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Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M

Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings”

ABSTRACT:

Nature calamities are unavoidable and unpredictable. It may happen at any time anywhere in
the world. They claim millions of life and money, if suitable resistant measures are not
followed. Earthquake is one such calamity which costs unaccountable damage to men and
man-made structures. Developed countries which are prone to earthquake are very often
investing huge amount of money in building structures which are capable to resist earthquake
effects. There by they reduce the amount of damage caused to public and to the structures
built by or built for the public. Economically undeveloped countries which are prone to
earthquake are still struggling and losing their wealth very often to the hands of earthquake.
Due to lack in economy and engineering, most people of these countries are at risk from the
collapse of their own homes. These are ‘non-engineered’ buildings. Hence to protect the
population, there is an urgent need to increase the quality of the domestic construction to
reduce their vulnerability to earthquake action. In terms of guiding those reports are prepared
by many voluntary organisations on how to build low cost buildings in earthquake areas. This
is one such report which discusses the ways to built buildings in an earthquake area and
advantages and disadvantages of the materials used for construction. Photographs and
sketches are included in this report to provide clear view about earthquake effects on
buildings and on improvement measures. A case study on reducing vulnerability on buildings
in earthquake prone country (India) is done in order to provide clear understanding on this
topic.

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1 INTRODUCTION:

Earthquake is a hazardous calamity which causes damage to life and money. Buildings which
are engineered to this effect stands during an earthquake and those not engineered fails.
Existing buildings which are not engineered are to be improved in order to resist the earthquake
effects. Strength of earthquake depends on the intensity, frequency, time duration and soil
conditions.

Damages on buildings also depend on these criteria along with the quality of construction,
strength and durability. From the history of the earthquakes it can be understood that many
people were killed or badly injured because of poorly constructed buildings. In earthquake
prone undeveloped countries buildings are erected without proper engineering advice with
usage of poor quality materials, construction and workmanship. More often buildings
constructed with traditional materials like stones and bricks are suffered the most. In fact non-
engineered buildings are built mostly with load bearing masonry wall, stud wall, piers in
masonry and columns in RC, steel or wood [3].

In view of the fact that in seismic zones of the world more than 90 percent of the population is
[1]
still living and working in non-engineered buildings . As earthquake forces are horizontal in
nature, vertical load carrying structural elements are forced to carry horizontal load and the
shear associated with it. If the structural elements are not designed to carry this, the structure
fails. Associated causes of earthquake like ground vibration and failure, tsunami and fire are
also major disaster causing agents. From analysis of buildings in earthquake areas, it is clear
that most of the building fail due to considering strong beams and weak columns, soft storeys
and lack of transverse reinforcement [4].

As per the 1991 census of India, the country has nearly 195.0 million non-engineered dwelling
[3]
units . On 26th January 2001, an earthquake rocked Gujarat, India and claimed millions of
lives. Most of the collapsed buildings are identified as non-engineered buildings. This is an
example event to point the need of earthquake resistant construction of non-engineered
buildings. Recent earthquakes in Kobe-Japan and Anatolia-Turkey triggered the importance of
skill in constructing non-engineered buildings. Countries which are extremely prone to
earthquake damages require a suitable report which will be useful to people involved in
construction of new houses or repair and strengthening of existing buildings. In this report, the
construction of earthquake safe non-engineered buildings plays a major role.

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2 BUILDING IN EARTHQUAKE ZONE:

Consider a typical two storey house in earthquake prone area which is subjected to seismic
forces. The building is non-engineered one and constructed using locally available material.
The building is designed and constructed by a local artisan over a soft soil stratum without any
engineering knowledge. The materials used are locally available low quality fire burnt bricks,
reinforced concrete for roof slab, graded cement, river sand, wooden joineries and wooden
truss for sloped tile roof. Due to budget limitation form the owner, the builder decided to add
sloped wooden roof with burnt roof tiles as cover to second storey instead of reinforced
concrete slab. As this building is constructed using traditional materials, its response to seismic
forces will be large and may damage during an earthquake.

Figure 1: Typical two - storey house

2.1 Construction methods:

The walls were supported by masonry columns at the edges and at the centre. The RCC roof
slab of first storey is made to rest on walls and partially on masonry columns. The masonry
columns are continued from first storey to second storey to support wooden roof truss and roof
tiles. Walls at first storey level are urged to carry the weight of first storey roof, walls at second
storey level, partial weight from roof truss and tiles. Thus the walls act as a load-bearing one.

Roof slab is placed above the wall and on column and it is not effectively tied to it. In both the
storeys floor to roof distance is uniform. The walls are unreinforced with larger length-to-width
ratio on one side and other as simply supported masonry wall. In considering foundation for the
house, columns are provided with isolated footings. Individual column footings are not tied to
each other using plinth beam. Staircase to second storey is provided outside the building which

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made of reinforced concrete and supported to lintel and column. Sufficient number of window
openings is provided. Lintel beams are not continued through the building they are provided
only above window and door openings.

Figure 2: Building plan of two-storey house

2.2 Forces acting on the building:

2.2.1 Inertia forces:

Basically seismic forces are movements which act randomly in all directions and unpredictable.
Due to self weight of the building resists the seismic forces acting on it. This resistant of the
building due to its self-weight is called as inertia force. Mostly buildings collapse due to inertia
forces only. During seismic load the building moves abruptly and inertia forces are created
[1]
throughout the building and in its contents . If the weight of the building is more the inertia
force will more and vice versa.

As the building is constructed using traditional materials like bricks, RCC for roof slabs; the
weight of the building is more. For an earthquake prone area, the buildings should be built less
weight, such that the inertia forces will be less.

2.2.2 Seismic forces on whole structure:

As seismic forces are abrupt, the vertical vibrations created by that will impose an additional
vertical load effect to the walls and columns. As the walls and columns are not designed to it
failure will occur. In addition to that they have to carry horizontal bending and shearing stress.
From the construction methods of the building it is observed that the link between walls and
columns is poor. No reinforcement is provided in that link. Connection between roof slab with
wall and column is not well detailed.

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Figure 3: Behaviour of two-storey house to seismic force

Seismic force acts horizontally to the building on a whole, due to inertia the building manages
itself to be in position. As deflection increases with height, second storey responds more to
seismic forces and will start to slide from its original position. Due to ineffective column this
may happen. The columns are made from masonry work without reinforcement and in this case
it had failed due to shearing. Due to improper linkage between the members of the building this
type of failure occurred. The connection between the walls and columns are not well detailed to
resist the seismic forces acting on it.

