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Mobile Communications

Y. Ramakrishna1, Dr. P. V. Subbaiah2 and V. Ratnakumari 3

1

PVP Siddhartha Institute of Technology, Vijayawada, India

ramakrishna@pvpsiddhartha.ac.in

2

Amrita Sai Institute of Science & Technology, Vijayawada, India

pvs_ece2000@yahoo.co.in

3

PVP Siddhartha Institute of Technology, Vijayawada, India

vemuri_ratna@yahoo.com

Abstract: The ability to accurately predict radio signal strength and other parameters such as antenna heights,

propagation behavior for mobile communications is terrain profiles, etc through the use of extensive

becoming crucial to system design. Unlike deterministic measurement and statistical analysis.

models which require more computations, statistical models Radio transmission in a mobile communication system

are easier to implement, require less computational effort often takes place over irregular terrain. The terrain profile of

and are less sensitive to the environmental geometry. In a particular area needs to be taken into account for estimating

mobile radio systems, most of the models regarding fading the path loss. The terrain profile may vary from a simple

apply stochastic process to describe the distribution of the curved earth profile to a highly curved mountainous profile.

received signal. It is useful to use these models to simulate A number of propagation models are available to predict

propagation channels and to estimate the performance of path loss over irregular terrain. While all these models aim to

the system in a homogeneous environment. Propagation predict signal strength at a particular receiving point or in a

models that predict the mean signal strength for an specific location called sector, the methods vary widely in

arbitrary Transmitter-Receiver (T-R) separation distance their approach, complexity and accuracy. Most of these

are called large-scale propagation models, since they models are based on a systematic interpretation of

characterize signal strength over large T-R separation measurement data obtained in the service area.

distance. In this paper, the large-scale propagation In this paper, the wideband propagation performance of

performance of COST-231 Walfisch Ikegami and Hata COST-231 Walfisch Ikegami and Hata models has been

models has been compared varying Mobile Station (MS) compared varying MS antenna height, propagation distance,

antenna height, T-R separation distance and Base Station and BS antenna height considering the system to operate at

(BS) antenna height, considering the system to operate at 850 MHz. Through the MATLAB simulation it turned out

850 MHz. Through MATLAB simulation it is observed that that the COST-231 Walfisch Ikegami model outperforms the

the COST-231 model shows better performance than Hata other large scale propagation models.

Model.

Keywords: Path Loss, COST-231 Walfisch Ikegami Model, Hata 2. Models for Predicting Propagation Path Loss

Model. A good model for predicting mobile radio propagation loss

should be able to distinguish among open areas, sub urban

1. Introduction areas and urban areas. All urban areas, hilly or flat areas are

Propagation models have traditionally focused on predicting unique in terrain, buildings and street configurations. The

the received signal strength at a given distance from the models described in this paper are considered to design a

transmitter, as well as the variability of the signal strength in prediction model for urban area. A good prediction model

a close spatial proximity to a particular location. Propagation follows the same guidelines, so that every user gets the same

models that predict the signal strength for an arbitrary T-R answer for given conditions.

separation distance are useful in estimating the radio Path loss may occur due to many effects, such as free-

coverage area of a transmitter. Conversely, propagation space loss, refraction, diffraction, reflection, aperture-

models that characterize the rapid fluctuations of the medium coupling loss and absorption [2]. Path loss is also

received signal strength over very short travel distances are influenced by terrain contours, environment (urban or rural,

called small-scale or fading models [1]. Propagation models vegetation and foliage), propagation medium (dry or moist

are useful for predicting signal attenuation or path loss. This air), the distance between the transmitter and the receiver,

path loss information may be used as a controlling factor for and the height of antennas.

system performance or coverage so as to achieve perfect Path loss normally includes propagation losses caused

reception. The common approaches to propagation modeling by

include physical models and empirical models. In this paper, • The natural expansion of the radio wave front in free

only empirical models are considered. Empirical models use space.

measurement data to model a path loss equation. To conceive • Absorption losses (sometimes called penetration losses)

these models, a correlation was found between the received • When the signal passes through media not transparent to

electromagnetic waves and diffraction losses.

