Anda di halaman 1dari 10

o rrOJMY CTEliAK

EMI1Ha 3eQeBl1h, HapO,LJ,HH My3ej, Beorpan

YBo~eH.eM TepMHHa crehsx sa CBe Cpe,UH.OBeKOBHe CnOMeHHKe ca repirropaje Beene H Xepueros- HHe uacrao je npotinea xareropusaua]e cnOMeHHKa cycennax repnropa]a aa crehxe H OHe KOjH TO HHCY. ['OBOpH ce 0 TOMe xoja cy OH,Ua cnOMeHHUH H 360r qera CBpCTaHH y crehxe, a 3aWTO cy nojernma cnOMeHHUH HCTor 06nHKa OCTanH no CTpaHH. Pa3MOTpa ce HeKonHKO CyWTHHCKHX, y muue naapara nOKpeTaHHX mrrau.a npa H3yqaBaH.Y crehaxa H TaKO noxyurasa ,Ua ce noxaxe na ce OHa Mopajy Be3aTH sa onWTY npofinewaraxy y npoysaaaa.y CpeLlH.OBeKOBHHX KaMeHHX Ha,Urp06HHX cnOMeHHKa, O,UHOCHO na ce cnOMeHHUH n03HaTH non Ha3HBOM ctebsx He cMejy nOCMaTpaTH xao H30nOBaHa nojasa. CMew-

TaJ1

cneaen.ax, nnosa H np.) OBH cnOMeHHUH, y 6y,UyhHM HCTpa>KHBaH.HMa, rpeoa na nahy csoje MecTO Me~y OCTanHM Ha,Urp0611HM cnOMeHHUHMa

eM

y onpeheua BpeMeHCKH H reparopajarnra OKBHp Kp03 onpehena THnonOWKH 06nHK (cannyx,

Krt.ysne PCqH: cpenn.a BeK, Bocua H Xepuerosaaa, sananua Cpfiaja, crehax, lla,Urp06HH cnoveuax,

YTHuajH.

,1],0 ,LJ,aHaUUbHX ,LJ,aHa y nayxao] JIHTepaTypH nuje npennsao ,LJ,e<pHHHcaH nojaM crehxa Y Pa3JIH'iHTHM rpenyunaa, HaHMe, 3aBHCHO O,LJ, Pa3JIH'iHTOr TyMa'iel-ba I-bHXOBHX 06JIHKa, nopexna H npHna,LJ,HOCTH, non nojMoM crehsx nO,LJ,pa3yMeBaJIH cy ce Pa3JIH'iHTH 06JIHU,H cnOMeHHKa OnUITenpHXBaheHO CTaHOBHWTe je ,LJ,a cy crehun caojespcaa KyJITypHo-yMeTHH'lKa nojasa Met)y Ha,LJ,rp06HHM 06eJIe)l(jHMa nesaaa aa TJIO cpena.oaexoaae 60caHCKe .n:pJKaBe H l-beHa rpamrsna nonpysja - ua jyaory Xpsarcxy H ,1],aJIMau,Hjy, Xepnerosnay, .n:eJIOBe IJ,pHe rope H Cpfiaje. 110- 3HaTOje, raxohe. na ce repirropaja Beene H Xepueroaaue (EHX)l cMaTpa l-bHXOBOM

10 crehnaaa ca reparopaje Bocue H Xepuerosaae aanacana cy 6pojHH qnaHUH H CTY,UHje KojHMaje ofiyxsahena KOMneTHanp06nCMaTHKa H3yqaBaH.a jenne spcre cnoveaaxa, ynopernrra: S. Beslagic, Stecci, kultura i umjetnost, Sarajevo 1982, ca 6H6nHorpaqlHjoM panosa 0 cretuuoaa

['naCHHK Cpncxor apxeonourxor npyurrsa / Journal of the Serbian Archaeological Society

17 (2001) 143-152.

rCNJ/JSAS 17 (2001)

CKynoBI1 cexunja: - Cpezusn BeK

"Mant'iHOM" TepHTopHjOM, a na ce crehun y Cp6Hjl1 sesyjy sa nonpysje sanamre Cpfinje H aa jenaa 6poj JIOKaJIHTeTa y 06JIaCTH crape Paurxe.?

Y 6pOjHHM crynnjaaa H pacnpasaaa 0 crehunaa rOBOpl1JIO ce 0 H>I1Ma yrnaa- HOM ca JIHKOBHo-yMeTHH'iKOr acnexra (0 CI1M60JIHl.(H, yxpacy, 06JIHKy crehxa), MaH>e ca apxeonourxor, a uajsenrhe ca CTaHOBHlllTa 0 npHna.D,HOCTH onpehenoj .D,OrMH. Ben y npBHM HaY'iHHM pa.D,OBHMa y KojHMa cy onHCHBaHH nojernnrn KapaKaTepHCTH'iHH 06JIHl.(H (CJIeMeH>al.(H H caanyun) HaJIa3H ce TepMHH cretux, HaKO non THM Ha3HBOM HHr.D,e HHje n03HaT y aapony, rj. aa repeay.f Ben cpe- .D,HHOM npoutnor nexa y ByKOBOM pjesnusy nojav ctetu« je nasenen y ana-ren.y

"CTenH>aK-nKa, orecaa KaMeH KOjH ce Mene na rpof HJIH aa KaKBy npyry 6HJbery

".4

ETHMOJIOlliKH je "cTenaK" jour ysex uepaajannsea TepMHH. 3Ha'ieH>e Tor nojva B. Tiopoaah H3BO.D,H O.D, rJIaroJICKOr npnnora "cTojenH", aJIH aKO npHXBaTHMO OBO TyMa'ieH>e orpaaaxarra 6H ce caMO na ycnpasae 06JIHKe crehaxa KOjH cy, y O.D,HOCy na nexehe, HapO'iHTO CJIeMeH>aKe H caanyxe xao HajKapaKTepHCTI1'iHHje 06JIHKe, MaH>e fipojaa rpyna.>

Ka.D, rOBopHMO 0 HeKpOnOJIaMa ca crehnaaa TaKO 3a6eJIe:>KeHHM na nonpyxjy

Cpfinje, y aapony ce OHe Ha3I1Bajy naj-reurhe "rp'iKHM rp06JbHMa", H TO Y Cpe.D,H>eM H ropaex TIO.D,pHH>y H 06JIaCTHMa jyroaananne Cpfinje, O.D,HOCHO "Mal)apcKHM" y cesepoaananaoj Cp6HjH. 4eCT je H Ha3I1B "pHMCKO rpofirse, a .D,OCTa pehe H ,,60ry- MHJICKO", "TypcKo", "UHHOBCKO", "cBaToBcKo" HJIH "JIaTHHcKo". Y CBHM nonpys- jHMa aa crehxe ce jaarsa H Ha3HB "MpaMopje, MpaMopOBH HJIH MpaMOpH>a'ia". OCTaJIH Ha3HBH aexponona ca crehuassa Be3aHH cy aa OCTaTKe l.(pKBeHHX rpa- l)eBHHa HJIH nerenny 0 l-bHMa aa MecTy rne je HeKpOnOJIa ct>opMHpaHa ("l.(pKBHHa",