2.3 Response of first storey:

When considering first storey alone, the earthquake force is acting in plane of the wall B and
opposite to wall A. As the adhesion between the slab and wall is poor, the inertia force of the
slab will not be transferred to the walls A and B. Due to this the slab will tend to slide from its
initial position.

Figure 4: Response of first storey


Wall A is not designed to carry load in X-direction, this results in occurrence of crack near the
connection between the columns and may fail due to bending action. At the same time wall B

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will act as a shear wall withstanding the force from the roof and its own inertia force. The plate
action of wall A has to be restrained by the roof at the top and by column supporting it. The
seismic forces are amplified in this case due to ineffective joint connection between the
members. In real conditions, the building on whole should act as a box; transferring forces
effectively. The diaphragm action of the roof slab is not adequate to transfer its inertia force to
the side walls [1]. If the roof slab is linked well to the walls, wall B will carry most of the inertia
force from the roof than wall A; as because wall B has more stiffness in that direction than wall
A. The relative displacement of wall will bring down the roof slab.
2.4 Response of second storey:
The masonry columns are continued from first storey to second storey. As no reinforcements
are provided in the columns, they will shear and fail. If reinforcement is provided, failure due
to shear and bending can be prevented.

Figure 5: Response of second storey


Same as first storey the seismic forces are acting in X-direction. As this storey deflect
more than first storey, they develop more crack due to shaking effects. The inertia force created
by the roof will only go to the vertical elements in which they are supported. On failure of
columns the roof will collapse. The integrity of roof is more important for earthquake
resistance. In this case the wooden truss is made to simply rest on the columns, walls and will
offer resistance to motion through friction only [1].

The walls B are gabled to receive the purlins of the end bays. During seismic force along X-
axis, the inertia force from the purlins will transmitted to trusses and from trusses to wall A.
Wall A which is supported to columns will bend on deflection and may fail, which results in
sliding of roof truss in one direction and fail. As the truss is made to support on wall A, on
failure the truss will collapse. By adding suitable horizontal bracing in the truss, it can be made
to transmit the force horizontally to wall B.

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2.5 Seismic forces on individual parts:

The ability of the structure to withstand seismic force depends on the characteristics
of individual members.

2.5.1 Column:

Columns in this structure are assumed to be made of masonry without any


reinforcements in it. The main purpose of this column is to support the walls and to
carry partial loads from first storey roof slab and roof truss. As there is no cross
reinforcements in the column, it will fail easily due to bending and shear. These
columns are the one which is intended to hold the building as a single element. To
avoid failure columns are to be tied with each other particularly to the footing,
through which the load is transmitted to the ground. The roof and wall connection to
the columns are to be well detailed in order to perform like a box.

2.5.2 Roof slab and roof truss:

The roof slab is made of RCC and it is placed on the walls to transmit the inertia force
created during an earthquake. For this transmission the slab has to be joined
effectively to the walls and to columns. The diaphragm effect of the slab in essential
for it to behave as an active resistant to seismic force. The roof truss has to efficiently
fix at edges to the columns and supported to the wall. The wall supporting the truss
has to be designed to carry the inertia forces from the truss created during earthquake.

2.5.3 Walls:

As walls are designed to act as load bearing one, they have to be effectively fixed to
the supports mainly columns at sides. The earthquake is assumed to be in x-direction,
in which wall A is weak to carry that seismic force than wall B which acts as shear
wall. This is due that the seismic forces are acting in plane to wall B. From fig: 3,
performance of the wall during an earthquake in x-direction can be analysed. The
perpendicular seismic force acting on wall A makes it to bend and even to overturn, if
the top of the wall is not fixed to the roof effectively. In this the joints at the edges of
the wall with the column will fail. Apart from its own inertia force, the walls are
subjected from vertical loads from the roof slab and weight of second storey.

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2.5.4 Footing:

Though the site is located on soft soil, plinth band is not used to tie all footings. This
is because the column has no reinforcement in it and connection with plinth is not
possible. The footing is assumed to be isolated, so occurrence of differential
settlement may possible. Due to bending action of the column the footing may fail at
the junction. The amount of lateral force acting during seismic force will be
enormous. To avoid failure footings are advised to be continuous.

3 LOAD PATH TO THE GROUND:

Basically seismic load is a combination of both horizontal and vertical load. The loads
acting on the structure has to be transferred to the ground for dissipation. Efficient
load path depends on durable joints between the members. Flow chart below explains
the load path of the building discussed earlier.

Figure 6: Load path of the building

Abrupt forces acting on the structure is transferred from all parts of the members to
the nearest load path and reaches the ground. Load from roof truss reaches the ground
by the help of columns and walls at second floor level supporting that. Similarly load
from first storey roof reaches the ground by columns and walls at first storey level. In
this same fashion, load acting at different elements of the structure will take their
nearest load path and reach the ground to nullify the damage effect to be caused to

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them. For efficient transmission of loads the members and the joints should be durable
and strong enough to carry them without any damage to the structure.

4 FORMS OF CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS:

Materials, methods and shapes used for construction will vary from place to place.
These many times represent culture and tradition of individuals. In certain places
economy places a major role in selection of these. Countries prone to earthquake
effects often have dwelling spaces built using traditional construction materials,
methods and shapes. For discussion, buildings are categorised as per their materials,
methods of construction and shapes used.

4.1 Materials used for construction:

Normally non-engineered buildings are constructed using Fire burnt masonry bricks,
stone, wood and earth. These are easily available material and cost less for
constructing a building. Depending on availability of material construction of
buildings will vary.

4.1.1 Fire burnt masonry bricks:

Bricks are one of the material which as acceptable compressive strength and
unacceptable tensile strength. Its strength can be upgraded when combined with
reinforcement steel. Load carrying capacity of bricks in building is increased if bond
with mortar is good. Normally bricks are used to built buildings, where the load to be
carried is more. Bricks are used at places where clay fields are more. As a material it
resists seismic load applied on it, if proper construction method is used.

4.1.2 Rubble stone:

Buildings built of rubble stone are more in rural areas. As this is easily available
material, many are intended to use to this material. Same as brick it has very good
compressive strength. With introduction of mortar and reinforcement, the strength and
load carrying capacity can be increased. Exhibits poor strength when used with mud
[1]
mortar . When considering the height of the building, it is advisable to use
reinforcement with rubble stone. Well dressed polished and unpolished stones are
available in the market. Buildings destroyed at Gujarat, India during earthquake in the
[2]
year 2001 are more of Rubble stone or cut stone type . This material suffered

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extensive damage and complete collapse during earthquakes. As these types of


buildings weigh more, the inertia forces created during seismic reaction will be more
and easily prone to damage.

