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Voice Call Handover Scheme between 3G LTE and 3G CS Network

Kyungmin Kim

The Graduate School

Yonsei University

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Voice Call Handover Scheme between 3G LTE and 3G CS Network

A Masters Thesis

Submitted to the Department of Electrical and Electronic

Engineering and the Graduate School of Yonsei University

in partial fulfillment of the

requirements for the degree of

Master of science

Kyungmin Kim

December 2007

This certifies that the masters thesis of Kyungmin Kim is approved.

Thesis Supervisor: [Jaiyong Lee]

[Seong-Lyun Kim]

[Jang-Won Lee]

The Graduate School Yonsei University December 2007

List of Contents

List

of Contents

 

i

List of Figures

iii

List of Tables

v

Abbreviation

vi

Abstract

viii

Chapter 1 Introduction

1

Chapter 2 Overview of Existing Approaches for SRSC

3

 

2.1 Combinational approach

3

2.2 Call Re-establish Approach

5

 

2.2.1 3GPP R7 VCC Review

5

2.2.2 Call Re-establishment Approach

8

 

2.3 Gateway Approach

11

Chapter 3 FW_MME Scheme Description

14

 

3.1 Motivation

 

14

3.2 Functionality of FW_MME

14

3.3 LTE to CS Handover Procedure

15

 

3.3.1 LTE Originating Call flow

16

3.3.2 LTE to CS Handover Procedure

18

 

3.4 CS to LTE Handover Procedure

19

 

3.4.1 CS Originating Call flow

20

3.4.2 CS to LTE Handover Procedure

21

Chapter 4 Analysis and Evaluation

25

 

4.1

Models for Mathematical Analysis

25

 

4.1.1

Radio Link Delay

25

i

4.1.2 Network Node Queueing Delay

26

4.1.3 Internet and Remote Network Delay

28

4.2 Mathematical Analysis of Service Interruption Time

29

4.2.1 Analytic Expressions for Partial Procedures

29

4.2.2 Analytic Expressions for Service Interruption time

31

4.3 Numerical Result

35

4.3.1 Service Interruption Time Comparison

35

4.3.2 Service Interruption Time and Error Rate of Air

37

Chapter 5 Conclusion

42

References

44

ii

List of Figures

Figure 2.1 Combination of existing handover schemes

3

Figure 2.2 Coverage assumption of combinational approach

4

Figure 2.3 Conceptual operation of R7 VCC

5

Figure 2.4 R7 VCC handover signal flow: from PS to CS

6

Figure 2.5 R7 VCC handover fignal flow: from CS to PS

7

Figure 2.6 Conceptual operation of call re-establishment

8

Figure 2.8 Call re-establishment handover signal flow: form CS to LTE

10

Figure 2.9 Conceptual operation of gateway approach

11

Figure 2.10 Gateway approach handover signal flow: from LTE to CS

12

Figure 2.11 Gateway approach handover signal flow: from CS to LTE

13

Figure 3.1 Functionalities of FW_MME

14

Figure 3.2 LTE originating call diagram

16

Figure 3.3 LTE originating call flow

17

Figure 3.4 LTE to CS handover signal flow

18

Figure 3.5 CS originating call diagram

20

Figure 3.6 LTE originating call flow

21

Figure 3.7 CS to LTE handover signal flow

22

Figure 4.1 M/M/1 queueing model of network node

26

Table 4.1 Arrival rate of each network node

27

Table 4.2 Service rate of each network node

27

Figure 4.2 M/G/1 queueing model of network node

28

Figure 4.3 CS attachment signal flow

29

Figure 4.4 PDP context activation

30

Figure 4.5 IMS registration

31

iii

Figure 4.6 Signal flow of call re-establishment: LTE to CS handover

32

Figure 4.7 Signal flow of call re-establishment: CS to LTE handover

33

Figure 4.7 Signal flow of gateway approach: LTE to CS handover

34

Figure 4.8 Signal flow of gateway approach: CS to LTE handover

34

Figure 4.9 Service interruption time for LTE to CS handover

35

Figure 4.10 Service interruption time for CS to LTE handover

36

Figure 4.11 LTE to CS service interruption time vs. frame error rate

37

Figure 4.12 CS to LTE service interruption time vs. frame error rate

38

Figure 4.13 Service interruption time vs. propagation delay of air

39

Figure 4.14 Service interruption time vs. queueing delay variation of network node