"l.(pKBHIIITe", " upKBa", "MaHacTHp"

HHMOM aa rpofirse H MeCTO Y3 xoje ce HaJIa3H. 3a Ha3HB JIOKaJIHTeTa ca CTenKOM 3a6eJIe:>KeH je no jenan npmaep "KaMeHa" HJIH " 6nn.era", .D,OK y HaTnHCHMa ca

OBHX crehaxa HaJIa3HMO TpH npmrepa na ce sa CnOMeHI1K xazce ynpaao "KaMeH"

H CJI.) HJIH ce uaaasajy caspevemnr rono-

2 C'rehua ca onor nonpysja 06yxBahcHH cy caao KpaTKHM KaTaJlOWKHM npernenoa JlOKaJlHTCTa na

KojHMa CC jasrsajy, ynOpC.nHTH: S. Beslagic, Steed. Katalosko-topografski pregled, Sarajevo 1971, 413-428; M.

nopoBHh-Jby6HHKoBHh, Hexponone H rp06HH 6CJlC3H, y ApXeOJIOWKU cnOMCHUll,U U HaJIa3Ul1lTa y

Cptiujt« 1, 3ana,aHa Cptinje; yp. 'B, EOWKOBHh, CAH, Fpaha IX, ApXCOJlOWKH HHCTHTYT KH>. 2, Beorpan

nOMcHYTH cy Y3npyre cnOMCHHKC KO.n HCTpa>KHBa'iaxoja

1953,169-197. Crehua H3 06J1aCTH crape Pauixe

cy pa.nHnH na OBOj TCPHTOpHjH, O.nHOCHO KO.n nojenaaax ayropa Y npyraxajoj runonourro] KaTC- ropasauaja 06J1HKa cnOMCHHKa(1. Epnersau, Heurpotiuu cnoucnuuu y 06JIaCTUPaca, Beorpan 1996, 10, H.2, 41-50). Vnopemrra HCTopHjaT HCTpa>KHBaH>a crehaxa y Cp6HjH YHc06jaBJbCHOMMamcTapcKoM party

E. 3C'iCBHh, Crebuu y seruuutoj Cptiuju, <1>HJl030!\JCKH !\JaKyJITcT y Beorpany 1996.

3 JC.nHHO ce KO.n n. TpyXCJlKC MO>KC naha na "OBOHa.nrp06HO CnOMCH>C napon 30BCMpaMopOBH, crehna

HaJla3C npyrn Ha3HBH, ynopemrra: C. Truhelka, Sta-

HnH MaWCTa" .nOK CC na caMHM cnOMCHHl

\HMa

robosanski mramorovi, Glasnik Zemaljskog muzeja 3 (1892) 1-2.

4 B. C Kapauuh, Cpttcxu puje'lHuK II (1852), Cafipaua nena BYKa CTc!\JaHoBHha Kapaunha, KH>. XI/II, Beograd 1986, 972. Y npsoa H3.naH>Y Vukovog rjecnika H3 1812. ronnne HC nocrojn oaaj TCpMHH. Kon Otipanoaaha, KOjHjC nacao 0 crapunaaa y y>KH'iKOMxpajy, WCC.nCCCTHX ro.nHHaXIX BCKa, HaJla3HMO onnc CJlCMCH>aKa xao "Ha nonofiae xyhe cpesauna KaMCH>eM", C. Ofipanosah, Onncanaje oxpyxcaja y>KH'iKOr,

GlasnikDrustvasrpskeslovesnosti 10 (1958) 323, 326.

5 V. Corovic, Prilog proucavanju nacina sahranjivanja i podizanja nadgrobnih spomenika u nasirn krajevima u srednjem vijeku,NaJestarille3 (1956) 128. oa npanora "CTojeb.H" H3BY'ieHjc TCpMHHcrojehss y 3Ha'iCH>y 'iBpCT, TCMeJbaH, CTaMCH - MaCHBaH.

144

E.3eQeBl1h

o rrojxy crehax

H ,,6eJIer". TIoTpe6HO je HarJIaCHTH

C 10
C
10

Kapra 1. JIOKaJIHTCTH ca cretunoaa y sananno] Cp6HjH

(npeaa JlHTCpaTypH, xaprapaa,e E. 3C'ICBHh).

Map 1. Sites with stecak monuments in western Serbia (after available literature, mapping E. Zecevic),

na ce KOJl: acrpasoreasa, KOjH cy OCTaBHJIH nonarxe 0 cretuuera y Cp6HjH, non HaJHBOM cretux non- paayaesajy pa3JIHqHTH 06JIHlI,H cnOMeHHKa Y onHCHMa JIOKaJIHTe-

ra HaJIa3HMO na je 6HJIO "cTehaKa

H nnoxa", HJIH ce HaBOJl:e xao "rpo-

6Jbe ca nnosava H Mel)y I-bHMa CTe- hun", "cTehlI,11 H YCa):lHHlI,H" HJIH casto xao "HeKpOnOJIa crehaxa ca MacHBHHM nnoxava" H CJIHqHO, rae cy OqHTO nojernraa cnOMeHH- lI,H ca aexponorie CBpCTaHH y CTe-

hxe, a OCTaJIH cy HaBeJl:eHH no CBOM

06JIHKy.

Ha OBOM MecTy noxyuranexo na 06jacHHMo KaKO je yBol)el-beM rep- MHHa crebss aa CBe cnOMeHHKe ca repnropaje EOCHe H Xepuerosaae CBeCHO CTBopeH "H30JIaUHOHH xpyr' OKO BeJIHKOr 6poja cnOMeHH- xa 360r xera cy HaCTaJIe nenorpefi- He xareropasauaje cnOMeHHKa BaH re repnropuje aa crehxe H OHe KO- jH TO HHCy; KOjH cy OHJl:a cnoae- HHUH H 360r sera CBpCTaHH y creh- xe, a saurro cy nojemran cnOMeHH- UH HCTor 06JIHKa OCTaJIH no crpa- HH. PaJMOTpHheMO HeKOJIHKO cyui- THHCKHX, Y snure uaspara noxpe- TaHHX naraisa npn aaysaeassy CTe- nasa H TaKO noxyurarn na noxaxe- MO na ce OHa 0Jl:HOCe na onurry np06JIeMaTHKy y npoysaaarsy cpen- I-bOBeKOBHHX KaMeHHX Ha):lrp06HHX cnOMeHHKa, OJ],HOCHO na enoree-

