. 6. Safety NCO's must understand the var
c. Target operators will remain at their tar ious signals necessary to insure safe operation
gets unless they have been granted permission of the range. If possible, each safety NCO
to leave by supervisory personnel. should be equipped with a safety paddle (fig.
d. No one will leave the pits until clearance 91) to assist in giving these signals. Methods
has been granted by the officer in charge of of giving signals with and without safety pad
the range. dles are as follows:
e. Target operators must not expose any part (1) With safety paddles.
of their bodies above the protective berm while
marking1 or otherwise handling the targets and (a) NOT READY or NOT CLEAR—
target frames. The safety paddle is held over the
head with the red side facing the
5. Exercises Which Require Movement of control tower.
Firers (b) READY or CLEAR—The safety
a. During any exercise requiring firers to paddle is held over the head with the
move with loaded rifles, safety NCO's or scorers white side facing the control tower.
will accompany the firers to insure their proper (2) Without safety paddles.
alignment and that rifle muzzles are pointed
down range at all times. (a) NOT READY or NOT CLEAR—
b. If a rifle fails to fire during a movement The safety NCO faces the tower
exercise, the firer must move forward when so and extends both arms over his head
directed regardless of whether or not he has with his hands clasped.
cleared the stoppage. (b) READY or CLEAR—The safety
NCO faces the tower and extends
6. Safety Noncommissioned Officers his arms up and to his front with
a. The principal duty of safety NCO's is to the palms of his hands toward the
enforce safety regulations to include inspecting control tower.

128 TAGO 6024-A


APPENDIX III

RIFLE MARKSMANSHIP COURSES

Section I. BASIC RIFLE MARKSMANSHIP COURSE


1. General firing range, two 50-point target detection
The marksmanship courses outlined below are ranges, and one 16-lane record range. The
designed for company battery size units having course consists of 75 hours of instruction as
a personnel strength of 200 men. Units having follows:
greater or lesser strength should adjust the Orientation .....-.--.......--..-----..-- 1 hour.
prescribed training hours accordingly. Detailed Mechanical training--,-..--------------- 4 hours.
Preparatory marksmanship------------- 32 hours.
description of subjects and time breakdown of Target detection.....-......--.--...--..- 14 hours.
training periods are contained in Army Subject Field firing-.....-.---....-.-------.-.-.- 16 hours.
Schedule 23-31. Record firing and target detection
testing .--.__.--_--_......---.-------.- 8 hours.
2. Scope Total marksmanship training-.... 75 hours.
ATP subjects (conducted concurrently
The basic rifle marksmanship course is con with, but not included as part of, indi
ducted as part of ATP 21-114. Range facilities vidual marksmanship instruction).... 12 hours.
required to conduct this course are one 110- 3. Ammunition
point 25-meter range (with foxholes and a. Ammunition Required by Period or Ex
stumps along the firing line), one 35-point field ercise.

TAGO 5084-A 129


(1) Preparatory marksmanship and 25-meter firing.

Rounds per Rounds for


Period Position •oMtor demonstration Hotes

1,2, and S« ......_.......--.-.-.--.--..... None •Orientation, mechanical training


and introduction to marksmanship
training.
4 Prone .......-..--.-..--..-... *5 *10/10(20)b b10 rounds rehearsal, 10 rounds
demonstration. Total: 20 rounds.
5 Prone supported -------------- *30

6 Prone ........................ *10


6 Sitting ...................... *10
6 Squatting-------------------- *10
6 Kneeling --------------------- *10
7 Kneeling supported ----------- *10
7 Standing------------------ *10
7 Foxhole ........_-............ 9 4/4(8)< c4 rounds rehearsal, 4 rounds demon
stration. Total: 8 rounds.

7 ^Standing to prone ---------- 4 4/4(8)< <JTwo exercises. 2 rounds and 24


seconds per exercise.

8 ^Foxhole or prone supported- - 12 eBattlesight zero. Position must be


25 meters from targets.
9 'Prone supported ------------- 3 'Progress check.
9 'Prone ....................... 3
9 'Sitting ---....--------------- 3
9 'Squatting ......... — ....... 3
9 ^Kneeling -—- —.———... 3
9 'Kneeling supported ---------- 3
9 'Standing- ......_...........-. 3
9 Retire weak positions --------- 9
10 Refire weak positions -------- 18
13 Sitting -_---..-.---------.---- 6
13 Squatting __.__-.-----------.- 6
13 Kneeling _---.-.--.--.----.-.- 6
13 Standing _....-...._-...-...._ 6
15 sFoxhole or prone supported.. 6 ^Confirmation of zero.
15 "^Standing to sitting ---------- 4

Note. The Mteriak (*) denotes rounds of caliber .22 ammunition required. All subsequent exercises are conducted using service ammu
nition. If caliber .22 rifles sure not used during periods 4 through 7, substitute three rounds of service ammunition for each five rounds
of caJiber .22 ammunition listed.

130 TAGO 6024-A


(2) Field firing exercises. (4) Record firing.
Round* per Round* for
Period soldier demonstration Note* Rounds p«r Rounds for
Period soldier demonstration Note*
10 48 3/9(12)a •Tracer rounds re
quired for demonstra
tion. 3 rounds re 17 56 8/32(40) 8 rounds rehearsal, 16
hearsal, 9 rounds rounds per demon
demonstration. Total: stration (2). Total:
12 rounds. 40 rounds.
11 36
18 40
12 36
13 24 4/8(12) b b4 rounds rehearsal,
8 rounds demon
stration. Total : 12 6. RecapitiUation of Ammunition Require'
rounds.
14 40 ments.
15 40
16 36 Caliber .22 rounds per soldier ---------------- 95
Caliber .22 rounds per unit (demonstration) - 20
(3) Target detection.
Caliber 7.62-mm (or .30) rounds per soldier.. 463
Corresponds to Number of Blank rounds
Period tariret detection period^1 presentations required'
Caliber 7.62-mm (or .30) rounds per unit
6 1 8 200 (demonstration) -._...........--....._.... 68
7 2 8 200
3 Caliber 7.62-mm (or .30) rounds tracer
10 4 55
4 288 (demonstration) .-_-.-.--...-.-.--.-.--... 12
11 4
12 5 4 276 Caliber 7.62-mm (or .30) rounds blank per
14 6 4 None unit --.-.---.....---......-.--.---..-.-.... 1,982
16 7 4 540
17 8 8 153
18 9 8 270 4. Storecards and Qualification Scores
1 See appendix VI.
1 Includes rounds for rehearsals. a. Scoreboards.

TAGO 6024-A lit


PERIOD TEN
SCORECARD

Firer's Name.
(Last) (First)
Platoon. Firing Point. Date.
Scorer's Name_
(Last) (First)
* Phase 1. Foxhole position. * Phase 3. Kneeling position.
Rani* Ranc«
(KMten) Round Hit MiM (meten) Round Hit MiM
75 1 75 1
75 2 175 2
75 3 175 3
175 4 175 4
175 5 300 5
175 6 300 6
175 7 300 7
300 8 300 8
300 9
Total
300 10
300 11
300 12 * Phase 4. Squatting position.
300 13 Range
(meters) Round Hit Miss
300 14
75 1
300 15
175 2
300 16
175 3
Total 175 4
300 5
*Phase 2. Prone supported position. 300 6
Range 300 7
(meten) Round Hit Miss 300 8
75 1
175 2 Total
175 3
175 4
*Phase 5. Sitting position.
300 5 Range
300 6 (meters) Round Hit Miss
300 7 75 1
300 8 175 2
175 3
Total
175 4
300 5
Total for period 10. 300 6
Hit Miss
300 7
Phase 1
300 8
2
3 Total
4
5
Total
* No time limit.

132 TAGO 6084-A


PERIOD ELEVEN
SCORECARD

Firer's Name
(Last) (First)

Platoon Firing- Point HatP

i Name . ..,__
(Last) (First)

Phase 1. Foxhole position. Phase 3. Kneeling position.


Range Time Range Time
(meters) (seconds) Round Hit Miss (meters) (seconds) Round Hit Mil*

300 10 1
300 10 1

175 10 2
175 10 2

75 5 3 75 5 3

300 10 4 300 10 4

175 10 5
175 10 5
75 5 75 5 6
6
175 10 7 Total
75 5 8
Total
Phase 4. Kneeling supported position
Range Time
Phase 2. Sitting position. (meters) (seconds) Round Hit Miss

Range Time 300 10 1


(meters) (seconds) Round Hit Miss 175 10 2
300 10 1 75 5 3
175 10 2 300 10 4
75 5 3 175 10 5
300 10 4 75 5 6
175 10 5 175 10 7
75 5 6 75 5 8
175 10 7
Total
75 5 8
Total
Phase 5. Standing position.
Range Time
Total for period 11. (meters) (seconds) Round Hit Miss
Hit Miss 300 10 1
Phase 1 175 10 2
2 75 5 3
3 300 10 4
4 175 10 5
5 75 5 6
Total Total

TAGO 5024-A
133
PERIOD TWELVE
SCORECARD

Hirer's Name.
(Last) (First)
Platoon. Firing Point. Date.
Scorer's Name
(Last) (First)
Phase 1. Foxhole position. Phase 4. Prone position.
Ranee Time Range Tim*
(meters) (seconds) Round Hit Miss (meters) (seconds) Round Hit Miss
75 5 1 75 5 1
300 10 2 175 7 2
300 10 3 300 10 3
175 7 4 300 10 4
175 7 5 175 7 5
———————
300 10 6 300 10 6
———————
Total Total

Phase 2. Kneeling position. Phase 5. Sitting position.


Ranee Tim* Range Time
(meters) (seconds > Round Hit Miss (meters) (seconds) Round Hit Miss
300 10 1 300 10 1
175 7 2 300 10 2
175 7 3 175 7 3
300 10 4 300 10 4
300 10 5 75 5 5
75 5 6 175 7 6
Total Total
,
Phase 3. Kneeling support position. Phase 6. Squatting position.
Range Time Range Time
(meters) (seconds) Round Hit Miss (meters) (seconds) Round Hit Miss
75 7 1 75 5 1
75 5 2 300 10 2
300 10 3 300 10 3
175 7 4 175 7 4
300 10 5 175 7 5
300 10 6 300 10 6
Total Total

Total for period 12.


Hit Mias
Phase 1
2
3
4
5
6
Total

134 TAGO 6024-A


PEEIOD THIRTEEN
SCORECARD

Firer's Name.
(Last) (First)
Platoon- Firing Point. Date.

Scorer's Name.
(Last) (First)

Phase 1
Range Time
Place Position (meters) (seconds) Round Hit Miss
Rear stake Standing 75 5 1
By stump Standing 75 5 2
By foxhole Standing 75 5 3
By front stake Prone 75 5 4
Rear stake Squatting 175 7 5
By stump Kneeling supported 175 7 6
By foxhole Kneeling 175 7 7
By front stake Sitting 175 7 8
Rear stake Sitting 300 10 9
By stump Kneeling supported 300 10 10
By foxhole Kneeling 300 10 11
By front stake Squatting 300 10 12
Rear stake Kneeling 175 7 13
By stump Kneeling supported 300 10 14
By foxhole Squatting 175 7 15
By front stake Sitting 300 10 16

Phase 2

Rear stake Sitting 300 10 1


By stump Kneeling supported 175 7 2
By foxhole Squatting 300 10 3
By front stake Standing 75 5 4
Rear stake Kneeling 175 7 5
By stump Kneeling supported 300 10 6
By foxhole Standing 75 5 7
By front stake Squatting 175 7 8

Total for period 13


Hit Miss
Phase 1
2
Total

TAGO B024-A 135


PERIOD FOURTEEN
SCORECARD

Firer's Name.
(Last) (First)

Platoon. Firing Point. Date.

Scorer's Name_
(Last) (First)

Phase 1
Range Time
PI** Position (meten) (seconds) Round Hit MiM

Rear stake Kneeling 175 7 1


By stump Kneeling supported 75 5 2
By foxhole Prone 300 10 3
By front stake Standing 75 5 4
Rear stake Squatting 175 7 5
By stump Kneeling supported 300 10 6
By foxhole Standing 175 7 7
By front stake Sitting 300 10 8

Phase 2 (positions optional with firer)


Range Time
Pteee (meters) (seconds) Round Hit Miss
Bear stake 300 10 1
Bear stake 175 7 2
By stump 300 10 3
By foxhole 300 10 "4
By front stake 175 7 5
Forward of stake 75 5 6
Bear stake 175 7 7
Bear stake 75 5 8
By stump 175 7 9
By stump 300 10 10
By foxhole 300 10 11
By foxhole 175 7 12
By front stake 300 10 13
Forward of stake 300 10 14
Forward of stake 300 10 15
Forward of stake 300 10 16

134 TAGO 60t4-A


Phase 3 (position* optional with ftrer)
^

BMW* Tint
P1*M (imrtm) (Mconds) Bound Bit Mto
*
Behind stump 176 7 1
Behind stomp 300 10 2
By stomp 300 10 3
By stomp 300 10 4
By foxhole 75 5 5
By front stake 176 7 6
By front stake 300 10 7
Forward of stake 175 7 8
Behind stomp 300 10 9
Behind stomp 300 10 10
By stomp 75 5 11
By foxhole 175 7 12
By foxhole 300 10 13
By front stake 300 10 14
Forward of stake 75 5 15
Forward of stake 300 10 16

Total for period 14


Hit Mis*
Phase 1
2
3
Total

TAGO 5M4.A 117


PERIOD FIFTEEN
SCORECARD

Firer's Name.
(Last) (First)

Platoon. Firing Point. Date,

Scorer's Name.
(Last) (First)

Phases 1 and 2 fired from foxhole position

Phase 1 Phase 2
Hit Hit
Ranrc Time Pint Second Range Time First Second
(meters) (seconds) round round Miss ( meters ) (seconds) round round MlM

75 75
175 20 175 20
175 175
300 Left 30 300 Left 30
300 Right 300 Right
175 175
300 Left 30 300 Left 30
300 Right 300 Right

Total Total
Ammunition 12 rounds. Ammunition 12 rounds.

Phase 3 (advancing exercises)


Hit
Range Time First Second
Place Position (meters) (seconds) round round Miss

75
Rear stake Kneeling 175 20
175
By stump Kneeling supported 300 Left 30
300 Right
175
By foxhole Sitting 309 Left 30
300 Right
75
Front stake Squatting 175 20

Total
Ammunition 16 rounds.

Totals for period 15


First round bits Second round hits Miss

Total hits

138 TA6O 6024-A


PERIOD SIXTEEN
SCORECARD
Ftrer's Name,
(Last) (First)
Platoon. Firing Point. Date-
Scorer's Name,
(Last) (First)
Phases 1 and 2 fired from foxhole position
Phase 1 Phase 2
Hit Hit
RanfTB Time First Second Range Time Pint Second
(meter*) (second*) round round Miss (meters) (seconds) round round Mis,
75 75
300 Left 30 175 20
300 Right 75
75 175
175 20 300 Left 40
175 300 Right
———————1
300 Left 30 300 Left
300 Right i
300 Right 25

Total Total
Ammunition 12 rounds. Ammunition 12 rounds.

Phase 3 (advancing exercises, optional positions)


Hit
Range Time First Second
Place ( meters ) (seconds) round round Miss

75
By stump 300 Left 30
300 Right
75
By foxhole 175 20
175
Front stake 300 Left 30
300 Right

Total
Ammunition 12 rounds.

Total hits for period 16


First round hits Second round hits Miss

Total hits

TA6O 6024-A 139


PERIOD SEVENTEEN
SCORECARD
Firer's Name- ASN.
(Last) (First)
Unit_____ ______ Order No——————— Weather: Record L
Record II____
Time: Record I (AM PH) Cross Out One
Record II (AM PM) Cross Out One
RECORD I RECORD I
Foxhole position Unsupported positions
Table 1. Firing Point No. Table 5. Firing Point No.
Ranee Time No Range Time No
Bound ( meters > (•ecomfo) Hit Miss Pire Round (meters) (seconds) Hit Miss Fire
1 250 10 MO 1 150 5
2 300 10 2 350 10
3 200 5 MO 3 100 5
4 150 5 MO 4 200 5
5 50 5 5 300 10
6 350 10 6 200 5
7 100 5 MO 7 250 10
8 200 5 MO 8 150 5

Table 2, Firing Point No. Table 6. Firing Point No.


1 100 5 MO 1 250 10
2 250 10 MO 2 300 10
3 300 10 3 150 5
4 150 5 4 250 10
5 50 5 MO 5 100 5
6 350 10 MO 6 200. 5
7 100 5 7 300 10
8 200 5 MO 8 250 10
Table 3. Firing Point No. Table 7. Firing Point No.
1 250 10 MO 1 200 5
2 150 5 MO 2 300 1O
3 100 5 MO 3 150 5
4 200 5 4 350 10
5 250 10 MO 5 300 10
6 300 10 6 200 5
7 350 10 7 250 10
8 200 5 MO 8 150 5
Table 4. Firing Point No.
1 50 5 No
2 200 5 Hit Miss Pire
3 100 5 Record I
4 200 5
5 150 5 Totals
6 250 10
7 300 10
8 150 5
NoU. MO Move Out

140 TAGO 6024-A


PERIOD EIGHTEEN
SCORECARD

RECORD II RECORD II
Foxhole position Unsupported positions
Table 1. Firing Point No. Table 3. Firing Point No.
Ranee Tim* No Range Time No
Phase (meten) (seconds) Hit Miss Fire Phase (meten) (second*) Hit HiM Fir*
1 150 5 MO 1 100 15
2 300 10 200
100 150
3 250 15 MO 2 300 15
50 100
4 200 15 MO 3 200 25
Ammunition eight rounds. 300
150
Table 2. Firing Point No. MO 4 250 25
Ranee Time No 350
Phase (meters) (seconds) Hit Miss Fire
100 Ammunition 16 rounds.
1 350 15 •Load one magazine (clip) of eight rounds in the weapon :
200 place the other magazine (clip) of eight rounds in the belt. Reload
when neee*iary.
2 250 15
100 Note. Unexpended ammunition from one table cannot be used for
the next table.
3 150 15
100 No
Hit Miss Fire
4 250 25
300 1ftecord II
50 Totals
5 200 25
350
Grand total hits Record I and II

* Ammunition 16 rounds.
Targets
Rounds Exposed
Record I 56 56
Record II 40 28____
Totals 96 84

Qualification (circle one): Expert Sharpshooter Marksman Unqualified

Scorer's signature ——————

Officer's signature
b. Qualification Scores and Ratings. Quali Possible ...................... 84
fication scores are based on the total number Expert ....................... 51 and above.
of target hits obtained in Record Firing I and Sharpshooter ................ 40 to 50 inclusive.
II. Scores and qualification ratings are as Marksman ................... 27 to 39 inclusive.
follows: Unqualified ................... Below 27.
TAOO MM-A 141
ALTOtNATE IASIC RIFLt MARKSMANSHIP COURSE
^•WB ^i^MWPB^^Bf Preparatory marksmanship ... 26 hours.
Known distance field firing: ---- 12 hours.
The alternate basic rifle marksmanship Known distance record firing .. 4 hours.
course is conducted as part of ATP 21-114. Target detection .............. 16 hours.
Range facilities required to conduct this course Combat positions firing ....... 4 hours.
are one 100-point 1000-inch range, one known Combat positions record firing 2 hours.
*Pit details ................... 12 hours.
distance range having at least 50 firing points,
Total hours ................ 81.
two 50-point target detection ranges, and one
ATP subjects (conducted concur
combat positions range. This course should be rently with, but not included as
conducted only if the range facilities required part of, individual marksmanship
for the basic rifle marksmanship course are instruction) _........-.---......- 6 hours.
not available. The alternate basic rifle marks * If automatic target devices are not used on the known distance
manship course consists of *81 training hours or combat positions ranee.
as follows:
o* Aimnitnitioit
Orientation _..----_.--...._._._...._ 1 hour. a. Ammunition Required by Period or
Mechanical training ............... 4 hours. Exercise.