4.1.3 Wood:

Good damping material. Buildings built with wood experienced less damage when
comparing to buildings built with other materials. Depending upon quality price of
material varies. More often used in hilly areas. In order to protect environment,
cutting of trees is banned in many countries. Decrease in forest area due to population
increase reduced wood usage in construction. Wooden buildings are constructed in
[1]
areas where availability of the material is more or in unavoidable situations only .
Wooden frames used in buildings may fail due to impose of high lateral load to the
frame from heavy cladding. Easily catches fire and may cause mass damage.

4.1.4 Earth:

Buildings using earth are informally constructed in many parts of the earthquake
prone countries. They often use wooden sticks as reinforcement. Due to minimal
costs, good acoustics and thermal insulation effects it is widely used in rural parts.
[1]
The performance of this material under earthquake and water is very poor .
Currently in India there are about 74.7 million earthen dwelling units which constitute
[3]
38% of total dwelling units . These are the ones which causes the greatest loss of
life and damage during seismic events.

4.2 Methods used for construction:

Though the material is tough against seismic load, the method followed in
constructing that may lead to failure of material. Many time materials will not fail by
crushing, it will fail due to improper bonding and connection details. Majority of non
– engineered buildings are constructed under two main categories [5].

a) Load bearing masonry

b) Reinforced concrete frames

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4.2.1 Load bearing masonry:

In this type of construction the entire load of the slab is concentrated on supporting
walls, which are reinforced or many times unreinforced. The supporting walls are to
carry the inertia forces from the slab. On absence on this, the structure collapses. Most
of these buildings use masonry units like burnt bricks, concrete blocks, rubble stone
and rough dressed stones. Even sun dried clay bricks are used in this type of
construction. The units are bonded with each other using available mortar variety.
Roof structure often consists of tiles laid on timber planks supported by wooden
purlins and rafter. If the number of storey exceeds normally reinforced concrete slabs
are used [5].

This type of construction is very economical and suitable for single storey buildings
with low load carrying capacity. For efficient performance, the roof has to tie to the
walls supporting it. Do well, if the sides of the walls are short. Non reinforcement
usage, usage of heavy stone blocks and roofs will make the building to vulnerable to
earthquake. Masonry units with mud mortar perform worst in this type of
construction. This type highly depends on tie between roof and walls, size and
spacing of openings.

4.2.2 Reinforced concrete frames:

In this type of construction the loads are designed to carry by members assigned in the
structure, preferably for buildings taller than three storeys. Usually the masonry infill
is built using stone block or clay brick. Frames are designed such that the inertia
forces created by the roof are carried through a load path and get dissipated at ground
level. This method is efficient for earthquake construction, if properly designed.

Poor detailing of open first storey combined with poor quality of construction will
make the frame to fail. Beam-column connections are to be designed to carry torsion
and lateral forces acting on them. Continuity of columns and beams are a major issue
in this type of construction.

4.3 Shapes of construction:

Shape and geometry of structure decides the structural response during an earthquake.
Structures with simple shape and geometry perform well during an earthquake. It is
always preferred to have simple shapes during construction such that all the members

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and joints associated can be well designed. Symmetrical plans with suitable size
openings make the structure to behave as whole; where as unsymmetrical plans leads
[6]
to torsion and extreme corners are subjected to very large earthquake forces .
Structure should avoid projections in it. “For long narrow rectangular blocks, the
length of a block is restricted to three times its width” [1]. Structure should be a simple
one with out ornamental effects on it. On requirement it should be effectively tied to
the structure. Separate enclosed rooms perform well than the rooms without
intermediate wall.

Though symmetrical plans are suitable for earthquake construction, due to their
simple appearance they are often neglected. On using unsymmetrical plan, separation
joints have to be provided such that the torsion and corners effects are neglected.

From figure: 9, it is clear that due to inertia force, the failures at the junction; mostly
with rotation type of failure. The same plan when built with few separation joints
make the structure to work against seismic force and inertia force in it.

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Symmetrical buildings are more advantageous than an unsymmetrical building. They


can easily dissipate the energy created on them, if properly designed to seismic force.
Buildings with ornamental effects are to be designed with at most care. Few
projections and unrelated members can create more effects and may lead to failure.

Cantilever projections in buildings are provide in order to accommodate more space.


But this enhances occurrence of rotation and causes failure (Figure: 8). Probable
mode of failure will be crushing failure of columns. Pendulum effects in building
plan should be avoided. As inertia increases with height, pendulum effects will easily
cause failure to the building. Many buildings which failed during 2001 earthquake in
Gujarat, India are buildings with cantilever projections, unsymmetrical plans and
[2]
uneven openings . Even symmetrical sections with unequal openings will cause
failure. Effects of openings in buildings will be discussed in modes of failure. Thus
for better performance during an earthquake, buildings are to be designed for
symmetry, regularity and simplicity.

5 POTENTIAL MODES OF FAILURE:

Structural members under designed to carry seismic forces fail easily than any other
members. Though nature of seismic forces are not predictable, the modes are failure
shown by members due to seismic forces are predictable. Each and every member
exhibits their own modes of failure. Modes of failure depend on shape, material and
method of construction. For discussion purposes, modes of failure are described as per
the materials used in construction of buildings.

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5.1 Masonry buildings:

Usually masonry buildings are built using fire burnt bricks, solid concrete blocks and
with hollow concrete blocks. They are built together using mortar for providing good
bond. On a whole masonry building has wall, column, beam and other essential
structural members. For load bearing constructions masonry walls are important.
Consider a masonry wall which is supported only at the base. If a seismic force acts
perpendicular to the wall, it collapses by overturning. As the load is applied opposite
to the plane direction, the wall failed. If the load is applied to the plane the wall might
not be collapsed but slightly move from its initial position. Diagonal tension cracks
can be seen on the surface of the walls if the seismic load is acting on the plane.
Occurrence of cracks on walls depends on length to width ratio.