HHKe n03HaTe non HaJHBOM crehex He CMeMO nOCMaTpaTH xao H30JIOBaHY nojany seh na, CMeillTal-beM y onpehean BpeMeHCKH H TepHTopHjaJIHH OKBHp Kp03 onpe- l)eHH THnOJIOlllKH 06JIHK (cauny«, CJIeMeJbaK, nno-ra H zip.), OBH cnOMeHHUH, y 6yJJ,yhHM HCTpa:>KHBalhHMa, aahy csoje MeCTO Mel)y OCTaJIHM Ha):lrp06HHM cno-

MeHHUHMa

TIOJIaJehH 0Jl: rora na ce OCHOBHHM CBOjCTBOM crehxa CMaTpa TO na OH qHHH 06eJIe:>Kje, KaMeH Ha,a rp060M, paJyMJbHBO je IllTO cy CBa Cpe/UbOBeKOBHa tpotina y nuX Ha3BaHa HeKpOnOJIaMa crensxs, HapOqHTO aKO ce HMa na ysry na je raj

145

rCNI/JSAS 17 (2001)

CKynOBI1 cexunja: -

Cpe,UH>11 BeK

Bl13yeJIHli yrncax 6liO npauapan. AKO ce nne TOM JIliHlijOM nocnarpaa,a, CBa rpofin,a y Cpfiaju ca cnoxeaauaxa aaanoruaa OBliMa - XpOHOJIOIllKli, npeua 06JIliKY, persediy liJIli aarnncy - Mory ce rperuparn xao HeKpOnOJIe crehaxa, Ilpn TOMe rpefia aarnacaru na ce Met)y TaKBliM nanaae nojerunnr 06JIliUli xoju ce Mory npanrru TOKOM BeOMa nyror nepaona, na li li3BaH apeveaa crehaxa (na npustep xpcraxe, CTY,ll,eHlitIKli MepMepHli nanrpofnnnur, xpajnyraum li np.). Ha raj HatIliH ,ll,06liJIli CMO orpoaau <t>OH,ll, cnoneaasa xoju ce jaarsajy li BaH repuropuje li npesreaa y xoje cy csseurrena crehun, 360r xera nojaa ctebss ry6li csoje 3HatIeae, rj, xao TaKaB He 6li rpefiano Hli na nocroju Tana 6li, xao IllTO ce TO 06litIHO tIliHli, rosopana 0 Ha,ll,rp06HliM cnoveaanaaa onpehenor pernona liJIli IllKOJIe, O,ll,HOCHO cnOMeHliUliMa jenner nepnona na onpeheuoj reprrropuja xoje xapaxrepuury on- pehena 06JIliUli li MOTliBli.

I1ITa ce onne,

Met)yTliM, necuno. Ilpernenoa cnoaeaaxa ca TJIa aananne Cpfinje,

y nepnony xoju ce CMaTpa paanofirsea crehaxa, HaJIa3liMO paanusure nojane Met)y

Ha,ll,rpo6HliM cnOMeHliUliMa xoje ce yMHoroMe He nonynapajy ca cran.ev na "Ma- TlitIHOM" 60caHCKO - xepuerosasxoa TJIy.6 JaCHO je, nOTOM, na cy ce ayropn CnOTI1UaJIli 0 crehxe ynpaso 360r 06JIliKa nJIOtIe jep ce y Cpfiujn nJIOtIa jasn.a y speae san crehaxa y EOCHli roTOBO li HeMa 7 Te crapnje IIJIOtIe, npesta Beurnaruhy, Mory npencraarsaru yaop, npororan nJIOtIaMa-CTehUMMa, jep nponaanaan na JT.nO-

'fa HMa CBa ceojctee crebxe no

TOMe

IlITO

ce uenssu ne HCTOj HeKpOnOJJJf ca

OCTaJIHM (sapaxrepacraxaaa) 06JlHQUMa cretuse li liMa MOTH.Be KaKBli ce HaJIa3e

li ira npyrn«

3eMJbe, TaKO na nx on paxe onnaja tIliTaB 3eMJbaHli CJIoj, pacnopehene cy li 0PI1---

06JIliUliMa, "HliCY nOCTaBJbeHe nnpexruo na paxy, Hero na nonpunnry

60 CHM 'rora 3a6eJle>KeHO je na cy noje,uHHH crehua, O,uHOCHO cnoMeHHUH xoje npeva aHaJlOrHHM npHMepUHMa MO>KeMO Ha3BaTH crerunoaa, HaneHH BaH n03HaTe reparopnje crenaxa Y certy Lleposuy KOA Cvenepescxe Ilanauxe 3a6eJle>KeHO je rpofirse ca nnoxaaa H jenan cnOMeHHK KOMe ce BH,uH BpX ,uBO- CJIHBHOr KpOBa (M. nopoBHh-Jby6HHKOBHh, Hexponorie H rp06HH 6eJle3H, y ApXeOJlOlliKUcnOMeHUIJ,U U Ha.J183UlliTa y Cp6uju II, Llentpenns Cptiujs; yp. 1i EowKOBHn, CAH, I'paha X, ApXeOJlOUlKH HHCTHTyT

KI-b. 3, Beorpan 1956,249); ua JlOKaJlHTeTY KyJlHHe y ceny Eaisa KO,u KOCOBCKe MHTpoBHue [eznry rpyny

06JlHKy H3,uy>KeHe enance ca rOpl-bHM ,ueJlOM 3apaBl-beHHM HJlH OKJleCaHHM na

nae sene, KaKBe HaJla3HMO Hua nonpysjy crape Pauixe (A Backalov, Kuline, ostaci crkve i nekropola, Glasnik Muzeja Kosova, 13-14 (1984) 84 - 85, T. Il/6-8). Mehy 6pojHHM cnOMeHHUHMa ca rpofirsa y Epl-bHUH KO,u

npHWTHHe rasohe HaJla3HMO nnoxe ca nysao H3BHjeHoM HJlH CTeneHaCTO np04!HJlHCaHOM ropu.ov nOBpwHHOM, ':IeCTO yxpauienoa nJlaCTH'IHHM KpCTOM, xoje cy raxohe KapaKTepHCTH':IHe sa cycenno nonpys]e crape Pauixe OJ,. nyKHh - M. I1BaHoBHn, Crspu Ha,arpo6Hu cnOMeHUIJ,U U IJ,pKBa Ha conexos:

rpo6Jby y Fopno] EpuuIJ,u KOJ/. Ilpututune, npHWTHHa 1996, 63-65, 91-99 (ca JlHTepaTYPoM». Ilpesa no,uaUHMa xoriere n. JOBaHoBHha y Herormry 3a6eJle>KeHH cy cretuia ua HeKpOnOJlH y Kopornaury KO,u Heroraaa, Y3 UpKBy H aesponony H3XIV sexa y Ilon.o] Benoj PeUH xon Bopa uanase ce ,llHCJlOUHpaHa

nsa oseha caanyxa.