(1) Preparatory marksmanship and 1000-inch firing.


Rounds per Rounds for
Period Position soldier demonstrations Notes

1,2, and S» None •Orientation, mechanical training and


introduction to marksmanship.
4 Prone .-.-_...—.--..-.--...- *5 "10/10 (20)* t>10 rounds rehearsal, 10 rounds dem
onstration. Total: 20 rounds.
6 Prone supported ..-_----.-..- •30 cThis exercise is omitted if service
6 Prone ..................... ..^ *10 rifles have been used for previous
6 Sitting . . ... . *10 exercises.
€ Squatting *10 *4 rounds rehearsal, 4 rounds dem
6 Kneeling no onstration. Total: 8 rounds.
7 Standing no *Two exercises. 2 rounds and 24
7 «Prone supported ..----...-... 6 4/4 (8)d seconds per exercise.
7 •Standing to prone .......... 4 A/A /o\d *Battlesight zero.
7 •Standing to sitting .......... 4 •Progress check.
8 *Prone supported .-.-...-.-.. 12 •One exercise conducted in 24 seconds.
9 rProne supported ------------ 3
9 •Prone --.._.—.............. 3
9 •Sitting ...................... 3
9 'Squatting 3
9 •Kneeling . .................. 3
9 •Standing 3
9 •Standing to prone ..--...... 2
9 •Standing to sitting ..-...-... 2
9 Refire weak positions .....-.- 9

•The asterisk (*) denotes roundt of caliber .22 ammunition required. All subsequent exercises «re conducted using service ammunition.
If eaHber .22 rites are not ustcd during- periods four through seven, substitute S rounds of service ammunition for each 6 rounds of
emUber J2 ammunition listed.

142 TAOO 6024-A


(2) Known distance field firing exercises.
Round* per Hound* for
Period Position soldier demonstration* Not*

10 See scorecard ................ 52 •3/9 (12) "3 rounds tracer, rehearsal. 9 rounds
tracer, demonstration. Total: 12
rounds.
11 See scorecard .....-..----.... 48 blO/10 (20) MO rounds rehearsal. 10 rounds dem
onstration. Total: 20 rounds.
12 See scorecard ................ 48
«13 See scorecard .........---..-- 50 •Record Firing I

(3) Combat position firing exercises.


Rounds per Rounds for
Period Position soldier demonstrations Notes

13 As prescribed ......-.-----... None Orientation on combat positions


range.
14 See scorecard ....-.---.-.__._ 40 Practice firing.
15 See scorecard -....-----.-.--. 40 Record firing II

(4) Target detection. b. Recapitulation of Ammunition Require


Number of Blank rounds
ments
Corresponds to
Period l target detection period: • presentations required Caliber .22 rounds per soldier -..._..-. 85
6 1 8 *200 Caliber .22 rounds for demonstrations
2 8 *200 20
7
**10 3 and 4 2 *225
Caliber 7.62-mm (or .30) per soldier -------- 335
**11 3 and 4 2 118
**12 5 2 *184 Caliber 7.62-mm (or .30)
**18 5 2 92 for demonstrations (unit) .__._.---..._. 36
14 6 4 None Caliber 7.62-mm (or .30) tracer ............ 12
7 4 *540
14
8 and 9 8 *423 Caliber 7.62-mm (or .30) blank ............ 1,982
14
1 Scheduling based on requirement for pit details.
2 See appendix VI. 7. Scorecards and Qualification Ratings
* Includes rounds for rehearsals.
*• One-half of unit. a. Scorecards.

TAGO 6624-A 141


PERIOD TEN
SCORECARD

Firer*s Name.
(Last) (First)

Platoon. Firing Point. Date.

Scorer's Name-
(Last) (First)

ALL TARGETS EXPOSED SINGLY


Phase 1. 100 yards (92 meters) Phase 3. 300 yards (276 meters).
.(. unds Tim* Hounds Time
p«r (sec Score per (•ec- Score
,xercis« Position onds) * Round Hit Mis* Exercise Position i onds) * Round Hit Miss
30 1 30 1
4 Prone 30 2 30 2
30 3 ! | 30 3
30 ! 4 **8 Prone 30 4
30 5 30 5
30 6 30 6
30 7 30 7
8 Standing 30 8 30 8
30 9 15 9
30 10 15 10
30 11 15 11
30 12 **8 Kneeling 15 12
15 13
Total 15 14
Phase 2. 200 yards (184 meters). 15 15
15 16
Rounds Time
per (sec Score 15 17
Exercise Position onds) * Round Hit Miss i
15 18
30 { 1 15 19
4 Prone 30 i 2 **8 Sitting 15 20
30 3 15 21
30 4 15 22
15 5 15 23
4 Kneeling 15 6 15 24
15 7
15 8 Total
15 9
10
TOTALS FOR PERIOD TEN
4 Squatting 15
15 11 Hit Miss
15 12 Phase 1
2
15 13
14
2
4 Sitting 15
15 15
Total
15 16
* One round per target.
*• Plus one dummy round loaded in magazine or clip to simulate
Total stoppage.

144 TAGO 6024-A


PERIOD ELEVEN
SCORECARD

Firer's Name————
(Last) (First)
Platooiu Firing Point- Date.
Scorer's Name__
(Last) (First)
ALL TARGETS EXPOSED SINGLY
Phase 1. 100 yards (92 meters). Phase 3. 300 yards (276 meters).
Rounds Time Rounds Time
per t sec sicore per (sec Score
Exercise Position onds) • Round Hit Miss Exercise Position onds) * Round Hit Miss

2 Standing to 8 1 12 1
kneeling 8 2 4 Standing to 12 2
2 Standing to 7 3 squatting 12 3
squatting 7 4 12 4
6 5 12 5
4 Standing to 6 6 4 Standing to 12 «
f ——7—^ ————
standing 6 sitting 12 7
6 8 12 8

Total i 4 Standing to
kneeling
12
12
12
9
10
11
Phase 2. 200 yards (184 meters). 12 12
Rounds Time i 12 13
per (sec s core 4 Standing to 12 14
Exercise Position onds) * Round Hit Miss
prone 12 15
2 Standing to 12 1 12 16
sitting 12 2 MO. Standing 12 17
2 Standing to 12 3 to optional 12 18
kneeling 12 4 12 19
2 Standing to 12 5 MO. Standing 12 20
squatting 12 6 to optional 12 21
2 Standing to 12 7 **8 MO. Standing 12 22
optional 12 Q
to optional 12 23
MO. Standing 12 9 12 24
to optional 12 10
12 11 Total
**8 MO. Standing 12 12 TOTALS FOR PERIOD ELEVEN
to optional 12 13 Hit Miss
MO. Standing 12 14 Phase 1
to optional 12 15 2
12 16 3

Total Total

* One round per target.


** Plus one dummy round loaded in magazine or clip to simulate stoppage.
MO—Move Out.

TAGO B024-A
145
PERIOD TWELVE
SCORECARD

Pirn's Nfti
(Last) (First)

Platoon. Firing Point. Date.

Scorer's Name.
(Last) (First)

SINGLE AND DOUBLE TARGET EXPOSURES


Phase 1. 200 yards (184 meters).
Rounds per •Tim* Score
exercise Position (seconds) Target •* Round Hit Mis*

25 Left 1
Right 2
10 Left 3
Right 4
**»8 Standing to Left 5
prone 10 Right 6
10 Left 7
Right 8
2 Standing to 15 Left 9
sitting Right 10
15 Left 11
Right 12
4 Standing to Left 13
kneeling 10 Right 14
2 Standing to 15 Left 15
sitting; Right 16
10 17
4 Standing: to 5 18
kneeling 5 19
5 20
Total
'Time is based on 10 seconds for first round, after assuming: position, 10 seconds to reload (if applicable), and 5 seconds for each
succeeding round.
** One round per target.
«** Firer loads one live round. When targets appear, he assumes designated position, Ares, and reloads a magazine (clip) containing
seven live and one dummy round.

TAGO 6024-A
Phase 2, 800 yard* (276 meton).
lUniiMbpwr •Time *~r.
•x«rei*« Position <MMItd») Tar««t ••Rout* mt mm
10 1
4 Standing to 5 2
prone 5 3
5 4
Left 5
25 Right 6
Left 7
***8 Standing to 10 Right 8
prone Left 9
10 Right 10
Left 11
10 Right 12
4 Standing to 15 Left 13
kneeling Right 14
Left 15
10 Right 16
Left 17 L
4 Standing to 15 Right 18
squatting Left 19
10 Right 20
Left 21
4 Standing to 15 Right 22
sitting Left 23
10 Right 24
Left 25
4 Standing to 15 Right 26
prone Left 27
10 Right 28

Total •
* T!m« is based on 10 seconds for first round, after assuming position, 10 seconds to reload (if applicable), and 5 seconds for each
succeed! ng round.
** One round per target.
*** Pirer loads one live round. When targets appear, he assumes designated position, flres, and reloads a magaiine (clip) containing
seven live and one dummy round.

Hit Misa

Phase 1
2
Total

TAGO 5024-A 147


PERIOD THIRTEEN
SCORECARD

Filer's Name,
(Last) (First)

Platoon- Firing Point. Date.

Scorer's Name,
(Last) (First)

RECORD FIRE I
Phase 1. 100 yards (92 meters).

Rounds per •Time Score


*xereis« Pn»ition (seconds) Target •• Round Hit Miss

MO Standing 10 1
to standing 5 2
5 Single 3
8 MO Standing 10 target 4
to standing 5 exposures 6
MO Standing 10 6
to standing 5 7
5 8

Total

* Time is bated on 10 •eeondi for flnt round. After assuming position, 10 seconds to reload (if applicable), and 5 seconds for each
succeeding round.
*• One round per target.
*** Firer loads tingle round. When targets appear. h« assume* designated position, flres. and reload* a magazine (clip) containing
eight rounds.
Oat.

TAGO 6084-A
PhMe 2. 200 rani* (184 metew).
Rounds pmr •Tim« Score
exerciM Position (seconds) Target "Round Hit Miss
10 1
5 2
5 Single 3
8 MO Standing 5 target 4
to sitting 5 exposures 5
5 6
5 7
5 8
MO Standing 10 9
to squatting 5 10
5 Single 11
8 MO Standing 10 target 12
to squatting 5 exposures 13
MO Standing 10 14
to squatting 5 16

MO Standing
5
25 Left
16
17
————[
to kneeling Right 18
MO Standing 15 Left 19
to kneeling Right 20
*«*9 10 Left 21
Right 22
MO Standing 15 Left 23
to kneeling Right 24
5 I
(single) 25
Total

*Time la baaed on 10 seconds for first round, after assuming position, 10 seconds to reload (if applicable), and 5 seconds for
succeeding round.
** One round p«r target.
*•• Finer loads single round. When targets appear, he assumes designated position, fires, and reloads a magazine (clip)
eight round*.
MO—Move Out.

TAGO 60S4-A 149


Phase 3. 300 yards (276 meters).
Rounds per •Time Score
exercise Position (seconds) Target ** Round Hit Mis*

2 MO Standing 10 1
to prone 5 2
MO Standing 10 Single 3
3 to sitting 5 target 4
5 exposures 5
MO Standing 10 6
3 to kneeling 5 7
5 8
25 Left 9
**9 MO Standing Right 10
to prone 10 Left 11
Right 12
10 Left 13
Right 14
10 Left 16
Right 16
5 (Single) 17

Total

TOTALS FOR PERIOD THIRTEEN


Hit Miss

Phase 1 !
2 !

Total

' Time is baaed on 10 seconds for first round, after assuming position, 10 seconds to reload (if applicable), and 5 seconds for each
succeeding round.
** One round per target.
•**Firer loads single round. When targets appear, he assumes designated position, fires, and reloads a magazine (clip) containing
eight rounds.
MO—Move Out.

Signature of firer_

Signature of soorer_

Signature of officer-

fAGO 6024-A
PERIOD FOURTEEN/FIFTEEN

SCORECARD

Firer's Name.
(Last) (First)

Platoon- Order. Date.

Scorer's Name.
(Last) (First)

PRACTICE AND RECORD


Time 1 Range
Position Round (seconds) Target meters / yards Hit Miss

1 10 F 138 150
Foxhole 2 10 E 276 300
3,4 15 r F-E 276 300
5 10 E 184 200
Rubble 6 10 E 368 400
pile 7,8 15 2-E 368 400
9 10 E 276 300
* Stump 10 10 E 368 400
11,12 15 2-E 368 400
13 10 E 184 200
"Log 14 10 E 299 325
15,16 15 2-E 299 325
17 10 E 138 150
Bunker 18 10 E 230 250
19,20 15 2-E 230 250
21 10 E 368—————400————
*Prone 22 10 E 368 400
23 10 E 368 400
24 10 E 3o8 400
25 10 . E 111 125
* Barricade 26 10 E 368 400
27,28 15 2-E 368 400
*Forward 29 10 E 230 250
slope 30 10 E 322 350
31,32 15 2-E 322 350
33 10 E 161 175
Roof top 34 10 E 299 325
35,36 15 2-E 299 325
37 10 E 111 125
*Window 38,40 10 E 253 275
39,40 15 2-E 253 275

Total

* Starting position is the standing ready position.

TAGO 6024-A 151


Record Fto Only
Bit HIM

Record fix* I
Record fire II

Total

Qualification rating (circle one): EXPERT SHARPSHOOTER MARKSMAN UNQUALIFIED

Firer's signature

Scorer's signature

Officer's signature

b. Qualification Scores and Ratings. Quali Possible ...-,...-.-.--..-.... 90.


fication ratings are based on the total number Expert ....................... 60 and above.
of target hits obtained during record firing Sharpshooter ................. 50 to 59 inclusive.
(periods 13 and 15). Qualification scores and Marksman ................... 36 to 49 inclusive.
ratings are as follows: Unqualified ................... Below 85.

152 TAGO 5024-A


HI*

COMBAT READINESS MARKSMANSHIP PROFICIENCY STANDARD COURSE "A1 n


(For personnel having less HMM 10 years active service)

COMBAT READINESS MARKSMANSHIP PROFICIENCY STANDARD COURSE "A2"


(For personnel having more Hian 10 years active service)

COMBAT READINESS MARKSMANSHIP PROFICIENCY MODIFIED COURSE ' Al"


(For personnel having less than 10 years active servke)

COMBAT READINESS MARKSMANSHIP PROFICIENCY MODIFIED COURSE "A2"


(For personnel having more than 10 years active service)

8. General of instruction. Standard course "A2" consists


The combat readiness marksmanship pro of 18 hours of instruction. To provide maxi
ficiency "A" courses provide annual marksman mum use of training facilities and facilitate
ship training and qualification firing for soldiers unit scheduling, standard course "A2" is de
of the active Army. Each course is tailored to signed to be conducted in conjunction with
specific range facilities and to the experience standard course "Al."
level of the soldiers to receive the training. In a. Combat Readiness Marksmanship Pro
this case, experience level is based on an indi ficiency Standard Course "Al." This course is
vidual having either more or less than 10 years designed for personnel with less than 10 years
of active service. of active service.
(1) Scope.
9. Combat Readiness Marksmanship Pro Orientation ....-,.....--.-.---.. 1 hour.
Mechanical training ------------ 1 hour.
ficiency standard courses "Al" and Preparatory marksmanship and
"A2fi
25-meter firing ...---..--.-._ 14 hours.
These marksmanship courses must be con Target detection exercises ----- 6 hours.
ducted on the same range facilities prescribed Field firing --------------------- 4 hours.
Record firing and target-detec
for the basic rifle marksmanship course (par. tion tests 1, 2, and 3 --------- 8 hours.
2). Standard course "Al" consists of 36 hours Night firing .................... 2 hours.

TAGO 6024-A 153


(2) Ammunition required by period or exercise.
(a) Preparatory marksmanship and £5 meter firing.

Round* per Round* for


Period Position soldier demonstrations Notes

1 Orientation.
1 Mechanical training.
3 Introduction to 25-meter firing.
3 Prone supported Periods 3 through 5 conducted on
25-meter range.
3 Prone _......_...... 9 •3 exercises. 2 rounds and 24 sec
3 Sitting- ............. 9 onds per exercise.
4 Squatting .......... 9 b8 rounds rehearsal, 4 rounds demon
4 Kneeling ........... 9 stration. Total: 12 rounds.
4 Standing ----------- 9 cPosition must be 25 meters from
4 Kneeling supported 9 targets to correctly determine
5 Foxhole _-...,...... 9 battlesigrht zero.
5 •Standing to prone 6 W4(12) dProgress check.
5 •Standing to sitting 6

5 "Foxhole or prone supported 12


5 dProne supported .......... 3

5 3
5 ^Sitting _............. 3
5 ^Squatting ........... 3
5 ^Kneeling ............ 3
5 ^Standing ......----.. 3
5 dKneeling supported . 3
5 ^Foxhole --.....----.. 3
5 Refire weak positions 12

Total .......... 132 12

(b) Field firing.


Rounds per Rounds for
Period Position soldier demonstrations Notes
6 See scorecard .-..--------.... 56 •8/8(16) a8 rounds rehearsal, 8 rounds demon
stration. Total: 16 rounds.

(c) Target detection.


Corresponds to Number of
target presenta Blank rounds
Period detection period : * tions required 2
5 1 4 120
6 4 and 7 4 828
7 8 8 153
8 9 8 270
1 See appendix VI.
1 Includes rounds for rehearsals.

154 TAGO 5024-A


(d) Record firing.
Rounds per Round* for
Period Position soldier demonstration* Not*.
7 See scorecard ................ 56 •8/32 (40) "8 rounds rehearsal, 32 rounds
demonstration. Total: 40 rounds.
8 See scorecard ................. 40
Totals ................. 96 40

(e) Night firing.


Round* per Rounds for
Period Position eoidier demonstrations Notes

9 Foxhole or prone supported. . 32 »4/8 (12) »4 rounds rehearsal, 8 rounds demon


stration. Total: 12 rounds.

(3) Recapitulation of ammunition require Caliber 7.62-mm (or .30)


ments blank ...................... 1£71 rounds.
Caliber 7.<; 2-mm (or .30) per (4) Scorecards and qualification ratings,
soldier ......--_-.-------... 316 rounds.
Caliber 7.G2-mm (or .30) for (a) Field firing scorecard.
demonstration .---.-......- 80 rounds.