Figure 10: Modes of Failure

Walls A and B in above figure clearly explains the modes of failure that could happen
on occurrence of seismic force. For wall B the seismic load is in plane, as the wall is
unreinforced shear cracks may develop. This is due to “to and fro motion” of seismic
forces. Occurrence of diagonal cracks indicates the effect of length and width ratio.
Possibly the ratio is moderate for wall B. Horizontal cracks in gable ends may occur if
the roof truss is not fixed properly to the supports. This is due to transmission of truss
loads directly from the end purlins to the gable ends. Bending cracks in wall B is due
to compressive action from the supports provided by masonry columns. On seismic
force, wall A shows majority of bending cracks only. As wall A is not designed to
carry loads in perpendicular directions, this would have occurred.

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If the walls are not supported properly to the columns, formation of cracks at the joint
connection may occur and the wall will fail by overturning effect. Due to non-proper
fixity, during earthquake force the roof truss may move from its original position and
fail. For flat roof cases, the inertia developed by roof will be transmitted to the walls
beneath it. Majority of inertia force will be transmitted to wall B. This happened due
to larger stiffness of wall B in x-direction. This action reduces the bending and
[1]
overturning effect of wall A, if wall A is fixed clearly to its supports . More often
damages start from openings provided in wall panels. They also decide the strength of
walls. For increased strength the openings provided in wall panels should be small in
size and centrally located. Diagonal cracks usually start from corner of openings and
centre of wall segments. This type of cracks even causes complete collapse of the
building [1].

Columns and beams in frame construction carry heavy loads during an earthquake.
Mostly these members fail at their junctions due to hinge formations. A framed
structure is to be designed with “weak beams and strong columns”. If this is followed
collapse of entire structure can be prevented. Hinge formation at the junction creates
easy collapse of the structure. Columns and beams are to be designed by sufficient
reinforcement with proper spacing of shear connectors. Stirrups with proper spacing
protect these members from failing from shear. Connection between roofs with
beams and columns has to be perfect such that they behave as one. If not sliding of
roof will occur and may cause severe damage.

Lack of transverse reinforcement in beam – column connections, column splice


regions and inadequate splice length combined with short column effects could cause
[4]
complete collapse of the structure . In adequate load path formation may also

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collapse the structure. On a whole earthquake effects occur in both the directions of
the building and creates bending and shearing effects together, such that these
possible failure modes often occur in combination. Building with unsymmetrical
plans often fails by torsion and wrapping. This mode of failure creates cracks in shear
walls. Due to failure of ground during an earthquake, foundations may fail by
differential settlement [1].

5.2 Stone buildings:

Stone buildings often use round stone boulders. Some times cut or chiselled, polished
or unpolished stones are used. They are joined together using mortar either of cement
or mud. This type of buildings is more built in rural areas than urban. Majority of
stone buildings are constructed as load bearing ones. During an earthquake stone
buildings easily fail at corners and at T-junctions. This results to wall overturning and
roof collapsing. Due to uneven stone shapes and poor mortar usage in developing a
bond this would have happened. During shaking the tensile strength of mortar and
stone exceeds the limit and make the walls (Wythes) to bulge and collapse [7].

Few stone buildings will fail if their roof slabs are not properly tied to the walls.
During seismic load the roof will be displaced and stone associated with it will cave
in. Provision of heavy slabs as roof should be avoided in this type of buildings. This
type of buildings is not recommended in the areas of high seismic influence. This type
of buildings is often provided with stone footings. Stone footings on soft soil perform
very poor during an earthquake. The 26th January 2006 earthquake in Gujarat, India
caused major damage to this type of buildings and claimed thousands of lives [2].

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5.3 Wooden buildings:

As a structural material, wood offers a good amount of resistance towards seismic


load. With more absorbing capacity wood can easily dissipate the energy produce on
it. Though wood as many qualities to survive seismic load, it fails on certain aspects.
Regarding roof tiles, it had to be fixed properly to the frame. If not falling of roof tiles
during an earthquake may hurt people. Wooden buildings mostly damaged by fire due
to earthquake. Prevention of fire is most important in case of wooden buildings. Joints
connecting columns and girders frequently fail during lateral loading. Due to
structural deterioration and roof weight the restoring forces at the joints are impede to
movement. This leads to sliding after joint fracture. Even buildings with horizontal
bracings will not survive this [3].

Figure 13: Possible wooden failures

Usually in storeys more than two, lower storey suffers more damage than any other
storey. On failure lower storey falls first and other storeys remain undamaged. If
anchor bolts are not fixed properly to the foundation, sliding of entire structure may
[1]
happen . If wooden buildings are built over soft soil, chance of getting damaged
during an earthquake is more. This may be due to soil settlement or soil liquefaction.

5.4 Earthen Buildings:

Earthen buildings are highly vulnerable to seismic effects and easily fail during an
earthquake. Damage is always much more severe in two storeyed when compared to
single storeyed. Mostly crushing failure occurs in this type of construction. Corner
failures and out of plane collapse of walls are common mode of failures. Failure of

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roofs is common in single storeyed and complete disaster may happen in two
storeyed. Certain factors influence the damage in this type of buildings namely heavy
tile roof, lack of horizontal reinforcement, poor adobe quality, walls too high and too
long and many more [1].

As earth is weak in tension, vertical and horizontal reinforcements are needed to


overcome failure. Though reinforcement is provided earthen buildings fail due to their
nature of brittleness. Ductility of material earth is very low when compared to any
other material. Provision of openings close to corners and large door and window
openings can stimulate the failure pattern.

Figure 14: Possible earthen failures

6 IMPROVEMENT OF STRUCTURES:

Structure prone to earthquake can be improved by following certain construction


practices. Few methods should be adopted before constructing a new building and
retrofitting methods should be followed on existing building. This is to reduce the
vulnerability of the building to earthquake.

Risks of failure can be overcome by implementing simple guidelines such as:

a) Following simple geometry for the building. If not, separation joints should be
used.

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b) Openings should be provided as per the guidelines.

c) Control on thickness, length and height of walls in a room.

d) Proper use of reinforcement when using traditional materials.

e) Good quality of materials and workmanship.

f) Supervision from experienced personals.

g) Retrofitting existing buildings.

h) Overall reference of guidelines specified for non-engineering constructions.

6.1 Masonry buildings:

6.1.1 Mortar:

The cement mortar should be used in the ratio of 1 parts of cement with 4 parts of
[1]
sand for category I and 1:6 for category II,III,IV (Ref table:1 ) or even richer mix
can be used.

Table 1: Categories of buildings for strengthening purposes

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6.1.2 Seismic bands:

A reinforced concrete flat runner through both external and internal masonry walls at
plinth level, levels of lintels of doors and windows and at the ceiling level of roofs [8].
These seismic bands are a very important feature in masonry buildings towards earth
quake resistant. These bands hold the building together and makes it to move as a
single unit during shaking [9]. The size of the band and reinforcement used depends on
length of the walls between the perpendicular cross walls. Reinforcing bars will be Fe
415 type (TOR or HYSD bars) [8].