The signal radiated by a transmitter may also travel along (ITU-R) in the international Mobile Telecommunications-

many and different paths to a receiver simultaneously; this 2000 (IMT-2000) standards activities [1]. This model is

effect is called multipath propagation. Multipath propagation applicable for frequencies in the range of 150 to 1800 MHz.

can either increase or decrease received signal strength, This utilizes the theoretical Walfisch-Bertoni model, and is

depending on whether the individual multipath wave fronts composed of three terms:

interfere constructively or destructively.

In wireless communications, path loss can be represented L 0 + Lrts + Lmsd forLrts + Lmsd > 0

by the path loss exponent, whose value is normally in the L0 (d ) = (4)

L0 Lrts + Lmsd ≤ 0

range of 2 to 5 (where 2 is for propagation in free space, 5 is

for relatively lossy environments) [1]. In some environments,

such as buildings, stadiums and other indoor environments, where L0 represents the free space path loss, Lrts is the

the path loss exponent can reach values in the range of 4 to 6. rooftop-street diffraction and scatterer loss, and Lmsd is the

On the other hand, a tunnel may act as a waveguide, multi screen diffraction loss. The free space loss is given by

resulting in a path loss exponent less than 2.

The free-space path loss is denoted by L p (d) , which is L0 = 32.4 + 20 log d + 20 log f (5)

L p ( d ) = −20 log 10

c / fc

4Π d (dB )

(1)

Where d is the radio-path length (in km), f is the radio

frequency (in MHz), and

where c = velocity of light, fc = carrier frequency and d =

distance between transmitter and receiver.

Lrts = −16.9 − 10 log w + 10 log f + 20 log ∆hMobile + Lori (6)

For long-distance path loss with shadowing, the path loss

is denoted by L p (d), which is Here w is the street width (in m) and

L p ( d ) ∝ d ,d ≥ d

0

(2)

d0

or equivalently, is the difference between the height of the building on which

the base station antenna is located, hRoof, and the height of the

( d )(

L p (d ) = L p (d 0 ) + 10n log10 d

0 dB )

, d ≥ d0 (3) mobile antenna, hMobile. Lori is the loss that arises due to the

orientation of the street. It depends on the angle of incidence

where n = path loss component, d0 = the close-in reference

distance (typically 1 km for macro cells, 100m for micro ( φ ) of the wave relative to the direction of the street.

cells), d = distance between transmitter and receiver. Lori is given by

L ori = 2 . 5 + 0 . 075 (φ − 35 ) for 35 0 ≤ φ < 55 0 (8)

Calculation of the path loss is usually called prediction. 4 . 0 − 0 . 114 (φ − 55 ) 55 0 ≤ φ < 90 0

Exact prediction is possible only for simpler cases, such as

Lmsd is given by

the above-mentioned free space propagation or the flat-earth

model. For practical cases the path loss is calculated using a

Lmsd = Lbsh + ka + kd log d + k f log f − 9 log b (9)

variety of approximations.

The area-to-area model provides path loss with long

range of uncertainty. Point-to-Point prediction reduces the Where b is the distance between the buildings along the

uncertainty range by applying the detailed terrain contour signal path and Lbsh and ka represent the increase of path loss

information to the path-loss predictions. Point-to-point due to a reduced base station antenna height. Using the

prediction is very useful in mobile cellular system design, abbreviation

where the radius of each cell is 16 kilometers or less. It can ∆hBase = hBase − hRoof (10)

provide information to insure uniform coverage and Where hbase is the base station antenna height, we observe

avoidance of co-channel interference. that Lbsh and ka are given through

Statistical methods (also called stochastic or empirical)

are based on fitting curves with analytical expressions that − 18 log( 1 + ∆ hBase ) hBase > h Roof

recreate a set of measured data. L bsh = (11)

