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International Education Centre

A-Level Medicine
Biology Laboratory Report

Name : Tharshini A/P Indrajothy


Student Id : 2010830632
Title : Determining The Vitamin C Content in Various Fruit Juices

Date Of Experiment : 5th August 2010

Date Of Submission : 19th August 2010

Lecturer’s Name : Nur Syuhadah Musa


Title
The Vitamin C Content in Various Fruit Juices

Aim
 To investigate and differentiate the vitamin C content between the commercially sold fruit
juices in cartons and fresh fruit juices.
 To determine which type fruit juice provides the highest content of vitamin C.

Introduction

Diagram 1- Structure of vitamin C

Image source: http://www.3dchem.com/molecules.asp?ID=69

http://pubs.acs.org/cen/coverstory/83/8325/8325vitamins.html

The images above show the structure of vitamin C, scientifically named as 2-oxo-L-threo-
hexono-1,4-lactone-2,3-enediol or (R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-((S) - 1,2-dihydroxyethyl) furan-2(5H)-
one. It is also popularly known as ascorbic acid. Food sources of vitamin C are fruits and
vegetables such as orange, limes, starfruits, tomatoes and also broccoli. Vitamin C is one of the
water soluble vitamins. Water soluble vitamins dissolve in water and are eliminated in urine.
Thus, we need a continuous supply of it in our diet. Vitamin C is popularly known to function as
antioxidants which prevent disease caused by free radicals in our body. Those radicals are said to
cause heart diseases and cancer. Thus, vitamin C helps to boost immunity against heart diseases
and cancers. Besides that, vitamin C also assists the body in the production of collagen, one of
the structural elements in blood vessel wall, gums and bones. Also, vitamin C enhances iron
absorption of body cells and lower blood pressure.

Diagram 2- Structure of dichlorophenolindolphenol (DCPIP)

Image sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DCPIP-3D-balls.png


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DCPIP-2D-skeletal.png

The images above show the structure of a blue chemical compound, called
dichlorophenolindophenol, or in short DCPIP. It’s IUPAC name is 2,6-dichlorophenol-
indophenol. oxidised DCPIP is blue in colour, while reduced DCPIP is colourless. Also, the blue
colour turns pink in acidic solution. Thus, it is used as an indicator of redox status of a solution.
If vitamin C (antioxidant) present, the blue dye is reduced into colourless compound. The
reaction between DCPIP and vitamin C is used as a method to determine the vitamin C content.

Hence, by using a simple colour test, the concentration of Vitamin C in various fruit juices can
be investigated and also the concentration of Vitamin C in fresh and commercial fruit juices can
be compared.
Hypotheses

 There is variation in the concentration of vitamin C in different fruit juices. Generally, the
higher the volume of fruit juice needed to decolorize DCPIP solution, the lower the
concentration of vitamin C in that particular juice.
 Relatively, fresh fruit juice have higher vitamin C content compared to fruit juices sold in
cartons.

Variables

Manipulated variable Type of fruit juice


Responding variable Volume of fruit juices needed to decolourise
DCPIP solution

Fixed variables Volume and concentration of DCPIP


solution.

Apparatus

100ml measuring cylinder, 250ml beakers, 50ml beakers, 5ml syringe, spatula, glass rod, white
tile, knife, mortal and pester.

Materials

1% DCPIP (dichlorophenolindolphenol) solution, 1000mg vitamin C tablet, fresh fruit juices


(orange juice, lime juice, starfruit juice), drinking fruit juices from carton (orange juice, lime
juice, starfruit juice), distilled water
Procedure

Preparation of standard solution.

1) One tablet of vitamin C is equally cut into eight pieces by using knife and white tile.
2) One eighth of the vitamin C is crushed into smaller pieces by using pestle and mortar.
3) 100ml of distilled water is measured by using, measuring cylinder and transferred into a
250ml beaker.
4) The smaller pieces of the one eighth of vitamin C is transferred using a spatula and
dissolved in the 100ml of distilled water by using a spatula and dissolved in the 100ml of
distilled water to prepare ascorbic acid solution of 0.125g/100ml.
5) A glass rod is used to stir the mixture to dissolve the vitamin C tablet.
6) Steps 3-5 is repeated by replacing 1/8 of the tablet with one quarter of the tablet, 1/4; half
of the tablet, 1/2; three quarters of tablet, 3/4 and one tablet to prepare ascorbic acid of
0.25g/100ml, 0.5g/100ml, 0.75g/100ml and 1g/100ml respectively.

Preparation of standard curve

1) 1ml of 1% DCPIP solution is measured and transferred into a 50ml beaker by using a
syringe.
2) 5ml of 0.125g/100ml is withdrawn using another syringe.
3) 0.125g/100ml of ascorbic acid is added drop by drop to DCPIP solution till DCPIP
solution is decolourised. Beaker is shaken gently at every drop.
4) Volume of ascorbic acid needed to decolourise DCPIP solution was measured and
recorded.
5) Steps 1-4 is repeated two times using the 0.125g/100ml ascorbic acid
6) Steps 1-5 are repeated by replacing 0.125g/100ml ascorbic acid with ascorbic acid of
0.25g/100ml, 0.5g/100ml, 0.75g/100ml and 1g/100ml.
7) All data is tabulated in Table 1.
8) A standard curve is plotted in Graph 1

Determination of vitamin C content in fruit juices.


1) 1ml of 1% DCPIP solution is measured and transferred into a 50ml beaker by using a
syringe.
2) 3ml of fresh orange juice is withdrawn using another syringe.
3) Fresh orange juice is added drop by drop to DCPIP solution till DCPIP solution is
decolourised. Beaker is shaken gently at every drop.
4) The volume of fresh orange juice needed to decolourise the DCPIP solution is measured
and recorded.
5) Steps 1-4 is repeated another two times. Average volume needed is calculated.
6) Steps 1-5 is repeated by replacing fresh orange juice with fresh lime juice, fresh starfruit
juice, carton orange juice, carton lime juice and carton starfruit.
7) All the data obtained is tabulated in Table 2.
8) Concentration of vitamin C in each fruit juice can be determined from standard curve
plotted. (refer Graph 2)

Results

Table 1
Concentration Of Volume of Ascorbic Acid required to Average Volume of Ascorbic
Ascorbic Acid decolourise 1 cm3 of 1% DCPIP Acid needed to decolourise 1ml
(g/100ml) solution (ml) of 1% DCPIP solution (ml)

0.125 3.0 3.8 3.6 3.467

0.250 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.933

0.500 0.8 1.1 1.0 0.900

0.750 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.600

1.000 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.400

Table 1- Volume of ascorbic acid required to decolourise 1ml of 1% DCPIP solution.

Graph 1
Table 2

Fruit Juices Volume of Fruit Juices needed to Average Volume of Fruit Juices
decolourise 1ml of 1% DCPIP needed to decolourise 1ml of 1%
solution (ml) DCPIP solution (ml)

Fresh Lime Juice 0.05 0.15 0.10 0.100

Fresh Orange Juice 0.20 0.20 0.25 0.216

Fresh Starfruit Juice 0.40 0.50 0.40 0.433

Carton Lime Juice 0.20 0.25 0.50 0.217

Carton Orange Juice 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.500

Carton Starfruit Juice 1.50 1.60 1.60 1.567

Table 2- Volume of fruit juices needed to decolourise 1ml of 1% DCPIP solution