Horizontal reinforcement helps walls to gain strength towards horizontal bending


against plate-action due to inertia load. It also helps in preventing shrinkage and
temperature cracks. The amount of reinforcing and minimum size of the band depends
upon importance of buildings, seismic coefficient, type of soil and number of storeys
[1]
.

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6.1.3 Openings in bearing walls:

As doors and windows reduce the lateral loads resistance of the walls, they should be
located centrally and preferably small in size. The requirements of openings with
respect to good seismic performance are shown in fig: 17.

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6.1.4 Vertical reinforcement:

Vertical reinforcements are to be provided at corners of walls from the foundation


concrete and should be covered with rich mortar mix. Window openings larger than
[8]
60 cm in width will also need such reinforcement . The diameter of the reinforcing
bars depends on number of storeys. These vertical bars start from foundation pass thro
all seismic bands effectively tied to horizontal and lateral ties using binding wires. On
lapping of vertical reinforcement, a minimum of 50 times diameter of the bar has to
be provided [8].

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Eave and gable band:

6.1.5 Dowel at corners and junctions:

As a supplement to seismic bands dowels are inserted at regular intervals of 50 cm


and taken into walls to entire length. This is to provide full bond strength. Wooden
dowels are also used successfully instead of steel dowels [3].

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6.1.6 Reinforcement in Hollow and solid concrete block masonry:

All specifications for this type of construction are same as brick masonry. Hole
formation for vertical reinforcement in solid block walls is not feasible. Special
concrete blocks with one hollow are cast and used at the bar-points. In hollow blocks
holes are available and this eases the provision of vertical reinforcement.

6.2 Stone buildings:

Mortar:

Mortar can be of same type that had used for masonry construction. Clay mortar
should be avoided because of its low bonding capacity and less strength towards
earthquake.

6.2.1 Dimension control for stone masonry using cement mortar [8]:

a) Heights of buildings are restricted to one storey for category I and II and can
be two storeys for III and IV category.

b) Thickness of wall is limited to 350 mm and stones of inner and outer walls are
interlocked with each other.

c) Maximum storey height should be 3.2 m and span of walls between cross
walls has to be limited to 7 m.

d) For rooms larger than 7m, buttress wall should be provided at intervals not
more than 5m.

e) Buttress should have a top width equal to wall thickness and base thickness
equal to one sixth of the wall height.

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f) Stone masonry buildings should not be taller than 2 storeys when built with
cement mortar and 1 storey when built with mud mortar [7].

6.2.2 Control of openings in bearing walls:

For perfect provision of openings, the ratio of total length of opening in wall to length
of wall in a room should not exceed 0.5 in single storeyed and 0.42 in two storeyed.
Distance of opening from inside cover should be greater than or equal to 450 mm.
And width of pier between two consecutive openings should be greater than or equal
to 600 mm [8].

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6.2.3 Masonry work:

Construction lifts in stone buildings is restricted to 600 mm. Through stones or bond
stones should be used at every 600 mm height and at a maximum spacing of 1.2 m
along the length. Wooden planks, Hooked steel links and S-shaped steel ties can be
used as alternatives to through stones. This is vital in preventing the wall from
separation as Wythes [7].

Bonding elements of concrete bars 50mm x 50 mm section with 8mm dia bars placed
centrally or solid concrete blocks of 150mm x 150mm x wall thickness, can be used in
place of through stones. At wall corners and at T-junctions, long stones of 500mm-
600mm in length can be used [8].

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6.2.4 Seismic bands:

Seismic bands are same as masonry buildings provided continuously in all internal
and external walls without any break. Requirement of reinforcing bars is RC bands is
given in table: 2. For sloping roofs, triangular gable walls are enclosed in eave level
band and a band at the top of the gable wall. The bands are to be cast directly on the
masonry and its top surface is made rough to achieve good bond with masonry. In
lintel and plinth bands, stones are projected out of the concrete by 50mm to 75 mm.
[8]
this is to done to continue that into stone walls . It is important to provide at least
one band either roof or lintel band in stone construction. This provides integrity to the
building and holds the walls together to resist horizontal effects [7].

6.2.5 Vertical reinforcements:

Vertical reinforcements are provided at corners and at T-junctions at window sill level
and at jambs of doors and large windows. Vertical reinforcement is made to continue
from foundation level to roof band at the top. If the opening provided in the building
does not comply with standards they are reinforced or boxed in reinforced concrete all
– round or reinforcement bars provided in jambs through the masonry [3].

During installation of the vertical reinforcements, PVC casing pipe of 100mm


external dia of 600-750mm long is used. Around which the masonry is built and the
pipe is removed once the masonry hardens. In that place, a rod 12 mm dia of 600mm
ling is inserted and well compacted using M 20 concrete [8].

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6.2.6 Dimension control for stone masonry using mud mortar [8]:

g) Heights of buildings are restricted to one storey for category I and can be two
storeys for II, III and IV category.

h) Thickness of wall is limited to 450 mm and stones of inner and outer walls are
interlocked with each other.

i) Maximum storey height should be 2.7 m and span of walls between cross
walls has to be limited to 5 m.

j) For rooms larger than 5m, buttress wall should be provided at intervals not
more than 3.5m.

k) Buttress should have a top width equal to wall thickness and base thickness
equal to one sixth of the wall height.

Masonry work is same as stone work in cement mortar. In few cases seasoned
wooden battens of size 50mm x50 mm can be used as bonding element. Seasoned
wooden battens of size 60mm x 60mm can be used as an alternative to long stones at
wall corners and T-junction.

6.2.7 Control of openings in bearing walls:

Total length of openings in a wall should be equal to 0.33 of wall length in all
categories of constructions. Distance of openings from inside corner should be greater
than or equal to 600 mm. Pier widths between consecutive openings should be greater
than or equal to 600 mm [8].

6.2.8 Seismic bands:

Horizontal bands made of wood are used in this type of construction. Wooden planks
of rectangular sections, effectively spliced and held by lateral members in lattice form
are used in timber available regions as horizontal bands. This is a perfect alternative
to steel reinforcing. Same as cement mortar construction the wooden bands are
provided continuously through the building [1].