FIELD FIRING SCORECARD


COMBAT READINESS MARKSMANSHIP PROFICIENCY COURSE A

Firer's Name.
(Last) (First)
Platoon. Order_ Firing Point. . Date____
Scorer's Name.
(Last) (First)

Phase 1 Phase 2
(No time limit)
Range Time
Range
Position (meters) Round Hit Miss Position (meters) (seconds) Round Hit Miss

Foxhole 75 1 Sitting 300 10 1

Foxhole 175 2 Sitting 75 5 2


Foxhole 175 3 Sitting 175 7 3
Foxhole 175 4 Sitting 300 10 4
Foxhole 300 5 Kneeling 75 5 5
Foxhole 300 6 Kneeling 300 10 6
Foxhole 300 7 Kneeling 175 7 7
Foxhole 300 8 Kneeling 175 7 8
Total
Total

TAGO 5024-A 1S5


PhaaeS
Ranft TfaM
PlMf Ptwitfoa (m*ten) (Meowfa) Bound Hit MiM

Behind stump Standing 75 5 1


By stump Kneeling supported 175 5 2
By foxhole Squatting 175 5 3
By front stake Sitting 300 10 4
Behind stump Kneeling 175 5 5
By stump Standing 75 5 6
By foxhole Sitting 300 10 7
By front stake Prone 300 10 8
Behind stump Optional 175 5 9
By stump Optional 75 5 10
By foxhole Optional 300 10 11
By foxhole Optional 5 12
By front stake Optional 175 5 13
By front stake Optional 300 10 14
Forward of stake Optional 175 5 15
Forward of stake Optional 300 10 16

Total

Phase 4
(From foxhole)
Hits
Ranee Time First Second
< meters) (seconds) Round Round MiM
75
175 2O
175
300 Left 60
300 Right
175
300 Left 60
300 Right

Total

156 TAQO Btt4-A


PhAM 5

H Its
Rang* Tim« Flint Sceond
PlACW (tneten) (Mcond*) Round Round Miw

Behind stump 75 20
Bit Mta
175
Phase 1
175 2
3
By stump 300 Left 60
4
300 Right
5
175
Total
By foxhole 300 Left 60

300 Right

Total

(6) Record firing scorecards. The score- ciency Standard Course "A2." This course is
cards for Record Firing I and II designed for personnel with more than 10 years
are identical to those prescribed for of active service.
Record Firing I and II of the Basic
Rifle Marksmanship Course (par. (1) /Scope.
Preparatory marksmanship and 25-
( c) Qualification scorecards and ratings. meter firing ----.-....-.-.-.---. 4 hours.
As prescribed in par. 4b. Target detection .................. 4 hours.
(d) Night firing scorecards and qualifi Field firing ....-_-........--....-. 4 hours.
cation ratings. See par. 21. Record Firing I or Record Firing II
and target detection test 1...... 4 hours.
6. Combat Readiness Marksmanship Profi Night firing ...----.......---..-,-- 2 hours.

TAGO 6024-A 117


(2) Ammunition required by period or
exercise.
(a) Preparatory marksmanship and 25-
meter firing.

Rounds ' If target detection training for


i per ' this course is conducted sepa
Period! Position Soldier ! Note*
rately, blank ammunition is re
»1 jProne supported 3 Period 1 conducted quired as follows:
i on 25-meter range.
»1 ;Prone .. 3 » May be integrated t Correspond* to ' Number Blank
with period 3. target detection of prtMeri- rounds
Standard Course Period period: ' tatiuna -' required *
"Al."
2 4 and 7 1 ! 27G
<»1 Sitting
b 1 Squatting t> May be integrated
4 g i ! 34
'See appendix VI.
with period 4, * Based on one presentation on one target detection range.
Standard Course 'Includes rounds for rehearsals.
"Al."
1 Kneeling e May be integrated
(d) Record firing. To provide flexibility
with period 5, in integrating this period with the
Standard Course record firing of Standard Course
"Al." "Al" (a above), either Record Fir
Standing _.. _ ....... 3 ing I or Record Firing II may be
Kneeling supported 3 One exercise con conducted.
ducted within 24
Period Position Rounds per Soldier
seconds.
el Foxhole ... ........ Two exercises. 2 See scorecard 56 rounds if Record Firing
rounds and 24 sec I is conducted.
onds per exercise. 40 rounds if Record Firing
dStanding to prone . 2 II is conducted.
Standing to sitting. 4 Position must be 25
meters from tar (e) Night firing. The night firing course
gets to correctly is the same as prescribed for Stand
determine battle- ard Course "Al" (a above).
sight zero.
'Foxhole or prone 12 (3 ) Recapitulation of ammunition require
supported ments.
Total .......... 42 Caliber 7.62-mm (or .30) per
soldier ............. 186 or 170*
(&) Field firing. As prescribed in Stand Caliber 7.62-mm (or .30)
ard Course "Al" (par.a (2) (b) above). blank ......._... .. None or 310**
(c) Target detection. •Difference of 1*5 rounds depends upon whether
1. If target detection training for Record Firing I or Record Firing II is conducted.
** See (2)(c) above.
this course is integrated into pe
riods 6 and 7 of Standard Course (4) Scorecards. Scorecards are the same
"Al" (a (2) (c) above), r.c ad as those prescribed for Standard
ditional ammunition is requirec Course "Al" (a (4) above).

TS8 TAGO 5024-A


(5) Qualification ratings. scheduling, Modified Course A2 is designed to
(a) If Record Firing I is conducted: be conducted in conjunction with Modi*:
Course "Al."
Possible ,-.---..-... 56.
Expert ........... . 34 or above. a. Combat Readiness Marksmanship Profi
Sharpshooter - 27 to 33 inclusive. ciency Modified Course "Al." This course »"
Marksman .......... . 18 to 26 inclusive. designed for personnel with less than 10 year
Unqualified ......... . Below 18.
of active service.
(6) If Record Firing II is conducted:
- 28.
(1) Scope.
Possible
. 18 and above. Orientation ...,...,...-.-....-.... r_
Expert .
. 14 to 17 inclusive. Mechanical Training ....-...-..., 1 !::_.:
Sharpshooter
9 to 13 inclusive. Preparatory Marksmanship and
Marksman
1000-inch Firing ................ 8 hour.
Unqualified Below 9.
Known Distance Field Firing (In
struction and Record Firing) . , 8 hour
10. Combat Readiness Marksmanship Pro Combat Positions Firing (Instruc
ficiency Modified Courses "Al" tion and Record Firing) ........ 4 hour,
and "A2"
Night Firing ------.--.----.-.---.- 2 hour,
These marksmanship courses must be con *Pit Details ....................... 6 hour.
ducted on the same range facilities prescribed •Based on normal number and size of range facilities, units __
for the Alternate Basic Rifle Marksmanship b« divided into four groups during firing periods. Therefore, , ~
details must be shown separately. If pit details are not ;_,.:'
Course (par. 5). Modified Course "At" re this time may be used for such other training deemed -...''
quires *36 training; hours and Modified Course by the commander.

"A2" requires 18 hours. To provide maximum (2) Ammunition required by period Or


use of training facilities and facilitate unit exercise.

TAGO 6024-A
(«) Preparatory marksmanship and 1000-inch firing.
Round* P«r Round* for
J*wfed PwHloo •oUfor <tomonitr*tion« Not*.
1 Orientation.
2 Mechanical training.
3 Prone supported ........ 6 *3 exercises. 2 rounds and 24 sec
a Prone ....... . . 6 onds p«r exercise.
s Sitting ................. 6
3 Sduattin&r 6 *>8 rounds rehearsal, 4 rounds
3 Kneeling -.....-- . . . . 6 demonstration. Total: 12 rounds.
3 Standing -- 6 bg/4(12)
cBattlesight zero.
3 •Standing to prone 6 ^Progress check.
3 "Standing to sitting ........._, 6

4 cProne supported ...... 19


4 dProne supported . . . 3
4 dprone . ...
4 ••Sitting- ...... . 3
4 ^Squatting .... 3
4 ^Kneeling ........
4 ^Standing ........
4 Refire weak positions .

Total ...... . 87 12

(b) Knoiwn, distance field firing.


Rou nds per Rounds for
Period Positions soldier demonstrations Notes
5 See scorecard ......... 50 •10/10(20) Instruction firing.
5 See scorecard ............ ... 50 Record firing.
»10 rounds rehearsal, 10 rounds
demonstration. Total: 20 rounds.

Totals ........... 100 20

(c) Combat positions firing. (d) Target detection.


Rounds per Corresponds to Number of Blank round*
Period Position* soldier Notes Period target detection period1 presentations required1
6 See scorecard 40 Instruction firing. 5 1 8 200
6 See scorecard 40 Record firing. 6 4 and 7 4 828
' See appendix VI.
Total 80 ' Includes rounds for rehearaala.

(e) Night firing.


Rounds per Rounds for
Period Positions soldier demonstration Notes

7 Foxhole or prone supported. - 32 »4/8 (12) »4 rounds rehearsal, 8 rounds dem


onstration. Total: 12 rounds.

TAGO 5024-A
(3) Recapitulation of ammunition re
quirements. Period Position •olrfter **•
Caliber 7.62-mm (or .30) per soldier ..... 299 1 •Kneeling ... 3 'May be integrated
Caliber 7.62-mm (or .80) for with period 4.
M«MHft#4_ii
demonstration* ....................... 44
Caliber 7.62-mm (or .30) blank ........... 1,028 ^F|
1 •Standing ... 3
(4) Scorecard and qualification ratings. 1 •Standing to •
prone 06 1
(a) Scorecards. The scorecards for 1 •Standing to 1
periods five and six are the same as sitting .... *6 1
those prescribed for periods 13 and 1 «Prone sup 1
14, respectively, of the alternate ported 12 Battlesignt.~.
basic rifle marksmanship course Total ..... 42
(par. 7). (b) Known distance field firing (prw
(6) Qualification scores and ratings. tice and record). Practice and rec
Qualification scores and rating's are ord known distance field firing
the same as prescribed for the the same as that prescribed *
alternate basic rifle marksmanship modified course "Al" (a(2) abov..
course (par. 76). (c) Target detection.
(c) Night firing scorecards and Qualifi 1. If target detection training-_
cation ratings. See paragraph 21. this course is integrated wit
period 6 of modified cour^
6. Combat Readiness Marksmanship Pro "Al" (a above), no additic-""
ficiency Modified Course "A2." This course is blank ammunition is requir:
designed for personnel with more than 10 years 2. If target detection training f
of active service. this course is conducted ^~
(1) Scope. rately, blank ammunition is ^
Preparatory marksmanship and quired as follows:
1000-inch firing: ------------------- 4 hours*. Corresponds to Number of Blank rounds
Known distance field firing (practice Period target detection period1 presentations' required*
and record) ...._.._,-........._... 8 hours. 4 4and7 1 276
Target detection ...-----..-----.-.-. 4 hours.
Night firing ......................... 2 hours. 1 See appendix IV.
1 Baaed on one presentation on one target detection range.
• Additional hours in preparatory marksmanship or mechanical 1 Includes rounds for rehearsals.
training may b« scheduled as deemed necessary by the commander. (d) Night firing. The night firing
(2) Ammunition required by period or is the same as precribed in modifir
exercise. course "Al" (a above).
(a) Preparatory marksmanship and (3) Recapitulation of ammunition—r
1000-inch firing. quirements.
Caliber 7.62-mm (or .30) per soldier 17
Rounds per Caliber 7.62-mm (or .30) blank -...
Period Position soldier Notes •See (2)(c) above.

1 » Prone sup (4) Scorecards.


ported .... 3 Period 1 conducted 2 and 3, known distance field firi~
on 1000-inch (practice and record), is the same ~
range. that prescribed for period 13 of tl
1 •Prone ...._- 3 •May be integrated
with period 3
Alternate Basic Rifle Marksmanshi-
Modified Course Course (par. 7).
"Al." (5) Qualification ratings.
1 •Sitting 3 t>3 exercises. 2 Possible _-------.-.----.--_. 50.
rounds and 24 Expert -..-.------.--.----.. 33 and above.
seconds per Sharpshooter .............. 27 to 32 inclusive
exercise. Marksman .--.-.-..-.-.--.- 22 to 26 inclusive.
1 •Squatting __ 3 Unqualified ................ Below 22.
TAGO 6024-A
Ul
StcHon IV, FUNDAMENTALS PROFICIENCY COURSE '•it
11. Orientation and mechanical training . 1 hour.
Fundamentals proficiency course "B" is de Preparatory marksmanship and
signed for active Army units which have access 1000-inch firing .............. 8 hours.
to 1000-inch and known distance ranges but no Known distance field firing (practice) 4 hours.
combat positions range. Because this course Known distance field firing (record) . 4 hours.
requires minimum application of combat marks Target detection . 4 hours.
manship skills, individual soldiers should not
Night firing , . ... 2 hours.
be permitted to fire this course for qualification
more than three consecutive years. •Pit details 4 hours.
*B*»ed on normal number and *u« of rmngt tmcilitie* unit* matt
bt divided Into four froup* during (trine periods tin the known
12. Scope distance range Therefore, pit d«UJU mu*t be sebedufed separately.
Fundamentals proficiency course re- If pit detail* are not required b*-o»u»«- of the u*« of automatic target
device*. thi» time may be used for such other training m» deemed ap
quires *27 training hours as follows: propriate by the commander.

13. Ammunition Required by Period or Exercise


a. Preparatory Marksmanship and 1000-Inch Firing.
Rounds p«r Rounds for
Period Position soldier demonstration* Note*
1 i Orientation and mechanical training.
2 Prone supported .....-.-..-.. 6 Periods 2 and 3 conducted on 1000-
2 Prone --......-..-...--.....-. inch range.
2 Sitting _......-..--.-.--..---. 6 »3 exercises. 2 rounds and 24 seconds
9 Squatting .................... 6 per exercise.
0 Kneeling .................... 6 b8 rounds rehearsal, 4 rounds dem
O Standing ..................... 6 onstration. Total: 12 rounds.
2 •Standing to prone -....-.... 6 »»8/4 ( 12) c Battlesi|rht zero.
O •Standing to sitting .......... 6 ^Progress check.
cProne supported ..-..-....-. 12
dProne supported ............ 3
3 dProne .........---.--.-.----. 3
^Sitting ...................... 3
^Squatting ....-....--...-.-.. 3
dKneelingr ------- ------------ 3
0 dStanding .................... 3
3 Refire weak positions ........ 9

Total __.....------..--.--- 87 12

6. Kn&ivn Distance Field Firing.


i Rounds per Rounds for
Period Position 1 soldier demonstrations Notea
4 See score card ---------------- 50 •10/10 (20) Instruction firing.
5 See score card .--.------,.---- 50 Record firing.
•10 rounds rehearsal, 10 rounds dem-
1- • - - • onstration. Total: 20 rounds.

Totals .. 100 20

c. Target Detection.
Correspond* Number
totarg-et of presen Blank rounds
Period detection period * tation* required '

5 4 and 7 4 828
See appendix VI.
* Include! rounds for rehearwla.

U2 TAGO 6024-A
d. Night Firing.
Round* per ; Bound* for
Period Position •ofaiier demonstrations • Motes

6 Foxhole or prone supported . 32 •4/8 (12) > *4 rounds rehearsal, 8 rounds ~~~.
j onstration. Total: 12 rounds.

14. Recapitulation of Ammunition and record) is the same as that prescribed fc


Requirements period 13 of the alternate basic rifle
Caliber 7.62-mm (or .30)
ship course (par. 7).
rounds per soldier ...,--..-.--. 219. b. Qualification Ratings.
Caliber 7.62-mm (or .30) Possible ..--.-...---...--_-. 50.
rounds for demonstration* (per unit) .. 44. Expert --------------------- 33 and «
Caliber 7.62-mm (or .30) rounds blank . 828. Sharpshooter .............. 27 to 32 inc..
Marksman --,..-,.-.---,.-. 22 to 26 inc!.~».
15. Scorecards and Qualification Ratings Unqualified ---------------- Below 22.
a. Scorecards. The scorecard for periods c. Night Firing Scorecards and Qualificatii,
4 and 5, known distance field firing (practice Ratings. See paragraph 27.

Section V. EMERGENCY PROFICIENCY COURSE


16. General c. Blank Ammunition Required for rargt,
The emergency proficiency course is designed Detection.
to provide minimum marksmanship training in Number
order to FOR qualify selected active Army Period
Target
detection period '
of presen
tations
Blank r:'
required 1
personnel. It should only be conducted under
emergency conditions when pressing personnel 2 3 4 55
3 "9 150
movement schedules limit the available train 4

ing time. There are two separate courses of 1 See appendix VI.
* Includes rounds for rehearsal*.
fire, each of which requires 8 training hours. ' Conducted as conference, demonstration, and practical exer:*
Emergency Proficiency Course One is conducted rather than as a test.
on standard range facilities. Emergency Pro
ficiency Course Two is conducted on modified d. Recapitulation of Ammunition Requir*
known distance ranges. ments.
Caliber 7.62-mm (or .30)
17. Emergency Proficiency Course One rounds per soldier --_-_-----_---._..___ 1
a. Scope. Caliber 7.62-mm (or .30) blank ..........
Orientation and battlesight zero .... 2 hours. e. Scorecards.
Field firing------------------------- 1% hours.
Record firing .,..-...-----.-..-.---. 1& hours, (1) Field firing. As prescribed for perioc
*Target detection ......-..--.-.---- 3 hours. 11, basic rifle marksmanship cour^
* Target detection is conducted in conjunction -with field (par. 4a).
firing and record firing.
b. Ammunition Required for Firing Exer (2) Record firing. As prescribed for recorc
cises. firing II, (period 18), basic rif.v
marksmanship course (par. 4a).
Rounds per
Period Position soldier Notes

1 Foxhole or /. Qualification Scores and Ratings.


prone, Possible -.-_-............... 28.
supported 12 Battlesight zero. Expert ..................... 18 and above.
2 See scorecard 36 Field firing. Sharpshooter ........_.__ 14 to 17 inclusive.
3 See scorecard 40 Record firing (II). Marksman -.__....______. 9 to 13 inclusive.
Total 88 Unqualified .--....._____. Below 9.

TAGO SM4-A 163


18. Emergency Proficiency Course Two ; Correspond*
to target
Number
; ofpreaen-
.
; Blank round*
a. Scope. Period ; detection period ' ' Utions ' required '
Orientation and battlesight zero .... 2 hours. 2 3 : 4 : 55
"Known distance field firing 3 1 *» 1 4 1
150
(practice) .........--.-...----.-.- 1H hours. 1 See appendix VI.
"Known distance field firing • Includes rounds for rehearsals.
9 Conducted as conference, demonstration, and practical exercise
(record) ........-.--......---... 1% hours. rather than as a teat.
**Target detection ...---.......----.. 3 hours. d. Recapitulation of Ammunition Require
* Based on having personnel other than the firers to be the pit ments.
detail.
*• Conducted in conjunction with field firing. Caliber 7.62-mm (or .30)
rounds per soldier ............ .......... 112.
6. Ammunition Required for Firing Exer Caliber 7.62-mm (or .30) blanks ......... 205.
cises.
e. Scorecard. The scorecard for periods 2
Rounds per! and 3 known distance field firing- (practice and
Period Position soldier Notes
——————r record) is the same as that prescribed for
1 Foxhole or period 13 of the alternate basic rifle marks
prone manship course (par. 7).
supported. 12 Battlesight zero.
2 See scorecard 50 Practice field firing. /. Qualification Scores and Ratings.
3 See scorecard 50 Record field firing.
Possible -.-.-.......--...... 50.
j Total. _.....j.. 112 j Expert .-..--. ..._-.--.._... 33 and above.
Sharpshooter .....__.._._... 27 to 32 inclusive.
c. Ammunition Required for Target Detec Marksman ................. 22 to 26 inclusive.
tion. Unqualified ................ Below 22.

Section VI. INDIVIDUAL NIGHT FIRING


19. General 20. 8-Hour Individual Night Firing Course
There are two individual night firing courses: a. Scope.
An 8-hour course designed to be conducted as Night vision and techniques of night
firing ................................ 1 hour.
part of ATP 21—114 and a 2-hour course de Daytime instruction firing ..-.----....-. 3 hours.
signed to maintain the night firing proficiency Night practice firing -..........__.-...- 2 hours.
of soldiers in the active Army. Night record firing -.-........-...-.-... 2 hours.

b. Ammunition Required by Exercise.


