Anda di halaman 1dari 64

Concepts of 3GPP LTE Sonali Sarpotdar

16 Jan 2008
Agenda

• LTE Context and Timeline


• LTE major features
• Overview of the LTE air interface
• Agilent LTE design and test solutions
• Simulation
• Baseband
• Sources
• Analysis
• Integrated mobile test platform

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 2
Agenda

• LTE Context and Timeline


• LTE major features
• Overview of the LTE air interface
• Agilent LTE design and test solutions

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 3
3GPP standards evolution (RAN & GERAN)
Release Commercial Main feature of Release
introduction
Rel-99 2003 Basic 3.84 Mcps W-CDMA (FDD &
TDD)
1999
Rel-4 Trials 1.28 Mcps TDD (aka TD-SCDMA)
Rel-5 2006 HSDPA
Rel-6 2007 HSUPA
Rel-7 2008+ HSPA+ (64QAM DL, MIMO 16QAM
UL). Many smaller features plus
LTE & SAE Study items
Rel-8 2009-10? LTE Work item – OFDMA air interface
2010 SAE Work item New IP core network
Edge Evolution, more HSPA+

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 4
LTE context and timeline
The many faces of LTE
• LTE is the 3GPP project name for the evolution of UMTS
• LTE is now linked with the development of a new air interface but the
evolution of UMTS via HSDPA and HSUPA is still happening
• The official terminology for the new LTE radio system is:
• Evolved UTRA / Evolved UTRAN
• Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access
• Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
• Earlier names for this included:
• 3.9G
• HSOPA - Evolution of HSDPA/HSUPA with OFDM
• Super 3G
• This naming is not standard and may fade out but 3.9G is likely to stick
• For this paper LTE is assumed to be E-UTRA & E-UTRAN
• SAE – System Architecture Evolution refers to the evolved core network

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 5
Wireless evolution – five competing 3.9G systems
IS-95A GSM IS-136 PDC 802.11b
2G cdma TDMA

802.11a
IS-95B HSCSD GPRS
2.5G cdma iMode
802.11g

IS-95C E-GPRS W-CDMA W-CDMA TD-SCDMA 802.11h


3G cdma2000 EDGE FDD TDD LCR-TDD

802.11n

1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO HSDPA HSUPA 802.16d


3.5G Release 0 Release A Release B FDD & TDD FDD & TDD Fixed
WiMAXTM

WiBRO
UMB LTE EDGE 802.16e
3.9G cf 802.20 E-UTRA Evolution HSPA+ Mobile
WiMAXTM

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 6
LTE in context
• LTE is just one of five major new wireless technology developments
• 3GPP LTE
• 3GPP HSPA+
• 3GPP Edge Evolution
• 3GPP2 UMB (similar to 802.20)
• IEEE WiMAX – (802.16e / WiBRO)

• All five systems share very similar goals in terms of spectral efficiency,
with the wider systems providing the highest single user data rates
• Spectral efficiency is primarily achieved through use of less robust
higher order modulation schemes and multi-antenna technology
ranging from basic Tx and Rx diversity through to full MIMO
• HSPA+ and Edge Evolution are natural extensions to existing
technologies
• LTE, UMB and WiMAX are new OFDM systems with no technical
precedent other than the early implementation of WiBRO which is now
a WiMAX profile.

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 7
LTE standards development timing

Rel-7 Study Phase


Rel-8 Work Phase
Test Specs

Core specs First UE Commercial


drafted certification? release?

First Test
Specs
drafted

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010


• 3GPP plan @ Aug 2007; Final specs - Feb 08, Initial Conformance tests - Sept 08
• Timeline has slipped about 6 months but still considered a stretch goal by many
• Historically, test specs have been much more than 3 months after core specs but the
gap between core specs and conformance is consistently dropping
• UE certification not possible until after test implementation and validation
• Commercial release is hard to predict but is very unlikely before 2010
Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 8
Agenda

• LTE Context and Timeline


• LTE major features
• Overview of the LTE air interface
• Agilent LTE design and test solutions

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 9
LTE major features
Feature Capability
Access modes FDD & TDD – each with their own frame structure

Variable channel BW 1.4, 3 , 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz


All bandwidths supported by FDD and TDD
Baseline UE capability 20 MHz UL/DL, 2 Rx, one Tx antenna
User Data rates DL 172.8 Mbps / UL 86.4 Mbps @ 20 MHz BW
(2x2 DL SU-MIMO & non-MIMO 64QAM on UL)
Downlink transmission OFDM using QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM
Uplink transmission SC-FDMA using QPSK,16QAM, 64QAM
DL Spatial diversity Open loop TX diversity
Single-User MIMO up to 4x4 supportable
UL Spatial diversity Optional open loop TX diversity, 2x2 MU-MIMO,
Optional 2x2 SU-MIMO