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6.2.9 Vertical reinforcement at corners:

Two wooden planks of size 50mm x 30mm is nailed together to form an L-section.
And this vertical member is nailed to wooden seismic bands at plinth, sill, and lintel
and eaves level. This vertical reinforcement is to be placed at all corners of the room.

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6.3 Wooden buildings:

6.3.1 Building plan:

The entire plan of the building is to be divided by bearing wall lines. The maximum
spacing of the bearing wall is limited to 8m. The maximum width of openings is
limited to 4m and should be at least 50 cm away from the corner. Bearing walls of
lower storey are to be supported by continuous foundations, through sills or by
column pedestal.

Bearing lines of upper storey are made to be supported over bearing lines of lower
storey. Bearing wall types depends on type of construction. The height of building is
always limited to two storeys [1].

6.3.2 Foundations [8]:

Frame construction often starts above plinth level over masonry or concrete. The
super structure should be connected to the foundation in one of the two ways.

a) Small buildings of one storey with area less than 50 sq.m will made to rest on
a firm plane ground such that the building is free to slide laterally during
ground motion.

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b) The superstructure will be fixed rigidly to the plinth masonry or concrete


foundation.

6.3.3 Joints:

Joints are high prone areas of damage during an earthquake. The joints are to be
effectively nailed or bolted together. Usage of metal straps in important joints is
highly recommended. Joints like, columns with sill and wall plates with horizontal
members are areas of most interest.

6.3.4 Frames:

In general two types of frame construction methods are followed: Stud wall
construction and Brick nogged timber frame.

General [1, 8]:

a) Sheathing boards are to be properly nailed to the timber frame, if not bracings
should be used.

b) The diagonal bracings are to be framed to the verticals or should be nailed to


the surface.

c) The sill in stud wall construction has to be connected to the foundation using
anchor bolts. Anchor bolts are provided on both sides of joints of sills.

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d) The size of studs used should not be less than 40mm x 90 mm. Storey height
should not be more than 2.70m

e) All studs will be connected to the adjacent studs using horizontal blockings at
every 1.5m in height.

f) The minimum dimension of braces is 20mm x 60mm. It should be effectively


tied to the main member.

g) The vertical framing members in brick nogged should have minimum finished
size of 40mm x 100mm spaced not more than 1.5m apart.

h) Horizontal framing members in brick nogged construction shall not be spaced


more than 1m apart.

i) The corner post should consist of three timbers, two of equal in size to studs
and the third being a size to fit and as to make a rectangular section.

j) Horizontal bracing should be provided at wall corners and at T-junctions of


walls at sill, first floor and eave level.

k) The top of studs should be connected to top plates, whose dimension should
not be less than the dimension of the stud.

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6.4 Earthen Buildings [1]:

This type of buildings is more prone to earthquake effects. As clay is the prime
material in this type of construction, selection of clay should be done with utmost
care. Certain tests are available to select the type of clay which is suitable for
construction.

6.4.1 Walls:

a) Height of the building should be restricted to one storey in zone I and two
storeys in Zone II,III and IV

b) Vertical buttress should be provided for walls of longer lengths.

c) The height and width of an opening of the wall is controlled. Height should
not be greater than 8 times of its thickness and width of opening should not be
more than 1.20m

d) A minimum of 1.20m distance should be maintained between the corner and


opening.

e) To increase the seismic stability of the walls, pilasters should be provided at


equal intervals at all corners and at junctions.

f) A minimum of 50cm should be maintained as bearing length of lintels on each


side of the opening.

6.4.2 Foundations:

a) In zones I and II, construction of earthen buildings in soils of type firm sub-
soil, sandy loose soils, poorly compacted clays and fill materials should be
avoided.

b) Constructing over water table is not encouraged.

c) Sufficient amount of foundation depth should be maintained as per the


guidelines available.

d) Footing should be constructed using stones or bricks with rich cement mortar.
Usage of mud mortar in construction of footing should be avoided.

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e) A minimum height of 300mm from water table should be maintained while


constructing plinth level.

6.4.3 Roofs:

a) Light material should be used as roof covering. Heavy covering such as RCC
should not be used.

b) Roof should not be made to rest over the walls directly. Preferably wooden or
brick restings should be provided over the walls for this purpose.

c) Roofs should be made waterproof such that the penetration of water is


avoided.

6.4.4 Horizontal bands:

a) Two continuous bands made of wood should be used for this purpose. One at
lintel level and other at roof level. Unfinished rough cut wood should be used.

b) Horizontal bands should be effectively tied at corners and at wall junctions.

6.4.5 Vertical reinforcement:

a) Vertical reinforcements are provided in a mesh form of bamboo made or cane


or with collar beams and bands.

b) Mesh form of reinforcement is highly recommended in seismic areas. The


vertical mash should be tied effectively to horizontal bands at all level.

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c) These meshes are to be started from the foundation and should be tied with
lintel and roof bands.

d) Diagonal bracings can be provided using cane members. These have to be


effectively nailed to the framing members.

6.5 Reinforced concrete buildings [1]:

6.5.1 Concrete mix:

Proportion of 1:2:4 is to be maintained while preparing the mix. The amount of water
in the concrete should be enough to make a ball out of the mix by hand. Compaction
should be achieved using vibrators or manually. After concrete cast, it has to be cured
for at least 14 days.

6.5.2 Reinforcement:

a) Minimum clear cover should be maintained in slabs, beams and column.

b) Longitudinal bars should be tied to transverse bars and stirrups.

c) Beams should be reinforced both on top and at bottom. Minimum of two bars
of 12 mm dia is used.

d) Splices should be placed within two at least two stirrups. Vertical shear
stirrups should be closely spaced.

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e) In column vertical reinforcements should be provided at all faces. Its strength


can be increased by using ties with adequate anchorage and end hooks.

f) Corner columns should be effectively provided with steel and minimum


spaced lateral ties.

g) Connection between column and beam should be well anchored to obtain full
strength.

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7 REAL PICTURES OF FAILURES:

a) Location: Bhuj, Gujarat, India - 26thJanuary 2001

Type of failure: Column failure in open first storey due


to hinge failure, Cantilever projection.

Improvement measures: Sufficient hoop reinforcement


should be provided in order to eliminate failure in hinge
region. Increase in size of column and reinforcement,
avoiding cantilever projection in open first storey.

b) Location: Bhuj, Gujarat, India - 26thJanuary 2001

Type of failure: Failure of load bearing masonry walls


and lintel level crack.