Rounds per Rounds for
Exercise soldier demonstrations Notes
Night vision and techniques of All firing is conducted from
night firing. None None either foxhole or prone sup
ported position.
Daytime instruction firing 15 a 9/9 (18) a 9 rounds rehearsal, 9 rounds
demonstration. Total: 18
rounds.
Night practice firing 16 *>4/8 (12) b 4 rounds rehearsal, 8 rounds
demonstration. Total: 12
rounds.
Night record firing . 16

Total 47 30

144 TAGO 6024-A


c. Storecard and Qualification Rating,
NIGHT FIRING

name
(Last) (First)
platoonfi .. ... Orrjer Firing Pnint . ... . Date... . ———
'ft name _ . . . _...... _. ———
(Last) (First)

PRACTICE RECORD
Range Rounds Htto R»0<e Bound* Hit*

26/50 1-8 25/50 1-8

50/75 &-16 50/75 9-16

Total Qualification score

Expert ............................ 10 and above.


Sharpshooter --.--.-..--.-.-...--.. 7 to 8 inclusive.
Marksman ......................... 5 or 6.
Unqualified ........................ Below 5.

21. 2-Hour Individual Night Firing Course Night instruction and night record
a. Scope. firing .-.-..-..-.,--.-.-.-.---...-.. hours.
Review of night vision and techniques
of night firing .......-..-.,--..-.. % hour.
b. Ammunition Required by Exercise.

Rounds per Rounds for


Exercise soldier demonstrations Notw

Night practice firing ........... 16 •4/8(12) »4 rounds rehearsal, 8 rounds demon


stration. Total: 12 rounds.
Night record firing ............. 16

Totals ........... 32 12

c. Scorecard and Qualification Rating. As prescribed in paragraph 20c above.

TAGO 1024-A US
Stction VII. ADVANCED INPIVIDUAL MARKSMANSHIP (SNIPING)
22. Scope <2) Field firing exercises.
Orientation ... -.,...-.---.._, 2 hours. Round* per Round* per
Early Firing (Zero) .-......---,... 4 hours. sniper per sniper per
Target Detection ,.. .-......_._.,- 4 hours. Exercise exercise three exercises
Map reading . .,.,....-.....--..-.... 8 hours.
Instruction Firing ,..._,.-.._._.-.-... *26 hours. * First exercise -------- 16 48
Record Firing ..,.,.,.. ,........-.-,.. *4 hours. * Second exercise ....... 16 48
* Third exercise ....... 12 36
* Exact number of hours required depends upon the size of range
facilities »nd the number of snipers to be trained.
Totals ........... 44 132
23. Ammunition Required by Exercise
* Each exercise is fired three times; once at dawn or first light,
o. Early Firing (Zero). once at midday, and once at dusk.
Rounds per Rounds per
Range (meters) sniper (ball) •niper (tracer) c. Record Firing. Each of the three field
250 9 0 firing exercises (6(2) above) is fired once for
400 6 3 record. Forty-four rounds of ammunition per
500 6 3 sniper are required for record firing.
600 8 4
d. Recapitulation of Ammunition require
Totals ------ 29 10
ments.
6. Instruction Firing Caliber 7.62-mm (or .30) rounds per
(1) Adjusted aiming point exercises. sniper ..--.-...--..-.,-......_.......... 245.
Using sight Rounds per Rounds per Caliber 7.62-mm (or .30) rounds, tracer,
setting of— sniper (ball) sniper (tracer) per sniper ..,..--...-.-_._.___._._......_ 30.
400 10 5
50O 10 5
600 10 5 24. Scorecords
*250 10 5
A recommended scorecard for sniper training
Totals .-..-- 40 20 is depicted below. This card must be reproduced
* Conducted if time and ammunition are available. locally.

SNIPER'S SCORECARD

Filer's name
(Last) (First)

Unit Date

Zero Firing
Ranee Sight Setting
(meters) First Shot Group Second Shot Group Third Shot Group * Fourth Shot Group

250 EL W EL W EL W EL W

400 EL W EL W EL W EL W

500 EL W EL W EL* W EL W
600 EL W EL W EL W EL W
250 400 5,000 600
meters meters meters meters
Zero sight adjustment: EL...-.W— ~. EL.---.W...... EL— --W-.... EL.....W—-- •
* If required.

TAGO 50S4-A
146
Field Firing

First Exercise Second Exercise


First Trial Second Trial Third Trial First Trial Second Trial Third Trial
Target IstRd 24 Rd 1st Ed 2dRd IttRd 2dRd Target IstRd 2dRd IstRd 2dRd IstRd 2dRd
Number Hit* Hits Hit. HiU Hita Hit* Number Hits Hits Hits Hit* Hits Hit*

1 1
2 2
3 3
4 4
5 5
6 6
7 7
8 8
Totals Totals
X10 X5 X10 X5 X10 X5 X10 X5 X10 X5 X10 X5
Points Points
Total Points Total Points

Third Exercise
First Trial Second Trial Third Trial
Target IstRd 2dRd 3dRd IstRd 2dRd 3dRd IstRd 2dRd 3dRd
Number Hits Hits Hita Hits Hits Hits Hits Hits Hits

4
Totals
X10 X5 X2 X10 X5 X2 X10 X5 X2

Points
Total points

Points Points Points


Exercise First Trial Second Trial Third Trial

First Exercise
Second Exercise
Third Exercise
Scores per trial

Time of Day Weather Conditions

First Trial
Second Trial
Third Trial

TAGO 5024-A 167


RMmrdFiriB*
rintBx*reiM» ' 8«eond Bx«rci*e Third ExvrciM
Tui«t l«tM MRd UtRd URd UtRd .MRd S4R4
NwBhtr Hiu Hit* Bita Hit. Hit* ! Hit* Hit*

1 i 1

2 i
i
3 1
4
5
6
7
8 i
Totals ;

X10 X5 X10 X5 X10 X5 X2


i i
Points )j

Total Points Record Piringr Expert 1?ft H"<1 above.

Qualification fihamoh/vn+Af IKft tn 1fi9 inclusive.

Tim* *>f n»y Marksman 120 to 149 inclusive.

Weather Unqualified «H«w i«>.

Sailer's «»mA . ,.....__

168 TAGO (024-A


APPENDIX IV

PREMOBILIZATION READINESS PROFICIENCY "C" COURSES

1. General b. Range Organization.


a. There are three separate and distinct (1) Organization of firers and range per
courses of fire which fall in the category of a sonnel. See chapter 2, paragraph 23a.
Premobilization Readiness Proficiency Course (2) Targets.
"C." These courses are designed for use by (a) The target sheet used for practice
reserve components. The principal difference and record firing consists of a 25-
between the three courses of fire is the type of meter zero target and eight target
range facility on which each is conducted. These blocks, each containing small black
are as follows: silhouettes superimposed on a white
(1) Standard course "C." This course is background (fig. 68). The zero tar
conducted on either a 25-meter range get is used to zero the rifle for a
or a 1000-inch range (fig. 29.). range of 25 meters. The slow fire
(2) Alternate course "C." This course is silhouette targets are in blocks one
designed for reserve components and two. The timed-fire targets are
which do not have access to, or suf in blocks three through six. The
ficient area for constructing standard rapid-fire targets are in blocks seven
25-meter ranges. A 25-meter range and eight. The silhouette targets
must be specially constructed so each are purposely arranged within each
firing lane is inclosed. In this way, block so the firer must adjust his
ricochets cannot escape the immediate aiming point horizontally and ver
range area, thus eliminating the need tically when he shifts from one tar
for a large impact area. get to another. The numbers in each
(3) Modified known distance course "C." block of silhouette targets corre
All firing during this course is con spond to the number of the exercise
ducted from the 200-yard/l80-meter indicated on the practice and record
firing line of a known distance range. scorecards.
b. Although range facilities and firing pro (6) Upon completion of record firing,
cedures prescribed in these courses may differ each soldier must establish the 250-
from those prescribed for active Army units, meter battlesight zero of his rifle.
the fundamentals of marksmanship and the The standard 25-meter target (fig.
techniques for teaching these fundamentals are 34) is used for this purpose.
the same. Consequently, the principles and tech c. Conduct of Firing.
niques outlined in chapter 2, should be followed (I) 25-meter zero. Initially, firers set their
as closely as possible regardless of the course rear sights at 12 clicks of elevation
of fire being conducted. and zero windage. Firers assume a
prone supported (or foxhole) position
2. Standard Course "C" and fire a 3-round shot group at the
a. Scope. Standard Course "C" is a 16-hour 25-meter zero target. The cutaway
course of instruction as follows: portion of the black paster serves as
Mechanical training...--__.._---.....-_-_..-. 1 hour. a distinctive aiming point. Firers
Marksmanship fundamentals................. 3 hours.
25-meter zero and practice firing............. 4 hours. should "call" each shot and record this
Record firing and 250-meter battlesight zero. - 4 hours. call on the target diagram portion of
Target detection......--..-----.--....-...... 4 hours. the practice scorecard. After all firers
TAGO 6024-A 1*9
i—j
la ——i
A A
A

i
1 __ .
L...J 71

A Ai___1
A
2
i_ —

3
A -
A 6 A
Fif/ure (IS. Court?? "('" 2~>-»u>tcr/KHlO-hu-li tnrurt H

have completed firing one 3-round shot The orders then exchange duties; that
group, the firing line is cleared and is, the firer becomes the coach, and
firers move forward to check their the coach the firer. The exercise is
targets. Firers record the actual loca then repeated.
tion of shot groups on the same tar (2) Practice finny. Practice firing consists
get diagram used to record the "call." of six timed-fire exercises and two
Upon returning to the firing line, rapid-fire exercises. These exercises
firers make the necessary sight adjust are conducted as follows:
ments to move the center of their shot (n) Timed-fire exercises. Each round is
groups into the center of the zero loaded singly and only one round
circle. This new sight setting is then is fired at each silhouette target.
recorded on the practice scorecard. When the time limit for an exercise
This procedure is repeated until three has expired, the firing line is cleared
3-round shot groups have been fired. and firers and coaches move for
The final sight setting is recorded on ward to score targets. A maximum
the scorecard as the zero for 25 meters. of one point is awarded for each
TAGO 6024-A
170
silhouette target hit. If a soldier in meter zero exercise, except that the
advertently fires two or more rounds standard 25-meter battlesight zero tar
at one silhouette, he receives only get is used (fig. 34). Bach soldier fires
one point regardless of how many three 3-round shot groups, adjusting
times the target has been hit. This the rear sight until the center of his
procedure is repeated until all six shot group falls on the "X" printed
exercises have been fired. Scores are on the target. Shot group locations and
recorded on the practice fire score- elevation and windage settings ar^
card (fig. 69). recorded on the record fire scores;
(/>) Rapid fire exercises. Each firer is (fig. 70).
issued one magazine or clip of eight d. Ammunition Required by Period or E*,*,
rounds and one loose round for each else.
exercise. The firer places the maga (1) 25-meter zero and practice firin^
zine or clip in his belt and holds
the loose round in his hand. On Period Exercite position
Round* T
So"
command, the firer loads the loose
1 Mechanical
round and assumes the designated training ...... - r
position (prone or sitting). He fires 2 Preparatory^——— -A4J mi——————————— _______ —T:
_....____,-._
the loose round, loads the magazine mai'ksmanship (dry ixi
or clip, and fires the remaining eight 3 25-meter zero _ . . . Foxhole or prone
rounds. Three rounds are fired at supported - , -
3 •I................. bFoxhole or
each silhouette target in blocks prone
seven and eight. After each nine supported
rounds, the firing line is cleared and 3 a9 Prone -..-...-..
the firer and coach move forward to 3 »3 cKneeling sup
score targets. Scoring is based on ported or
sitting --..---
one point per silhouette target hit, a 3 «4 - - . .. Squatting1 __,.__
maximum of three hits or points al 3 »5-. ....... ...,-. Kneeling .......
lowed for each silhouette. 3 «6 ........ Standing .......
(3) Record firing. 3 *T. ................ Standing to
prone ........ *.
(a) The same six timed-fire and two 3 •18.... ............. Standing to
__ (pitting .......
~~"51
*<

practice firing are repeated for rec Total ..........


ord firing. However, the firer's score
is recorded on the record fire score- a Four rounds fired -within 4 minutes.
b Foxhole used on 25-meter range, prone supported v:_
card (fig. 70). 1,000-inch range.
( b ) Qualification scores are based on the c Kneeling supported used on 25-fiseTerrange, sitting—a_
1,000-inch range.
total number of points obtained in d Nine rounds fired within 60 seconds on standard 25-meter
the eight exercises. There is a total 1,000-inch ranges. If Alternate Course "C" (inclosed firing '"
is conducted, time limit is increased to 65 seconds.
possible score of 42 points. The
scores required for each qualifica
tion rating are as follows'. (2) Record firin$~^md~2£0-meter
sight zero.
Expert --------- 31 and above.
Sharpshooter ..... - 24 to 30 inclusive. Hounds it
Marksman .......-.-- 11 to 23 inclusive. Period Exercise Position So' J '
Unqualified _...-...-- Below 11. 4 Repeat 1 through
8 of practice As indicated in
(4) 250-meter battlesight zero. Immedi firing.,--. ------ exercises 1
ately upon completing record firing,— —^8——
each soldier must determine the 250- 4 250-meter battle- Foxhole or prone
meter battlesight zero of his rifle. This sight zero supported . - - t

firing is conducted the same as the 25- Total .......... 51

TAGO 6024-A
PRACTICE
•COME CARD- STANDARD/ALTERNATE COURSE C (25 METKRC'IOOO INCHES 23 METER ZERO

LAST NAME FIRST NAME MIDDLE INITIAL GRADE


1ST SHOT GROUP

SERVICE NUMBER UNIT

EXERCISE ONE - TIMED FIRE MISSES NO FIRES HITS

FOXHOLE POSITION < PRONE SUPPORTED)


4 ROUNDS
4 MINUTES

EXERCISE TWO • TIMED FIRE MISSES NO FIRES HITS


PRONE POSITION
4 ROUNDS
4 MINUTES
ELEVATION WINDAGE

EXERCISE THREE - TIMED FIRE MISSES NO FIRES HITS


KNEELING SUPPORTED POSITION
4 ROUNDS (* SITTING) 2ND SHOT GROUP
4 MINUTES

EXERCISE FOUR -TIMED FIRE MISSES NO FIRES HITS


SQUATTING POSITION
4 ROUNDS
4 MINUTES

EXERCISE FIVE • TIMED FIRE MISSES NO FIRES HITS


KNEELING POSITION
4 ROUNDS
4 MINUTES

EXERCISE SIX - TIMED FIRE MISSES NO FIRES HITS


STANDING POSITION ELEVATION WINDAGE
4 ROUNDS
4 MINUTES
3D SHOT GROUP
EXERCISE SEVEN - RAPID FIRE MISSES NO FIRES HITS

STANDING TO RRONE
9 ROUNDS
•* 6O/65 SECONDS

EXERCISE EIGHT - RAPID FIRE MISSES NO FIRES HITS


STANDING TO SITTING
9 ROUNDS
•*6O/65 SECONDS
NOTES: * FOR USE ON lOOO INCH RANGES
•• TIME INCREASED TO 65 SECONDS MISSES NO FIRES HITS
FOR ALTERNATE (INCLOSED FIRING
LANE) COURSE "C".
23 METER ZERO
COURSE "C" TOTALS

RECORD QUALIFICATION ELEVATION

SIGNATURE OF SCORER WINDAGE

SIGNATURE OF FIRER

SIGNATURE OF OFFICER

Figure C9. Pmet Ice fin- xcorecnrd.

172 TAOO 6024-A



290 METER ZERO
! RECORD
(BATTLE SIGHTS'
• SCORE CARD- STANDARD/ ALTERNATE COURSE C (25 METERS/ IOOO INCHES!
X | LAST NAME FIRST NAME MIDDLE INITIAL 1 GRADE

• SERVICE NUMBER UNIT

. EXERCISE ONE - TIMED FIRE MISSES NO FIRES HITS

I FOXHOLE POSITION ( * PRONE SUPPORTED »


J 4 ROUNDS
• 4 MINUTES
1ST SHOT GROUP
• EXERCISE TWO - TIMED FIRE MISSES NO FIRES HITS
I PRONE POSITION
J 4 ROUNDS
ELEVATION WINDAGE * 4 MINUTES

EXERCISE THREE - TIMED FIRE MISSES NO FIRES HITS


KNEELING SUPPORTED POSITION
4 ROUNDS ( * SITTING)
4 MINUTES

EXERCISE FOUR - TIMED FIRE MISSES NO FIRES HITS


SQUATTING POSITION
4 ROUNDS
4 MINUTES

EXERCISE FIVE - TIMED FIRE MISSES NO FIRES HITS


KNEELING POSITION
2ND SHOT GROUP 4 ROUNDS
4 MINUTES

1 EXERCISE SIX - TIMED FIRE MISSES NO FIRES HITS

ELEVATION WINDAGE • STANDING POSITION


-I 4 ROUNDS
•J 4 MINUTES

t EXERCISE SEVEN - RAPID FIRE MISSES NO FIRES HITS

• STANDING TO PRONE
• 9 ROUNDS
J •• 6O/65 SECONDS
• ««•—•«•————•——•——•—•

1 EXERCISE EIGHT - RAPID FIRE MISSES NO FIRES HITS


STANDING TO SITTING
J 9 ROUNDS
• ** 6O/65 SECONDS
3D SHOT GROUP
I NOTES: * FOR USE ON IOOO INCH RANGES
•J »* TIME INCREASED TO 65 SECONDS MISSES NO FIRES HITS
• FOR ALTERNATE (INCLOSED FIRING
25O METER ZERO • LANE) COURSE "C".
(BATTLE SIGHTS)
COURSE "C" TOTALS

ELEVATION _ • RECORD QUALIFICATION

• SIGNATURE OF SCORER
WINDAGE .

EXPERT 31 AND ABOVE


• SIGNATURE OF FIRER
SHARPSHOOTER 24 TO 3O
MARKSMAN . 11 TO 23
UNQUALIFIED BELOW I 1 • SIGNATURE OF OFFICER

Figure 70. Record fire scorecitnl.

