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ES 21 Notes

MATRICES D. Upper Triangular Matrix – a square matrix all

elements of which below the principal diagonal

Definition are zero (aij = 0 for i>j).

arranged in rows and columns usually designated by a

capital letter and enclosed by brackets, parentheses or

double bars. A matrix may be denoted by:

elements of which above the principal diagonal

are zero (aij = 0 for i<j).

Example:

Unless stated, we assume that all our matrices are

composed of real numbers.

matrix. The ith row of A is

F. Diagonal Matrix – is a square matrix that is an

upper triangular and lower triangular at the same

time. The only non-zero elements are the

The vertical groups of elements are called the columns of elements on the principal diagonal. (aij = 0 for i ≠

the matrix. The jth column of A is j)

Example:

The size of a matrix is denoted by “m x n” (m by n) where m diagonal elements are equal.

is the number of rows and n is the number of columns.

Example:

We refer to aij as the entry or the element in the ith row and

jth column of the matrix.

A = [aij].

H. Identity Matrix – represented by In, a diagonal

matrix where all the elements along the main

SOME SPECIAL TYPES OF MATRICES

diagonal are equal to 1 or unity.

A. Row Matrix or Row Vector – is a matrix consists

Example:

of only one row.

Example: B = [b1 b 2 . . . bj . . . bn ]

consists of only one column.

I. Null Matrix – represented by Ο is a matrix in

Example: which all the elements are zero.

element aij = aji.

rows equals the no. of columns.

or columns of the matrix. Thus, we can just refer

to a 3x3 matrix as a square matrix of order 3.

K. Skew Symmetric Matrix – a square matrix whose

Principal Diagonal or Main Diagonal of a Square element aij = -aji.

Matrix – consists of the elements a11, a22, a33, …

ann. Example:

elements on the main diagonal of the matrix.

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EQUALITY OF MATRICES

the following conditions are satisfied:

b) They have equal number of columns.

c) All elements in A agree with the elements in

Note: We can only add or subtract matrices with the same

B. (aij=bij, for all i and j.)

number of rows and columns.

Example: The matrices

D. MATRIX MULTIPLICATION

p matrix, then the product of A and B, AB = C =

[cij] is an m x p matrix where

b = 4 and c = 1.

for i = 1 to m and j = 1 to p

ELEMENTARY OPERATIONS ON MATRICES

The formula tells us that in order to get the

A. MATRIX ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION element cij of the matrix C, get the elements of the

ith row of A (the pre-multiplier) and the elements

If A = (aij) and B = (bij) are matrices of the same size m x n, on the jth column of B (the post multiplier).

then the sum A + B is another m x n matrix C = [cij] where Afterwards, obtain the sum of the products of

cij = aij + bij for i = 1 to m and j = 1 to n. Matrix addition is corresponding elements on the two vectors.

accomplished by adding algebraically corresponding

elements in A and B. Note: The product is defined only if the

number of columns of the first factor

Example: A (pre-multiplier) is equal to the

number of rows of the second factor

B (post-multiplier). If this is

satisfied, we say that the matrices

are comformable in the order AB.

MATRIX EXPONENTIATION

n

The formula A will be defined as A∗ A∗ A…∗ A

Example:

B. SCALAR MULTIPLICATION

scalar), then the scalar multiple of A by k is the m x n matrix

C = [cij] where cij = kaij for all i and j. In other words, the

matrix C is obtained by multiplying each element of the

matrix by the scalar k.

Examples: We obtain

that AB = BA.

Example:

C. MATRIX SUBTRACTION

B denoted as A – B is obtained from the addition of A and (-

1)B.

1. A x B is a 3 x 3 matrix while B x A is

A – B = A + (-1)B a 2 x 2 matrix.

Matrix subtraction is accomplished by subtracting from the 2. A x C is a 3 x 2 matrix but C x A is not

elements of the first matrix the elements of the second defined.

matrix correspondingly. 3. B x C is not defined but C x B is

defined (2 x 3).

Example:

E. MATRIX TRANSPOSITION

T

denoted by A =[a’ij] is an n x m matrix defined by a’ij=aji.