40

Figure 4.15 Service interruption time vs. queueing delay variation of network node:

40

iv

List of Tables

Table 4.1 Arrival rate of each network node

27

Table 4.2 Service rate of each network node……

27

v

Abbreviation

3G

3 rd Generation

3G LTE

3 rd Generation Long Term Evolution

3GPP

3 rd Generation Partnership Project

BS

Base Station (or Node B)

BSS

Base Station Subsystem

CS

Circuit Switched

CSCF

Call Session Control Function

ENB

Enhanced Node B (or BS)

I-CSCF

Interrogating-CSCF

IMS

IP Multimedia Subsystem

IMT

International Mobile Telecommunication

IMPI

IP Multimedia Private Identity

IMPU

IP Multimedia Public User identity

IMSI

International Mobile Subscriber Identity

IP

Internet Protocol

MGCF

Media Gateway Control Function

MGW

Media GateWay

MIH

Media Independent Handover

MME

Mobility Management Entity

MSC

Mobile service Switching Center

P-CSCF

Proxy-CSCF

PDP

Packet Data Protocol

PS

Packet Switched

R7

Release 7

vi

RLP

Radio Link Protocol

RRC

Radio Resource Control

SAE

System Architecture Evolution

S-CSCF

Serving-CSCF

SIP

Session Initiation Protocol

SRSC

Single Radio Service Continuity

TMSI

Temporal IMSI

UA

User Agent

UE

User Equipment

UMTS

Universal Mobile Telecommunication System

VCC

Voice Call Continuity

VoIP

Voice over IP

vii

Abstract

Voice Call Handover Scheme between 3G LTE and 3G CS Net- work

Kyungmin Kim Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering The Graduate School Yonsei University

Convergence of different network technologies is major trend of today's network evolution. Therefore many network technologies coexist and each technology has different coverage and different characteristic. In this environment, mobile node can move between heterogeneous network technologies, and it can disrupt the continuity of ongoing session. Hence, the seam- less handover scheme between different network technologies is necessarily required that is called as inter-system handover. Inter-system handover has several difficulties that different characteristic of network systems, network inter-working problem, and radio resource limita- tion.

Voice call handover between 3G LTE and 3G CS network is a kind of inter-system hand- over that today’s hot issue of 3GPP working group. To make a handover scheme between 3G LTE and 3G CS, there are two critical problems that lack of interface between two network systems and radio resource limitation to single radio. Moreover the characteristic of voice call is very sensitive to service interruption time. Accordingly a special low latency handover scheme is required to provide seamless service.

In this paper, the performances of existing inter-system handover schemes are evaluated.

viii

And an enhanced voice call handover scheme between 3G LTE and 3G CS system is proposed. Also service interruption times of each handover scheme are analyzed. The result of the analy- sis shows that the proposed scheme has the smallest service interruption time and only pro- posed scheme can satisfy the strict requirement of service interruption time of voice call hand- over that less than 300 ms. And finally we conclude that we can provide seamless voice call handover using proposed scheme.

.Key words : Voice-Call, Handover, 3G LTE, ,3G CS, Inter-system,

ix

Chapter 1 Introduction

All IP convergence and inter-working between different network technologies are hot issues of today’s network evolution. Since each network technology has different characteristic, to couple different network technologies is difficult to effect. And many legacy telecommunica- tion network systems do not support IP service, it is another problem of network evolution to all IP convergence.

3G LTE system is one of a leading candidate for next generation network system. It assumes IP based PS only network and voice call should be served by VoIP. Since 3G LTE system is expected to have hot spot coverage, 3G system will exists as an infrastructure system of 3G LTE system. Accordingly, voice call handover between 3G LTE system and 3G CS system is necessarily required to provide seamless service. But complete handover scheme for 3G LTE and 3G CS system does not exist.

To enable handover between 3G LTE and 3G CS, there are two critical problems. First prob- lem is the absence of network interface between two network systems. For legacy intra-system handover, network level backward handover can be executed by the inter-working of network entities that exist in same network system. But for inter-system handover, network level backward handover is hard to be achieved due to the absence of network interface. Hence lar- ger handover latency is prospected compare to intra-system handover. The second problem is the limitation of radio resource. For 3G LTE and 3G CS system, we can't use dual radio simul- taneously because of spectrum interference and battery consumption issues. For this reason, the voice call handover scenario between 3G LTE and 3G CS system is called as SRSC (Sin- gle Radio Service Continuity). Therefore, for SRSC scenario, we can't use existing 'make be- fore break' schemes like 3GPP VCC or IEEE 802.21 MIH that based on dual radio capability. Thus we cannot but use 'break before make’ scheme that causes larger service interruption time.

