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MANUAL TESTING:

TESTING:
It is the process of checking the efficiency of the system/software

Manual testing is the process where a human will interact with the system to validate
its correctness.

Software: it is a set of programs or instructions to perform a specific task

It can be categorised into 2:

1. SYSTEM S/W:

System s/w is an interface between the hardware components and the front end
application (application s/w)

It is a platform on which the application s/w can be used or executed

Ex: windows, Linux, UNIX, Solaris, apple mackintosh

2. APPLICATION S/W:
It is the s/w which is designed to perform the end user/customer needs.

It is nothing but the user interface which interacts with the database in order to
manipulate the data

Ex: ms office, yahoo, gmail, qtp.....

TESTING OBJECTIVES:

Is to identify the defects in the work product before it is delivered to the


customer/client

TESTING PRICIPLES:

1. Every test should have a high probability of identifying the defects


2. Exhaustive testing is impossible
3. Testing is a pesticide paradox.
4. Testing should start at very initial stage of the development life cycle/process

Why Do We Need Testing In An S/W Development Process?

1. To ensure the software is designed and developed as per the customer expectations.
2. In order to identify the defects in the work product
3. To ensure the customer satisfaction
4. To reduce the cost to customers in reinvesting on fixing the defects
5. To deliver a quality product to the customers
6. To build a healthy relationship with the customers.
Why Does A S/W Appln Has Defects:

1. Poor requirements
2. Improper planning
3. Poor design and coding
4. Inadequate testing
5. Miscommunication

DEFINITIONS FOR TESTING:

1. It is intent of identifying the defects in a work product


2. It is to ensure the system is developed as per the customer expectations
3. It is a process of verification and validation
4. It is a process of identifying the unidentified defects in the work product

SOFTWARE QUALITY:

Quality can be termed as developing a s/w which is relatively bug free, which is
reliable and which is developed in time and within the specified budget.

COSTS OF DEFECT REPAIR/FIXING:

The cost of defect fix will always increase when we move stage by stage in
development process...

It is less expensive in the initial stages and very high expensive if the product is in
customer's site.

SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (SDLC):

Software engineering: it is the process of designing and developing a software


application as per the customer expectations/needs.

SDLC is the collection of various stages in the software engineering.

IT MAINLY CONSISTS OF 6 STAGES:

Feasibility analysis
Requirement collection
Design
Coding
Testing
Release and maintenance

Feasibility analysis: it is an estimation phase where a vendor will have to perform a


detailed study by analysing the need of the customer to be fulfilled.

It is a high level activity which is performed by a team of business analysts along with
the project managers.
It is otherwise called as project estimation or a business commit phase where the
customer and the vendor will commit a project implementation.

AS PART OF FEASIBILITY THE MANAGERS WILL HAVE TO LOOK INTO


SEVERAL FACTORS LIKE:

1. DOMAIN:

It is the collection of common set of characteristics/ functionalities which can be


performed.

Ex: banking, finance, insurance, marketing, retail, enterprise applications, networking,


telecom, investments......

2. TECHNOLOGY:

The technology which is required to implement the s/w should be analyzed.

Ex: c,c++, vb,vb.net.asp.net,java,ejbs,j2ee.....

RESOURCES:
As part of resources, there can be three:

1. S/W:
Operating system, database browser (ie,netscape,mozilla)

2. H/W:
It is the system configurations along with the networks.

Hard disk, ram, processor, mother board and the network connectivity

3. HUMAN RESOURCE:
The human resources along with the technical skills to implement the project.

It is a mixture of various resources with different exposures.

The hierarchy might be:

Managers, leads and team members...

4.TIME:
Total time required to implement the software.

5. BUDGET: TOTAL COST OF THE PROJECT


All the stages from requirement collection to release are considered as execute
commit.

REQUIREMENT COLLECTION:

It is collection of the needs of the customer.


The needs can be:
BUSINESS AND FUNCTIONAL NEEDS:

The team responsible for requirement collection. It can be a combination of managers,


leads, analysts or any other senior persons in the team

There can two different documents as part of requirements collection:

1. BUSINESS REQUIREMENTS:
The document which consists of all the business needs can be called as BRS (business
requirement specifications)

BRS is a high level document which has the overview of the entire business along
with the business transactions/process in a business.

2. FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS:
Functional requirements can be otherwise called as system requirements or software
requirements

Collection of these can be called as:


Frs: functional requirement specifications
Srs: system requirement specifications
Srs: software requirement specifications
Fd: functional documents

A functional requirement is a detailed document which consists of the functional and


non functional aspects in order to implement/achieve the business transaction or a
process mentioned in BRS document.

A functional spec document often consists of the positive and negative flow of events
in order to implement a business process.

A functional spec can be a combination of use cases, prototypes, flow chart and data
flow diagrams.

DESIGN:
Designing the software system, like the navigations to be implemented in performing
the transactions.
System design is often carried out by the design architects

IT IS DONE IN 2 PHASES:
HIGH LEVEL DESIGN (HLD)
It is also called as architectural design, where the complete navigation of the system is
designed (like pages, screens or windows)

LOW LEVEL DESIGN (LLD)


As part of low level design, the components with in a screen or page is designed along
with the databases.
Components of the user interfaces like the page elements in a given page and database
components like tables, fields, constraints, data types...

CODING:
It is also called as implementation phase, which is generally carried out by the
programmers or developers.

In this the business and functional requirements of the customers are converted into a
software system by implementing the programs/source code/logic using a
programming language

This phase converts the static application into a dynamic application, which is ready
for the human interactions.

It is also called a transition phase.

TESTING:
The test engineers are responsible for validating the developed (dynamic) system to
ensure its correctness or to ensure that the system meets the customer needs.

It is a process of validating the system in order to identify the defects/deviations

RELEASE AND MAINTENANCE:

RELEASE: Once the system test and the acceptance test is completed on the work
product, the product/software/system/application is delivered to the customer for
further usage, and this process is called as release/production/go-live

MAINTENANCE: Maintain the software by the development team (vendors) after


production move for a specific period of time as per the initial agreement is called as
maintenance.

Vendor team will not be charging for the maintenance and would be addressing the
issues if any problems at customer's site.

DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE MODELS:

Based on the requirements and the needs of the customer there can be a specific
model adopted in order to implement a s/w application

1. Waterfall model:
2. Incremental model:

It is also similar to the water fall model; there will be no overlapping between the
stages in the development process

In this model also the testing starts only after coding.

With every set of requirements there will be working software delivered to the
customer for usage.