Improvement measures: Providing horizontal seismic


bands at all levels of the buildings and vertical
reinforcement at corners. Provision of reinforcements in
walls could even make the structure to perform well.
Effective tying of walls to floor and roof should be done.

c) Location: Bantul, Yogya, Indonesia – 27th May 2006

Type of failure: Failure due to racking shear could be


due to diagonal compression or tension.

Improvement measures: Control of opening sizes,


strengthening of masonry around openings, provision of
lintel and sill band.

d) Location: Banda Aceh, Indonesia – 26th December 2004

Type of failure: Beam-column connection failure.


Improvement measures: Provision of transverse
reinforcement in beam-column connection, column splice
regions and provision of adequate splice length in column.

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e) Location: Banda Aceh, Indonesia – 26thDecember 2004

Type of Failure: Column shear failure.

Improvement measures: Provision of shear


reinforcements in columns. Effective connection between
beam and column has to be done.

f) Location: Bantul, Yogya, Indonesia – 27th May 2006

Type of failure: Brick out of wall collapse combined


with roof collapse.

Improvement measures: Provision of reinforcement in


between walls, effective reinforcement at corners.
Introducing horizontal bands in each level.

g) Location: Kachchh, Gujarat, India - 26thJanuary 2001

Type of failure: Complete collapse of masonry buildings

Improvement measures: providing good bond between


masonry, reinforcement, seismic bands, light roof, control
on openings. In overall an efficient construction practice
has to be followed.

h) Location: Maninagar, Gujarat, India - 26thJanuary 2001

Type of failure: Plastic hinging and buckling failure

Improvement measures: Provision of efficient concrete cover


and hoop reinforcement. Thickness of the column could have
been improved in order to carry the load applied.

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i) Location: Jabalpur, India – 1997 earthquake

Type of failure: Typical joint failure in mud house,


shear cracks

Improvement measures: Provision of vertical cane


reinforcement and wooden horizontal bands. Control on
height of wall and opening in wall should be followed.

j) Location: Kobe, Japan -1995 earthquake

Type of failure: Typical first storey failure usually seen


in wooden buildings, crushing of column and separation
of joint members.

Improvement measures: All bearing wall line of


upper storey should be supported by bearing wall lines
of lower storey. Frame members should be effectively
nailed to each other. Bearing lines of lower storey
should be supported by continous foundation.

k) Location: Killari, Maharashtra, India-1993


Earthquake

Type of failure: Delamination of Wythes followed by


inner and outer stone wall collapse.

Improvement measures: Provision of through stones,


horizontal bands and vertical ties.

l) Location: Bantul, Yogya, Indonesia – 27th May 2006

Type of failure: Collapse of one side wall due to poor


reinforcement.

Improvement measures: reinforcement at T-junctions


and corners. Horizontal bands at all levels of the
building.

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8 DOMESTIC CONSTRUCTION IN INDIA:

India though being an earthquake prone country it has nearly 195.0 million non-
engineered dwelling units. This is as per 1992 survey of India on non-engineered
buildings [3].

As a native of southern part of India-Chennai, Tamilnadu; I have personally


experienced few tremors of earthquake in the past and Tsunami on 26th December
2004. Any how we have not faced any damage by these disasters. Though my home
town is in seismic zone IV (moderate exposure to earthquakes) there are many non-
engineered dwelling units. Even my own house is a non-engineered single storey
load-bearing masonry wall type, which was constructed a decade ago with minimal
cost by locally employed persons.

Fire burnt bricks, graded cement, river sand, FE 415 steel bars are used for the
construction. Building is symmetrical and square in shape. Masonry columns are used
to support the walls over which RCC roof slab is place. Such that the inertia
transmitted by the roof will be carried by the adjoin walls. Roof to wall and column
connection is good. Horizontal seismic bands are provided through the building. But
provision of vertical reinforcements at corners and at T-junctions is absent. Openings
of windows are not controlled and distance from corner of walls is less than 100mm.
Footing is at the depth of 1.5 m from the ground level. Footings are connected to each
other using plinth beam. Horizontal reinforcements are provided in between the
bricks during wall construction. Parapet wall is provided over the roof. As parapet
wall is not connected to any member of building, it may collapse during an
earthquake.

Vulnerability of my house to earthquake action is moderate. During an earthquake


failure may occur near the corners and at near the openings. Diagonal shear cracks
can be seen. Joint failure may occur near wall and masonry column junction. In plane
failure may occur at some places. Procedures on how to built seismic resistant
masonry brick units are discussed in previous chapters. As my house is an existing
one, few retrofitting methods will help the structure to with stand an earthquake.
Retrofitting involves repair, strengthen and modification of certain structural elements
to with stand effects caused by earthquake.

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8.1 Local modifications:

Local modification involves works such as closing the opening or providing


reinforcement around it. As in my house the openings do not comply with the
requirements, the openings are reinforced or boxed in reinforced concrete all – round
or reinforcement bars in jambs through the masonry [3].

8.2 FRP retrofit:

FRP composites are flexible and easy to apply. By following surface mounted
techniques the FRP strips are applied to the walls vertically and diagonally to improve
out of plane capacity in both way bending. Diagonal strip increases the in-plane shear
capacity [3].

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Using near surface mounting technique, FRP rods can be placed in to the masonry
walls. For this the masonry walls are to cuttted horizontally and vertically and FRP
rods are placed in to the gaps followed by covering it a layer of specified adhesive [3].

8.3 Strengthening of existing walls:

Method of confining by more ductile material i.e. wire mesh can be used. Two steel
meshes of size 50mm x 50mm is attached to both sides of the wall and connected by
steel at 500-700mm interval. A micro concrete layer is applied on both sides and the
connected links are grouted. The brickwork in between the Ferro cement layer will
behave efficiently when subjected to lateral load [3].

8.4 Pre-stressing for wall strengthening:

Pre-stressing bars can be introduced in pairs in opposite sides of wall so that the out of
plane bending of walls can be eliminated. In single storey building the vertical steel is
anchored to the foundation [3].

8.5 Strengthening the corners:

As corners in my house are weak, they are more prone to earthquake effects. In order
to eliminate the failure the corners have to be strengthened. Plaster is removed for a
height of 400mm above 80mm of the plinth level with a length of 300mm. the
exposed joints are raked to a depth of 20mm and cleaned using wire brush. A welded
mesh of 25mm x 50mm with 8mm gauge length is taken with a width of 350mm and

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placed on the wall using long nails. Then with the help of plaster 1:4 ratio the mesh is
covered up to 15mm thick and cured for 14 days [3].