1

There are some approaches to solve the problem of SRSC. They are categorized as three categories that combinational approach, call re-establishment approach, and gateway approach. First combinational approach has many problems that inefficient and indirect handover proc- ess, network coverage problem, and large service interruption time. Second call re- establishment approach provides direct and provides simpler handover process compare to the combinational approach. But it also has large service interruption time problem. The last gate- way approach has the smallest service interruption time among the tree approaches. But still the service interruption time is unacceptable because to satisfy the strict requirement of voice call and detailed session immigration procedure does not defined. Also authentication and security problems should be concerned to be a complete solution. Therefore a new advanced handover scheme that can satisfy the requirement for voice call is necessarily required.

The remainder of this paper is organized as follows: Section 2, we study about the three ap- proaches solving SRSC problems. In section 3, the proposed FW_MME scheme is presented and also detailed handover procedure is explained. In section 4, the performance analysis of schemes for SRSC is done. And from the analysis, we compare the performance and confirm the superiority of proposed scheme. And finally at section 6, we conclude this paper.

2

Chapter 2 Overview of Existing Approaches for SRSC

Approaches that solving SRSC problem can be categorized as three categories that combi- national approach [1] [2], call re-establishment approach [3], and gateway approach [4] [5] [6]. Each approach has its own pros and cons, but no one can completely solve the problem of SRSC.

2.1 Combinational approach

3G LTE

3G UMTS PS

3G UMTS CS

2.1 Combinational approach 3G LTE 3G UMTS PS 3G UMTS CS < PS to PS Handover
2.1 Combinational approach 3G LTE 3G UMTS PS 3G UMTS CS < PS to PS Handover

< PS to PS Handover >

< R7 VCC Handover >

Figure 2.1 Combination of existing handover schemes

This approach does not use any new scheme for SRSC and uses only existing handover methods and signaling. Figure 2.1 presents the conceptual operation of combinational ap- proach. In this approach, when a mobile executes handover between 3G LTE and 3G UMTS CS network, 3G UMTS PS network is necessarily required as an intermediate system. Thus when LTE to CS handover occurs, LTE to UMTS PS handover is preceded and then, UMTS PS to UMTS CS handover is progressed and vice versa for UMTS CS to LTE handover direc- tion.

3

3G UMTS CS 3G UMTS PS 3G LTE Figure 2.2 Coverage assumption of combinational approach
3G UMTS CS
3G UMTS PS
3G LTE
Figure 2.2 Coverage assumption of combinational approach

By this inter-mediate network requirement, the network coverage of each network tech- nologies is assumed as figure 2.2. To execute handover between LTE and UMTS PS system, PS to PS handover method that will be included in 3GPP LTE standard is used. And For hand- over between UMTS PS and UMTS CS, 3GPP R7 VCC method is used [7].

The advantage of this approach is that no modification to existing network system and no requirement of new network entity or signaling. But the handover process is very complicated and can't perform direct handover between two target network systems. Hence very large ser- vice interruption time is prospected ant it will be too large to support voice call handover. Also it has limitation of network coverage and many countries like North America can't satisfy this requirement of coverage limitation.

4

2.2 Call Re-establish Approach

Second approach is call re-establish approach. The concept of this approach is based on R7 VCC and some modifications are added to solve the SRSC problem. Since the R7 VCC is the foundation of call re-establishment approach, we need to review the R7 VCC and then we study about call re-establishment approach.

2.2.1 3GPP R7 VCC Review

call re-establishment approach. 2.2.1 3GPP R7 VCC Review Figure 2.3 Conceptual operation of R7 VCC R7

Figure 2.3 Conceptual operation of R7 VCC

R7 VCC is a kind of handover method between 3G UMTS PS and UMTS CS network. Dif- ferently to SRSC scenario, R7 VCC is dual radio based scheme that UE can use dual radio simultaneously. Therefore, when handover occurs, UE makes a new access leg with target

5

network domain while maintaining existing access leg which UE have kept. And by the func- tion of domain transfer in VCC application server, the old access leg is switched to new access leg. And then, by releasing of the old network resource the handover procedure completed. In this case, 'make before break' method is used.