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ES 21 Notes

Odd and Even Permutations

The transpose of A is obtained by interchanging the rows

and the columns of A. A permutation a1a2a3…an is said to have an inversion if a

larger number precedes a smaller one. If the total number of

Example: inversion in the permutation is even, then we say that the

permutation is even, otherwise it is odd.

Examples: ODD and EVEN Permutation

there are no inversions.

Note: The transpose of a symmetric matrix is equal to itself. In the permutation 35241, 3 precedes 2 and 1, 5 precedes

PROPERTIES AND THEOREMS ON MATRIX 2, 4 and 1, 2 precedes 1 and 4 precedes 1. There is a total

OPERATIONS: of 7 inversions, thus the permutation is odd.

MATRIX ADDITION S3 has 3! = 6 permutations: 123, 231and 312 are even while

132, 213, and 321 are odd.

A+O=A Existence of Additive Identity

A + (-A) = O Existence of Additive Inverse S4 has 4! = 24 permutations: 1234, 1243, 1324, 1342, 1423,

A+B=B+A Commutative Property 1432, 2134, 2143, 2314, 2341, 2413, 2431, 3124, 3142,

(A + B) + C = A + (B + C) Associative Property 3214, 3241, 3412, 3421, 4123, 4132, 4213, 4231, 4312,

4321.

SCALAR MULTIPLICATION

For any Sn, where n>1 it contains n!/2 even permutations

0xA=O and n!/2 odd permutations.

1x A=O

k l (A) = k (l A) = l (k A)

(k + l) A = k A + l A DEFINITION: DETERMINANT

k(A + B) = k A + k B

Let A = [aij] be a square matrix of order n. The determinant

MATRIX MULTIPLICATION of A denoted by det(A) or A is defined by

A(B + C) = AB + AC Left Distributive Property

(A + B)C = AC + BC Right Distributive Property

AI = IA = A Existence of Multiplicative where the summation is over all permutations j1j2…jn of the

Identity set S = {1,2,…,n}. The sign is taken as (+) if the permutation

kl (AB) = (k A)(l B) = (l A)(k B) is even and (–) if the permutation is odd.

commutative. That is, AB ≠ BA.

If A = [a11] is a 1 x 1 matrix then det(A) or A= a11.

MATRIX TRANSPOSITION

T T

(A ) = A If A = , then to get Awe write down the terms a1-

T T T

(A + B) = A + B

T T

(k A) = k A a2-b and replace the dashes with the all-possible

T T T

(AB) = B A permutations of S = {1, 2}, namely 12 (even) and 21 (odd).

T T T T T T

Thus A= a11a22 - a12a21.

In general (A1 A2 A3…An-1 An) = An An-1 …A3 A2 A1

DETERMINANTS

Another very important number associated with a square down the six terms a1-a2-a3-, a1-a2-a3-, a1-a2-a3-, a1-a2-a3-, a1-

matrix A is the determinant of A which we will now define. a2-a3-, a1-a2-a3-. Replace the dashes with all the elements of

This unique number associated to a matrix A is useful in the S3, affix a (+) or (-) sign and get the sum of the six terms.

solutions of linear equation.

If A is a square matrix of order n, there will be n! terms in

Permutation: the determinant of A with n!/2 positive terms and n!/2

negative terms.

Let S={1, 2, 3, … , n} be the set of integers from 1 to n,

arranged in increasing order. A rearrangement a1a2a3…an of

the elements in S is called a permutation of S.

one of the n elements of S in the first position, any one of

the remaining (n-1) elements in the second position, any

one of the remaining (n-2) elements in the third position,

and so on until the nth position. Thus there are n(n-1)(n-

2)…3*2*1 = n! permutations of S. We refer to the set of all

permutations of S by Sn. METHODS IN GETTING THE DETERMINANT

Examples: A. DIAGONAL METHOD

If S = {1, 2, 3} then S3 = {123, 132, 213, 231, 312, 321} This method is applicable to matrices with size

less than or equal to 3.

If S = {1, 2, 3, 4} then there are 4! = 24 elements of S4.

1. 2 x 2 Matrices

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ES 21 Notes

2. 3 x 3 Matrices

3. If a row (or column) of a square matrix A = [aij] is

multiplied by a constant k, then the determinant of the

resulting matrix B = [bij] is equal to k times the

determinant of A (i.e. B= kA).