TAGO K024-A 173


(3) Target detection. (2) Timed-/ire exercises.
FIRERS ASSUME THE ,_..._..
***** r«r0«f eYtecftoi* pmMf— ' POSITION.
5 Sand 9" 4 205 COACHES SECURE (*ONE MAG A-
ZINE OF FOUR ROUNDS) (**-
1 S«* appendix VI.
- Include* round* for r*>h«ar«I».
ONE CLIP AND FOUR ROUNDS).
1 T«nr*t detection period } tixniki be modified to b« conducted ** THE FIRING LINE IS NO LONGER
a confer*!**, demonstration, and practical ext?rci»« rather than **
a test.
CLEAR.
LOCK.
(4) Recapitulation of ammunition require <*ONE MAGAZINE OF FOUR
ments. ROUNDS) (**ONE PARTIAL
Caliber 7.62-mm (or .30) rounds pel CLIP OF FOUR ROUNDS) LOAD.
soldier 102 READY ON THE RIGHT?
Caliber 7.62-mm (or .30) blank 205 READY ON THE LEFT?
e. Fire Commands. Fire commands must be THE FIRING LINE IS READY.
simple and uniform to avoid confusion. Type (A whistle, buzzer, horn, or other au-
fire commands which can be used for standard dibie signal should be sounded to
course "C" are as follows: begin the exercise and again to cease
fire.)
(1) Zero firing (25-meter and battle- CEASE FIRE (given simultaneously
sight). with signal).
FIRERS ASSUME THE PRONE ARE THERE ANY ALIBIS? (See
SUPPORTED (FOXHOLE) POSI eh. 6, par. 62e.)
TION. (ALIBI FIRERS COMMENCE FIR
COACHES SECURE THREE LOOSE ING.)
ROUNDS OF AMMUNITION. (CEASE FIRE.)
THE FIRING LINE IS NO LONGER CLEAR ALL WEAPONS.
CLEAR. CLEAR ON THE RIGHT?
LOCK CLEAR ON THE LEFT?
*ONE EMPTY MAGAZINE LOAD. THE FIRING LINE IS CLEAR.
ONE ROUND LOAD. COACHES AND FIRERS MOVE
**THIS WILL BE THREE ROUNDS DOWN RANGE AND CHECK
SLOW FIRE TO DETERMINE YOUR TARGETS.
THE (25-METER) (BATTLE-
SIGHT) ZERO OF YOUR RIFLE. * If personnel are armed with M14 rifles.
•• If personnel are armed with Ml rifles.
COMMENCE FIRING WHEN
READY. (3) Rapid fire exercises. Preliminary in
CEASE FIRE. structions to describe the exercise
CLEAR ALL WEAPONS. should be given prior to the actual
CLEAR ON THE RIGHT? fire command. For example, "the next
CLEAR ON THE LEFT? exercise will be nine rounds rapid fire
THE FIRING LINE IS CLEAR. in which you move from the standing
COACHES AND FIRERS MOVE to the prone position. You will load
DOWN RANGE AND CHECK the first round while in the standing
YOUR TARGETS. position. When the (whistle, buzzer,
(Repeat above sequence for subse or horn) sounds, you will assume the
quent shot groups and firing or prone position and fire the single
ders.) round. Reload as quickly as possible
with the (magazine) (clip) of eight
rounds and resume firing. Fire three
• If personnel are armed with M14 rifles.
•* Only give tor the initial 3-round shot group fired
rounds at each silhouette target in
by each order. block seven on the target sheet. You

174 TAGO 6024-A


will have 60 seconds to complete this course "C" and standard course "C" is tha
exercise. Timing begins and ends the alternate course requires a specially c;
when you hear this signal (sound structed 25-meter range. The course of instnic
signal). When you hear the second tion, targets, ammunition requirements, i~
signal, you must cease fire even if you scoring* are the same for both marksmansfo*
have not fired all of your rounds." courses. The firing procedures for zero •-
FIRERS ASSUME A (PRONE) timed-fire exercises are also the same. F
(SITTING) POSITION. safety reasons, the procedures for conduct in
RISE, KEEPING YOUR FEET IN rapid fire exercises require minor modification
PLACE. a. Scope. As prescribed in paragraph >
COACHES SECURE ONE LOOSE above.
ROUND AND ONE (*MAGA-
ZINE) (**CLIP) OF EIGHT 6. Range Characteristics.
ROUNDS. (1) The alternate course "C" 25-meu
THE FIRING LINE IS NO LONG- range is designed for reserve compc
ER CLEAR. nents which have only limited space
LOCK, ONE ROUND LOAD. which to construct the facility^!
YOU WILL FIRE THREE eliminate the need for large i~"
ROUNDS AT EACH SILHOU areas, targets are placed in front of
ETTE IN BLOCK NUMBER large impact berm, and bulletproof L.
closures are constructed around ea*;*
(SEVEN) (EIGHT). firing lane (figs. 71 and 72). In thi,
READY ON THE RIGHT? way, a ricochet cannot escape
READY ON THE LEFT? the immediate range area.
THE FIRING LINE IS READY.
(2) Foxholes are constructed in two
(A whistle, buzzer, horn, or other au so firing can be conducted from eithc
dible signal should be sounded to the standing position or tie foxhcl*.
begin the exercise and again to cease position (fig. 73). Each fring poi
fire.) has a removable post to enable exc*
CEASE FIRE (given simultaneous cises to be conducted from both th»
ly with signal). kneeling supported position and all
ARE THERE ANY ALIBIS? (See the unsupported positions (figs. 7^
ch. 6, par. 62e.) 77). For a discussion of the characte*
(ALIBI FIRERS COMMENCE istics of each firing- position, see cha-
FIRING.) ter 2, paragraph 10.
(CEASE FIRE.) c. Range Organization. As prescribedni
CLEAR ALL WEAPONS. Standard Course "C," paragraph 26 abo.
CLEAR ON THE RIGHT?
CLEAR ON THE LEFT? d. Conduct of Firing. Except for rapid m.-
exercises, the procedures for conducting alU*
THE FIRING LINE IS CLEAR. nate course "C" are the same as prescribed fc
COACHES AND FIRERS MOVE standard course "C" (par. 2c above). In th*
DOWN RANGE AND CHECK rapid fire exercises of the alternate course, tb-
YOUR TARGETS. firer must not load his initial round until he h^
assumed the designated firing position. This i,
* For personnel armed with M14 rifles.
*• For personnel armed with Ml rifles.
a safety requirement to avoid accidental firm
before the rifle muzzle is within the bulletproc
/. Range Safety. See appendix II. inclosure. Because of this added loading re
quirement, the time for a rapid fire exercise in
3. Alternate Course "C" the alternate course is increased from 60 to 65
The principal difference between alternate seconds.
TAGO 6024-A ITS
Figure 71. Firm// lane fornlternnte rwtrtte "C."
TAGO 6024-A
Figure 72. Taryet an seen tltroity/t the inci
o
en
Figure 74. Prone supported position.

.GO 6024-A
Figure 75. Kneelirtf/ supported position.

180 TAGO 5024-A


•a
n
o
Figure 77. Squatting position.

182
TAGO 5024-A
f. Ammunition Requiretl by Period or Excr- CEASE KIRK (given simultaneous
('inf. As prescribed for Standard Course "C," ly with signal).
paragraph 2b above. ARE THERE ANY ALIBIS?
/. Fire Commands. ch. 6, par. 62f.)
(1) Fire commands for zero and timed- (ALIBI FIRERS COMMEN"
fire exercises are the same as pre FIRING.)
scribed for Standard Course "C," (CEASE FIRE.)
paragraph 2c above. CLEAR ALL WEAPONS.
(2) Fire commands for rapid fire exer CLEAR ON THE RIGHT?
cises differ from those used in the CLEAR ON THE LEFT?
standard course because of the change THE FIRING LINE IS CLEA'
in loading procedures. Preliminary in
structions to describe the exercise DOWN RANGE AND.CHEC'
should be given prior to the actual YOUR TARGETS.
fire command. For example, "The next
exercise will be nine rounds rapid fire. * If personnel are armed with MM r
You will move from the standing to " If personnel are armed with Ml «..„

the prone position. When in position, (j. Range Safety. The safety precautions^^-
load one round, fire, reload with the lined in appendix II also apply to this mark,,
magazine of eight rounds and resume manship course. However, the extreme hazards
firing. Fire three rounds at each sil posed by accidental discharges of rifles and
houette target in block number seven. the difficulty in maintaining observation over
You will have 65 seconds to fire this the range area because of its manner of con
exercise. The exercise begins and ends struction require that range personnel main
on this signal [sound signall. When tain very close supervision of the firers and
you hear the signal the second time, range area throughout the firing exercises.
you must cease fire even if you have
not fired all of your rounds." 4. Modified Known Distance Course "C"
FIRERS ASSUME A (PRONE) a. Scope. This course requires 20 train!"
(SITTING) POSITION. hours as follows:
RISE, KEEPING YOUR FEET IN Orientation and mechanical training 1 hour
PLACE. Preparatory marksmanship.-,. ..... 3 hour.
COACHES SECURE ONE LOOSE Known distance field firing....... 8 hour..
ROUND AND ONE ('MAGA "Target detection and pit detail . 4 hour.
Known distance record firing . 4 hour.
ZINE) (**CLIP) OF EIGHT
ROUNDS. * To be conducted concurrently with firing exercises. Based on
THE FIRING LINE IS NO LONG four platoon unit, two platoons conduct firing while one "":.:
receives target detection training and other acts as the pit *." "
ER CLEAR. Platoons are rotated between these activities each half-day.
YOU WILL FIRE THREE b. Range Organization.
ROUNDS AT EACH SILHOU
ETTE IN BLOCK NUMBER (1) Organization of firers and range per
(SEVEN) (EIGHT). sonnel. See chapter 4, paragraph 44.
READY ON THE RIGHT? (2) Targets. The "E" type silhouette tar
get is used for all firing conducted in
READY ON THE LEFT? this course. Methods of installing these
THE FIRING LINE IS READY. targets on known distance ranges are
(A whistle, buzzer, horn, or other au outlined in appendix V.
dible signal should be sounded to c. Conduct of Firing. The firing exercises
begin the exercise and sounded conducted in this marksmanship course consist
again to signal cease fire.) of zeroing1, timed-firing, and rapid firing. The
TAGO 5024-A. 113
range procedures outlined in chapter 4, para (1) Known distance field firing.
graph 44 are applicable to this marksmanship Rounds
course with the following modifications: Peril* Pimition p«r »oltli« rl Note.
1 None [Orientation and
(1) Zeroing. Zeroing is conducted from I mechanical train
the 200-yard/184-meter firing line. A ing.
distinctive aiming: point such as the 2 All None (Preparatory marks-
1 manship training.
"4-ring" and "bullseye" from a stand In period 3,
3 * Prone supported 9
ard known distance target should be 27 rounds required
fastened to the "E" silhouette target. for demonstration
of rapid fire (9
The exercise is fired in 3-round shot rounds rehearsal,
groups and the firer adjusts his rear 18 rounds demon
sight until the center of his shot group stration).
3 b Prone 8 * Zero. 60 seconds
coincides with his point of aim. To per shot.
assist the firer, targets should be 3 « Sitting ........ 8 b 13 seconds per
shot
pulled after each three rounds and 3 c Kneeling ........ 4 c 12 seconds per
"spotters" placed on the bullet holes. shot.
3 <* Squatting ...... 4 d 11 seconds per
(2) Timed fire exercises. These exercises shot.
are conducted in essentially the same 3 d Standing ....... 8 « Each soldier fires
manner as the timed-fire exercises of on two targets
3 * Standing to prone. 9 (par. 44d (3) (d),
Standard Course "C" (par. 2c(2) (a) ch. 4). Exercise
above). The primary procedural dif 4 f Prone ............ 8 conducted within
60 seconds.
ference is that scores are checked 4 Sitting ......... 8 ' 10 seconds per
from the firing line by having the pit shot.
4 Kneeling ......... 8
detail place spotters in the targets.
(3) Rapid fire exercises. To conduct these 4 Squatting ........ 4
exercises, the firer is issued one loose 4 Standing ......... 4
round and one magazine or clip of
eight rounds. On command, the firer 4 Standing to prone 9
loads the single round. On the com 4 Standing to sitting 9
mand or signal to commence firing,
Total ....... 100 27 {demonstration}
the firer assumes the designated posi
tion, fires the single round, reloads, (2) Target detection.
and fires the remaining eight rounds.
The firer distributes his fire between Corresponds to Number of Blank Rounds
Period Target Detection Period — * Presentations Required !
the two silhouette targets; however,
3 3 and 93 4 205
he must not fire more than six rounds
into one target. 1 See appendix VI.
'* Includes rounds for rehearsals.
d. Ammunition Required by Period or Ex " Target detection period 9 should be modified to be conducted as
a conference, demonstration, and practical exercise rather than as a
ercise. test.

e. Scorecards and Qualification Ratings.

184 TAGO 5024-A


SCORECARD

MODIFIED KNOWN DISTANCE COURSE "C"

Firer's Name
(Last) (First)

Platoon- Order, Firing Point- Date.

Scorer's Name
(Last) (First)

Zero
First Shot Group Second Shot Group Third Shot Group

Elevation Eleva tion __. _ Elevation

Windage . . Windsige Windage

Practice Firing

f Timed Fire
Position Hits Scored Total
i i

Prone
i
Sitting-
...
Kneeling

Squatting

Standing
i i

Total hits timed fire

Rapid Fire
Position Hits Total
Standing
Right Target i
to
Left Target
Prone

Standing
Right Target
to
Left Target
Sitting

Total hits rapid fire

TAGO 6024-A 185


SCORECARD

MODIFIED KNOWN DISTANCE COURSE "C"

Firer's Name
(Last) (First)
Platoon- Order- Point- Date——

Scorer's Name
(Last) (First)

Record Firing

Timed Fire
Position Hits Scored Total

Prone

Sitting

Kneeling
1

Squatting

Standing
Total hits time fire

Rapid Fire
Position Hits Scored Total

Standing
Right Target
to
Left Target
Prone

Standing
Right Target
to
Left Target
Sitting
——————————————————————————i
Total hits rapid fire

Qualifications Ratings: Expert -------- 3& and above. Hits timed fire
Possible Sharpshooter ..27to32. Hits rapid fire
Marksman .... 22 to 26. Total hits
Unqualified .... Below 22.
Scorer's signature

Officer's signature

186 TAGO M24-A


/. Fire Commands. Fire commands must be (A whistle, buzzer, horn, or other audi
simple and uniform to avoid confusion. Type ble signal should be sounded to begin
fire commands for modified known distance the exercise and again to cease fire.)
course "C" are as follows: CEASE FIRE (given simultaneous
(1) Zero firing. ly with signal).
FIRERS ASSUME THE PRONE ARE THERE ANY ALIBIS? (See ch.
SUPPORTED POSITION. 6, par. 62e.)
COACHES SECURE THREE LOOSE (ALIBI FIRERS COMMENCE FIR
ROUNDS OF AMMUNITION. ING.)
THE FIRING LINE IS NO LONGER (CEASE FIRE.)
CLEAR. CLEAR ALL WEAPONS.
LOCK. CLEAR ON THE RIGHT?
"ONE EMPTY MAGAZINE LOAD. CLEAR ON THE LEFT?
ONE ROUND LOAD. THE FIRING LINE IS CLEAR.
**THIS WILL BE THREE ROUNDS COACHES AND FIRERS MOVE
SLOW FIRE TO DETERMINE DOWN RANGE AND CHECK
THE ZERO OF YOUR RIFLE. YOUR TARGETS.
YOU WILL HAVE THREE MIN (3) Rapid fire exercises. Preliminary in
UTES TO FIRE THREE ROUNDS. structions to describe the exercise
COMMENCE FIRING WHEN should be given prior to the actual fire
READY. command. For example, "the next ex
CEASE FIRE. ercise will be nine rounds rapid fire
CLEAR ALL WEAPONS. in which you move from the standing
CLEAR ON THE RIGHT? to the prone position. You will load
CLEAR ON THE LEFT? the first round while in the standing
THE FIRING LINE IS CLEAR. position. When the (whistle, buzzer,
COACHES AND FIRERS MOVE or horn) sounds, you will assume the
DOWN RANGE AND CHECK prone position and fire the single
YOUR TARGETS. round. Reload as quickly as possible
(Repeat above sequence for subse with the (magazine) (clip) of eight
quent shot groups and firing rounds and resume firing. Distribute
orders.) your fire between the two targets so
that at least three but no more than
* If personnel are armed with M14 rifles. six rounds are fired at each target.
** Only given for the initial 3-round shot group fired You will have 60 seconds to complete
by each order.
this exercise. Timing begins and ends
(2) Timed fire exercises. when you hear this signal (sound sig
FIRERS ASSUME THE _..._____„ nal). When you hear the second sig
POSITION. nal, you must cease fire even if you
COACHES SECURE _„___-__„___ have not fired all of your rounds."
ROUNDS OF AMMUNITION. FIRERS ASSUME A (PRONE)
THE FIRING LINE IS NO LONGER (SITTING) POSITION.
CLEAR. RISE, KEEPING YOUR FEET IN
LOCK. PLACE.
__________ ROUNDS LOAD. COACHES SECURE ONE LOOSE
THIS EXERCISE WILL BE ______ ROUND AND ONE ^MAGA
ROUNDS TIMED FIRE. YOU WILL ZINE) (**CLIP) OF EIGHT
HAVE ________ SECONDS IN ROUNDS.
WHICH TO FIRE EACH SHOT. THE FIRING LINE IS NO LONGER
READY ON THE RIGHT? CLEAR.
READY ON THE LEFT? LOCK, ONE ROUND LOAD.
THE FIRING LINE IS READY. YOU WILL FIRE NINE ROUNDS
TAGO C024-A
187
AT THE TWO SILHOUETTE TAR (ALIBI F1RERS COMMENCE FIR
GETS IN YOUR LANES OF RE ING.)
SPONSIBILITY. (CEASE FIRE.)
READY ON THE RIGHT? CLEAR ALL WEAPONS.
READY ON THE LEFT? CLEAR ON THE RIGHT?
THE FIRING LINE IS READY. CLEAR ON THE LEFT?
(A whistle, buzzer, horn, or other au THE FIRING LINE IS CLEAR.
dible signal should be sounded to COACHES AND FIRERS MOVE
begin the exercise and again to DOWN RANGE AND CHECK
cease fire.) YOUR TARGETS.
CEASE FIRE (given simultaneously
with signal). * For pemunnel armed with Ml4 rifloi.
•• For p«r»onnel armed with Ml riflea.
ARE THERE ANY ALIBIS? (Seech.
6, par. 62e.) g. Range Safety. See appendix II.

TAGO 6024-A
188
APPENDIX V

INSTALLATION OF SILHOUETTE TARGETS ON KNOWN DISTANCE RANGES

1. General tween the firing lines and the targets, the target
The installation of silhouette targets on devices must be located in the immediate vi
known distance ranges, using either automatic cinity of the target berm—either on top of the
target devices or manually operated targets, berm, immediately in front of the berm, or at
must be accomplished so as to retain the normal some point on the forward slope of the berm.
known distance type firing capability of the a. Placing Target Devices on Top of the
ranges. Berm. The principal consideration in placing
the target devices on top of the target berm
2. Installation of (fig. 78) is whether the impact area behind
Automatic Target Devices the targets will be visible to the firers. On
In order to provide the proper distance be many known distance ranges, the height of the

TARGET DEVICE WITH


SILHOUETTE TARGET

MANUAL
TARGET FRAME

Figure 78. Installation of automatic target devices on top of the target berm.

TAGO 5024-A 18f


berm completely masks the impact area. Since but does have elevated firing lines which mask
a principal objective of known distance combat the area in front of the berm. The reason for
target firing is teaching the use of the "adjust this is that installing the devices on the slope
ed aiming point," firers must be able to see of the berm requires the most extensive modifi
the strike of their bullets. Therefore, this loca cation to the range. In addition to this method
tion should only be selected if the impact area, being the most expensive, placing target devices
such as an impact berm behind the targets, is in this location causes the greatest problem of
visible from the firing lines, range maintenance. In order to service the
b. Placing Target Devices Immediately in devices, range personnel must walk up and
Front of the Target Berm. On those known dis down the face of the berm, thus increasing the
tance ranges which do not have visible impact eroding effect on the slope.
areas, first consideration should be given to
placing the target devices immediately in front 3. Installation of
of the target berm (fig. 79). With the devices Manually Operated Targets
in this location, the target berm becomes the Manually operated silhouette targets are in
impact area and the firer is able to observe the stalled on the standard target frames of the
strike of his rounds. However, if the range has known distance range. These frames must be
elevated firing lines, the 100-yard firing line modified as shown in fig-ure 81. This modifica
may mask the targets from firers located on the tion does not preclude the use of the frames for
200- or 300-yard firing lines. Therefore, the normal known distance type targets. If there
visibility of targets from each firing- line must is no impact berm behind the targret berm, tar
be carefully checked prior to installing targets get cloth is placed on the target frames behind
in this locat? n. the silhouettes (fig. 82). Thus if a firer misses
c. Placing Target Devices on the Forward the silhouette but hits the target cloth, the pit
Slope of the Target Berm. Target devices should detail places a spotter in the hole so the firer
only be placed on the forward slope of the target can apply the principle of the "adjusted aim
berm (fig. 80) if the range has no impact berm, ing point."