UE UMTS domain Visited IMS Home IMS MSC/ MGCF/ Remote CS IMS RNC P-CSCF I-CSCF
UE
UMTS domain
Visited IMS
Home IMS
MSC/
MGCF/
Remote
CS
IMS
RNC
P-CSCF
I-CSCF
I-CSCF
S-CSCF
VCC AS
MGW
MGW
End
IP Bearer
2. CC Setup
3. CAMEL
4. IAM
5.
INVITE
6.
INVITE
7.
reINVITE
8. reINVITE
10. 183 session progress
11.
183
12.
183
13. 183
session
progress
Internet
14.
PRACK
15.
PRACK
16.
PRACK
17.
PRACK
18.
200 OK
19.
200
OK
20.
ACK
21.
200
22. 200 OK
OK
23. ANM
24. CC Connect
26. ACK
27.
ACK
25.
CC Connect ACK
28.
ACK
29. ACK
CS
Bearer
IP Bearer

Figure 2.4 R7 VCC handover signal flow: from PS to CS

6

UE UMTS domain Home IMS MSC/ MGCF/ Remote CS IMS RNC SGSN GGSN P-CSCF S-CSCF
UE
UMTS domain
Home IMS
MSC/
MGCF/
Remote
CS
IMS
RNC
SGSN
GGSN
P-CSCF
S-CSCF
VCC AS
MGW
MGW
End
IP Bearer
CS Bearer
1. PDP
Context Activation
2. IMS Registration
3.
INVITE
4.
INVITE
5.
INVITE
6.
reINVITE
7. reINVITE
8. 183 session progress
9.
183
11.
183
10.
183
12. 183 session progress
Internet
13.
PRACK
14.
15.
PRACK
PRACK
16.
PRACK
17. PRACK
18. 200 OK
1.
200 OK
21.
200 OK
20.
200 OK
22. 200 OK
23. ACK
24.
ACK
25.
ACK
IP Bearer
27. BYE
26.
BYE
28. REL
29. RLC
30. Disconnect
32. 200 OK
33.
200 OK
31. Release

Figure 2.5 R7 VCC handover fignal flow: from CS to PS

Figure 2.4 presents the detailed signal flow of PS to CS handover and figure 2.5 presents the detailed signal flow of CS to PS handover. Though some detailed procedures are different, the basic operation of both directions is same in wide sense.

7

2.2.2 Call Re-establishment Approach

Remote Leg Remote IMS Announcemnet VCC AS CS access leg PS access leg LTE domain
Remote Leg
Remote
IMS
Announcemnet
VCC AS
CS access leg
PS access leg
LTE domain
CS domain
LTE
CS

Figure 2.6 Conceptual operation of call re-establishment

Dissimilarly to R7 VCC, UE can't use dual radio in SRSC scenario. Thus ‘make before break’ can't be used and ‘break before make’ is used alternatively. When handover occurs, beforehand UE changes its access leg, IMS VCC application server makes bearer for an- nouncement to remote party. The function of this announcing bearer is to announce the state of UE that it is in handover state and service will be interrupted for a while. After that UE re- leases its old access leg and makes a new access leg with target network. And afterward this process, the announcing bearer between MRF and remote party is switched to new end-to-end bearer. Figure 2.6 presents the conceptual operation of call re-establishment approach.

8

UE IMS LTE CS MSC MME MGCF IM-MGW MRF I-CSCF S-CSCF AS Remote IP Bearer
UE
IMS
LTE
CS
MSC
MME
MGCF
IM-MGW
MRF
I-CSCF
S-CSCF
AS
Remote
IP Bearer
Notify (LTE to CS
transition indication)
Notify
200 OK
200
OK
CCCF request announcement port on MRF
UPDATE
(SDP MRF
endpoint )
Service Interruption
UPDATE (SDP MRF endpoint)
200
OK
200
OK
Bearer for announcemnet
Notify (
PS to CS transition Preparation
complete)
Notify
UE releases LTE radio and
changes its domain to 3G CS
RRC setup and registration with MSC
Setup
IAM
INVITE
INVITE
UPDATE
(Offer MGCF)
UPDATE (Offer MGCF)
200
OK
200
OK
200 OK
200
OK
ANM
Connect
CS Bearer
IP Bearer