7113 caMOI' onHca HeKpOnC;)Jla jacHo je ,ua YKOJlHKO Ha I-bHMa nocTojH cnOMeHHK KUpaKTepHCTH':IHOr 06JlHKa CJleMel-baKa HJlH CaH,llyKa HHje 6HJlO 3a6yHe ,uace OHa onpe,ueJlH Kao HaKpOnOJla cTehaKa 360r TaKBor O,llHOca npeMa cnoMeHHKy, Ka,ua je 06JlHK npecy,llHO yTHuao Ha onpe,ueJbHBaibe 3a l-beroBynpH- na,llHOCT O,upeneHoj "BPCTH", Tj. BpeMeHy, ,ueCHJlO ce ,lla cy MHorH ayTopH caMO HeKpOnOJle ca CJle- Mel-baUHMa TpeTHpaJlH Kao HeKpOnOJly cTehaKa, O,llHOCHO ,llacy y THnOJlOWKoj CHCTeMaTH3aUHjH 06JlHKa cnOMeHHKa caMO CJleMel-baK YBPCTHJlH no,u KaTeropHjoM cTehaK, a cae OCTaJle no,ll KaTeropHjoM no- JlO>KeHHX HJlH ycnpaBHHX cnOMeHHKa To jecTe MO>K,ua HajJlaKWH npHcTyn np06JleMy, aJlH OH ,uo,uaTHO YCJlO>KaBa pa,uHaynope,llHoj aHaJlH3H 06JlHKa ca WHpe TepHTopHje; ynope.uHTH: J. Ep.ueJbaH, op.cit, 10, H. 2,41 H ,uaJbe; .u. nonoBHn, CTapo rpo6Jbe y BanH KO,ll CjeHHue, HOBon83apcKu 360PHUK 20 (1996) 36-42.

cnOMeHHKa '1HHe CTenUH y

146

.u. nonoBHn, CTapo rpo6Jbe y BanH KO,ll CjeHHue, HOBon83apcKu 360PHUK 20 (1996) 36-42. cnOMeHHKa '1HHe CTenUH

E. 3e'feBl1h

o JIOjMy crehax

jeurnpaae no

HCTHM

npaaanuaa,

.0.11 I lIP 10 • upeKo10 • up."oSO A R.nroRaT llpuj 10
.0.11 I lIP 10
• upeKo10
• up."oSO
A R.nroRaT llpuj
10

Map 2. Steed shaped like a slab in western Serbia (after available literature, mapping E. Zecevic),

rp060BH acnon )-MIX cy HCTe apXMTeK-

Type, a nOKojHHUH cy CaXpaI-bHBaHH

no HCTHM 06wlajHMa H y HCTOM ape-

MeHCKOM Pa3,U06Jby".8 TIPH npBOM no-

rrreny ua uacnose panoaa 0 cTehUHM3

yonurre, Halla3HMO M3je,UHaqeH nojau

cpennoeesoenor ntuupotinor cnoue-

HHKa

CBe,UeH

na

nepuon cpernser nexa y KOMe ce creh-

UH

H

crehxs, TaKO

na je

npofinesr

npo-

aa BpeMeHCKH OKBHp, rj.

AnH

KaKO

je

BaH

jasrsajy.

cropa EMX ra nnoxa sacrynrseaa na

BeOMa WHpOKOj repnropajn H y .ay-

rOM pa3,U06JbY, xao H KO,U npyrnx ay-

ropa, H KO,U Beurnaruha je TeWKO na-

hH yBepJbHBO ofipaanoxetse sa npen-

craanau.e nnose ca cpe)].I-bOBeKOBHHX

60caHCKHX npocropa xao 06nHKa KOjH

sacnyzcyje

crehaxj.?

,l.l,ona3HMO )].0 nuraua WTa ce ne-

urana ca aexpononaxa qHjH je je,UHHH

(nnoxa-

nocefian

Ha3HB

06nHK nnosa, H TO nnoxa 6e3 HKaKBor

cy

persedia na

cefia?

Ilpesta KojeM

xparepajysry re aexponone nporna- tueue uespono.naaa crehaxa? Y EHX

je TaKBHX 3aHCTa MHOro H 6poj na

jennoj O,U I-bI1X H3HOCH qaK 150 npn-

MepaKa Beurnaruh, xao H CBH ayropn Kapra 2. CTehUH y 06JIHKy nnose y sananno]

KOjH cy ce 6aBHnH crehuaaa y EHX Cp6HjH (npeua JIHTepaTypH, xaprapau,e E. 3e'leBHh).

HHCy 6HnH y He,UoyMHUH npa onpe- "'. JJHBaI-bY KOJe cy nnose ca Tor nonpyn-

8 S. Beslagic, Stecci, kultura i umjetnost, 81.

9 MCTO, 80-81. Y Heo,uyMHUH xoje nnose rpetia TpeTHpaTH xao crehxe HaHhH heMO na HeKOJIHKO He,I:\OCJIe,I:\HOCTH. Ilnose nOCTaBJbeHe nenocpenuo Ha,I:\ paKOM, xao neo rpofine apxarexrype (He xao Ha,urp06HO ooenescje Ha,I:\ rp060M), y KacHHjHM pa,I:\OBHMa ofiyxsaheae cy npernenoa crenaxa ca He-

xponona.jep ce BpeMeHCKH He onsajajy on \-hHX (MCTO, 50, H.50). Ka,I:\ rosopa 0 Ta\-hHM rtnoxava HaljeHHM

y

noncsava upxasa, xarxan YKpaweHHM (KpCT,WTHT,CHM60JI CTaJIe)\{aH CJI.) H ca ertaraipox, KaKBHX HMa

H

y nOJIHMJbY, na npHMep y )].aBH,uoBHUH (nonaruyra 1282. rO,I:\HHe, ca crapnjox HeKpOnOJIOM H XOpH-

30HTaJIHO nOCTaBJLeHHM Ha,I:\rp06HHM nnosaua), OH cretuuosa csrarpa

caao onpehene nnose (ose yx-

paiueue), a jennoapeaeue nnose y cexyunapuo] ynorpetia, C HaTnHCHMa xojn HX naryjy y XIV BeK, ca HCTor JIOKaJIHTeT3, H30CTaBJba. Hcrospeaeao He Y3HMa nO,I:\He nnose C HaTnHCHMa H3 Ban.e Ilpnfiojcxe

xoje nOMH\-hY n0311aTe acropaicse JIH'IHOCTH XIV sexa; ynopemrra: S. Beslagic, Katalosko-topografski

pregled, 426-427; M. Jby6HHKOBHh, ApXeOJIOWKa HCKOnaBalha y )].aBH,I:\OBHUH, Ceotuutena 4 (1961) 113-124.