8.6 Strengthening wall to wall connection:

As T and L-junctions in my house are not reinforced, they can be integrated and
anchored by effective sewing of perpendicular walls. Holes are drilled in an inclined
manner and polymer grout is injected after inserting steel reinforcement [3].

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CONCLUSION:

In countries at risk from earthquake action, most people are living in non-engineered
buildings. They are at risk from collapse of their own homes. To avoid this quality
domestic construction has to be improved. It doesn’t mean that more amount of
money has to be spent for earthquake resistant construction. Even with locally
available material it can be achieved. Methods discussed in this report are more
economical and attained using local materials. Method and measures suggested may
vary from place to place. The methods can be improved better on basis of previous
earthquake intensity reports. Due to constraint only few methods are discussed here.
While building a dwelling unit, the owner or the builder may refer any other
guidelines other than this. The final motto has to be construction of earthquake
resistant buildings.

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REFERENCES:

1. The Associated cement companies Limited, Mumbai, India, 2001 - “Guidelines for
earthquake resistant non-engineered construction”.

2. Gujarat Relief Engineering Advice Team (GREAT) publication, 2001 -“Repair and
strengthening guide for earthquake damaged low-rise domestic buildings in Gujarat,
India”. (www.arup.com/_assets/_download/download197.pdf -Accessed on 27/03/09)

3. Government of Tamilnadu, UNDP, India, July 2006 – “Guidelines for retrofitting of


buildings”. (www.un.org.in/untrs/reports/Retrofitting_Guidelien_16th_%20Nov_2006.pdf -
Accessed on 27/03/09)

4. Murat Saatcioglu, Ahmed Ghobarah, Ioan Nistor – ISET Journal of earthquake


Technology, Paper No.457, Vol.42, No.4, December 2005, pp.79-94 – “ Effects of the
December 26,2004 Sumatra Earthquake and Tsunami on Physical Infrastructure”.
(home.iitk.ac.in/~vinaykg/Iset457.pdf- Accessed on 27/03/09)

5. Jag Mohan Humar, David Lau, and Jean-Robert Pierre – NRC Reasearch press web,
November 23, 2001-“ Performance of buildings during the 2001 Bhuj
earthquake”.(www.caee.uottawa.ca/Publications/Lessonf%20grom%20previous%20
EQs/PDF%20Files/India.pdf- Accessed on 27/03/09)

6. Dr D.K.Paul, Professor and Head – Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT


Rourkee,India- Lecture PPT - “Buildings Vulnerability, building types and common
problems, typical earthquake damage pattern”. ( www.quakesafedelhi.net/rollout/Paul.pdf-
Accessed on 27/03/09)

7. IIT Kanpur,India-Buildings Materials and Technology Promotion Council,New


Delhi,India - IITK-BMPTC Earthquake Tips, July 2003 -“ How to make Stone Masonry
Buildings Earthquake Resistant?”.(www.iitk.ac.in/nicee/EQTips/EQTip16.pdf-Accessed on
9/04/09)

8. Prof.Anand S.Arya, National Seismic Advisor, GOI-UNDP DRM Programme, Ministry


of Home Affairs, Government of India, October 2005 – “Guidelines for earthquake
resistant reconstruction and New construction of Masonry buildings in Jammu & Kashmir
state”.( www.ndmindia.nic.in/EQProjects/Kashmir%20Final.pdf-Accessed on 9/04/09)

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9. IIT Kanpur,India-Buildings Materials and Technology Promotion Council,New


Delhi,India - IITK-BMPTC Earthquake Tips, July 2003 – “ Why are horizontal bands
necessary in masonry buildings?”. (www.iitk.ac.in/nicee/EQTips/EQTip14.pdf-
Accessed on 9/04/09)

FIGURES AND TABLES:

1. Figures: 11-12-13-14-24-27-19-32-33-34-35-36-37-38

Table: 1

The Associated cement companies Limited, Mumbai, India, 2001 - “Guidelines for
earthquake resistant non-engineered construction”.

2. Figure: 7

Dr D.K.Paul, Professor and Head – Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT


Rourkee,India- Lecture PPT - “Buildings Vulnerability, building types and common
problems, typical earthquake damage pattern”. ( www.quakesafedelhi.net/rollout/Paul.pdf-
Accessed on 27/03/09)

3. Figures: 15-16-18-19-20-22-23-25-26-28-30-31

Tables: 2-3

Prof.Anand S.Arya, National Seismic Advisor, GOI-UNDP DRM Programme, Ministry of


Home Affairs, Government of India, October 2005 – “Guidelines for earthquake resistant
reconstruction and New construction of Masonry buildings in Jammu & Kashmir
state”.( www.ndmindia.nic.in/EQProjects/Kashmir%20Final.pdf-Accessed on 9/04/09)

4. Figures: 17-21-39-40-41-42

Government of Tamilnadu, UNDP, India, July 2006 – “Guidelines for retrofitting of


buildings”. (www.un.org.in/untrs/reports/Retrofitting_Guidelien_16th_%20Nov_2006.pdf -
Accessed on 27/03/09)

Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 47


Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M

Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings”

REAL PICTURES:

1. Pictures: a-b-g-h

Jag Mohan Humar, David Lau, and Jean-Robert Pierre – NRC Reasearch press web,
November 23, 2001-“ Performance of buildings during the 2001 Bhuj
earthquake”.(www.caee.uottawa.ca/Publications/Lessonf%20grom%20previous%20
EQs/PDF%20Files/India.pdf- Accessed on 27/03/09)

2. Pictures: c-f-l

Teddy Boen, Senior advisor –World Seismic Safety Initiative-“Yogya Earthquake 27 May 2006,
Structural Damage Report”. (www.eeri.org/lfe/pdf/indonesia_yogya_structural_damage.pdf-
Accessed on 27/03/09)

3. Pictures: d-e

Murat Saatcioglu, Ahmed Ghobarah, Ioan Nistor – ISET Journal of earthquake


Technology, Paper No.457, Vol.42, No.4, December 2005, pp.79-94 – “ Effects of the
December 26,2004 Sumatra Earthquake and Tsunami on Physical Infrastructure”.
(home.iitk.ac.in/~vinaykg/Iset457.pdf- Accessed on 27/03/09)

4. Pictures: i-j-k

Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI), International Association for


Earthquake Engineering (IAEE)-“World Housing Encyclopedia”

(http://www.world-housing.net/whereport1view.php?id=100056

http://www.world-housing.net/whereport1view.php?id=100094

http://www.world-housing.net/whereport1view.php?id=100051)

(Accessed on 10/04/09)

Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 48