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Common Laboratory Process

Chapter-6

Answer to the Short Questions

(a) Define distillation.

Ans.: Distillation : The process, which converts any liquid first into its vapour
by the application of heat and then condensing the vapour brings it back into its
liquid state, is called distillation.

Distillation of liquid = vaporization of liquid + condensation of vapour.

Example : If water is heated, it first converts to vapour. But when the vapour is
cooled, it is again converted to liquid. So, the changes of water into vapour and
vaour into water is called distillation.

(b) Draw the picture of folding filter paper.

Ans.: The picture of folding filter paper is drawn below :

(1) (2)

(3) (4)

Fig.: Method of folding filter paper


Common Laboratory Process 78

(c) How glass tube is cut?

Ans.: Process of cutting glass :


Necessary equipments: A triangular file, glass tube, spirit lamp, asbestos.

Working procedure :
(i) We take a clean narrow glass tube and
place it on the plain table and hold it press
by left hand.

(ii) We place an edged of a file on a part


of the tube where we want it to divide and
pull the file forward.

(iii) We take the tube in our hand. We


place two elder fingers of the two hands
on the opposite side of cut mark. We press
the body of the glass rod by two elder
finger and pull down the two ends of the
glass tube. Glass tube will be divided
across the cut mark.

(iv) In this way, we make pieces of glass


tube according to need. The cut ends of
the tube are very sharp. To make it smooth
hold on the spirit lamp and rotate slowly.

(v) When the end of the rod becomes red


hot we remove the rod and cool it by
placing on the asbestos.

Caution :
(i) Only one mark is to be given on the body of the tube by file.
(ii) We should not touch red hot end of the tube.
(iii) We move slowly the end of the glass tube on spirit lamp. Otherwise it may
crack.
General Science: Physics and Chemistry 79

(d) What is wash bottle?

Ans.: Wash bottle : A flat bottom flask is


closed airtight with a cork. Two tubes are
penetrated through two bores in the cork.
One end of the longer tube goes down near
to the bottom of the flask and another tube
goes just below the end of the cork. Outer
side of long tube remains slanting at 60o
angle and a jet is attached at the end.
Second tube is penetrated upto neck of the
bottle and outer part remains slanting at
120o angle. This type of bottle is called
wash bottle.
Fig.: Wash bottle
The special property of wash bottle is if it is blown at outer end of the small tube
there is a strong flow of water through jet.

Answer to the Essay Type Questions

(a) How will you make a delivery tube if it is not available in the laboratory
during the preparation of oxygen? Explain with picture.

Ans.: Delivery tube : The tube from which gas comes out from spherical flask is
called delivery tube.
The method of preparation of delivery tube
is discussed below.

Objective : Preparation of delivery tube.

Necessary equipments : Triangular file,


spirit lamp, asbestos, protractor and pencil.

Working procedure :
(1) We cut the glass tube of desired length
with the help of a file.
Fig.: Preparation of delivery tube
Common Laboratory Process 80

(2) With the help of a protractor we draw on the asbestos sheet an angle of
definite size at which we want to bend the tube.

(3) We hold the lean glass tube on the flame by two hands as shown slowly so
that all sides are heated equally. We hold the place, where we want to make a
bend, on the flame.

(4) When the heated place is soft it will start bending automatically by its own
weight. Now the rod is removed from flame in hot condition, we hold the two
ends of the rod and give necessary pressure to draw an angle equal to that drawn
on the asbestos board. Then we wait until the rod is cooled.

Caution :
(1) We should use blue flame for bending tube.
(2) We should heat the rod uniformly.
(3) Measures must be taken so that the flame can heat the area measuring 4-5cm.
(4) Care should be taken so that the bending of the rod is smooth.
(5) We should cool the heated tube slowly as far as possible.

b. How is filter paper folded? Explain by drawing picture.

Ans.: Folding the filter paper and replace it to the funnel :


Necessary equipments : Filter paper, Funnel, glass rod, stand, a ring, beaker with
water.
Process work :
(1) We make two folds of filter paper as
shown in the figure.

(2) Again we fold it into two folds.


(1) (2)
(3) We open one side of the four folded
paper and keep three fold in one side and
one fold in another side to make it like a (3) (4)
funnel. Thus a cone with filter paper is
made.

(4) The filter paper is placed into the


funnel and wet with some water so that the Fig.: Preparation of folding of filter
paper and replace it to the funnel
General Science: Physics and Chemistry 81

filter is fully attached to body of the


funnel. According to figure we place the
funnel in a ring attached with a stand. A
clean beaker is placed below.

Caution :
1. The filter paper should be folded smoothly.
2. Care should be taken, so that the filter paper is not torn.
3. Filter paper should be attached with the funnel properly.

c. What are evaporation and condensation? By what name it is called when


these two processes occur simultaneously?

Ans.: Evaporation : The process of changing a liquid slowly to its vapour or


gaseous state at any temperature is called evaporation. Evaporation is a very slow
process.
Example : If a small amount of water is kept within a vessel of a large mouth
and it is placed in an open space, then the amount of water in the vessel is found
of disappear gradually and ultimately the vessel dries.

Condensation : The reverse process in which a substance changes from its


vapour or gaseous state to the liquid state is called condensation.
Example : If vapour of water is passed into the condenser, the vapour will be
converted to liquid again. In this case the change of vapour into liquid is
condensation.