147

rCA,lVJSAS 17 (2001)

CKyrrOBJ1 cexunja: - Cpernr.a nex

ja crehua jep, xao llITO je pexeao, CBa cpemsosexonna rpofirsa y EJ1X npoyaaaaaa

cy xao HeKpOnOJIe ca crehnnaa Ilepuon crehaxa y EOCHI1, KaKO je aacana npa- xsaheao, no-nuse xpajesr XII O.nHOCHO rasnaje XIII BeKOM, liITO ce noxnana ca

nepaonou y KOMe ce (y nl1CaHI1M 113BOpI1Ma) 3Ha aa nojasy "noraHe jepecu" y

Kpl1JIy fiocaucxe upxae, Ha3BaHOM xacuaje 11 "KaTapcKoM", "naTapeHcKoM", ,,6a- 6yHcKOM", "llIH3MaTI11fKOM" 11 np, TIa.nOM CaMOCTaJIHe 60caHcKe npacaae 11 no- JIaCKOM Typaxa necrajy cTehUI1, a nacrajy HI111IaHI1. Illra je, Mel)yTI1M, ca crapajnv 60CaHCKI1M Ha.nrp06HI1M CnOMeHI1UI1Ma? Koja je TO xparepnjy« npl1Mel-beH y o.npel)I1BaI-bY no-terra caxpaa.anan,a non cTehUI1Ma y EOCHI1; KaKO onna nopeznrnr CJIH'IHe npuaepxe 113 Cp611je ca crehmoaa H3 EOCHe aKO cy OHI1 crapnju on 60caHCKHX? Ha xpajy, y CBI1M TI1M pacnpasaaa najannre ce rOBOpl1JIO 0 60ry-

MHJII1Ma xao

HOCI10UHMa OBaKBor 06111faja caxpaa.aaaisa, Y3 perxe I-bI1XOBe eTHI11fKe

arpufiyuaje, Y Cp6Hjl1, Mel)yTI1M, y l-beHI1M cpe.nI-bOBeKOBHI1M OKBl1pI1Ma, rne je eTHI11fKa 11 KOH$eCI10HaJIHa crpyxrypa CTaHOBHI111ITBa n03HaTa 11 jacna, HaJIa311MO

nJI01fe 11 npe 11 nOCJIe Tor BpeMeHCKor o.npel)el-ba cTehaKa Ha MaTI11fHOM TJIy (ynopernrra oane npuxaaane xapre). Y EeWJIarHheBOM nperneny JIOKaJIl1TeTa ca cTehUI1Ma y Cp611jl1 HaJIa3HMO ocaa TaKBI1X rne cy aacrynrseaa cane 06JII1UI1

nJI01fa 10 Y Cpfinju,

11 TO He cavo y sanannoj Cpfiaju, 3HaTHO je neha 6poj

HeKpOnOJIa ca nnosaaa 113 Tor nepnona AKO jour npl1XBaTI1MO Beurnarnheay Te3Y

na H nJI01fa nOCTaBJbeHa .nl1peKTHO nan paxy MO)l(e 611TI1 crehax, ouna ce 6poj HeKpOnOJIa ca crehuaaa 3HaTHO ysehasa, XpOHOJIOlliKe 11 repirropajanae rpamme

y Kojl1Ma 611 113Y1faBaJIH crehxe 611JIe 611 3HaTHO novepeae, 360r xera HaM ce nOHOBO nasrehe 3aKJbY1faK na Ha3I1B crehax aa 're CnOMeHI1Ke ry611 CMHcao.

TIoHOBl1heMO na y Cp611jl1 pacnonaxevo 3HaTHI1M 6pojeM nnoxa xoje ce, yr- JIaBHOM npeva HaTnHCHMa, Mory .naTOBaTI1 y nepnon on XIII-XIV aexa, Pelf je 0 nno-raxra Ha.n rp060BI1Ma KTI1TOpa 11 lfJIaHOBa I-bI1XOBe noponnue, xao 11 upKBeHI1X BeJII1Ko.noCTojHI1Ka I1JIH MOHaxa (y KTI1TOPCKHM I1JII1 MaHaCTl1pCKHM npxsaaa 11 6JII1)1(e UPKBI1) I1JII1 BI1l)eHl1jl1x Jby.n11 yrJIaBHOM BJIaCTeJIHHCKOr porta (yrJIaBHOM BaH upxae I1JIH y 6JII1311HI1 l-beHI1X 311)],0Ba). Te npse nJI01fe, yrJIaBHOM ca narna-

100,1:\ naseneaux ocau JlOKaJIHTeTa ca nnosaaa - cretunoaa y Cp6HjH KO,l:\ Beurnarnha, TpH cy ca nonpysja cTape Pauixe, ca nonyure no je,l:\HOM nJlO'lOM, a eBO KaKO cy ce ry uauine. Ilnosa H3n30BHKa y

cTY,l:\eHH'lKOM xpajy HMa60p,l:\YPY 0,1:\ 06H'lHe H I MOTHB ce jaarsa y MHoro sehea 6pojy ua cnoMeHHI

\HMa

y TaKOBCKOM xpajy, BehHHoM ,l:\aToBaHHM y XV-XVII nexa,KOjH HHCy yspurreua y npernen JlOKaJIHTeTa C

crenuava (ynopemrra: M. Jby6HHKoBHh, Hexponoria I

HapO.D.HOr uyse]« 6 (1970) 210, T. XXI/2; M. <I>HJlHnoBHh, CTapHHcKa rpofirsa y rtpenjeny Taxoao, npanor npoysasan.y crehaxa, Hawe ctuputte 8 (1962) 155, 158 H CJI. 13; HCTH cnOMeHHK ca TaKOBCKor rpofirsa, Mel)yTHM, aaurao ce y Ta6eJlH MOTHBa ca crenaxa KO,l:\ M. Wenzel, Ukrasni motivi na steccima, Sarajevo 1965,

cneror Ilerpa KO,l:\ HOBor Ilasapa, 360pHUK

\HK-l

\aK JlHHHje, KaKBy HaJIa3HMO na cTehl

lHMa,

aJIH raj

\HMa

ca HCTornonpysja, xao H na HeKHM npHMepl

\pKBe

T. LXXXVI/I. Ilnosa H3L{e)f{eBe KO,l:\ HOBor Flasapa HeMa yxpac, a HeMaMO HHKaKBe 6JlH)f{e nonarxe na 6H ce npoaepano ua OCHOBy xera ce OHa uauina y Beurnaruheeoa nperneny (S. Beslagic, Katalosko-topografski

pregled, 427). Tpeha nnosa ca HaTnHCOM, H3Bpaenaxa KO,l:\ Pauixe, aaheua je Y nony Y pyuresann I

\pKBe H3

XIV sexa; na oCHOBy 're 'lHl-beHHl

,,60CaH':IHl

steccima Uokolini Novog Pazara,Sjenice i Raske,Nasestarine 12 (1969) 149; S. Beslagic, Katalosko-topografski

\pKBe,

a 0,1:\ TaKBHx, HHa'le BeOMa 6pOjHHX nnosa na TJlY Cp6Hje, ynpaso ce Beurnarah orpanao roaopeha 0

nnoaaaa-cremuera (S. Beslagic, Stecci; kultura i umjetnost, 80-81).