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 10
LTE major features

Feature Capability
Transmission Time Interval 1 ms
H-ARQ Retransmission 7 or 8ms* (This is tight and one of the hardest
Time specs to meet in baseband)
*under negotiation
Frequency reuse Static & semi-static (reuse per UE)
Frequency hopping Intra-TTI: Uplink once per .5ms slot
Downlink once per 66μs symbol
Inter-TTI Across retransmissions

Bearer services Packet only – no circuit switched voice or data


services are supported  voice must use VoIP

Unicast Scheduling Frequency selective (partial band)


schemes Frequency diversity by frequency hopping

Multicasting Enhanced MBMS with SFN and cell-specific content

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 11
Why did 3GPP want LTE?

• Much untapped potential in HSDPA + HSUPA (HSPA+)


• But some LTE requirements can’t be met by HSPA+
• LTE goal is to provide further benefits
• Spectrum Flexibility
• Higher Peak Data Rates with wider 20 MHz channel bandwidth
• OFDM Access better suited for Broadcast Services
• OFDM enables less complex implementation of Advanced
Antennas/MIMO Technology
• Reduced terminal complexity
• LTE itself has some less complex aspects
• But terminals will have to carry the legacy of GSM, GPRS,
W-CDMA and HSPA which increases overall complexity

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 12
LTE vs. HSPA+
Attribute HSPA+ (Rel-8) LTE targets
Peak Data Rate / 5 MHz sector DL – 42 Mbps DL – 43.2 Mbps
in ideal radio conditions UL – 10 Mbps UL – 21.6 Mbps
Peak Data Rate / 20 MHz sector Not possible without DL – 172.8 Mbps
in ideal radio conditions multi-carrier UL – 86.4 Mbps
Cell Edge improvement Evolved HSPA & LTE - DL – 3x to 4x; UL – 2x to 3x
compared to HSPA Release 6
All solutions will benefit from ongoing improvements to the
Spectral Efficiency (real world) radio interface such as UE RX diversity, equalization,
interference cancellation; MIMO, higher order modulation etc.

Latency: End to End Ping Delay 40 ms


Latency: Idle to Active Currently around 600ms <100 ms
Goal to reduce to 100 ms
Flexible Bandwidth Utilization? 5 MHz unless multi- 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz
carrier is developed
Suitability for MIMO extensions Challenging with CDMA Much easier with OFDM
Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 13
Logical baseline architecture for 3GPP
HLR/AuC* C SMS-GMSC
SMS-SC
TE
R
MT
Um
GERAN MSC EIR HSS* SMS-IWMSC
23.882
Gb, Iu
Gs Gf
Gr
Rx+ (Rx/Gq) Figure 4.1-1
PCRF AF
Gd Gx+ (Go/Gx)
Gc Gmb
BM-SC

Iu Gn/Gp
Gi Gi
PDN
The point
TE MT UTRAN SGSN GGSN
R Uu
Mb here is the
Gn Ga Billing Ga

SGSN
System* Gy Mb
MRFP
IMS-
MGW
complexity,
OCS* Wi
UE Gm CGF* gaps and
IMS overheads
P-CSCF CSCF
in existing
Mw
CS/PS
Cx Dx
CDF
HLR/
AuC* HSS*
networks
SLF
D/Gr Wx
Wf Wf
Intranet/ Dw
Wd
3GPP AAA 3GPP AAA **
Internet OCS*
Proxy Server
Wa Wa Wo Wy
Wm
WLAN Access Wg
WLAN
Network WAG PDG
UE Note: * Elements duplicated for picture
Ww Wn Wp
Wz layout purposes only, they belong to the
same logical entity in the architecture
Wu Billing baseline.
Traffic and signaling CGF* System*
Signaling ** is a reference point currently missing

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 14
Simplified LTE network elements and interfaces

MME = Mobile
Management
entity
S1

S1
SAE =
S1

S1 System
Architecture
Evolution
X2

X2

3GPP TS 36.300 Figure 4: Overall Architecture

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 15
Logical high level architecture for evolved system
Evolved IP packet core with multi-RAT integration
HSS - Home
GERAN Gb
subscriber server
SGSN GPRS Core PCRF IMS - IP
Iu
multimedia
UTRAN Rx+ subsystem
S7
S3 S4 Inter AS anchor -
Inter access
HSS Op. system anchor
S5a S5b S6 IP MME - Mobility
S1 MME 3GPP SAE SGi Serv. management
Evolved RAN Anchor Anchor (IMS, entity
UPE
IASA PSS, Op. IP Serv. -
Evolved Packet Core etc…) Operator IP
service
23.882 S2 S2 PCRF - Policy and
Figure 4.2-1 charging rule
non 3GPP WLAN control function
WiMAX could
IP Access 3GPP IP Access UPE - User plane
connect here
entity
* Color coding: red indicates new functional element / interface
Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 16
LTE documents from the study phase (Rel-7)