Figure 2.7 Call re-establishment handover signal flow: from LTE to CS

9

UE IMS LTE CS MSC MME MGCF IM-MGW MRF I-CSCF S-CSCF AS Remote CS bearer
UE
IMS
LTE
CS
MSC
MME
MGCF
IM-MGW
MRF
I-CSCF
S-CSCF
AS
Remote
CS bearer
IP bearer
CS to PS transition Notification via USSD
CCCF request announcement port on MRF
UPDATE
(SDP MRF
endpoint )
Service
Interruption
UPDATE (SDP MRF endpoint)
200
OK
200
OK
Bearer for announcemnet
CS to PS transition Prepare complete Notification via USSD
UE releases CS radio and
changes its domain to LTE
RRC setup and
registration
INVITE
INVITE
UPDATE
(Offer MGCF)
UPDATE (Offer MGCF)
200
OK
200
OK
200 OK
200
OK
ACK
ACK
IP Bearer

Figure 2.8 Call re-establishment handover signal flow: form CS to LTE

Figure 2.7 and 2.8 present the detailed signal flow of call re-establishment approach for both directions of handover. To enable these operations, some modifications are required to R7 VCC application server.

The advantages of call re-establishment approach are that direct handover between two do- mains can be achieved and little effect to existing network system. Also this approach can be applicable to other handover scenarios. But the critical disadvantage is large service interrup- tion time.

10

2.3 Gateway Approach

Remote Leg Remote IMS VCC AS CS access leg PS access leg Voice IWF LTE
Remote Leg
Remote
IMS
VCC AS
CS access leg
PS access leg
Voice
IWF
LTE domain
CS domain
Prepare
Prepare
Handover
Handover
LTE
CS
Figure 2.9 Conceptual operation of gateway approach

The last approach to solve SRSC is gateway approach. In this approach, a special signaling gateway is introduced to enable inter-working between 3G LTE and 3G CS system. By the function of this gateway, the two network system can execute network level backward hand- over to each other. The main advantage of this approach is relatively small service interruption time. Figure 2.9 presents the conceptual operation of gateway approach

11

UE LTE CS IMS MGCF/ LTE CS ENB MME RNC MSC Gateway CSCF AS Remote
UE
LTE
CS
IMS
MGCF/
LTE
CS
ENB
MME
RNC
MSC
Gateway
CSCF
AS
Remote
MGW
IP Bearer
Measurement Report
HO
Required
Handover Request
MAP HO
Request
Relocation
Request
Relocation
Request ACK
MAP HO
Response
Handover Prepare Response
Handover Command
Service
Interruption
RRC Setup
Handover Complete
Relocation
Complete
Setup
IAM
INVITE
INVITE
reINVITE
reINVITE
200 OK
200
OK
200 OK
OK
200
ANM
Connect
CS Bearer
IP Bearer

Figure 2.10 Gateway approach handover signal flow: from LTE to CS

12

UE LTE CS IMS MGCF/ LTE CS ENB MME RNC MSC Gateway CSCF AS Remote
UE
LTE
CS
IMS
MGCF/
LTE
CS
ENB
MME
RNC
MSC
Gateway
CSCF
AS
Remote
MGW
CS Bearer
IP Bearer
Measurement Report
HO
Required
Handover
Request
HO Request
Radio Resource
Reservation
HO Response
HO Prepare
Response
Handover Command
Service
Interruption
RRC Setup
Handover Complete
Relocation Complete
PDP Context Activation
IMS registration
INVITE
INVITE
reINVITE
reINVITE
200 OK
200
OK
200 OK
OK
200
IP Bearer

Figure 2.11 Gateway approach handover signal flow: from CS to LTE

Figure 2.10 and 2.11 present the detailed signal flow of gateway approach for both hand- over directions. But still the service interruption time exceed 500 ms following our analysis and this is unacceptable for voice call handover. Additionally, session level detailed immigra- tion and authentication and security problems does not fully considered. Hence to be a com- plete solution for SRSC, more research is required.

13

Chapter 3 FW_MME Scheme Description

3.1 Motivation

Since voice call is very sensitive to service interruption time, the service interruption time should be smaller than 300ms to provide seamless service. But to satisfy this requirement, SRSC has two critical problems that lack of interface between two target networks and single radio limitation. And these problems make hard to achieve seamless handover. As we see above, there are three approaches to solve the problem of SRSC, but they are not only incom- plete but also can't satisfy the requirement of voice call. Therefore we need to propose a new, handover scheme that has service interruption time less than 300 ms [8] and contains all de- tailed procedure including session level immigration, authentication and security.