0 h Base ≤ h Roof

In the cities the density of people is high. So the more

accurate loss prediction model will be a good help for the

54 hBase> hRoof

Base Station Transceiver System (BTS) mapping for

optimum network design. Among the radio propagation ka = 54− 0.8∆hBase d ≥ 0.5km hBase≤ hRoof (12)

models, city models are to be analyzed in this paper to find 54−1.6∆hBased d ≥ 0.5km hBase≤ hRoof

the best fitting city model. The well known propagation

models for urban areas are: The terms kd and kf control the dependence of the multiscreen

i) COST-231 Walfisch Ikegami Model diffraction loss versus distance and the radio frequency of

operation, respectively. They are

ii) Hata Model

18 hBase > hRoof

3.1 COST-231 Walfisch Ikegami Model kd = ∆h (13)

18−15 Base hBase≤ hRoof

This model is being considered for use by International hRoof

Telecommunication Union-Radio Communication Sector

And

190

f

k f = −4 + 0.7 − 1 (14) Ikegami

925 Hata

185

for medium-sized cities and suburban centers with moderate

tree densities and for metropolitan centers.

f 180

k f = −4 + 1.5 − 1 (15)

925

175

3.2 Hata model

It is an empirical formulation of the graphical path loss data 170

provided by Okumara’s model. The formula for the median

path loss in urban areas is given by

165

L50 (urban)(dB) = 69.55 + 26.16 log f c − 13.82 log hte

− a(hre ) + (44.9 − 6.55 log hte ) log d (16) 160

30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Base Station Antenna Height (Mt.)

where fc is the frequency and varies from 150 to 1500

MHz, hte and hre are the effective height of the base station Fig.1. Propagation path loss due to the change in the BTS

and the mobile antennas (in meters) respectively, d is the antenna height.

distance from the base station to the mobile antenna, and

a(hre) is the correction factor for the effective antenna height 190

of the mobile which is a function of the size of the area of Hata

185 Ikegami

coverage [2]. For small to medium-sized cities, the mobile

antenna correction factor is given by 180

Path loss (dB)

a(hre ) = (18)

3.2(log11.75hre )2 − 4.97 dB for fc ≥ 300MHz 160

When the size of the cell is small, less than 1 km, the 155

difference in signal reception [3]. Those street orientations

and individual blocks of buildings do not make any 145

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

noticeable difference in reception when this signal is well Mobile Antenna Height (Mt.)

attenuated at a distance over 1 km. Over a large distance the

relatively great mobile radio propagation loss of 40 dB/dec is Fig.2. Propagation path loss due to the change in the MS

due to the situation that two waves, direct and reflected, are antenna height.

more or less equal in strength [4] – [6]. The local scatterers Figure 1 depicts the variation of path loss with base

(buildings surroundings the mobile unit) reflect this signal station antenna height keeping the parameters MS antenna

causing only the multipath fading not the path loss at the height and T-R separation constant. It is noted that path loss

mobile unit. When the cells are small, the signal arriving at is decreasing due to increase in BTS antenna height for both

the mobile unit is blocked by the individual buildings; this models. However path loss continues to be low in COST-231

weakens the signal strength and is considered as part of the model.

path loss [7] – [9]. In small cells, the loss is calculated based Figure 2 evaluates the path loss by varying MS Antenna

on the dimensions of the building blocks. Since the ground height and fixing the other two parameters. As MS antenna

incident angles of the waves are small due to the low antenna height is increased, the path loss is decreased in this case.

heights used in small cells, the exact height of buildings in

the middle of the propagation paths is not important. Figure 3 illustrates the change in path loss upon change

Although the strong received signal at the mobile unit is in T-R antenna separation distance. It is observed that the

come from the multipath reflected waves not from the waves path loss is less up to 4 km radial distance for COST-231

penetrating through buildings, there is a correlation between model while the path loss is more beyond 4 km separation

the attenuation of the signal and the total building blocks, distance.

along the radio path.

In cases 1 and 2 the path loss is low for both the models

and in case 3 the trend is different beyond 4 kilometers

4. Performance Analysis separation between transmitter and receiver. Hence COST-

In this paper, the propagation path loss has been assessed by 231 model may be preferred to design cellular network

considering the parameters BTS Antenna height, MS where the cell radius is less than 4 km. Hence this model is

Antenna height and T-R separation for the COST-231 preferred for densely populated urban areas where call traffic

Walfisch Ikegami and Hata models by MATLAB simulation. is high.

Transactions on Antennas and propagation, Vol. 56,

240

No. 5, May 2008, pp. 1413–1419.