Example:

B. METHOD OF COFACTORS

The complementary minor or simply minor of an element aij

of the matrix A is that determinant of the sub-matrix Mij

obtained after eliminating the ith row and jth column of A. 4. As a corollary to the third theorem, if A has a row (or

column) that has a common factor l, then this k may be

factored out of the determinant of A, where a simplified

Algebraic Complement or Cofactor, Aij

matrix B is formed. (i.e. .A= kB.

The algebraic complement or cofactor of an element aij of

the matrix A is that signed minor obtained from the formula

i+j Example:

(-1) Mij

expansion about a row or expansion about a column. The 5. If two row (or columns) of a square matrix A = [aij] were

following formulas maybe used in getting the determinant: interchanged to form a new matrix B = [bij], then B=

-A.

Example:

(expansion about the ith row)

and

6. If two rows (or columns) of a matrix A = [aij] are

Note: We may choose any row or any column in getting the identical then A= 0.

determinant of a given matrix. Example:

Example: To evaluate

row (or column) of a square matrix A = [aij] are

multiples of the corresponding elements of another row

or column of the matrix A, then A= 0.

Example:

It is best to expand about the fourth row because it has the

most numbers of zeros. The optimal course of action is to

expand about the row or column that has the largest

number of zeros, because in that case the cofactors Aij of

those aij which are zero need not be evaluated since the

product of aijAij = (0)Aij = 0.

8. If B = [bij] is a square matrix of order n that is derived

THEOREMS ON DETERMINANTS from another square matrix A = [aij] of order n, by

adding correspondingly the elements of a row (or

1. If a square matrix A = [aij] contains a row (or a column) column) to a multiple of the elements of another row

that has elements all equal to zero, then A= 0. (or column), then B=A.

Example:

Example:

2. The determinant of a square matrix A = [aij] is equal to matrix A = [aij] of order n may be expressed as

T

the determinant of its transpose A = [aij]. binomials such that two square matrices B = [bij] and C

T

(i.e.A=A ) = [cij] both of order n, are formed after splitting the

binomial elements, then A=B+C.

Example: Example:

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ES 21 Notes

matrix exists, it is unique.

invertible or non-singular. Otherwise, we say that the matrix

is non-invertible or singular.

10. The determinant of the product of two square matrices A

= [aij] and B = [bij] of the same order n is equal to the Matrix Inversion Using the Adjoint

product of the determinant of A and the determinant of B. and the Inverse

Example:

Matrix Inversion applies only to square matrices and can be

produced using the adjoint matrix and the

If and determinant.

then = = .

-1 -1

Notation: A , B …

11. The determinant of a triangular matrix is equal to the theorem:

product of the elements in its principal diagonal.

The sum of the products of the elements in one row (or

Example: column) and the cofactors of the elements of another row

(or column) of a given square matrix is zero.

that the determinant be computed first. If it so

happened that the matrix is singular (i.e., the

determinant is zero), then the inverse of the

12. The determinant of an Identity Matrix is equal to 1. matrix is said to be non-existent.

ADJOINT OF A MATRIX

square matrix with the same order n denoted by adj(A)=[Aji]

where Aij is the cofactor of the element aij of matrix A. The

adjoint of a matrix is the transpose of the matrix of cofactors the matrix is singular. Therefore, it is advised

of the elements of A. that you first check for singularity.

Example: Set up the Inverse of the given matrix.

Input: Square Matrix

Output: Square Matrix (with the same size as the original Using the diagonal method to compute for the determinant

matrix) of the given matrix:

Since matrix A is singular, as evidenced by its zero

Step 1: Get the cofactors of all the elements in the determinant, it can thus be concluded that the

original matrix. Inverse of A (or A-1) does not exist.

Recall: the cofactor of an element aij can be denoted as Aij Example 2: Set up the Inverse of the given matrix

and is defined by:

of the matrix of cofactors. Since the determinant is not zero, then matrix A is said to be non-

singular. In this case, the inverse exists and there is a need to set up

the adjoint.

Example:

If A = then adj(A) = .