H Y3 npernocranxy ayropa TeKCTa na HMe L{a6HwHHo ncmrcano

yxasy]e ua nopexno H Bocuy, cnpcrana je Mel)y cTehKe,!R. Stanic, Nekoliko natpisa na

\e,

\oM"

pregled,428); y OBOM cnysajy saaeaapeaa je ':IHJ-beHHl

\a,l:\a

je pes 0 raa,o] nozuro] nnoxa KTHTopa I

148

E. 3eqeBHh

o nojvy crehax

CI1Ma, a lJeCTO 11 ca rp60M nop0JJ.I1IJ,e I1JII1 KaKBI1M JJ.pyrl1M MOTl1BOM, pahene cy OJJ.

MepMepa y JIyKCy3HI1jOj Bapl1jaHTI1, OJJ.HOCHO OJJ. JIOKaJIHOr neursapa y I1CTOBeTHOM 06JII1KY. YonWTeHO ce MO)J(e pehn JJ.a I1X HaJIa311MO y jyroaanannoj Cpfinjn, OJJ.HOCHO Y 06JIaCTI1 crape PaWKe JJ.p)J(aBe 11, TeK 113y3eTHo, 11 BaH Tor nonpy-tja l! Te nJIOlJe I1Majy 113JJ.Y)J(eH 06JII1K, nOHeKaJJ. eJIl1nC0l1JJ.aH I1JII1 OBaJIaH caxso na jeJJ.HOM xpajy, xao 11 npo<pI1JII1CaHY I1JII1 KOCO 3aCelJeHY I1BI1UY ropu,e nOBpWI1He; TaKO je ycxa ropisa nOBpWI1Ha I1CKOpl1wheHa sa narnuc I1JII1 KaKaB npyrn MOTI1B.

OHe cy JJ.aTOBaHe y nepnon OJJ. xpaja XIII JJ.O XV sexa, a nojeJJ.I1HI1 npavepua 11 y no-teras XVI sexa, Y OJJ.Hocy na crehxe, OBe nJIOlJe 611 MOrJII1 nOCMaTpaTI1 xao sacefiay "BpCTy" CnOMeHI1Ka (Mo)J(JJ.a yCBOjl1TI1 11 nocefiaa TepMI1H aa lhI1X!) jep 06JII1KOM 11 caapzcajev noxasyjy BI1We CJIl1lJHOCTI1 ca YMeTHl1lJKOM 113PaJJ.OM nJIOlJa 11 capxorpara (113 npxasa, aJIl1 11 ca nexponorra <popMl1paHI1X OKO lhl1X) pahennx y TPaJJ.I1Ul1jl1 BI13aHTI1jcKe cenynxpanne yMeTHocTI1 y cperueonexoanoj cpncxoj JJ.p-

)J(aBI1. OHe, Mel)yTI1M, I1CTOBpeMeHO canpxe OHy jeJJ.HOCTaBHy CI1M60JII1KY I1HTep-

npernpany je311KoM HapOJJ.Hor yMeTHI1Ka, TaKO 113pa311TO aacrynrseny na creh-

UI1Ma. C 06311pOM na TO JJ.a ce jasnajy na peJIaTI1BHO orpaanxenoj reprrropuja (06JIaCT crape paunce JJ.p)J(aBe), a JJ.a cy roTOBO Hen03HaTe na TJIy bl1X, xao jeJJ.HO-

apeuene BeJII1KOM 6pojy lheHI1X crehaxa, OHe JJ.aKJIe npencraarsajy OC0611TOCT

jenne reparopnje, rj

np0I13BOJJ. jenaor onurrenpaxaahenor npaaua y KJIeCalhY

HaJJ.rp06Hor 06eJIe)J(ja, a y OKBl1pl1Ma jenne WKOJIe ca conCTBeHOM TPaJJ.I1Ul1jOM, JJ.eJIOM He3aBI1CHOM OJJ. OHe y KOjOj cy pahean cTehUI1 y bl1X 11 na unrpea nonpysjy. 360r rora nJIOlJe y OBOM 06JII1KY HaJIa3I1MO na I1CTI1M HeKpOllOJIaMa ca JJ.pyrl1M 06JII1UI1Ma crehaxa, Mel)y Kojl1Ma nehnaa HeMa persednnt yxpac, aJIl1 nojeJJ.I1HI1 I1Majy HaTnl1C (Ily-reno) KOjl1 ce je311KoM 11 113pa30M MO)J(e nOBe3aTI1 ca HaTnl1CI1Ma

II OOMCHyhcMo aajnpe n03HaTC COnOhalICKC, rpanasxe H CTY,l:\CHH'lKC nnose Cll,. <DHnHnoBHh, Ilpunor nosaaaau.y CpC,l:\H.OBCKOBHHX uanrpofiaax nnosa y MaHacTHpy Conohann, HOBOlla3apCKM 360pHMK 7

(1983) 39-52; .ll,. Ilonosuh, rpa,l:\a'lKH uazirpofina HamHCH, Csotuurene 24 (1992) 51-62; .ll,. Ilonoaah,

CPC,l:\H.OBCKOBHH nanrpofina cnOMCHHUH y CTY,l:\CHHUH, Y CTyl1eHHLta H BH3aHTHjcKa j'MeTfIOCT OKO 1200. rOI1HHe, yp. B. Kopah, Beorpan 1988, 491-504). TaKBc Hana3HMO na MHOrHM nOKanHTCTHMa ua OBOM

nonpysjy pCrHCTpOBaHHM y oGHnacUHMa repeua HnH npHnHKoM

KOjHX cy QlOpMHpaHc nexponone. To cy: UPKBHHC KO,l:\ TYTHHa, ys UpKBy Y .ll,C>KCBH, Y IloCTCH.y, Ilonaxa, .ll,OlhHM IIITHTapHMa, OaBJ1.y, y CCGC'lCBy H CnaTHHH, y IIIyMHHKy, Hanpersy, na nexponorraaa Tpro- BHWTa HT,l:\. (M. Ilonosah, OCTaUH MaHacTHpa na noxanarery UpKBHHa y TYTHHy, Ptuuxe tieunune 3

HCTpa>KHBaH.aUpKBCHHX ofijexara OKO

(1988) 130-133, cn. 8; J. Kanan H M. Ilonoauh, UpKBa y Ilexcesy, Ctspuuep 36 (1985) 138-141, en. 25-26; Il, Ilpevosah-Anexcah, JlaTHHCKa upxsa y IloCTCH.y, HOBOlla3apCKH 360PHMK 9 (1985) 58-61, T. II; O.