The latest study phase technical documents can be found at:


• www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/25-series.htm
• 23.882 System Architecture Evolution
• 25.912 Feasibility study for Evolved UTRA and UTRAN
• 25.913 Requirements for Evolved UTRA (E-UTRA) and Evolved UTRAN
(E-UTRAN)
• 25.813 Radio interface protocol aspects
• 25.814 Physical Layer Aspects for Evolved UTRA

Most of these are no longer being kept up to date now the


work has transferred to the 36-series (Rel-8) specifications
However these document still provide a useful overview that
may be difficult to find in the formal specifications

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 17
LTE 3GPP Specifications (Rel-8)

• After the LTE study phase in Rel-7, the LTE specifications


are defined in the 36-series documents of Rel-8
• There are six major groups of documents
• 36.8XX & 36.9XX Technical reports (background information)
• 36.1XX Radio specifications (and eNB conformance testing)
• 36.2XX Layer 1 baseband
• 36.3XX Layer 2/3 air interface signalling
• 36.4XX Network signalling
• 36.5XX UE Conformance Testing
• The latest versions of these documents can be found at
www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/36-series.htm

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 18
Agenda

• LTE Context and Timeline


• LTE major features
• Overview of the LTE air interface
• Agilent LTE design and test solutions

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 19
εnetrαβ
LTE – Impε αβle?
αβ  y (0) (i )   x (0) (i ) 
   
M = W (i ) D (i )U  M 
k 0 = k RA N scRB − N RB
UL RB
N sc 2  ( P −1) 
y (i )  x (υ −1) (i )
W0{1234} 2    
N ZC −1 N ZC −1 2πnk
−j
j 2π (k +ϕ + K (k 0 + 1 2 ))∆f RA (t −TCP )
s (t ) = β PRACH ∑ ∑x
k =0 n =0
u ,v ( n) ⋅ e
N ZC
⋅e
−1
j 2πk∆f (t − N CP ,l Ts )
N RB N sc / 2 
DL RB

j 2πk∆f (t − N CP ,l Ts )
sl( p ) (t ) = ∑ ( p)
a (−) ⋅ e
k ,l
+ ∑ k ( + ) ,l
a ( p)
⋅ e

DL RB
k = − N RB N sc / 2  k =1
 − j πun ( n +1)
 e 63 n = 0,1,...,30
d u (n) =  πu ( n +1)( n + 2)
e − j 63 n = 31,32,...,61

 UL RB
N RB N sc / 2 −1  j 2π (k +1 2 )∆f (t − N CP ,l Ts )
sl (t ) = ∑ a k ( − ) ,l ⋅ e  k 
nPRB =  RB 
N DL − 7 RB
for 0 ≤ k ≤ RB ⋅ N sc − 1

UL RB
k = − N RB N sc / 2   N sc 
 k − N scRB 2  DL
2
DL
N RB − 6 RB N RB + 6 RB
nPRB =  RB  for ⋅ N sc ≤ k ≤ ⋅ N sc − 1
 N sc  2 2

[ ]  k  DL
T N RB + 7 RB
u6 = 1 (1 + j ) − j (−1 + j )
DL
2 2 nPRB =  RB  for ⋅ N sc ≤ k ≤ N RB ⋅ N scRB
 N sc  2

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 20
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
5 MHz Bandwidth
FFT
Sub-carriers

Guard Intervals

Symbols

Frequency


Time
25.892 Figure 1: Frequency-Time Representation of an OFDM Signal

OFDM is a digital multi-carrier modulation scheme, which uses a large


number of closely-spaced orthogonal sub-carriers. Each sub-carrier is
modulated with a conventional modulation scheme (such as QPSK,
16QAM, 64QAM) at a low symbol rate similar to conventional single-carrier
modulation schemes in the same bandwidth.
Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 21
Why OFDM for the downlink?