Hata

[8] J. C. Rodrigues, Simone G. C. Fraiha, Alexandre R.O.

Ikegami de freitas, “Channel Propagation Model for Mobile

220

Network Project in Densely Arboreous

Environments”, Journal of Microwaves and

200

Optoelectronics, Vol. 6, No. 1, June 2007, pp. 236–

248.

P ath loss (dB )

180

[9] A.R. Sandeep, Y. Shreyas, Shivam Seth, Rajat

Agarwal, and G. Sadashivappa, “Wireless Network

160 Visualization and Indoor Empirical Propagation

Model for a Campus WI-FI Network”, World

140 Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology,

42, 2008, pp. 730–734.

120 [10] J. B. Anderson, T.S. Rappaport and Susumu Yoshida,

“Propagation Measurements and Models for Wireless

100 Communication Channels”, IEEE Communication

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Distance Between Base-station and Mobile-station (km.)

Magazine, January 1995, pp. 42-49.

Fig.3. Path loss due to the change in T-R separation. Authors’ Profile

Y.Ramakrishna is currently a research

5. Conclusions student under Dr. P. V. Subbaiah. He

received M.Tech. degree in Microwave

In this paper, two widely known large scale propagation

Engineering from Acharya Nagarjuna

models are studied and analyzed. The analysis and

University, India in 2005. He received

simulation was done to find out the path loss by varying the

B.E. degree in Electronics and

BTS antenna height, MS antenna height, and the T-R

Communication Engineering from the

separation. Cost-231 Walfisch Ikegami model was seen to

University of Madras, India in 2002. He

represent low power loss levels in the curves. The result of

is presently working as Senior Assistant

this analysis will help the network designers to choose the

Professor in the Department of Electronics and

proper model in the field applications. Further up-gradation

Communication Engineering, PVP Siddhartha Institute of

in this result can be possible for the higher range of carrier

Technology, Vijayawada, India. His research interests are:

frequency.

Mobile Communications, Smart Antennas, Satellite

Communications.

References

[1] Tapan K. Sarkar, M.C.Wicks, M.S.Palma and R.J. Dr. P. V. Subbaiah received his

Bonnea, Smart Antennas, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Ph.D. in Microwave Antennas from

Publication, NJ, 2003. JNT University, India 1995, His

[2] M. A. Alim, M. M. Rahman, M. M. Hossain, A. Al- Master‘s degree in Control Systems

Nahid, “Analysis of Large-Scale Propagation Models for from Andhra University, India 1982.

Mobile Communications in Urban Area”, International He received B.E. degree in Electronics

Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, and Commu-nication Engineering

Vol. 7, No. 1, 2010, pp. 135–139. from Bangalore University in 1980.

[3] W.C.Y.Lee, Mobile Communications Design He is currently working as Principal in Amrita Sai Institute

Fundamentals, Sec. Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., of Science and Technology, Vijayawada, India since 2007.

1992. His research interest includes Microwave Antennas, Optical

[4] W.C.Y.Lee, Mobile Cellular Telecommunications, Sec. Communications and Mobile Communications.

Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd., V. Ratnakumari received M.Tech.

India, 2006. degree in Microwave Engineering

[5] Robert J. Piechocki, Joe P. McGeehan, and George V. from Acharya Nagarjuna University,

Tsoulos, “A New Stochastic Spatio-Temporal Propa- India in 2008. She received B.Tech.

gation Model (SSTPM) for Mobile Communications degree in Electronics and

with Antenna Arrays”, IEEE Transactions on Communi- Communication Engineering from

-cations, Vol. 49, No. 5, May 2001, pp. 855–862. JNT University, India in 2005. She

[6] Frank B. Gross, Smart Antennas for Mobile is presently working as Assistant

Communications, The Mc-Graw Hill Companies, 2005. Professor in the Department of

[7] C. Jansen, R. Piesiewicz , D. Mittleman and Martin Electronics and Communication

Koch, “The Impact of Reflections From Stratified Engineering, PVP Siddhartha Institute of Technology,

Building Materials on the Wave Propagation in Future Vijayawada, India. Her research interests are: Mobile

Indoor Terahertz Communication Systems”, IEEE communications and Signal Processing.

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