BYKa,l:\HH, HCTpa>KHBaH.a CpC,l:\H.OBCKOBHor KOMnnCKca y ccny Ilene KO,l:\ HOBor Ilasapa, HOBOlla3apCKH

360PllHK 1 (1977) 158; H.

.ll,y,l:\Hh,Crepe rpotin» H 118/1rpo611H 6eJIe3H y Cp6HjH, Beorpan 1995,27,31; R.

Stanic, op. cit, 151-152; M. Ilonosuh, CC6C'lCBO H CnaTHHa, OCTaUH CpC,l:\H.OBCKOBHHX HaCCJba, aexpono.na H UpKBHHa, J-loBOTla3apCKM 360PllHK 15 (1991) 23-28; F. TOWHh, UpKBa CBCTor Hnxone y IIIyMHHKy, HOBOlla3apCKH 360PllHK 16-32; .ll,. OPCMoBHh-AncKcHh, HanpCJbC-OCTaUH cpe,l:\H.OBCKOBHe UpKBC H He-

xpono.ne, HOBOlla3apCKH 360PllHK 12 (1988) 26-30; B. JOBaHoBHh, .ll,. MHHHh H C. Flaunoaan-Bpueroeah, Hexpono.ne Cpe,l:\H,OBCKOBHor Tproauurra, HOBOTl83apCKM 360pHHK 14 (1990) 24-28. Hana3HMO HX H BaH

nonpysja crapor Paca, y OOJIHMJbY (Ilyseao H .ll,aBH,l:\OBHua) H cesepnaje y APHJbY, .ll,HhHMa, CJIUBKOBHUH H Crparapaaa: M. UyH.aK H 4. JOP,l:\OBHh, Hexponona UpKBC CBCTor AXHnHja y Apan.y, Ceomurens vs (1982) 197-201;)1(. JC>K, PC3ynTaTH apxeonouixax HCTpa>KHBaH.aCpC,l:\H.OBCKOBIIC UpKBCy ccny .ll,HhH KO,l:\

Jbnra, FJIaCllHK Iipyturs« KOH3epBaTOpa Cptiu]« 17 (1993) 88-89; .ll,. Manac, OCTaUH cpenu.osexoane

UpKBC y CnaBKoBHUH, Psuiss tieunuue 2 (1980) 173 H HCTH, UpKBHHe "OCTKoBHua" KO,l:\ Crparapa,

Ceotnureua S (1970) 94-95.

149

rCA,LI/JSAS 17 (2001)

CKyrrOBI1 CCKUl1ja: -

CPC.lllbl1 BCK

'ftm01\Ot \b:c;l pQCnpoCTPOl-beHOCT CTlOCll<S-JW<a ,. A. 2. 0 + . 3. ~ ~
'ftm01\Ot
\b:c;l
pQCnpoCTPOl-beHOCT CTlOCll<S-JW<a
,.
A.
2.
0
+
.
3.
~
~

1. Ilojana crehaxa;

2. CnoMeHHUH HaCTanH y npeneny pexe Crynenaue (nJIOlJe,KpCTonH H CJI.) ca JIHKOnHHM npencrasasra HJIH 6e3 H,HX;

3. KPCT xao Ha,nrpo6HH cnOMeHHK y cnHM 06JIHUHMa;

4. CnoMeHHUH ca JIHKOBHHM npencrasaaa KOjH HHcy sacrynneaa y nperxomnoa rpyrtaxa;

5. CnoMeHHUH y 06JIHKy cryfia, nJIOlJe XOpH30HTanHe HJIH sepruxanne, 06JIHUH npH3Me, caunyxa H

csa npyra 06JIHUH HenpHKa3aHH nperxomnra 3HaUHMa.

Kapra 3. Hartrpofina cnOMeHHUH y Cp6HjH, pacnpocrpaaenocr npeua 06JIHUHMa(npeva H. ):ly,nHl'ty, Ctupe rpotine U «enrpotin« 6eJIe3U y Cptiuju; Mana 2). Osne KapTHpaHH cnOMeHHUH 06JIHKa xo-

pH30HTanHc nJIOlJe naronainr cy on XIII on XIV-XIX CTOJIel'ta.

Map 3. Funeral monuments in Serbia, distribution according to shape (after N. Dudic, Stara groblja i nadgrobni belezi u Srbiji, map 2). Monuments shaped like horizontal slab date from the 13th century until modem times and vertical monuments (slab and column) date from 14th - 19th century.

aexa no ,naHaWH,HX naaa, a ycnpasua 6eJIe3H (nnoxa H cryfi)

na cTehIJ;I1Ma BeJII1KI1 6poj OBaKBI1X nnosa (l1aKO ce jaarsajy na I1CTI1M HeKpO- nOJIaMa ca J],pyrl1M 0611IJ;I1Ma crehaxa) I1naK nnje yBpUITeHO y crehxe OJ], crparre ayropa KOjH cy ce 6aBl1JIl1 cTehIJ;I1Ma ca repirropuje OI1X.

Ha xpajy rpefia HarJIaCHTH na HHjeJ],Ha CpeJ],tbOBeKOBHa HeKpOnOJIa y Cpfinja

n03HaTa KaO

TI1BHO HX je MaJIO 11 Y carsoj OHX. HMajyhH y BHJl.Y na ce OC06eHOCT crehxa HaMeT- HyJIa Kp03 paaaa TYMaqetba OBI1X CnOMeHHKay 06JII1Ky, perserpy 11, npe caera, rrpesra

HeKpOnOJIa crehaxa Hl1je CI1CTeMaTCKI1

apXeOJIOIIIKI1 acrpasceaa PeJIa-

150

o nojxy crehax

o nojxy crehax

npananaocrn nocefiaoj UpKBI1, rpefia HarJIaCI1TI1 11 TO na ce y rpernpaisy crehxa KaO BpCTeHa):(rp06HOr ofienexja I1cnywTaJIO 113 nnna na Ha):(rp06HI1 CnOMeHI1K nnje cavo KaMeH 06JII1KOBaH y OBOM I1JII1 OHOM 06JII1Ky ca O.npel)eHI1M J1I1KOBHI1M CBOj- CTBI1Ma, seh na OH npencraan,a np0I13BO.n csor- BpeMeHa 12 360r rora MopaMo I1CTal'lI1 na CJIl1qHOCT I1JII1 pa3JII1ql1TOCT 06JII1Ka CnOMeHI1Ka Mel)y 06JIaCTI1Ma nucy casto onpaa eKoHoMcKo-coUl1jaJIHI1X yCJIOBa cpennae 11 nocrojaua KJIeCapCKe pannonane, Pa3JII1QI1TOr ysopa 11113Bopa nacnnpauaje, seh .naJIeKO BI1WepesyJITaTje.nI1HCTBeHor

acropnjcxor- 11 nyxosnor aacneha cpenaue y KOjOj cy HaCTaJIl1.