• OFDM already widely used in non-cellular technologies and was


considered by ETSI for UMTS in 1998
• CDMA was favoured since OFDM requires large amounts of baseband
processing which was not commercially viable ten years ago
• OFDM advantages
• Wide channels are more resistant to fading and OFDM equalizers are much
simpler to implement than CDMA
• Almost completely resistant to multi-path due to very long symbols
• Ideally suited to MIMO due to easy matching of transmit signals to the
uncorrelated RF channels
• OFDM disadvantages
• Sensitive to frequency errors and phase noise due to close subcarrier spacing
• Sensitive to Doppler shift which creates interference between subcarriers
• Pure OFDM creates high PAR which is why SC-FDMA is used on UL
• More complex than CDMA for handling inter-cell interference at cell edge

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 22
CDMA vs. OFDM

• CDMA
• All transmissions at full system bandwidth
• Symbol period is short – inverse of system bandwidth
• Users separated by orthogonal spreading codes
• OFDM
• Transmission variable up to system bandwidth
• Symbol period is long – defined by subcarrier spacing and
independent of system bandwidth
• Users separated by FDMA & TDMA on the subcarriers

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 23
OFDM vs. OFDMA
LTE uses OFDMA – a variation of basic OFDM
• OFDM = Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
• OFDMA = Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access
• OFDMA = OFDM + TDMA
Subcarriers Subcarriers

User 1

Symbols (Time)

Symbols (Time)
User 2

User 3

OFDM OFDMA
OFDMA’s dynamic allocation enables better use of the channel for multiple
low-rate users and for the avoidance of narrowband fading & interference.
Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 24
LTE uses SC-FDMA in the uplink
Why SC-FDMA?
• SC-FDMA is a new hybrid modulation technique combining the low PAR
single carrier methods of current systems with the frequency allocation
flexibility and long symbol time of OFDM
• SC-FDMA is sometimes referred to as Discrete Fourier Transform Spread
OFDM = DFT-SOFDM
Time domain Frequency domain Time domain

Coded symbol rate= R

Sub-carrier CP
DFT Mapping IFFT insertion

NTX symbols

Size-NTX Size-NFFT

TR 25.814 Figure 9.1.1-1 Transmitter structure for SC-FDMA.


Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 25
Comparing OFDM and SC-FDMA
QPSK example using N=4 subcarriers
The following graphs show
how this sequence of QPSK 1, 1 -1,-1 -1, 1 1, -1 1, 1 -1,-1 -1, 1 1, -1
symbols is represented in
frequency and time

V V

bo A
m A

m M
sy DM

sy -FD
l

l
bo
F

SC
O
CP
CP
e

e
m

bo A
m A

m M
Ti

Ti
sy DM

sy -FD
l

l
bo
F

SC
O

Frequency 60 kHz Frequency


fc 15 kHz fc

OFDMA SC-FDMA
Data symbols occupy 15 kHz for Data symbols occupy N*15 kHz for
one OFDMA symbol period 1/N SC-FDMA symbol periods

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 26
OFDM modulation
QPSK example using N=4 subcarriers
One OFDMA symbol period

… f0
Each of N subcarriers is Q 1,1 (F cycles)
encoded with one QPSK -1,1 1,1 +45°
symbol f0 + 15 kHz
I -1,-1 …
(F+1 cycles)
N subcarriers can +225°
transmit N QPSK
… f0 + 30 kHz
symbols in parallel -1,-1 1,-1 -1,1 +135° (F+2 cycles)

f0 + 45 kHz
1,-1 +315° … (F+3 cycles)

The amplitude of the combined four


carrier signal varies widely depending
on the symbol data being transmitted
With many
subcarriers the
waveform
becomes
Gaussian not
sinusoidal
Null created by transmitting
One symbol period
1,1 -1,-1 -1,1 1,-1

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 27
SC-FDMA modulation
QPSK example using N=4 subcarriers
V(I) V(Q)
To transmit the sequence: Q
-1,1 1,1 +1
+1
1, 1 -1,-1 -1, 1 1,-1
using SC-FDMA first create a I
time domain representation -1
-1
of the IQ baseband sequence -1,-1 1,-1
One SC-FDMA One SC-FDMA
symbol period symbol period

V,Φ V,Φ
Perform a DFT of length N Shift the N subcarriers
and sample rate N/(symbol to the desired
period) to create N FFT bins allocation within the
spaced by 15 kHz system bandwidth
Frequency Frequency

-1,1 1,1
Perform IFFT to create Insert cyclic prefix Important Note: PAR
time domain signal of the between SC-FDMA is same as the original
frequency shifted original symbols and transmit QPSK modulation
-1,-1 1,-1

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 28
The LTE air interface

• Consists of two main components – signals and channels


• Physical signals
• These are generated in Layer 1 and are used for system
synchronization, cell identification and radio channel estimation
• Physical channels
• These carry data from higher layers including control, scheduling and
user payload
• The following is a simplified high-level description of the
essential signals and channels.
• eMBMS, MIMO and some of the alternative frame and CP
configurations are not covered here for reasons of time