When evaporation and condensation occur simultaneously, the process is called


distillation, i.e. evaporation of liquid + condensation of vapour = distillation.

d. What is distillation? Describe how from the mixture of copper sulphate


and sand all the constituents are separated.

Ans.: Distillation : The process which converts any liquid first into its vapour by
the application of heat and then condensing the vapour brings it back into its
liquid state, is called distillation.

Distillation of liquid = vapourization of liquid + condensation of vapour.


Common Laboratory Process 82

Example : If water is heated, it first converts to vapour. But when the vapour is
cooled, it is again converted to liquid. So, the changes of water into vapour and
vapour into water is called distillation.

Process of separation of copper sulphate and sand from the mixture of


copper sulphate and sand :

1. We know cupper sulphate is soluble in water but sand is insoluble. So water is


added into the mixture of copper sulphate and sand. We stir the mixture by
stirrer. As a result all the copper sulphate will be dissolved.
2. We filter the solution with filter paper. After the filtration sand will attach with
the filter paper and the copper sulphate solution will fall down at the bottom of
the beaker.

3. Now the filtrate of copper sulphate and water is heated. When all the water is
vapourised, only copper sulpahte will remain in the beaker as crystal. Now the
copper sulphate is collected from the beaker.

Description of the separation process by chart :

(Copper sulphate + sand) + Water

Copper sulphate solution + sand

Filtration

Copper sulphate (filtrate) Sand (Precipitate)

+ +

Water
Vapourisation

Water vapour
Copper sulphate solution (precipitate)
General Science: Physics and Chemistry 83

e. What is sublimation? Name four substances that can sublime. Describe


with a picture how will you separate ammonium chloride and chalk powder
if they are mixed.

Ans.: Sublimation : The process, by which a solid substance is converted into


its vapour by heating and then the vapour is condensed back into solid state by
cooling without passing anywhere through the intermediate liquid state, is called
sublimation. For example – if camphor is heated, it directly converted into
vapour rather converted into liquid. Again when it is cooled, it is converted
directly to solid.

Name of four substances which are sublime:


1. Camphor 2. Iodine
3. Naphthalene 3. Ammonium chloride

Separation process of ammonium chloride and chalk powder : Ammonium


chloride is a sublime. But chalk powder does not have the property. So if we
sublimate their mixture, they will be separated.
1. We take the mixture of ammonium chloride and chalk powder in a china
clay pot and cover them by glass funnel. Funnel is also covered by a wet
cloth.
2. We heat the pot.
3. After sometime it is observed that all the ammonium chlorides are
attached with the surface of the glass funnel and chalk powder remains in
the bottom of the china clay pot.
4. Now we separate ammonium chloride from funnel and chalk powder from
china clay pot.

Description of the separation by chart :

Ammonium chloride + chalk powder

Sublimation

Ammonium Chalk powder


chloride (Precipitate)
Common Laboratory Process 84

Answer to the Extra Questions

1. What is Liebig condenser? Draw the figure.

Ans.: Liebig condenser : It is one kind of condenser instrument which is mainly


used to convert the extra vapour into liquid. This instrument is invented by
scientist Liebig.

The figure of Liebig instrument is given below :

Fig.: Liebig condenser

Answer to the Objective Questions

Multiple choice questions :


1. Tick (√) correct answer.

1. What happens when cork is pressed by squeezer?


(a) Cork becomes smaller (b) Cork cracks
(c) Cork becomes airtight √ (d) Cork becomes harder and airtight
2. Which process can separate iodine and chalk powder from a mixture?
General Science: Physics and Chemistry 85

(a) Filtration (b) Evaporation


(c) Distillation √ (d) Sublimation

3. What is the objective of studying common laboratory process chapter?


(a) To know how to make apparatus
(b) To memorize and adapt how to make apparatus
√ (c) To work yourself to achieve skill
(d) To be interested in science teaching through observation.
4. What is done by distillation?
(a) Constituents can be separated from the mixture by filtration
√ (b) Constituents can be separated by successive evaporation and
Condensation
(c) To get back solid from the mixture
(d) To get back solid from the mixture
5. In the absence of Liebig condenser how distillation is performed in the
laboratory?
(a) It is not possible to perform distillation without Liebig condenser
√ (b) Alternatively, glass tube bent twice at right angles and cold water is
used
(c) Liebig condenser can be bought from the market for the purpose
(d) This test can be dropped

2. Fill in the blanks :


a. Distillation = evaporation + …………
b. Naphthalene, iodine etc. are ………….substances.
c. At the time of folding filter paper on one side……..folds and in the
other side………………fold are to be taken.
d. The tube, one end of which is narrow and capillary, is called……
e. To cut a glass rod………….are needed.
f. Liebig condenser is used for ……….

Ans.: a. condensation; b. sublime; c. three, one; d. jet; e. one tripod stand,


glass pipe, spirit lamp and asbestos; f. distillation.
Common Laboratory Process 86

3. Match the left side sentence with right side.


Left Right
a. Cork squeezer a. one type of boring machine
b. Cork borer b. Liebig
c. Sublimation c. distillation
d. Liebig condenser d. jet tube
e. Evaporation and condensation e. ammonium chloride
f. one type of pressing machine

Ans.: a. Cork squeezer one type of pressing machine


b. Cork borer one type of boring machine
c. Sublimation ammonium chloride
d. Liebig condenser Liebig
e. Evaporation distillation