3.2 Functionality of FW_MME

authentication and security. 3.2 Functionality of FW_MME Figure 3.1 Functionalities of FW_MME To satisfy our goal

Figure 3.1 Functionalities of FW_MME

To satisfy our goal that less than 300 ms service interruption time, network level fast hand- over is essentially required and to enable network level fast handover, network interface be- tween two target networks is necessarily required. Therefore we introduce a new network en- tity FW_MME (Full Working Mobility Management Entity) and its major role is to support

14

inter-working of 3G LTE and 3G CS system. For 3G LTE system, MME manages the mobility of UE and FW_MME is a kind of a MME that is placed in 3G LTE system. Differently to MME, FW_MME has several additional functions to provide seamless voice call handover for between 3G LTE and 3G CS system. Figure 3.1 presents the functionalities of FW_MME. First, to support LTE-CS inter-working, FW_MME have MME and MSC functionality. And then FW_MME have MGCF and MGW functionality to support seamless session immigration. Additionally FW_MME has SIP UA functionality to support optimization of handover proce- dure and to reduce service interruption time. Detailed operation of FW_MME and practical usage of each function will be described with detailed handover process and signal flow.

3.3 LTE to CS Handover Procedure

Handover can occur for both directions that from LTE to CS, and from CS to LTE. First, we study about the LTE to CS direction handover and at next section we study about CS to LTE direction handover.

15

3.3.1 LTE Originating Call flow

AS Remote End
AS
Remote
End

IMS Domain

P-CSCF S-CSCF CS Domain LTE Domain MSC FW_MME SAE Gateway MGW BSS ENB UE-CS UE-LTE
P-CSCF
S-CSCF
CS Domain
LTE Domain
MSC
FW_MME
SAE Gateway
MGW
BSS
ENB
UE-CS
UE-LTE

Control PlaneMSC FW_MME SAE Gateway MGW BSS ENB UE-CS UE-LTE User Plane Figure 3.2 LTE originating call

User PlaneSAE Gateway MGW BSS ENB UE-CS UE-LTE Control Plane Figure 3.2 LTE originating call diagram To

Figure 3.2 LTE originating call diagram

To understand the process of LTE to CS handover, first we need to define the architecture of network systems and also modify the originating call flow. Figure 3.2 presents the architec- tural diagram of originating call flow when UE initiate a call from 3G LTE system. Hence UE has uses its LTE radio to make a new call. The control path formulated through ENB, IMS CSCF and IMS application server. And the user bearer path formulated through ENB and SAE gateway.

16

UE CS LTE IMS MSC/ FW_ SAE AS Remote UE-CS UE-LTE BSS ENB P-CSCF S-CSCF
UE
CS
LTE
IMS
MSC/
FW_
SAE
AS
Remote
UE-CS
UE-LTE
BSS
ENB
P-CSCF
S-CSCF
MGW
MME
Gateway
(Proxy)
End
1.
INVITE
2.
INVITE
3.
INVITE
4.
INVITE
5.
INVITE
6.
200 OK
7.
200 OK
HLR
10.
200 OK
9.
200 OK
8.
200 OK
11. MME query
UA
12.
13. MESSAGE
MESSAGE
[call info.]
[call info.]
IP Bearer

Figure 3.3 LTE originating call flow

Figure 3.3 presents the detailed call flow of LTE originated call. To describe the detailed operation, we need to refer figure 3.3.

Procedure 1~5: UE sends SIP INVITE message to initiate a VoIP session and the INVITE message transferred to IMS P-CSCF. Then the INVITE message transferred to S-CSCF and application server. Then the application server sends the INVITE message to remote party. At this point, every originating call for UE is anchored at IMS application server and it manages the call state and provides session immigration capability when handover occurs.

Procedure 6~10: 200 OK response is transferred to UE through the network entities in re- verse order of procedure 1~5

Procedure 11~13: IMS application server queries the address of FW_MME and registers FW_MME as the SIP UA of UE and send the call information to FW_MME. Using thie in- formation, FW_MME act as SIP UA of UE in the handover process.