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 29
Signal definitions

DL Signals Full name Purpose


P-SCH Primary Synchronization Channel Used for cell search and identification
by the UE. Carries part of the cell ID
(one of 3 orthogonal sequences).
S-SCH Secondary Synchronization Used for cell search and identification
Channel by the UE. Carries the remainder of
the cell ID (one of 170 binary
sequences).
RS Reference Signal (Pilot) Used for DL channel estimation.
Exact sequence derived from cell ID,
(one of 3 * 170 = 510).
UL Signals Full name Purpose
RS (Demodulation) Reference Signal Used for synchronization to the UE
and UL channel estimation

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 30
Channel definitions

DL Channels Full name Purpose


PBCH Physical Broadcast Channel Carries cell-specific information
PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel Scheduling, ACK/NACK
PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel Payload
UL Channels Full name Purpose
PRACH Physical Random Access Channel Call setup
PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel Scheduling, ACK/NACK
PUSCH Physical Uplink Shared Channel Payload

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 31
Signal modulation and mapping

DL Signals Modulation Sequence Physical Mapping Power


Primary 72 subcarriers centred
One of 3 Zadoff-Chu
Synchronization Signal around DC at OFDMA [+3.0 dB]
sequences
(P-SCH) symbol #6 of slot #0
Secondary Two 31-bit M-sequences 72 subcarriers centred
Synchronization Signal (binary) – one of 170 Cell around DC at OFDMA
(S-SCH) IDs plus other info symbol #5 of slot #0
Every 6th subcarrier of
OS*PRS defined by Cell
Reference Signal (RS) OFDMA symbols #0 & #4 [+2.5 dB]
ID (P-SCH & S-SCH)
of every slot
UL Signals Modulation Sequence Physical Mapping Power
SC-FDMA symbol #3 of
Reference Signal (RS) uth root Zadoff-Chu
every slot

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 32
Channel modulation and mapping

DL Channels Modulation Scheme Physical Mapping


72 subcarriers centred around
Physical Broadcast Channel DC at OFDMA symbol #3 & 4 of
QPSK
(PBCH) slot #0 and symbol #0 & 1 of slot
#1. Excludes RS subcarriers.
OFDMA symbol #0, #1 & #2 of
Physical Downlink Control
QPSK the first slot of the subframe.
Channel (PDCCH)
Excludes RS subcarriers.
Physical Downlink Shared QPSK, 16QAM,
Any assigned RB
Channel (PDSCH) 64QAM
UL Channels Modulation Scheme Physical Mapping
Physical Random Access
QPSK Not yet defined
Channel (PRACH)
Physical Uplink Control Any assigned RB but not
BPSK & QPSK
Channel (PUCCH) simultaneous with PUSCH
Physical Uplink Shared QPSK, 16QAM, Any assigned RB but not
Channel (PUSCH) 64QAM simultaneous with PUCCH

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 33
Physical Layer definitions – TS36.211
Frame Structure
Frame Structure type 1 (FDD/TDD)
One radio frame, Tf = 307200 x Ts = 10 ms
One slot, Tslot = 15360 x Ts = 0.5 ms

#0 #1 #2 #3 ………. #18 #19


One subframe

Subframe 0 Subframe 1 Subframe 9

FDD: Uplink and downlink are transmitted separately


TDD: Subframe 0 and 5 for downlink, others are either downlink or uplink
Ts = 1 / (15000x2048)=32.552nsec
Ts: Time clock unit for definitions

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 34
Frame Structure Type 1 – generic view

) #19
Ts #18
x
2 00 #17
307 #16 The minimum allocation
(
c of resources is one
se
m Resource Block
10
= = 12 adjacent

e
e #5

m
m

Ti
fra #4 subcarriers for one
dio #3 0.5ms slot
ra e
1 m #2
f- ra #1 NBWRB subcarriers (=12)
b
Su #0
Power

m t=
c
se
0. sl o
1
5
Frequency
NBWDL subcarriers

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 35
Frame Structure Type 1 (DL)
Slot / Subframe / Frame
NsymbDL OFDM symbols (=7 OFDM symbols @ Normal CP) 1slot = 15360 Ts

160 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 (x Ts)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 slot
Cyclic Prefix

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
P-SCH - Primary Synchronization Channel
S-SCH - Secondary Synchronization Channel
1 sub-frame PBCH – Physical Broadcast Channel
PDCCH – Physical Downlink Control Channel
Reference Signal – (Pilot)

#0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 #15 #16 #17 #18 #19

1 frame
Concepts of 3GPP LTE Agilent Confidential

Page 36 13 Aug 2007


Frame Structure Type 1 (DL) – Physical Mapping

P-SCH - Primary Synchronization Channel


S-SCH - Secondary Synchronization Channel
PBCH – Physical Broadcast Channel
PDCCH – Physical Downlink Control Channel
Reference Signal – (Pilot) 16QAM QPSK
64QAM