190 TAGO 6024-A


TARGET DEVICE WITH
SILHOUETTE TARGET

MANUAL
ARGET FRAME

Figure 79. Installation of automatic turret devices in front of the taryet bertn.

SO 6024-A
TARGET DEVICE WITH
SILHOUETTE TARGET

MANUAL
TARGET FRAME

2>3i^'S^^t£2^^*!^7^>V£3^^^

Figure 80. Installation of automatic target devices on the forward slope of the target berm.

TAGO 5024-A
S
o
«e
v.
«?
•<~,
«>
I
f
<f
I
to
8
Figure 82. Silhouette target with target cloth background.

194 TAGO 6U24-A


APPENDIX VI

TARGET DETECTION EXERCISES

1. General (b) Eight assistant instructors (four for


a. The exercises outlined in this appendix each range).
serve as the basis for the target detection train (c) Six target men (three for each
ing conducted in conjunction with any of the range).
rifle marksmanship courses listed in appendix Note. One principal instructor is needed at
III. Target detection periods of instruction are both ranges. They have the responsibility for
listed in numerical sequence, however, this de setting up the range, training target men,
notes only the recommended sequence of instruc and conducting: the class. Four assistant in
tion and has no relation to the numerical periods structors are needed for each range. They
control the observers, assist in scoring, and
of a specific marksmanship course. must be thoroughly familiar with the position
b. Training aids, equipment, and detailed of the targets. The six target men, three for
time breakdown for each target detection per each range, must be trained to perform the
duties of "targets." Each one is assigned a
iod listed in this appendix are outlined in Army number of target placements within a certain
Subject Schedule 23-31. area, and all target men are given a target
c. Each marksmanship course outlined in sheet containing only the trial numbers and
the indications he is to perform,
appendix III indicates the target detection per
iods applicable to that course. For example, (3) Organization. One order of observers
Combat Readiness Marksmanship Proficiency is assigned to each range.
Course Al prescribes six hours of target detec (4) Blank ammunition requirements.
tion training and two hours of target detection Rounds per presentation................. 20
tests. This training is to be conducted during Rounds for rehearsal (on two ranges).. 40
periods five through eight of the marksmanship (5) Master trial sheet.
course. As indicated in paragraph 9a(2)(c),
Trial Range
appendix III, target detection period one is con No. Where (meters) Target indications by phases
ducted during period five of the Combat Readi A, B 22 (1) Be slightly exposed; re
ness Marksmanship Proficiency Course Al. main still.
Target detection periods four and seven are (2) Raise and lower head and
conducted during period six of the marksman shoulders slowly.
ship course and so forth. (3) Move head and shoulders
from side to side slowly.
(4) Fire blank.
2. Target Detection Exercises B,D 66 (1) Be slightly exposed at
a. Period One, Introduction to Target Detec start of trial; remain
still.
tion (2 hours). The purpose of this period is (2) Move head and shoulders
to teach each soldier the necessary skills and from side to side.
methods of detecting, marking, and estimating (3) Raise head slowly, drop
the range to realistic battlefield targets. abruptly.
(4) Fire one blank.
(1) Range facilities. Two target detection E,F 161 (1) Be exposed but partly
ranges. hidden, remain still.
(2) Personnel. (2) Move forward and back
1 yard each 10 seconds.
(a) Two principal instructors (one for (3) Step out and back juick-
each range). ly each 10 seconds.

TAGO 5024-A
195
Trial Rmngt Trial
No. Where (mttert) Tarart md«V««»oi»» fry Ate. Where (meti-rt) Target indicationi by *>&«*«•

(4) Fire two blanks (10 sec (2) Raise head slowly, drop
onds apart). abruptly; repeat every 5
J, K 44 (1) Be slightly exposed at seconds.
start, remain still. (3) Repeat with shiny helmet
(2) Shake bush gently (each liner.
5 seconds). (4) Fire blank.
(3) Raise and lower head 10 D, E 88 (1) Be slightly exposed; re
slowly with shiny helmet main still.
liner. (2) Move side to side slowly.
(4) Fire one blank round. (3) Same as (2) with shiny
B 119 (1) Be exposed at start of helmet liner.
trial (kneeling); remain (4) Fire two blanks from
still. prone position (10 sec
(2) Move head and shoulders onds apart).
from side to side.
(3) Jump out and back each Note. Target Trial Sheets should be prepared from a
5 seconds. Master Trial Sheet similar to the one above; it should
(4) Fire two blanks from ex contain only the trials and target indication performed
posed position (10 sec by a specific target. Although each target man has been
onds apart). thoroughly rehearsed, the target trial sheets will insure
F,H 95 (1) Be exposed at start of that no mistakes are made. For example, you may as
trial, remain still. sign your trials in the following manner: 1st target
(2) Assume kneeling position man—extract trials 1, 4, 8, 9 as shown in the Master
slowly and stand slowly. Trial Sheet; 2d target man—extract trials 2, 7, 10; 3d
(3) Come up slowly; go down target man—extract trials 3, 5, 6.
fast.
(4) Fire two blanks from ex (6) Answer sheet.
posed position (10 sec
onds apart). ANSWER SHEET
B 91 (1) Be exposed (kneeling) at Name~ .__ __. Platoon.. Squad_. Date-
start of trial; remain (Last) (First)
still.
(2) Raise head slowly, drop Instructions
abruptly, repeat every 5
seconds. 1. Do not change your answers to indicate anything
(3) Same as (2) but with not actually seen.
shiny helmet liner. 2. There will be four phases during each trial. Al
(4) Fire two blanks from though the target remains in the same location, each
kneeling position (10 sec phase will consist of a different target indication.
onds apart). Targets will each be presented four times. In the
(1) Be slightly exposed in appropriate space for each phase of each trial, place
D 51
either a V if you saw the target or an X if you
prone position.
failed to see it.
(2) Raise head slowly, drop
abruptly; repeat every 5 3. Under the "WHERE," mark the identifying letter
of the landmark nearest the target. If you are in
seconds.
(3) Move to side and back doubt as to the identity of the nearest landmark,
every 5 seconds. hold up your hand and the instructor will check with
(4) Fire blank (kneeling). you.
4. Under range enter your estimate to the target in
A,D 41 (1) Raise and lower head and meters. Estimations within 25 meters will be con
shoulders. sidered correct.

TAGO 6024-A
196
Ph«»« number Where lianir*
(1) Ranf/c facilities. One target detection
Trial No . 1 2 S ' ( letter of neareut landmark ) ( meter* ) range.
(2) Personnel.
1
(a) One principal instructor.
2 (b) Three target men.
(3) Blank ammunition requirements.
3
Rounds per presentation ............ 11.
Rounds for rehearsal .................. 11.
4 .
(4) Master trial sheet.
5
SAMPLE MASTER TRIAL SHEET
6
Trial Range
No. (meters) Deieription of requirement*
7
200 Standing exposed by tree. Down to
8...... kneeling, exposed. Slow move
ment to out-of-sight position. Out-
of-sight fire round for smoke
9 ..... indications.
2 150 Same as above with a poor aiming
10 ....
point.

11...... 3 175 Start standing. Disappear on com


mand. Reappear in same position.
Make five 4-second rushes with a
12 ..... good aiming point. Fire one round
from last position.
13..-.-.
300 Start from kneeling position behind
bush. Make five 4- to 5-second
14..-.-. rushes. Disappear where there is
a poor aiming point. Reappear
15 ..... from same position. 5-3-3-5-5-
seconds. Fire round from last
position.
16 .....
5 300 Start prone. Make five 4-5-8-second
Total... rushes. Disappear after each rush
and roll or crouch to a new posi
tion. Three-second rush, crawl
left. Six-second rush, crawl right.
6. Period Two, Detection of Realistic Battle Cross small draw. Appear and
make 8-second rush, crawl left.
field Targets (2 hours). This period is con Three-second rush, crawl right.
ducted in the same manner as period one. Fire one round from last position.
Range facilities, personnel, organization, am 6 175 Start prone. Make three 4-second
munition requirements, master trial sheet, and and two 6-second lateral rushes to
answer sheet are the same as outlined for new concealment. Reappear at
same point of disappearance. Vary
period one. time between rushes. Fire one
round from last position.
c. Period Three, Detection of Single Moving 7 175 Do same in reverse. Crawl or roll
to new position after disappear
Targets (2 hours). The purpose of this period ing. Fire round from last position.
is to give the soldier practice in detecting and
8 200 Run 200 yards from tree to position
marking single, combat-type moving targets. with a poor aiming point. Fire

TAGO 6024-A
197
TrM Ratty*
(mttrrtl uj
marking, aiming at, and engaging multiple,
combat-type moving targets.
two blanks 1 minute after disap
pearance. (1) Range facilities. Two target detection
30<) Start prone. Three-second rush, ranges.
crawl left. Five-second rush, (2) Personnel.
crawl right. 5-L-3-3-6-R-4-5, (a) Two principal instructors (one for
through draw. Fire round from each range).
last position. (Numbers indicate
duration of rush; letters L and R
(/>) Eight assistant instructors (four
indicate direction of roll or crawl for each range).
after each rush.) (c) Sixteen target men (eight for each
range).
10 300 Start behind bush. 6-8-R-3-R-4-3.
Fire round from last position. (•") Organization. One order of observers
is assigned to each range.
Note. Tararet trial sheets should be pre (4) Blank ammunition requirements.
pared from a master trial sheet similar to Rounds per presentation ............... 48.
the one above containing only the trials and Rounds for rehearsal
target indications performed by a specific
target.
(on two ranges) ....... .............. 96.
(5) Master trial sheet. (Observers use
target aiming device to mark the loca
(5) Answer sheet. tions of moving targets.)
ANSWER SHEET SAMPLE MASTER TRIAL SHEET
Trial No.
Name- Platoon-.- Squad_ Date- No. men (meters) Description of requirement*
75 Kneeling exposed. Crawl to
new position in four 5-meter
1
Range
crawling movements. Fire
1
Trial No. Where ( letter of nearest landmark > ( meters ) round from each. Good aim
i ing points.
1 100 Same as above. Poor aiming
points, but reference points
1 available. Reference points
2 1
increase in difficulty each
time.
3 300 Start with targets walking
through woods or other par
4 tial cover. Disappear when
fired on. Make five 4-second
rushes to positions with good
5 aiming points. Fire round
from last position.
6 200 Start from kneeling position
behind bush. Make five 2-
7 to 4-second rushes. Disap
pear where there is a poor
aiming point. Reference
8 points available but not
easy. 4-2-2-4-4 seconds. Fire
9 round from last position.
Start prone. Make five 2- to 6-
!
300
10
1 second rushes, good and poor
aiming points. 2-4-6-6-2.
Fire round from last posi
tion.
d. Period Four, Detection of Multiple Mov 175 Start at tree. Make five 2- to
ing Targets (2 hours). The purpose of this pe 4-second lateral rushes to
riod is to give the soldier practice in detecting, new positions affording good

TAGO 6024-A
Trial Ho. Range SAMPLE MASTER TRIAL SHEET
No. men (metert) Detcription of requircnunt*
Trial Sound Trial Sound
and poor aiming points. Fire No. position No. position
round from last position. I ...... H 15....... -..-. G-C
7 3 175 Start at different distances. 2.-..-... . - - . - A-J 16. ------ ------ F
Make five 2- to 4-second ap
proach rushes. Varied good 3 ——— .. . - . . - C-L 17.---.. ---.... A-C
and poor aiming points. Fire
round from last position. 4 ..... ... . .....E-H 18..--.. ....... C-J
5........ ...... A 19.........--.-.. I
8 3 200 Make four 5-meter crawling
movements to positions with 6........ ...... G 20 — ... ------- E-I
out good aiming points.
Reference points increase in 1.. ............. D-B 21.-.-.......... G-A
difficulty each time. Fire 8 ..... ...... I-G 22..-----..-_-... E
round from last position.
9 . .... ...... C 23—..-. ---... D
9 3 300 Start walking in woods. Make
five 2- to 6-second rushes. 10............... K-A 24 ..._... ------ I-B
4-2-2-6-4. Fire round from
11... ...... ..... B-F 25...---.. .-.__. B-D
last position.
12............. .. J-I 26.---... ----- F-N
10 4 150 Make five 2- to 6-second rushes.
4-3-6-2-3. Fire round from 13.--..... ..... H-K 27 ....... ---..- J-F
last position.
14......... ..... J 28...--..- ------ B

Note. Target Trial Sheets should be prepared from a Master Note. Target trial sheets should be prepared from a Master Trial
Trial Sheet similar to the one above, containing only the trials and Sheet similar to the Master Trial Sheet shown above, containing only
indications performed by a specific target or targets. the trials and indications performed by a specific target or targets.

(6) Ansiver sheet.


ANSWER SHEET
e. Period Five, Locating Hostile Firing Posi SOUND DETECTION
tions by Sound (2 hours). The purpose of this Trial No. Sound position Trial No. Sound position
period is to give the soldier practice in locating
1. ....... ; 15........
targets by the sound of firing from hostile fir
2.. ...... 16..-- —
ing positions.
3. ------- 17-----.-
(1) Range facilities. Two target detection 4—.—. 18-----.-
ranges. 5 — ..— 19.. __.... :
6 ....... 20. .__-...
(2) Personnel.
1. ....... 21---...-.
(a) Two principal instructors (one for
8 ------- i 22........ ,
each range).
9 23...- ——
(6) One assistant instructor per ten ob
10—-.— 24..--....
servers.
11 — —— 25..--.... i
(c) Ten target men (five for each 12. ------ 26..---...
range).
13 —— —— . 27
(3) Organization. One order of observers 14----.--- 28..---... ,
is assigned to each range.
(4) Blank ammunition requirements. Total........ RIGHT. _WRONG.
Rounds per presentation._--_.__-..____.. 46 Observer's Name Platoon.
Rounds for rehearsal (on two ranges) . 92 (Last) (First)
(5) Master trial sheet. Observation Point______________ Date.

TAGO 5024-A
/. Period Six, Detection and Movement by (6) One assistant instructor per ten ob
Opposing Teams, Personal Camouflage. The servers.
purpose of this period is to give soldiers prac (c) Four demonstrators with camou
tical work in target detection and movement as flage suits (two for each range).
target teams, and to conduct demonstrations
and practical work in persona] camouflage. (3) Organization. One order of observers
is assigned to each range.
(1) Range facilities. Two target detection
ranges. (4) Blank ammunition requirements.
(2) Personnel. There is no blank ammunition required
for this period.
(a) Two principal instructors (one for
each range). (5) Master trial sheet.

MOVEMENTS BY TRIAL

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)
Soldier 6- sec 2-sec 5-m 4-sec 5-m 4-sec 10-m 2-sec 6-sec 50-m
targets rush rush low rush low rush high rush rush bound
Trial No. crawl crawl crawl
1-- X X X X X
2.-. X X X X X
3-_ X X X X X
4... X X X X X
5 ... X X X X X
6 ... X X X X X
7... X X X X X
8 ... X X X X X
9... X X X X X
10... X X X X X
11 ... X X X X X
12... X X X X X
13... X X X X X
14.. X X X X X

Note. The above Sample Master Trial Sheet reflects 14 trials for 10 soldiers acting as targets.
Units may revise the above Master Trial Sheet to include additional target requirements so as to
insure maximum participation when larger squads are used, or have one squad of ten men or less
perform trials 1-7 and second squad of ten men or less perform trials 8-14.

(6) Target trial sheets. Target Trial Sheet No. 2.


Target Trial Sheet No. 1. Trials: (1) 6-sec rush; (3) 5-m
Trials: (2) 2-sec rush; (5) 5-m low crawl; (6) 4-sec
low crawl; (6) 4-sec rush;
rush;
(9) 6-sec rush; (10) 50-m (8) 2-sec rush; (10) 50-m
bound. bound.
TAGO 5024-A
200
Target Trial Sheet No. 3. Target Trial Sheet No. 11.
Trials: (2) 2-sec rush; (6) 4-sec Trials: (2) 2-sec rush; (6) 4-sec
rush; (7) 10-m high rush; (7) 10-m high
crawl; crawl;
(9) 6-secrush; (10) 50-m (8) 2-sec rush; (10) 50-m
bound. bound.
Target Trial Sheet No. 4. Target Trial Sheet No. 12.
Trials: (1) 6-sec rush; (3) 5-m Trials: (2) 2-sec rush; (4) 4-sec
low crawl; (4) 4-sec rush; (5) 5-m low
rush; crawl;
(8) 2-sec rush; (10) 50-m (9) 6-sec rush; (10) 50-m
bound. bound.
Target Trial Sheet No. 5. Target Trial Sheet No. 13.
Trials: (4) 4-sec rush; (5) 5-m Trials: (1) 6-sec rush; (3) 5-m
low crawl; (8) 2-sec low crawl; (6) 4-sec
rush; rush;
(9) 6-secrush; (10) 50-m (8) 2-sec rush; (10) 50-m
bound. bound.
Target Trial Sheet No. 6. Target Trial Sheet No. 14.
Trials: (1) 6-sec rush; (3) 5-m Trials: (2) 2-sec rush; (4) 4-sec
low crawl; (6) 4-sec rush; (5) 5-m low
rush; crawl;
(8) 2-sec rush; (10) 50-m (9) 6-sec rush; (10) 50-m
bound. bound.
Target Trial Sheet No. 7.
Trials: (1) 6-sec rush; (2) 2-sec g. Period Seven, Combination of Sound Lo
rush; (4) 4-sec rush; calization and Multiple Moving Targets (2
(7) 10-m high crawl; hours). The purpose of this period Is to give
(10) 50-m bound. soldiers practice in detecting, marking, aiming
Target Trial Sheet No. 8. at, and engaging combinations of firing and
Trials: (4) 4-sec rush; (7) 10-m moving combat-type targets.
high crawl; (8) 2-sec
rush; (1) Range facilities. Two target detection
(9) 6-sec rush; (10) 50-m ranges.
bound. (2) Personnel
(a) Two principal instructors (one for
Target Trial Sheet No. 9. each range).
Trials: (2) 2-sec rush; (6) 4-sec (6) One assistant instructor per ten ob
rush; (7) 10-m high servers.
crawl; (c) Sixteen target men (eight for each
(9) 6-secrush; (10) 50-m range).
bound.
(3) Organization. One order of observers
Target Trial Sheet No. 10. assigned to each range.
Trials: (1) 6-sec rush; (4) 4-sec
(4) Blank ammunition requirements.
rush; (5) 5-m low Rounds per presentation ......---...--- 90.
crawl; Rounds for rehearsal
(8) 2-sec rush; (10) 50-m (on two ranges) _-_-__-....---..._... 180.
bound. (5) Master trial sheet.
TAGO 5024-A
201
<»*ten) Dt»erit*ti#n fj
Targets representing fire support should be
Afo.
located in a tactically sound position. Moving
15 225 Two targets spaced far apart make targets should be located generally to the flank
3-second rush; two targets close of the maneuver area. Where rushing targets
together fire 2 rounds each. Posi
tions with good aiming points. are widely separated (100 meters or more), fire
support may be centrally located.
16 275 Four targets make 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-second
rushes after being fired on from Trial Range
observation line. Each target fires No. (meter*) ti>tio"i of rft]virrmeitt»
1 round 2 seconds after disappear
ing. Positions with varied good 150 Two targets make clumsy 5-meter
and poor aiming points. crawling movements; two targets
fire 4 rounds each toward the ob
17 125 Four targets fire 1, 2, 3, 4 rounds servation line. All positions at
from positions with varied good good aiming points. Targets lo
and poor aiming points. cated within 10 meters of each
Two targets make 1-second rush; other.
18 300
two targets fire 1 round. Positions 200 Three targets make skilled 5-meter
without good aiming points. crawling movements; one target
fires 2 rounds after start of move
19 125 Two targets make two 3-second ment. AH positions lack good aim
rushes; one target makes 5-meter ing points and require use of refer
crawl; one target fires 1 round. ence points. Distance between
Positions -with varied good and targets is 25 meters.
poor aiming points.
20 175 One target makes 5-meter crawl; 300 Two targets walking through bush
three targets fire 1, 2, 3 rounds. until fired on from observation Vine.
Positions with varied good and Targets disappear and then make
poor aiming points. 4-second rush.
Note. Target Trial Sheets should be prepared from a Master Trial
Sheet similar to the one above, con tain ins; only the trials and target
(6) Answer sheet.
indications performed by a specific tarcet.
ANSWER SHEET
PERIOD SEVEN COMBINATION OF SOUND LOCALIZA
ANNEX III TION AND MULTIPLE MOVING TARGETS
ANSWER SHEET (Observers check each other's alignment and
COMBINATION OF SOUND LOCALIZA place number of targets correctly aligned in
TION AND MULTIPLE MOVING TARGETS space opposite appropriate trial number.)
(Observers check each other's alignment and Name. Platoon_ Squad_ Date.
place number *of targets correctly aligned in
space opposite appropriate trial number.) Trial No. No. correct Trial No. No. correct