17

3.3.2 LTE to CS Handover Procedure

UE

UE-CS

UE-LTE

3.3.2 LTE to CS Handover Procedure UE UE-CS UE-LTE CS BSS MSC/ MGW 1. Measurement Report

CS

BSS

MSC/

MGW

1. Measurement Report

UE UE-CS UE-LTE CS BSS MSC/ MGW 1. Measurement Report ENB LTE FW_ MME SAE Gateway

ENB

LTE

FW_

MME

SAE

Gateway

IP Bearer

IMS

P-CSCF

S-CSCF

LTE FW_ MME SAE Gateway IP Bearer IMS P-CSCF S-CSCF AS w/ replaces INVITE 11. w/

AS

FW_ MME SAE Gateway IP Bearer IMS P-CSCF S-CSCF AS w/ replaces INVITE 11. w/ replaces

w/ replaces

INVITE

11.
11.

w/ replaces

Remote

End

S-CSCF AS w/ replaces INVITE 11. w/ replaces Remote End MSC 2. HO Required 9. 10.
S-CSCF AS w/ replaces INVITE 11. w/ replaces Remote End MSC 2. HO Required 9. 10.
MSC 2. HO Required
MSC
2. HO
Required
INVITE 11. w/ replaces Remote End MSC 2. HO Required 9. 10. INVITE 4. HO Request

9.

10. INVITE

w/ replaces Remote End MSC 2. HO Required 9. 10. INVITE 4. HO Request 5. HO
w/ replaces Remote End MSC 2. HO Required 9. 10. INVITE 4. HO Request 5. HO

4. HO

replaces Remote End MSC 2. HO Required 9. 10. INVITE 4. HO Request 5. HO Request

Request

5. HO

Request

2. HO Required 9. 10. INVITE 4. HO Request 5. HO Request Ack 3. Prep HO

Ack

3.

Prep HO Request

6.

INVITE 4. HO Request 5. HO Request Ack 3. Prep HO Request 6. Prep HO Response

Prep HO Response

7. IAM

8. ACM

UA
UA

INVITE w/ replaces

12. INVITE w/ replaces

7. IAM 8. ACM UA INVITE w/ replaces 12. INVITE w/ replaces 13. 200 OK 14.

13.

200 OK

14. 200 OK

w/ replaces 12. INVITE w/ replaces 13. 200 OK 14. 200 OK 200 OK IP Bearer

200 OKw/ replaces 12. INVITE w/ replaces 13. 200 OK 14. 200 OK IP Bearer 16. 200

replaces 12. INVITE w/ replaces 13. 200 OK 14. 200 OK 200 OK IP Bearer 16.

IP Bearer

16. 200 OK

17. BYE 18. BYE 21. BYE 20. BYE 19. BYE 22. 200 OK 23. 200
17. BYE
18. BYE
21. BYE
20. BYE
19. BYE
22. 200 OK
23. 200 OK
24. 200 OK
25. 200 OK
26.
200 OK
MSC
MSC
200 OK 23. 200 OK 24. 200 OK 25. 200 OK 26. 200 OK MSC 27.
200 OK 23. 200 OK 24. 200 OK 25. 200 OK 26. 200 OK MSC 27.

27. HO Command

OK 24. 200 OK 25. 200 OK 26. 200 OK MSC 27. HO Command 28. Radio

28. Radio Setup

25. 200 OK 26. 200 OK MSC 27. HO Command 28. Radio Setup 29. HO Complete

29. HO Complete

CS Bearer

30. HO Complete

28. Radio Setup 29. HO Complete CS Bearer 30. HO Complete CS Bearer IP Bearer Figure

CS Bearer

Setup 29. HO Complete CS Bearer 30. HO Complete CS Bearer IP Bearer Figure 3.4 LTE
Setup 29. HO Complete CS Bearer 30. HO Complete CS Bearer IP Bearer Figure 3.4 LTE

IP Bearer

HO Complete CS Bearer 30. HO Complete CS Bearer IP Bearer Figure 3.4 LTE to CS

Figure 3.4 LTE to CS handover signal flow

Figure 3.3 presents the whole signal flow for LTE to CS handover. The detailed operation of the handover process is described below.

Procedure 1~2: UE periodically measures the signal strength of its neighboring cells and sends about the measurement report to supporting ENB. And if handover is required, the ENB

18

decides whether execute handover or not. When handover occurs, ENB sends ‘Handover Re- quired’ message to FW_MME.