Time

Frequency

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 37
Frame Structure Type 1 (UL)
Slot / Subframe / Frame
NsymbDL OFDM symbols (=7 OFDM symbols @ Normal CP) 1slot = 15360

160 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 (x Ts)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 slot
Cyclic Prefix

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

1 sub-frame Reference Signal (Demodulation)

#0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 #15 #16 #17 #18 #19

1 frame
Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 38
Frame Structure Type 1 (UL) – Physical Mapping

QPSK
64QAM

16QAM

Reference Signal
(Demodulation)

Time

Frequency

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 39
Agenda

• LTE Context and Timeline


• LTE major features
• Overview of the LTE air interface
• Agilent LTE design and test solutions
• Simulation
• Baseband
• Sources
• Analysis
• Integrated mobile test platform

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 40
LTE development challenges

• Shortened time-plan for development and deployment


• Development in parallel with standards refinements
• Early requirement for full functional testing
• Interoperability testing likely to show up different interpretations of
standards
• Mix of FDD- and TDD-based testing
• System test for MIMO architecture
• Channel bandwidth up to 20MHz / 172.8 Mbps
• Component and device capabilities will be greater than network
capability
• Huge strain on mobile platform design

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 41
Crossing the Analogue-Digital divide

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 42
Tools & Using Them Together

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 43
Agilent’s Current Measurement Solutions and
Plans for LTE - Commitment
Agilent will provide design and test tools across the R&D
lifecycle
• Support for early R&D in components, base station
equipment and mobile devices with design automation tools
and flexible instrumentation, based on current measurement
platforms
• Refine test solutions and introduce tools for product
integration as development progresses to initial functional
prototypes
• Be ready with manufacturing test capability for early ramp-up

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 44
LTE Products Prototype Versions Commercial Release

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010


3GPP LTE
ADS simulation UL/DL Signals
SW
Proto VSA 89601A VSA
3GPP LTE UL/DL Analysis
Demod and Demodulation
Analysis SW

MIPI D_Phy
Logic DigRF New Platform for
multiple serial lanes
Analysis

MXG Basic Coded RT


Signal
MIMO capability
Generation
MXA
Signal
Analysis

Integrated Mobile
Test platform
Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 45
ADS Wireless Library for LTE
Explore and verify your designs
• Current Status
• Library of simulation components for the Agilent EESof Advanced
Design System (ADS) to facilitate the generation and analysis of
3GPP LTE compliant downlink (DL) and uplink (UL) signals.
• First release Oct 2006. Major updates in Feb 07, May 07, Sept 07.
• Based on latest physical layer specifications V8.0.0 *Sept 07).
• Generated signals are spectrally correct and encoded, and can be
multi-channel, fixed-length, real-time etc. as required.
• Signals can be exchanged with alternative simulation platforms, and
can be downloaded to, or uploaded from hardware for real-world
signal generation and analysis.
• Received signals can be demodulated and analyzed.
• Next Steps
• Continue to follow developments in 3GPP specifications. Add/evolve
signal coding and further develop both DL and UL transmitter
measurements (such as EVM, Constellation etc.).
• Further commercial releases at regular intervals.
• Working on TDD support

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 46
Advanced Design System Simulation environment

An LTE downlink model in ADS


Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 47
ADS “Connected Solutions”
• Develop library elements for 3GPP LTE in order to build physical layer
models for both transmitter and receiver in software
• Links to test equipment for prototype verification
• Implement and deliver a design tool while standard
evolves phased implementation in close cooperation
with customer
Download

RF
Component
or DUT

Analyze

Example here is from IEEE 802.11a/g

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 48
Digital Serial Stimulus / Analysis

• Current Status
• Introduced DigRF v3 products and solutions
• Bridge gaps between simulation, IC evaluation & handset integration.
• The N4850A & N4860A digital probes designed for 1Gbps
• For LTE digital interfaces that > 1Gbps leverage existing multi GHz
serial technology to support higher speed interfaces.
• Agilent is a MIPI member at Adopter level.
N4850A 312Mbps DigRF v3 Digital Serial Acquisition Probe
N4860A 312Mbps DigRF v3 Digital Serial Stimulus Probe

• Next Steps
• Support digital serial stimulus and analysis for
other RF-IC to BB-IC interfaces, integrated
with RF stimulus/analysis, to provide
comprehensive cross domain solutions.
• Review the physical layer specifications for
other (public and vendor-specific) interfaces
between the RF-IC and the BB-IC to guide
LTE specific implementation decisions.
• Agilent is committed to providing test tools for
DigRF v4.0.