Inverse of a Matrix

matrix B = [bij] of the same order n such that AB = BA = In.

-1

We denote the inverse matrix of A by A . Thus, we define

-1

the inverse of A as that matrix A such that

-1 -1

A(A ) = (A )A = In.

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ES 21 Notes

Derivation of the Solution for xi’s :

derivation assumes

-1 -1

that A exists. If A

does not exist, we

can not find the

solution to the

,thus

system AX = B.

Example: Determine the values of x1, x2 and x3 in the

following system of equations.

Consequently,

Solution:

form:

equations as a set of “m” equations that contains “n” -1

unknowns. There are several forms by which a system of We can write this in matrix form AX = B and let X = A B,

equations can be written. where:

-1

constant

coefficients of the

unknowns xj and bI

are constants

-1

Or we can transform that to the matrix form: To get x1, x2 and x3 , multiply A to B:

-1

Performing the operation A B will yield the solution

Referring to the matrix form, we can actually rewrite the

system of equations as a compact matrix operation:

matrix:

AX = B.

Where:

A Coefficient Matrix Make it a habit to check if all the computed values of the

X Column Matrix of Unknowns/Variables unknowns satisfy all the given equations. Checking is done

B Column Matrix of Constants by substituting the values x1 = 1, x2 = 1 and x3 = 1 to the

original equations.

WITH n UNKNOWNS

Equation 21(1) + 2(1) + 3(1) =? 6Satisfied

A. USING THE INVERSE METHOD

Equation 34(1) – 2(1) + 3(1)=? 5Satisfied

The Inverse Method maybe applied only to a

system of linear equations in which the number of Since all the equations were satisfied, then (x1, x2, x3) = (1,

independent equations is equal to the number of unknowns. 1, 1) is indeed the solution to the system.

If the number of equations is equal to the number of

unknowns, the equation AX = B will have a matrix of

coefficients that is square. SOLUTION TO SYSTEM OF EQUATIONS USING

CRAMER'S RULE

If the matrix of coefficients A is non-singular, the

solution to the system is unique. On the other hand, if A is Recall that A system of equation “n” equations in “n”

singular, either the system has a unique solution or no unknowns can be modeled as a matrix operation AX = B.

solution at all.

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ES 21 Notes

matrix have been set to values of 1 for reason of simplicity.

Let: (L-U Factorization is not unique.)

A coefficient matrix

th

xi i variable From matrix multiplication, we know that:

B right hand side constants

AI matrix resulting from replacing the or

th

i column of A by the column

or

vector of constants B

or

The solution of the system of equations can be determined

by using the formula: or

or

or

or

Notice that regardless of the variable i that is computed, the

denominator of the above formula is fixed at |A|. Therefore, or

it is suggested that the determinant of the coefficient matrix

be the first to be computed.

or

Example: Using Cramer's Rule, determine the values of x1,

x2 and x3 that simultaneously satisfy the following system of

equations.

or

or

Solution:

Compute for the determinant of A first:

or

or

Now, let us compute for the value of x1 by using the formula

or

The right hand side matrix B is

or

To set up the matrix A1, all you just have to do is to replace

the first column of A by b. Doing what has just been

described will result in:

or

Applying the same process to solve x2 and x3: L-U Decomposition Method?

matrix operation AX = B

SOLUTION TO SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATIONS USING substitute to AX = B, we can generate the equation

L-U FACTORIZATION L(UX)=B.

this transformation, we have actually decomposed AX = b to

In theory any square matrix A may be factored into a two systems of equations.

product of lower and upper triangular matrices.

Two-stage solution:

th

Let us take the case of a 4 order matrix:

ES 21 Notes

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ES 21 Notes

I. Solve for Y in the equation LY = B using forward 1. All rows whose elements are all zeros, if

substitution. exist, are at the bottom of the matrix.

II. Solve for X in the equation UX = Y using back 2. If at least one element on a row is not equal

substitution. to zero, the first non-zero element is 1, and

this is called the leading entry of the row.

Example: Determine the values of xi's in : 3. If two successive rows of the matrix have

leading entries, the leading entry of the row

below the other row must appear to the

right of the leading entry of the other row.

if added to the first three properties it satisfies a fourth

property:

Knowing that , therefore

4. If a column contains a leading entry of

some row, then all the other entries must

be zero.

and Example:

not?)