Name- Platoon_ Squad_ Date_ 1-. ------- 12. -..-.--

No. correct No. correct


0 13. -------
Trial No. Trial No.
<? 14.........
I.. — .... 12..-,-.-..
2........ 13..--.--.. 4 ......... 15--..-.--.
3. ....... ^ 14.--..--.. e. 16 --------
4.. — — 15 ......... 17-...- —
6- — -----
5......... 16..--..-..
6-.--.-.-J 17...-,.-.. 7--- ------ 18.-..-.-.
7. —— J 18 ........ 19
8........ 19 ...... Q 20 .------
9.. ....... 20.........
10. — ..... Total 10-.------. Total
11......... correct 11--..--.-- correct ——

TAGO 5024-A
202
A. I'rritxl Riaht, Tttiyet Detection Test On< Trial
No. Where
Range
(meten) Tariff t invitation* bn ptuue*
(1 hour). The purpose of this period is to test
the soldier's ability to detect and estimate range H,F 150 (1) Be exposed in kneeling
position, motionless.
to single, stationary battlefield targets. (2) Drop head abruptly, ra*0$
(1) Kanf/e facilities. One target detection slowly every five seejj?jjpfs.-X
(3) Do same with sWny.-lifiP,
range. met liner. '-.--:•%&&•'
(4) Fire 2 blanks (kneeling
position).
(a) One principal instructor.
(1) Be slightly exposed (in
(/>) Three assistant instructors. prone position) at start
(c) Three target men. of trial, remain still.
(2) Raise and lower head and
(:\) Blank ammunition requirements. shoulders slowly.
Rounds per presentation 17 (3) Move head and shoulders
Hounds for rehearsal 17 slowly from side to side.
(4) Fire one blank.
(1) Master trial ah eft.
160 (1) Be partially exposed at
start of trial; remain
SAMPLE MASTER TRIAL SHEET, TARGET motionless.
(2) Move out and back from
DETECTION TEST NO. 1
chimney slowly.
(3) Move out and back fast
Trial Kanu<
No. Where ( meter* > Target intlirationn by )>ha»e» (each five seconds).
(4) Fire two blanks (side of
R 20 (1) Be slig-htly exposed at chimney).
start of trial; remain
still. 110 (1) Be exposed in standing
(2) Raise and lower head and
position at start of trial;
shoulders slowly.
remain motionless.
(2) Walk forward slowly, one
(;{) Move head and shoulders
from side to side slowly.
yard each 10 seconds.
(3) Up and down fast, each
('I) Fire one blank.
five seconds.
(J (1) Be slightly exposed in (4) Fire two blanks (stand
prone position at start of ing).
trial, remain still.
42 (1) Be slightly exposed
(2) Raise and lower head and (pi-one) at start of trial.
shoulders slowly. (2) Move head and shoulders
(3) Do same with shiny hel from side to side slowly.
met liner. (3) Raise head slowly, then
(4) Fire one blank. drop abruptly.
(4) Fire one blank.
A 149 (1) Be exposed, crouching
and motionless. 10 200 (1) Be exposed in standing
(2) Raise up slowly and go position at start of trial,
down slowly. remain motionless.
(3) Step to side slowly, re (2) Drop quickly, raise head
main still, then step back slowly (each five sec
(each five seconds). onds).
(4) Fire two blanks (stand (3) Step to side (each five
ing position). seconds).
(4) Fire two blanks (stand
135 (1) Be slightly exposed ing)-
(kneeling) at start of
trial, remain still. 11 H 150 (1) Be exposed in kneeling
(2) Raise head and shoulders position, remain motion
slowly, drop quickly. less.
(3) Rustle bush every five (2) Move forward one meter
seconds. (each five seconds) very
(4) Fire one blank. slowly.

TAOO G024-A 203


No. Wktr* Tmratl itulu-mtHHU by pA«*«* Phase number Where Kanite
Trial No. 1 1 3 4 I letter of nearest landmark ) ( met«m )
(3) Move to side and back
every five seconds.
1 ......
(4) Fire one blank (kneel
ing).
2 .. ..
12 E 24 (1) Be slightly exposed
(prone at start of trial)
3
remain still.
(2) Move head and shoulders
up and down slowly. 4
(3) Move head and shoulders
slowly from side to side. 5
(4) Fire one blank.
6
ffott. Target Trial Sheets should b« prepared from • Master Trial
ff
Sheet similar to the sample shown above. It should contain only 1
the trials and target indications performed by a specific target.
Although each target man has been thoroughly rehearsed, the Target
Trial Sheets will insure that no mistakes are made. 8

9 ......
(5) Answer sheet.
10 .....
TARGET DETECTION TEST NO. 1
ANSWER SHEET 11......

Name____, Platoon- „ Squad_- Date_ 12 .....


(Last) (First)
13
Instructions
14
1. Do not change your answers to indicate
anything not actually seen. 15

There will be four phases during each trial. 16


Although the target remains in the same
location, each phase will consist of a differ Total
ent target indication. Targets will each be
presented four times. In the appropriate
space for each phase of each trial place i. Period Nine, Target Detection Tests Tiro
either a V if you saw the target or an X and Three (1 hour). The purpose of this period
if you failed to see it. is to test the soldier's ability in detecting and
marking single and multiple moving targets and
Under the WHERE, mark the identifying his ability to locate sound of firing from one or
letter of the landmark nearest the target. more positions.
If you are in doubt as to the identity of the (1) Range facilities. One target detection
nearest landmark, hold up your hand and range.
the instructor will check with you.
(2) Personnel.
Under RANGE enter your range determi (a) One principal instructor.
nation to the target in yards. Estimations (b) Four assistant instructors.
within 25 meters will be considered correct. (c) Four target men.
204 TAGO 6024-A
(3) Blank ammunition requirements. TH*I number No. of target* presented Riffht Wroit*
1 1
Rounds per presentation ............. 30
Rounds for rehearsal ............ 30 2 3

(4) Master trial sheet and answer sheet, 3 4


target detection test 2. 4 4
5 2
..
SAMPLE MASTER TRIAL SHEET, 6 3
—————
TARGET DETECTION TEST NO. 2 7 3
Trial No. Range g 1
JVo. Detcription of rcQuirementi
9 2
300 Man kneeling by tree, up on 10 2
command. 10-meter bound. 25 targets presented
Poor aiming point.
Total- _____ Right_____ Wrong.
75 Men rush 15 meters. Poor aim
ing points. (5) Master trial sheet and answer sheet,
200 Men rush 10 meters. Poor aim target detection test 3.
ing points. SAMPLE MASTER TRIAL SHEET,
150 Men rush 10 meters laterally. TARGET DETECTION TEST NO. 3
Good aiming points. Trial Sound Tri.l Sound
No. position No. position
200 10-meter rush. One man left, I .......B 11....... -.-..- I-H
the other man right. Poor 0 A-G 12-.- ... ....... C
aiming points. 3 D-B 13.--.--. ---.... H
4. .... G 14------- ....... B-I
3 75 Three men making 10-meter 5 .. J-F 15---.--- E
100 rush. One good aiming point, 6 ......... A 16.-...-- -.....- G-4
125 two without aiming points. 7.... .... .... F 17---.--- .......H-E
8 C-D 18.-.-.-- D
75 Three men making 5-meter 9 J 19....--. ------- I
rush. Poor aiming points. 10 E-A 20.-...-- --..... P-C

8 200 Man making 20-meter rush. ANSWER SHEET


Poor aiming point. SOUND DETECTION
300 Two men, one making 5-meter Trial No. Sound position Trial No. Sound position
rush, one making 10-meter
1. ...... . 11.--.....
rush. One good and one poor
«j 12.--.....
aiming point.
3----.-- 13.---....
10 150 Two men making 5-meter
4.-..-..- 14..--....
lateral rush. Poor aiming
points. 5-. ..... 15. .......
6 ....... 16. .. ..
Note. Target Trial Sheets should be prepared from a Master Trial 7 ....... 17.---.-..
Sheet, similar to the Sample Master Trial Sheet shown above.
B.. .--... 18, -------
9..-...- 19.----...
TARGET DETECTION TEST NO. 2
10 ------ 20 ----...
ANSWER SHEET
Total ....... RIGHT. -WRONG.
OBSERVER'S NAME- PLATOON- Platoon-
Observer's Nam«
(Last) (First) (Last) (First)

OBSERVATION POINT_________ DATE— Observation Point-

TAGO 6024-A 205


APPENDIX VII

TRAINING AIDS

Properly used, training aids are of invalu 1. Charts.


able assistance in teaching rifle marksmanship. Figure 4. Importance of sight alignment
Models, pictures, and/or charts can be used to (ch. 2).
teach principles or techniques which would Figure 33. Principles of zeroing (ch. 3).
otherwise require lengthy explanations. The 2. Training aids.
training aids listed in this appendix have been Figure 28. Aiming device (ch. 2).
found particularly useful for rifle marksman Figure 35. Scoring template (ch. 3).
ship training. They are by no means the only 3. Films.
training aids which can be or should be used. a. Training Films.
Specific areas and/or situations may require (1) 9-1172—U.S. Rifle, Cal. .30, Ml
special type training aids. Consequently, in —Principles of Operation.
structors should be encouraged to develop new (2) 9-2970—U.S. Rifle, Cal. 7.62-
training aids which will best support their own mm. M14—Operation and Cycle
training program. of Functioning.
Note. The following additional training aids should b. Miscellaneous Film. 7-918—This Is The
be made from figures listed in previous chapters. Infantry.

206 TAGO 60J4-A


CYCLE OF OPERATION

FEEDING
CHAMBERING
LOCKING
FIRING 122 CM

UNLOCKING
EXTRACTING
EJECTING
COCKING

Figure S3. Chart, cycle of operation, Ml4 rifle.

TAGO 5024-A 207


TARGET PAINTED WHITE
WITH BLACK RECTANGLE

FRONT SIGHT BLADE


(PAINTED BLACK)

REAR SIGHT
(PAINTED BLACK)

WOODEN BAR
(PAINTED BLACK)

EYE PIECE
(PAINTED BLACK)

Figure 84. Aiming bar.

208 TAGO 6024-A


CLEAR
ACETATE

173
CM

Figure 85. Sight picture model.

TAGO 6024-A
Figure 86. Rear sight model.

Figure 87. Fixed sight alignment device.

210 TAGO 5024-A


STEADY HOLD FACTORS
HAND
POCKET
SHOULDER
RIGHT HAND 122 CM
RIGHT ELBOW
WELD
BREATHING
RELAXATION
TRIGGER CONTROL

Figure 88. Chart, eiyht steady hold factors.

TAGO 0024-A 211


Figure 89. Blackboard with firing data card.

TAGO 5024-A
212
METAL PLATE ON WOOD BACKING

VA/OODEN TRIM

122 CM

figure 90. Metallic target.

TAGO 6024-A
213
METALLIC DISC

I
WOOD HANDLE

3 CM
1

ONE SIDE PAINTED RED (FOR "NOT CLEAR" SIGNAL)


ONE SIDE PAINTED WHITE (FOR "ALL CLEAR" SIGNAL)

SAFETY PADDLE

Figure 91. Safety paddle.

214 TAGO 6024-A


Figure 92, Rifle rest,.

219
122 CM

TARGET DETECTION

1. LOCATING TARGET
A. TARGET INDICATIONS
B. OBSERVATION POSITION 122 CM

C. METHOD OF SEARCH

2. MARKING TARGET
3. DETERMINING RANGE

Figure 9-1. Chart, taryct detection.

216 TAGO 6024-A


122 CM

SINGLE MOVING TARGETS


ENGAGING FACTORS
1. AVAILABLE COVER AND
CONCEALMENT
2. EXPOSURE TIME
122 CM
3. MOVEMENT TO NEW
POSITION
4. RANGE
5. DIRECTION OF MOVEMENT
6. FIBERS REACTION TIME

Figure 94. Cltnrt, xinf/lc mov'my ttirt/eta.

30 6024-A
122 CM

MULTIPLE MOVING
TARGETS
MARKING FACTORS
1. NUMBER OF TARGETS
2. EXPOSURE TIME 122 CM
3. SPACING OF TARGETS
4. TYPES OF AIMING POINTS

ENGAGING FACTORS
1. TYPES OF AIMING POINTS
2. PROXIMITY OF TARGET

Figure 95. Chart, multiple moving tarycts.

21* TAGO 6084-A


NIGHT VISION

DAYTIME INSTRUCTION FIRING

NIGHT PRACTICE FIRING

NIGHT RECORD FIRING

Figure 90. Chart, phases of night firing instruction.

TAGO 6024-A 21*


TECHNIQUE OF NIGHT FIRING

1. TARGET DETECTION

A. APPLY THE PRINCIPLES

OF NIGHT VISION

B. KEEP BOTH EYES OPEN

C. KEEP THE HEAD HIGH

2. WEAPON ALIGNMENT

A. USE A POINTING TECHNIQUE

B. TRIGGER CONTROL

Figure 97. Chart, technique of niyht firing.

220 TAGO 6024-A


NOTE: A BOLD DEPRESSION OF THE MUZZLE IS REQUIRED
TO MAKE THE TRAJECTORY OF THE BULLET INTER
SECT THE LINE OF SIGHT AT THE TARGET. RICHO-
CHETS WILL KILL OR WOUND AND ASSIST IN ALIGN
ING THE RIFLE ON THE TARGET

Figure 98. Chart, correct pointing technique.

NOTE WHEN THE HEAD IS ABOVE THE RIFLE THE SOLDIER


OFTEN RAISES THE MUZZLE SLIGHTY SO THAT THE
FRONT SIGHT INTERSECTS HIS LINE OF SIGHT TO
THE TARGET AND HE WILL FIRE OVER THE TARGET.

Figure 99. Chart, tendency to raise muzzle.

TAGO 6024-A
221
SAFETY REGULATIONS

1. TAKE ALL COMMANDS FROM


O.I.C. OF FIRING
2. MOVE TO FIRING LINE ONLY
ON COMMAND
3. LOAD ONLY ON COMMAND
4. COMMENCE FIRING ONLY ON
COMMAND
5. LOCK AND CLEAR WEAPON
AFTER EACH EXERCISE
6. MOVE BACK TO READY LINE
AFTER NCO CLEARS WEAPON
7. MOVE DOWN RANGE ONLY
ON COMMAND
8. "CEASE FIRE" MAY BE GIVEN
BY ANYONE

Figure 100. Chart, safety regulations.