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 49
BB/RF Interface Stimulus / Analysis Overview
Two modes of operation
TEST EQPT
• Emulation: The stimulus and analysis pods (emulation)

actively drive and terminate the BB/RF bus, thus


emulating the BB ASIC's interface. The test
equipment provides support for RF ASIC
BB ASIC RF ASIC
configuration / control, and drives it with signal
payload data.

TEST EQPT
(spying)
• Spying: The analysis pod passively monitors
the bus to collect data for further analysis. The
test equipment parses the traffic and presents
the transactions (XML-based protocol viewer) BB ASIC RF ASIC
and payload (89601A Vector Signal Analyzer).

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 50
RF-IC Validation (DigRF example)
Signal Studio Signal Creation Software

MXG Signal Generator

N4860A
Stimulus Probe
Tx RF-IC
Rx

N4850A
16900 Acquisition Probe
Logic Analyzer
MXA Spectrum Analyzer

89601A Vector Signal Analyzer software


Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 51
RF-IC / BB-IC Integration (DigRF example) Signal Studio
Signal Creation Software
MXG Signal Generator

DigRF
RF
BB-IC RF-IC
DSP
DigRF DigRF
uC v3.xx v3.xx

Vis Port

89601A Vector Signal Analyzer


Digital RF

Logic Analyzer Oscilloscope Spectrum Analyzer

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 52
LTE Signal Generation
Signal Studio Software
User-friendly, parameterized and reconfigurable 3GPP
LTE signal generation software for use in conjunction
with Agilent ESG-C or MXG RF Signal Generators.

• Current Status
• Spectrally correct version available since April 07
• Fully coded version released recently
• Now based on TS 36.211 V8.0.0
– DL Physical channel framing
– Reference signal, Synchronization signal
– PDSCH, PDSCH, PDCCH, PBCH
– UL Physical channel framing
– Reference signal (Demodulation and Sounding)
– PUSCH, PUCCH, PRACH
E4438C (ESG-
(ESG-C)
N5182A (MXG)

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 53
LTE Signal Generation
N7624B Signal Studio V3.0.0.0 September 2007
Just released Signal
Studio V3.0.0.0.
Build your own
custom LTE signals
Based on the latest
V8.0.0 (Sept 07)
LTE physical layer
specifications
RF playback
requires instrument
license (free 14-day
trial license
available)

Download now at: www.agilent.com/find/signalstudio


Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 54
LTE Parametric Signal Analysis
• Analyzes all LTE modulation types: BPSK,
QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM, CAZAC, and
OSxPRS
• Covers all bandwidths: 1.4MHz (6RB) to
20MHz (96/100 RB)
• Handles UL and DL, normal and extended
Cyclic Prefix
• Advanced analysis of radio frame, subframe,
resource blocks, and channels
• Auto detection and demodulation of DL user
bursts
• P-SCH, S-SCH, PBCH, PDCCH, RS, PDSCH
and PUSCH analysis
• EVM = -50dB (measurement platform
dependent)
Concepts of 3GPP LTE Agilent Confidential

Page 55 13 Aug 2007


LTE Signal Analysis
Downlink Capabilities (based on 36.211 V8.0.0)
• Synchronisation to ADS 2006U1(or U2).407 Dev 1
generated LTE Downlink signals
• Supports Antenna Port 0..3 RS pilot
subcarrier/symbol mappings per TS36.211 OS and
PN9 PRS
• Supports latest PSCH using ZC root indices 25, 29,
34 for cell ID Groups 0, 1, 2 respectively.
• Auto detect / report RS Orthogonal Sequence
• Auto detection of RS PRS
• Latest RS subcarrier antenna mappings
• PDCCH can occupy the first L OFDM symbols in
first slot of subframe, where L<=3.
• User can configure PDCCH symbol allocations on a
subframe-by-subframe resolution.
• Demod. user specified Slot# and OFDM symbol#
• User definition of up to 6 PDSCH 2D Data Bursts
for EVM analysis (format QPSK, QAM16, QAM64)
• Downlink frequency lock range approximately +/-
22.5kHz
Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 56
Analyzing OFDM impairments using 89601A
• This downlink
signals shows a
common OFDM Allocation Image
impairment where
the allocated
subcarriers have
an image
• The distortion that
create this image
was 0.1dB IQ gain
imbalance
• The lower trace EVM by subcarrier
shows the
increased EVM at
the image
• Requirements will
be developed to
limit the image