Stage 1: Forward substitution using LY = B

reduce row echelon form.

Note that the computed values of yi's here are not yet the

solution since the original system of equations is in terms of

xi's.

The following matrices are in reduced row echelon form.

(Hence, in row echelon form.)

This time (x1, x2, x3) = (1, 2, 3) is the solution to the original

system of equations.

ELEMENTARY ROW (COLUMN) OPERATIONS ON

MATRICES

If A is an m x n matrix and B is a p x n matrix, then the

augmented matrix of A and B denoted by [A : B] is the

An elementary row (column) operation on a matrix A is any

matrix formed by the elements of A and B separated by

one of the following operations:

pipes.

Type I. Interchange any two rows (columns).

Example:

Type II. Multiply a row (column) by a non-zero

constant k.

If and then A : B is Type III. Add to elements of a row k times of the elements

of another row the correspondingly.

Example: Let

equation AX=B is the matrix [A : B]. For example, we can

now rewrite the system of equation: Interchanging rows 1 and 3 of A (R1↔R3) obtain

as simply .

ECHELON FORM OF A MATRIX

satisfies the following properties:

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ES 21 Notes

2 (R2’→R2 + 3R1), we obtain

the following methods of solution:

ELEMENTARY ROW OPERATIONS AS APPLIED TO The objective of the Gaussian Elimination Method is to

THE A SYSTEM OF EQUATION A:B transform the augmented matrix [A : B] to the matrix [A* :

B*] in row echelon form by applying a series of elementary

As a applied to the augmented matrix [A : B] as a system of row transformations. Getting the solution of the system [A* :

equation, the three elementary row operation will B*] using back substitution will also give the solution to the

correspond to the following: original system [A : B].

TYPE I → rearranging the order of the equations To reduce any matrix to row echelon form, apply the

TYPE II → multiplying both side of the equation by following steps:

a constant 1. Find the leftmost non-zero column.

st

TY0PE III → working with two equations 2. If the 1 row has a zero in the column of step 1,

interchange it with one that has a non-zero entry in

From this observation, we could see that as applied to a the same column.

operations does not alter the solution of the system. 3. Obtain zeros below the leading entry by adding

suitable multiples of the top row and to the rows

below that.

ROW (COLUMN) EQUIVALENT MATRICES 4. Cover the top row and repeat the same process

starting with step 1 applied to the leftover submatrix.

An m x n matrix A is row (column) equivalent to an m x n Repeat this process with the rest of the rows.

matrix B if B can be obtained from A by applying a finite 5. For each row obtain leading entry 1 by dividing each

sequence of elementary row operations. row by their corresponding leading entry.

THEOREMS ON MATRIX EQUIVALENCE

equivalent to a matrix in row (column) echelon form.

has the augmented matrix associated to the system

2. Every nonzero m x n matrix A = [aij] is row (column)

equivalent to a matrix in reduced row (column) echelon

form.

3. Let AX = B and CX = D be two systems of “m” linear which can be transformed as a matrix in row echelon form

equations in “n” unknowns. If the augmented matrices

[A : B] and [C : D] are row equivalent, then the linear

systems are equivalent (i.e. they have exactly the

same solutions).

4. As a corollary to the third theorem, if A and B are row using back substitution we have

equivalent matrices, then the homogeneous systems

AX = 0 and BX = 0 are equivalent.

UNKNOWNS thus we have the solution (x, y, z) = (2, -1, 3).

be written in matrix form: GAUSS-JORDAN REDUCTION METHOD

. Jordan Reduction Method gets rid of the back substitution

phase. The objective of the Gauss-Jordan Reduction

Method is to transform the augmented matrix [A : B] to the

matrix [A* : B*] in reduced row echelon form by applying a

series of elementary row transformations. Doing this will

automatically give the solution of the system [A* : B*] which

also provides the solution to the original system [A : B].

This system may now be represented by the augmented

notation: To reduce any matrix to reduced row echelon form, apply

the following steps (SINE):

matrix from the ith row to the nth row for the

ES 21 Notes

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First Exam Coverage

ES 21 Notes

maximum pivot, i.e. element with the largest absolute

value.