222 TAGO 6024-A


APPENDIX VIII

EVOLUTION OF INDIVIDUAL WEAPONS

1. Military rifles were not always as ex to load, and accuracy diminished, due to con
cellent as they are today. In the early days, stantly reduced bore diameter. The effort re
black powder and lead balls were used by quired just to ram a lead ball, patched or
every nation. Black powder was smoky, dirty, not, down 32 or more inches of barrel became
and inefficient compared with modern propel- first exhausting and then all but impossible.
lants. When one of these early rifles was fired, a 5. The inefficiency of black powder and early
cloud of white smoke disclosed the rifleman's projectiles led early rifle makers to build their
position, and a thick residue, like carbon and weapons with longer barrels and in larger
soot, was deposited in the bore of the rifle. Black caliber bores than our rifles of today. This com
powder has a lower energy content per cubic bination gave as high velocity as could be
centi-meter compared with modern rifle pow obtained without making rifles completely awk
ders which have high velocities. ward to handle and gave the desired killing ef
2. When the lead ball was fired from the fect needed for fighting infantry and cavalry.
rifle it began to lose speed very quickly. A When you cannot propel a missile at high ve
sphere is poorly shaped for fast travel. Lead locity, you must increase the weight in order
balls from some of our early military rifles to get adequate effect. Any increase in weight
5' fired at a muzzle speed (velocity) as high as with a ball projectile results from an increase
2,000 feet per second. But at a distance of 100 in diameter.
meters they would slow to about 1,500 feet 6. In time the round projectile gave way to
per second; whereas a bullet from our Ml or the elongated one. It had been discovered as
M14 rifle today, at an initial velocity of 2,800 early as the late 1700's that elongated missiles
feet per second, loses only about 300 feet per were more efficient in flight and traveled to
second the first 100 meters. tremendously greater maximum ranges. Massed
3. The lead balls of these early military rifles squad and platoon fire with elongated bullet
were often "patched," that is, greased linen, rifles could be effective at 1,000 meters or
flannel, or thin soft leather was wrapped (and more. Several years prior to the war of 1861—
sometimes tied) over the ball. When this 65, the elongated bullet rifle was adopted al
greased patch was used it served as a lubri most worldwide because it permitted faster
cant to ease loading, reduce escaping gas, and loading. Successful methods of making metal
keep the ball from losing lead onto the bore cartridge cases had not yet been found, so most
as it traveled through it. But sometimes the of the first bullet rifles were muzzle-loaders
lead ball was used bare, in which case the too. The early Sharps rifle was one of the ex
bore frequently picked up a lead coating which ceptions. It was a breech-loader taking a linen
grew progressively thicker, decreasing the ac cartridge. Because there was no metal cartridge
curacy with each shot fired until the lead de case, such as is used in modern rifles, a portion
posit was removed. of the gas generated by the powder flashed
4. The same problem arose from the rough out at the juncture of breech-block and receiver
residue left by the burning of black powder. of this rifle.
Unless the bores of those early rifles were 7. By 1870 nearly all armies had adopted
washed after each shot, the residue became breechloading infantry rifles (usually single
progressively thicker, making the diameter of shot) which usually fired fixed, metallic, black
the bore smaller. Since most early rifles were powder, lead bullet cartridges in calibers rang
muzzle-loaders, it became increasingly difficult ing from .40 to .45. These improved firearms
TAGO 6024-A
223
could be fired by a trained soldier 15 or more foreign nations scrambling for semiautomatic
times a minute. Lever action repeating rifles designs in individual infantry weapons. Britain
had been developed to a level of real usability and France discarded their old, time proven
by 1861, but had to be held to lesser powder bolt actions and took up the Belgian FN design.
levels (for design reasons) than was desirable Soviet Russia developed as her now standard
for infantry use. The Spencer and Henry lever- infantry weapon, a rifle-powered submachine-
action rifles were used in the war of 1861-65 gun of 30 shot capacity (the AK) . And tbe U.S.,
by many cavalry units. The Spencer carried exploiting the potential of John G. Garand's
seven cartridges and the Henry carried 16. Ml, has modernized it as the Ml4 for increased
Both weapons had a reach of about 225 meters, cartridge capacity (20 shots instead of 8) and
and the rate of fire was five shots to one, com quick and simple adaptation to the automatic
pared with the standard muzzle-loader. rifle role.
8. The year 1886 was an historic one in in 11. On 1 May 1957, the Secretary of the
fantry rifle design. France adopted a manually Army announced the adoption of the new rifle.
operated bolt-action rifle of caliber .32 (8-mm) The M14 is equipped with a light barrel and
jacketed bullet design (to prevent melting and is designed primarily to replace the Ml rifle
failure to spin in the rifling grooves) for use in a semiautomatic fire role. It can be converted
with nitrocellulose (smokeless) powder. The to automatic fire by merely replacing the selec
ancient bondage to black powder had been dis tor lock with a selector lever. The M14 weighs
solved. Soldiers using these newer rifles found approximately 11 pounds when combat loaded,
that very little smoke was given off in firing A bipod will add an additional pound when
to disclose their positions. By 1888 Britain and the M14 is used in the automatic rifle role.
Germany used similar new designs. And in 1892 12. The M14 is basically the same in design
the United States followed suit. By 1898 no as the Ml rifle. Design changes, in nearly
all
modern army was without a smaller caliber instances, were made to accommodate
the
repeating rifle of the new type. The new arms shorter 7.62-mm cartridge and to allow for
the
were of 5- to 10-shot capacity, ranging in use of a magazine instead of a clip for hold
caliber from .32 to .26 as compared to the ing ammunition. Consequently, the receiver,
older .40 to .45 caliber sizes. Nitrocellulose bolt, and firing pin are shorter, and the floor
propellants and advances in metallurgy had plate of the trigger housing is cut away to
permitted a reduction in bullet diameter, a re allow for the magazine. The most significant ad
tention of adequate shocking; power, an increase vantage of the Ml4 design is that it offers
an
in average accuracy and penetration, and a flat increase of 12 rounds in magazine capacity
tening of trajectory (extension of the limit over the Ml rifle with NO INCREASE IN
of grazing fire) by as much as 50 percent or WEIGHT. The most significant advantage of
more. Logistically, the weight of individual rifle the M14 with bipod (in the automatic rifle
cartridges had dropped by as much as 40 per role) is that it offers the same magazine ca
cent. pacity as the EAR with a DECREASE IN
9. The Springfield 1903 rifle reflected the era WEIGHT. The weight saving of the M14 with
of high development in rifles operated manually, bipod is about 10 pounds.
which ended in 1936 with the introduction into 13. The new 7.62-mm cartridge is approxi
U.S. service of the Garand design, designated mately ViJ-inch shorter than the caliber ,30 M2
Ml. This first of the successful gas-operated cartridge and 12 percent lighter. New develop
rifles of full infantry power outgunned enemy ments in powder permit the use of less powder
rifles in Europe and the Pacific in the ratio in a shorter case without sacrificing velocity
of 3 to 1. It was rugged, sure functioning, or increase in permissible pressure.
powerful, and accurate. The tiring bolt manipu
lation, so painfully learned by former genera Relationship of Individual Weapon Design to
tions of American soldiers, was no longer neces Combat Use of the Weapon.
sary. 14. To fully understand rifle marksmanship
10. The Ml rifle ushered in an era that saw and rifle marksmanship training, it is neces-

224 TAGO 6024-A


sary to know something of rifles, their char 18. Many scientific and mechanical factors
acteristics and combat usefulness. The rifle is influence marksmanship in some way. Metal
the primary individual weapon for all armies lurgy has a large share in determining the
because it is the most versatile and effective weight and bulk of a rifle, as well as its mech
weapon which can be carried and used by a anism. Chemistry dictates heavily the bal
soldier in combat. The rifle can fire ordinary listic qualities of the rifle. Ballistics in turn
bullets to kill enemy soldiers; it can fire armor- fuses together the knowledge of metallurgy and
piercing bullets to wreck truck engines; it can chemistry and adds physics in the design of a
fire tracer bullets to point out targets; and it cartridge and projectile that will satisfy com
can fire incendiary bullets to start fires in in bat requirements.
flammable materials. Add to this the fact that 19. The complex package called a "rifle" is
the rifle can also shoot signal flares and power what soldiers live by on the battlefield. If the
ful grenades and you can see that the rifle is design is well done, the rifle will fit the average
one of the most important weapons in the army. man very well and will deliver accurate and
15. But why the rifle? Isn't a hand weapon deadly fire on targets. Seven essential qualities
such as a pistol, revolver, or a hand grenade of a modern combat rifle are:
more convenient in combat? A hand weapon a. It must be accurate.
is far more convenient but it cannot do the b. Its trajectory must be flat.
wide and far-reaching job of a shoulder weap c. Its recoil must be moderate.
on. The rifle is a weapon that can kill or de rf. It must be powerful.
stroy at a considerable distance so that the e. It must be easy to master.
enemy can be prevented from getting too close. /. Its mechanism must be unfailing.
If individual weapons can reach out a consider g. It and its ammunition (in quantity) must
able distance it is easier to keep the enemy be light enough to carry under combat condi
where larger, more powerful supporting weap tions.
ons can smash him. The rifleman's weapon must 20. We are now in an era of "Emphasis on
be so constructed that it can be held with Accuracy." The vast numbers of our potential
steadiness while he directs accurate fire, power enemies clearly point up the fact that accurate
ful enough to kill enemy soldiers, as far away rifle fire is the key to success. A soldier who
as marksmanship skill and the precision of the merely "sprays" shots in the vicinity of the
weapon will allow. enemy produces little effect. Against an un
16. Here is where the sciences enter the pic seasoned enemy such fire may be temporarily
ture. Man's scientific level today is such that it effective, but the result is not lasting. The mis
still takes the relatively long, steel barrel and sion of the rifleman is to kill the enemy. Against
wooden or plastic stock of a rifle to obtain the seasoned troops, spraying shots have little ef
desired performance. It takes a certain quanti fect. Someone once gave what is perhaps the
ty of today's rifle powder to move a certain size best definition of firepower when he said that,
rifle bullet at a certain speed so that it will "firepower is bullets hitting people!" The Ml
have a certain desired effect on the targets ap rifle and the M14 rifle are accurate weapons.
propriate to it. 21. Trajectory-wise, the Ml and Ml4 rifles
17. Closely related to the sciences of metal are "flat-shooting." That is, their bullets travel
lurgy, chemistry, and ballistics, which give us very fast, so they can't fall very much below
our firearms, is the related field of human me the line of sight over their usable range. And
chanics. Human mechanics evaluates man's because the bullets don't "drop" much below
anatomy to deduce the best systems of weapon the extended line of the bore over combat
configuration. Such items as length of rifle ranges, it is relatively easy to make hits with
stock, distance between handgrip (pistol grip them. Moderate recoil means that the muzzle
on a rifle) surface to pressure surface of the climb in firing is moderate, which makes for
trigger, shape of operating handles, and a fast recovery between shots. This is very im
thousand other minute and often undreamed of portant in rapid fire in combat against numbers
details go into the design of a rifle. of enemy.
TAGO 6024-A 225
22. The U.S. military rifle must be powerful. 24. Lightness of rifle and ammunition is a
That means it must be able to kill an enemy highly controversial issue. By some standards
soldier as far away as the rifleman can surely the Ml and M14 (and indeed all military arms)
hit him. It must penetrate enemy helmets and are heavy, but it must be remembered that the
body armor easily up to the same range. It ruggedness of a military weapon is something
should have enough punch to tear through the which precludes matching the six-pound weight
side of enemy trucks to kill personnel riding of a commercial hunting rifle. And the much-
within, or to destroy the truck engine. The bul argued-for superiority of lightweight alloys,
lets of the caliber .30 or 7.62-mm rifles are plastics, and glass compounds must be balanced
relatively small and light—fine for high speed; against the yet-to-be confirmed field observa
yet they are heavy enough and large enough tions of their wearing qualities and stress re
in diameter to deliver a killing blow when they sistances.
get where they are going.
25. The 7.62-mm NATO cartridge, standard
23. The Ml and M14 rifles are extremely for our M14 rifles and M60 machineguns, is
simple in design, allowing for quick mastery actually lighter than the older caliber .30 car
tridge by approximately 12 percent. This means
even by those with no previous knowledge of that our fighting men carry more ammunition
firearms design. As for functioning, the ex than before with no increase in total weight of
haustive tests of Ordnance personnel, who put field load.
these designs through their developmental paces 26. All in all, U.S. service rifles are admir
and field testing by using units, have confirmed able weapons; very accurate, very deadly.
the reliability of the weapons mechanisms. They are the backbone of our land power.

22* TAGO 5024-A


PM«
Adjusted aiming point: Sitting ...................... 10 16
Demonstration of -..-.-_-.-.._.. 36 57 Squatting . ...... ......... 10 16
Description -_--,.....-.-.---.---_ 36 57 Standing .................... 10 16
Rules for applying .....-.-....-.. 36 57 Follow-through ................. 12 27
Training ...-.....---.--....-..... 36 57 Instruction, corrections:
Use of ........................... 36 57 Blank target exercises -.--. 21 37
Wind effects ..................... 36 57 Conduct .-.-.,,---.-.----- 21 37
Aiming ............................... 9 6 M12 aiming device --------- 21 37
Aiming point adjusted: Metal disc exercise ......... 21 37
For range ....................... 81 122 Purpose .................... 20 37
For wind ........................ 81 122 Trigger ......... 21 37
Ball and dummy round exercises ..... 18 36 Integrated shooting:
Battlesight zero: Aiming ..................... €
Determining ..................... 30 52 Steady hold factors:
Principles of ..................... 28 51 Breathing ..--......-... 9 6
Rear sight calibration ............ 31 54 Grip, left hand -..--.-.-. 9 6
Target ........................... 29 52 Grip, right hand ....--.. 9 «
Breathing ............................ 9 6 Relaxation ------------- 9 6
Calibration, rear sight .--.-.-.-----.. 31 54 Rifle butt ............... 9 6
Coaches .............-.-.....-.-..--.. 17 35 Right elbow --___.....-_. 9 6
Courses (app. IV): Spot weld .-----...----.- 9 6
Alternate course "C" --.---.-.... Trigger control:
Modified known distance coarse Buck ------.-.----.- 9 6
"C" ..-----.----.--------------- 4 3 Flinch ------..--.-.. 9 6
Standard course "C" ------------ 2 3 Jerk ................ 9 6
Elevation, windage rule ...---.-.--.-. 26 48 Sight alignment ---.-..-.--.. 9 6
Firing, conduct of: Sight picture ---------------- 9 6
Description ---------------------- 22,62 44,94 Marksmanship courses (app. Ill) :
Range management: Advanced individual --------- 22 44
Fire commands: Alternate basic course .._._._ 5 3
Commands, clip fed rifles 23 44 Basic course .--------.-_--__. 2 3
Commands, magazine fed Combat readiness proficiency 8 5
rifles ----------------- 23 44 Emergency proficiency _.__.. 16 35
Shot group exercise 23 44 Fundamentals proficiency 11 26
Rapid reloading ........ 23 44 Individual night firing ------- 19 36
Organization, procedure -_... 23 44 Marksmanship fundamentals,
Firing data card --------------------- 15 35
application .-____.__-___-____._ 41 €0
Firing, daytime instruction: Modified known distance range,
Conduct of firing -_.-__.__.-,-___ 72 112 operation of:
Fire commands ------------------ 72 112 Range organization --------- 44 67
Organization -.-.--_----.-.-----. 72 112 Range procedures ----------- 44 67
Firing, night, individual: Range safety _-___.__...-_-_. 44 67
Purpose ------------------------- 66 109 Targets --------------------- 44 67
Target detection ----------------- 69 109 Night practice, record firing:
Training conditions -------------- 67 109 Conduct of firing ------------- 73 113
Training facilities, equipment ... 71 111 Fire commands -_--...._-__._ 73 113
Weapon alignment, positions 70 109 Organization _-__-.-_._.-___._ 73 113
Firing positions ---------------------- 65 97 Objectives --.-----.._---...-.----. 2 3
Firing positions, types of: Positions:
Cross-ankle ---------------------- 10 16 Engaging multiple targets ... 40 €0
Cross-legged --------------------- 10 16 Engaging single targets ------ 39 59
Foxhole ------------------------- 10 16 Positions (app. IV):
Kneeling ..------.-----.-------... 10 16 Kneeling supported ...-----.-. 3 3
Kneeling supported -------------- 10 16 Prone supported -------------- a 3
Kneeling unsupported ----------- 10 16 Sitting .-.-.--.---....----.--- 3 3
Open-legged --------------------- 10 16 Squatting ...-.----...---..-.. 3 3
Prone ---------------------------- 10 16 Standing .-.-.--:-....._...... 3 3

TAGO B024-A 227


Paragraphs Pagw Paragraph*
Progress check: Shot groups:
Application ..........,-..-,.... 33 55 Long, horizontal 14 28
Exercise ......-......---,.-.... 34 55 Long, vertical 14 28
Purpose) ...-.--.--.---.----..-- 32 54 Small ........... 14 28
Progress envelope .................. 16 35 Shot group analysis 14 28
Ranges: Sight:
25-meter ........-....-...._...- 22 44 Alignment ...... 9 6
1000-inch ...................... 22 44 Picture ......... 9 6
Range facilities ..---...-.-..-.--... 42 60 Sight adjustment:
Range management ................ 23 44 Elevation, windage rule . 26 48
Rear sight .......................... 25 48 Rear sight ...................... 25 48
Record fire courses ._..........--_-.. 58 90 Sight changes .................. 27 48
Record firing I, alternate ............ 64 97 Sight changes . . .................. 27 48
Record firing II, alternate : Snipers:
Administrative areas ........... 65 97 Integrated shooting ....... ... 78 117
Preparation for: Positions ... .. ... ............ 77 116
Firing, conduct ............ 65 97 Purpose ..... .................. 74 116
Organization .......... 65 97
Positions: Scope:
Barricade .................. 65 97 Marksmanship training ... 76 116
Bunker ....-..-.....-.-.-.. 65 97 Training program 76 116
Foxhole ...----.-----..----. 65 97 Selection ..... ................. 75 116
Forward slope ............. 65 97 Sight adjustments:
Log .....-..----...-----.-. 65 97 External ballistics:
Prone ................. 65 97 Observation method ... 79 117
Rooftop ....-...-......--... 65 97 Trajectory ............. 79 117
Rubble pit ............. .... 65 97 Wind effects ... .... 79 117
Stump ..----..-.-.-.-.- 65 97 Sight manipulation . ........... 79 117
Window .---...........- 65 97 Sniper exercises:
Range safety ..---..-..--......- 65 97 Common errors .................. 83 123
Training .....-.---....-.... 65 97 Movement ....................... 83 123
Range characteristics ....--...._ 65 97 Range determination ............ 82 123
Range organization: Selection of position ............. 83 123
Range personnel ............... 65 97
Sight adjustment ................ 83 123
Targets .-.....----....-....-... 65 97 Sniper firing exercises:
Record fire procedures, requirements: Field firing ..................... 84 124
Conduct of firing: Zeroing .......................... 84 124
Alibi firing ............._.-. 62 94 Spot weld -.---....-.........-........ 9 6
Fire commands ........_... 62 94 Standard field firing range, operation:
Firer rotation ..-......-..- 62 94 Range organization .............. 43 60
Range safety ,....-....-... 62 94 Range procedures ............... 43 60
Record fire I ...--......--.. 62 94 Targets, devices, scoring ........ 43 60
Record fire II .............. 62 94 Steady hold factors .--......-.-...... 9 6
Target operation ........... 62 94 Stoppages, reduction of .............. 38 59
Organization: Targets:
Firers ....-.-....---.--_.-. 61 91 Construction ..................... 48 71
Range and personnel -.._.-. 61 91 Detection, fundamentals of:
Record fire training concepts ..--..-- 59 90 Determining range ......... 52 73
Relaxation -.--...-------.-...--._--- 9 6
Locating targets ............ 52 73
Reloading, rapid ...--..---..--..-.-- 19,37 36,59 Marking targets ............ 52 73
Sector sketch ......._........ 52 73
Rifles, .22 caliber:
Firing exercise .......-.-..--... Detection training ............... 49 73
8 5
Recoil demonstration ..-...-.--. 8 5 Engaging targets ............... 53 82
Safety (app. II) Location ......................... 47 71
Firer's movement ..-....-_.__.. 5 3 Purpose ......................... 45 71
Mechanical training -........_.. 2 3 Range personnel, equipment ..... 50 73
NCO's ......................._.. 6 5 Training concepts ..-....---...-. 46 71
Pit operation ................... 4 3 Training conditions .............. 51 73
Purpose -..._..---------...--_-- 1 3 Targets, engaging:
Range firing ................... 3 3 Multiple -...-....--.....-.--..... 40 60
Shot, calling the ...................... 13 27 Single .-..-.-...--.....-.--...... 39 59

228 TAGO 5024-A


Page* Parmcraptu P«g«i
Target detection tests: Trial sheets:
Moving 56 80 Master 54 85
Sound ........... .... . 56 81) Target ...... 54 85
Stationary . ......... . 56 Training:
Targets, .silhouette (app. V) : Conditions 5 3
Installation manual devices 3 Courses ........... 4 3
Installation automatic devices 3 Purpose-scope . 3,6 3,5
Targets, types of:
Trigger control:
Moving ............. 85 9 6
The buck .........
Multiples of ........ . 55 85 6
The flinch ..... 9
Sound 85 6
The jerk ...... 9
Stationary 85 26
Trials, conduct of: Wobble area ........ 11
Moving target ............. 85 Zeroing:
Multiple moving, sound targets 85 Field expedient .. 80 121
Sound target . .......... 85 25-meter zero 80 121
Stationary target ......... ... 55 Measured distance 80 121

By Order of the Secretary of the Army:


HAROLD K. JOHNSON,
General, United States Army,
Official: Chief of Staff.
J. C. LAMBERT,
Major General, United States Army,
The Adjutant General.

Distribution:
Active Army:
DCSPER (2) GP (i)
ACSI (2) CC (5)
DCSLOG (2) Bn (5)
ACSFOR (2) Co/Btry (5)
CORC (2) USATC AD (10)
CNGB (5) USATC Armor (10)
CRD (1) USATC Engr (10)
COA (1) USATC Inf (10)
CINFO (1) USATC FA (10)
TIG (1) USASTC (10)
TSG (1) TJAGSA (1)
USCONARC (20) PMGS (5)
USACDC (10) MFSS (5)
ARADCOM (2) USA Ord Sch (5)
ARADCOM Rgn (1) USAES (5)
LOGCOMD (1) USAQMS (5)
Armies (5) USATSCH (5)
Corps (3) USASCS (5)
Div (10) USACMLCSCH (5)
Div Arty (5) USASESCS (5)
Bde (5) USACHS (1)
Regt (5)
NG: State AG (3); units—same as Active Army except allowance is two (2) copies to each unit,
USAR: Units—same as Active Army except allowance is one copy to each unit.
For explanation of abbreviations used, see AR 320-50.
•& U. S. Government Printing Office: 1964—750578

TAGO 5021-A 229