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 57
LTE Signal Analysis
Uplink Capabilities (based on 36.211 V8.0.0)
• Synchronisation to ADS 2006U1(or U2).407
Dev1 generated LTE Uplink signals
• Multiple resource block allocations restricted to
sub carrier DFT sizes which are multiples of 2,
3 and 5 as per current 3GPP working
assumption.
• The DM RS Pilot symbol is located in 4th
symbol (i.e. sym=3) of allocated slots.
• Demodulation of user specified SC-FDMA
symbol# within a Slot of Radio Frame
• Assumes DM RS Pilot symbol contains Zadoff-
Chu Sequence mapped to every subcarrier
within allocated contiguous RB size.
• User definition of PUSCH two-dimensional
Data Bursts for EVM analysis (format QPSK,
16QAM, 64QAM)
• Supports Half-Subcarrier-Shift = On/Off
• Uplink frequency lock range approx. +/- 7.5kHz

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 58
LTE Signal Analysis - Measurements

• Sync Correlation • Channel EVM table metrics


• Freq Error (Hz) – Downlink supports P-SCH, S-SCH,
• IQ Offset (dB) RS Pilot, PBCH, PDCCH, PDSCH
• EVM (%RMS and dB), EVM Peak 01 thru 06 (dB, %rms, %pk, Peak
(%pk and sub carrier location) Loc'n)
• Data EVM (%rms and dB), EVM Peak – Uplink supports DM Pilot, PUSCH
(%pk and sub carrier location) (dB, %rms, %pk, Peak Loc'n)
• Pilot EVM (%rms and dB), EVM Peak • Channel Power table metrics
(%pk and sub carrier location) – Downlink supports P-SCH, S-SCH,
• Common Pilot Error (%rms) RS Pilot, PBCH, PDCCH, PDSCH
01 thru 06 (dB relative to un-
• Symbol Clock Error (ppm)
boosted reference)
• CP Length
– Uplink supports DM Pilot, PUSCH
• Slot #, Symbol # (dB relative to un-boosted
reference)

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 59
LTE Signal Analysis – Trace views

• Channel Freq Response (Adj. Diff Mag Spectral Flatness,


Magnitude, Phase, Group Delay)
• Common Pilot Error (Magnitude, Phase)
• Differential Pilot Error (Timing)
• EVM Spectrum (composite EVM displayed per Sub-Carrier, or per Resource
Block)
• EVM Time (composite EVM displayed per OFDMA/SC-FDMA symbol)
• Power Spectrum (composite Power displayed per Sub-Carrier, or per Resource
Block)
• Power Time (composite Power displayed per OFDMA/SC-FDMA symbol)
• Symbol Demod IQ Constellation/Vector
• Symbol Demod Spectrum Magnitude
• Symbol Demod Time Magnitude
• Symbol Data (Demodulated symbol bits represented as two hexadecimal
characters per sub carrier)

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 60
Spectrum Analyzer HW platforms

• PSA with 40MHz or 80MHz analysis BW


• Can be used as RF front end to external PC where
89601A VSA based LTE application is running

• MXA with 25MHz analysis BW


• Can be used as RF front end to external PC where
89601A VSA based LTE application is running
• Since MXA is a windows product, the 89601A software
can run inside the instrument

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 61
LTE Integrated Mobile Test Platform

initial introduction: Mid-2008

Scalable single box solution


• 2G/3G/3.9G capable
• 20MHz BW RF conformance test
t s
• 2x2 MIMO en GSM/GPRS, W-CDMA/HSPA
• 2 cells em
• RF parametric measurements a nc
2x2 MIMO
e nh
• Signalling Conformance Test
ned Protocol conformance test
• RF Conformance Test an
Pl
Full LTE signalling stack

RF parametric measurements

RLC/MAC interface for protocol test

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 62
In summary – Agilent & LTE
• Support for early R&D in components, base station equipment, mobile devices
and network deployment with design automation tools and flexible
instrumentation, based on measurement platforms available today
ADS AVAILABLE TODAY
Agilent will refine test Software
solutions and introduce Demod * Used today for LTE development
tools for product integration Analysis SW * Commitment – LTE specific features
as development progresses Logic
to initial functional Analyzer * Digital VSA tools available Today
prototypes.
Signal
Generation AVAILABLE TODAY
Agilent will be ready with
manufacturing test Signal * Used today for LTE development
capability for early ramp-up Analysis * Commitment – LTE specific Features
Integrated mobile
Agilent will provide the test platform * Commitment – LTE specific Features
tools needed for Service Protocol
Provider deployment Analysis
* Commitment – LTE specific Features

Network * Commitment – LTE specific Features


Optimization

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 63
Agilent LTE Brochure
5989-6331EN
www.agilent.com/find/lte

Concepts of 3GPP LTE

Page 64