2. Interchange – assuming the maximum pivot occurs

in the jth row, interchange the ith row and the jth row

so that the maximum pivot will now occur in the

diagonal position.

3. Normalize – normalize the new ith row by dividing it Since at least one 3x3 submatrix of A has a non-zero

by the maximum pivot on the diagonal position. determinant, then r(A) = 3.

4. Eliminate – eliminate the ith column from the first up

to the nth equation, except in the ith equation itself Example: What is the rank of B?

using the transformations.

Solution:

has the augmented matrix associated to the system

The determinant of B is equal to zero (THEOREM:

Proportional rows). And it can also be shown that 3x3

submatrices of B will have determinants equal to zero.

(Rows are proportional)

Therefore r(B) = 2.

SUBMATRIX AND RANK

A submatrix of A=[aij] is any matrix obtained by eliminating

some rows and/or columns of the matrix A. 1. The rank of a matrix is not altered by any

sequence of elementary row (column)

Example: Let transformations.

rank(A) = rank(B) then A and B are equivalent.

rank(A) = rank(B) = n, then rank(AB) = rank(BA) =

The following are some submatrices of A: n.

Solution:

RANK OF A MATRIX Operating on rows of matrix C, we obtain the equivalent

matrix C’

The rank of a matrix A = [aij] is the order of the largest

square submatrix of A with a non-zero determinant. We

denote the rank of A by rank(A) or simply r(A).

We could easily see that all 5x5, 4x4 and 3x3 submatrices

Solution: of C’ have determinants equal to zero (THEOREM: Identical

rows). But for at least one 2x2 submatrix of C’ has a non-

Checking out first the determinants of 3x3 submatrices: zero determinant.

(e.g. )

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Consequently r(C’) = 2. But C and C’ are equivalent

matrices and hence they have equal ranks. Therefore r(C) is

also equal to 2.

OF EQUATION

unknowns AX = B. We can associate the system of

equation to the augmented matrix of the system [A:B].

unique or inconsistent. Applying the concept of rank to the Therefore we have the following conclusions:

augmented matrix [A:B], we have the following propositions:

a) For a unique solution, r(A) = r[A:B] = n

1. If r(A) = r([A:B]) = n then the solution to the

system is unique. There will be no value of k that will satisfy this

since r(A) = 2 < n =3.

Example:

b) For non-unique solutions, r(A) = r[A:B] < n.

This will happen when the last element in the third row of

the augmented matrix is also equal to zero.

2. If r(A) = r([A:B]) < n, then the solution to the

2

system is non-unique. 8k - 8k = 0 ⇒ k = 0, 1.

Example: c) For the system to be inconsistent, r(A) < r[A:B]. This will

be satisfied if r[A:B] = 3 > 2. This will happen when the last

element in the third row of the augmented matrix is not

equal to zero.

2

8k - 8k ≠ 0 ⇒ k ≠ 0, 1.

or inconsistent.

For what values of m will the system of equations have

Example: d) a unique solution

e) a non-unique solution

f) no solution

Example 1: Rank and the Type of Solution to a System

a) a unique solution

b) a non-unique solution

c) no solution

Therefore we have the following conclusions:

2

This will be satisfied if m -1≠0 and –m-2≠0. Thus

we have a unique solution if m ≠ ±1,2.

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ES 21 Notes

Clearly, we could see that the resulting system

This will happen when the last element in the third gives a non-unique solution because, r(A) = r[A:B]=2 <3.

row of matrix A and the augmented matrix are both equal to

zero.

Thus, the system gives non-unique solutions when m = -2.

2

m - 1 = 0 and m+2 = 0.

c) For the system to be inconsistent, r(A) < r[A:B].

There is no value of m that will satisfy both

equation. This will be satisfied if r[A:B] = 3 > 2. This will

happen when the last element in the third row of the

The other value of m to be checked is when m = -2. augmented matrix is not equal to zero but the last element

Substituting this to the system gives the system: of the third row of A is equal to zero.

2

m – 1 = 0 and m+2 ≠ 0.

ES 21 Notes

Page 12 of 12

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