Ilocnemse neueanje XIX nexa cy ofienezcene 113Y3eTHI1M I1HTepeCOBal-beM aa crehxe, xana cy OHI1 113Pl1Ql1TO npencrasrsana xao 60ryMI1JICKI1 CnOMeHI1UI1 3aXBa- rsyjyhn aycrpoyrapcxoj nponarannaoj nOJII1TI1UI1 0 fiocancsoj UPKBI1 xao 6ory- MI1JICKOj, a y UI1JhY ncruuana nocefiaocrn npacasne TBOpeBI1He nl1X. y panoanaa nojennnax I1CTpa)f(I1BaQa crehaxa Moryhe je naha norspny aa MI1WJbelhe na je 60caHcKa upxsa no CBOjOj CYWTI1HI1 60ryMI1JICKa, WTO je onosprnyro HOBl1jl1M HaYQHI1M orxpuhasra. Aycrpoyrapcxn nOJII1TI1QKI1 nnrepec je 113.nBOj110 MyCJII1- MaHCKO on Xpl1IUhaHCKor )f(l1BJba npunajajyhn 11M 6oryMI1JIcKe nperxe. Osne 611 ce Morao Hahl1 jenaa on paanora aa ycrarsasaa,e nocefiaor I1MeHa (crehax) sa CnOMeHI1Ke 60ryMI1JIa, xao 11 sa ynopno I1HCI1CTl1pal-be na nojxry cretus aa cpen- 1-b0BeKOBHe CnOMeHI1Ke y nl1X 11 HaKOH onoanaaana reopaje na je 60ryMI1JICTBO y EOCHI1 611JIO npxcaana penaruja,

Ocraje na 3aKJbYQI1MO, na canauusea creneny I1CTpa)f(eHOCTI1 11 caauarsa 0 cpe.nI-bOBeKOBHI1M Ha):(rp06HI1UI1Ma nl1X 11 I-bI1Ma CJIJ1qHI1M CnOMeHI1UI1Ma no 06- JII1KY, yxpacy I1JII1 je311Ky narnnca na nonpysjy Cpfiaje, na ce MO)f(C rOBOpHTI1 0 CPO.nHI1M CnOMeHI1UI1a, npe cnera, xao np0113BO.ny jenner spexrena. OBI1 cno- MeHI1UI1 ce jaarsajy y aexoj Bapl1jaHTI1 OCHOBHor 06JII1Ka, WTO je yrJIaBHOM sa- BI1CI1JIO on 06JIaCTI1 (ca cneumlmQHI1M .nYXOBHI1M 11 KyJITypHO-I1CTOpl1jcKI1M na- CJIel)eM, Tpa):(I1Ul1jOM y xnecapcxoj .neJIaTHOCTI1 I1JII1 paCnOJIO)f(I1BHM KaMeHI1M MaTepl1jaJIOM) I1JII1 on yxyca, MoryhHocTI1 11 aanaxnyha Jby.n11 ca Tor npocropa.l- O.nJII1Kyje I1X Wl1pOK peneproap MOTI1Ba, Mel)y Kojl1Ma MHOrl1, nonyure, HHCy OpHrHHaJIHH jep y CBI1M Pa3.n06JbI1Ma canpxe I1CTy yHHBep3aJIHy H aaanpeaeacxy CHM60JII1Ky Be3aHY sa BeQHY revy )f(HBOTa nOCJIe CMpTH.

Ha xpajy Ha):(aM ce na he .nOhH 60Jba speaeaa, xana heMo MohH na cyrurxo 0 OBHM cnOMeHHUI1Ma na oCHOBy acrpaxanaaa rp060Ba ncnon I-bI1X.

Y,L(K: 726.825.2.033(497.15) : 73.033.04(497.15)

1211ecTo ce, HaHMe, npn rpaacea.y ysopa sa nojemute 06JIHKe Ha,urpo6HHx cnOMeHHKa, HapO':lHTO sa MOTHBe na cTelH.IHMa, HWJIOna onpenersaaan,e H3Mel)y OpTO,uOKCHHX H jeperusxax xpHwhaHCKHX CXBa- Taiba Hcnyurra ce H3 sana na je 06JIHK cnOMeHHKa onpas TeOJIOWKOr cxsaraaa npeveua H cpernure y KojHMa cy HaCTaJIH, O,uHOCHO norpefie napyxnoua; HJIH je,uHOCTaBHHje peseno, y rpascen.y nopexna ofinuxa HJIH yxpaca saueaapena je ynora nanrpofinor KaMeHay OKBHpy aaponnax aeposaa.a H o611':1aja Be3aHI1X sa CMpT, rpo6 H OH03eMaJbCKH )f{HBOT jep CBaKH Ha,urpo6HH CnOMeHI1K I1Manpe csera xyrrruy H yTHJIHTapHy <pyHKUHjy npencraanajyha xpyr ofipena Be3aHHX sa KyJIT npenaxa, Baure 0 TaKBOM ry- Ma':lett.y, ynopeznrra: 1. Epnersau, op. cit, 107 H nan.e,

13Ilojenana 06JIHUH cneaeuaxa H cannyxa cy 3aHCTa jenmrcrnene H OpHrHHaJIHe nojase, He cauo ua OBHM npocrcpaaa Hero Mel)y cnOMeHHUHMa ycnurre,

151

rCA)J/JSAS 17 (200 1)

CKyrroBI1 cexunja: - Cpemsn neK

EMINA ZECEVIC

ABOUT THE TERM STECAK

Summary

By introducing the term stecak for all medieval monuments in the territory of Bosna and Herzegovina a problem ensued concerning the monuments in the neighbor- ing territories that is in their dividing in the group of stecak and all the other groups. Because the shape of the monument has been decisive when denoting to which 'type' they belong to, the monuments in Serbia have been divided in stecak (slemenjak) type and types of horizontal or vertical monuments. As the plaques as well as some types of vertical monuments occur in Serbia in the time when stecak of that shape is almost unknown in Bosna and Herzegovina it is impossible to accept that, for example, plaque should be considered to be stecak only because it is located in the same necropolis with other typical (slemenjak, sanduk) types of stecak or because it has the same motifs as these other shapes. In addition we generally do not know what it looks like and what is the contents of the grave under the stecak. Accepting specific term stecak for the Bosna and Herzegovina monuments (that primarily had political background) created the theory about stecak as the TYPE of monument isolated from other contemporary and similar shapes outside the mentioned area. This similarity is the consequence of certain time and differences among the monuments are the result of differences among the regions that have distinct spiritual, cultural and historical heritage as well as distinct sculptural tradition and different stone material available. Also there was the difference in taste, capability and inspira- tion of people living in various regions. Consequently, we must choose such treatment that will lead to incorporation of all monuments identified as stecak in the general problem of studying of medieval tombstones. That will be possible by placing them into certain chronological and territorial frame within specific typological shape and consequently within one common typological systematization of shapes.

152