Procedure 3~8: When FW_MME receives the ‘Handover Required’ message, FW_MME can classify which network domain the handover target cell belongs. And if the target cell be- long to CS domain that not in LTE network, and using its MSC function, executes CS domain inter-MSC handover process with target MSC [14]. By this inter-MSC handover process, the CS bearer between FW_MME and handover target MSC in CS domain is established.

Procedure 9~16: After procedure 3~8, FW_MME sends SIP INVITE message with replace header using its UA functionality. The function of this INVITE message is to change the exist- ing UE-to-remote SIP session to FW_MME-to-remote session. And by the use of MGCF and MGW functionalities, the FW_MME connects the IP bearer that exists between FW_MME and remote to the CS bearer that will be established between FW_MME and CS domain.

Procedure 17~26: The remote party release the former SIP session with UE. Remote party sends SIP BYE message to UE and UE response by the 200 OK message.

Procedure 27~30: These procedures are similar to CS inter-MSC handover. After session immigration process (procedure 9~16) finished, FW_MME sends ‘Handover Command’ to UE. Then, UE changes its radio to CS and executes radio setup with CS network [18], and after radio link setup process, UE sends ‘Handover Complete’ to CS MSC and then this mes- sage transferred to FW_MME. After this message transfer, the LTE to CS handover process is completed.

3.4 CS to LTE Handover Procedure

In this section, we study about the CS to LTE handover procedure. Similar to section 3.3, we first study about the call origination at CS domain and then we study about the handover procedure.

19

3.4.1 CS Originating Call flow

AS IMS Domain P-CSCF S-CSCF CS Domain LTE Domain MSC FW_MME SAE Gateway Remote End
AS
IMS Domain
P-CSCF
S-CSCF
CS Domain
LTE Domain
MSC
FW_MME
SAE Gateway
Remote
End
MGW
BSS
ENB
UE-CS
UE-LTE

Control PlaneSAE Gateway Remote End MGW BSS ENB UE-CS UE-LTE User Plane Figure 3.5 CS originating call

User PlaneRemote End MGW BSS ENB UE-CS UE-LTE Control Plane Figure 3.5 CS originating call diagram Figure

Figure 3.5 CS originating call diagram

Figure 3.5 presents the architectural call originating diagram from 3G CS system. UE uses its CS radio to initiate call. To support seamless handover form CS to LTE domain, some spe- cial process are added. Like R7 VCC, all originating call from CS is connected as a VoIP call. At R7 VCC, IMS MGCF takes the place of CS-PS inter-working. Similar to this, the MGCF and MGW functions of FW_MME take the place of CS-PS inter-working. Hence, FW_MME act as IMS MGCF for CS originating call, and by CAMEL procedure, every originating call at CS network is routed to FW_MME. As a result of call originating, the control path passes

20

through CS MSC, FW_MME, IMS CSCF and IMS application server. And user bearer path formulated pass trough CS MGW, FW_MME, and SAE gateway.

UE CS LTE IMS MSC/ FW_ SAE AS Remote UE-CS UE-LTE BSS ENB P-CSCF S-CSCF
UE
CS
LTE
IMS
MSC/
FW_
SAE
AS
Remote
UE-CS
UE-LTE
BSS
ENB
P-CSCF
S-CSCF
MGW
MME
Gateway
(B2BUA)
End
1. SETUP
2. CAMEL
Procedure
3.
IAM
MGCF
4.
INVITE
5.
INVITE
6.
INVITE
7.
INVITE
8.
200 OK
9.
200 OK
11.
200 OK
10.
200 OK
12.
ANM
13. CONNECT
CS Bearer
IP Bearer

Figure 3.6 LTE originating call flow

Figure 3.6 presents the originating call flow for CS domain. This procedure is similar to R7 VCC except for the position of MGCF that FW_MME take the place of IMS MGW.

3.4.2 CS to LTE Handover Procedure

Network attachment procedure for LTE PS network is more complex than CS network be- cause of PDP context activation and IMS registration. Therefore, CS to LTE handover is much complicated than LTE to CS handover. Since voice call handover is very sensitive for service interruption time, some optimization process is required to reduce service interruption time [26]. Therefore we simplify the PDP context and IMS registration procedure by powerful function of FW_MME.

21

UE CS LTE IMS MSC/ FW_ SAE Remote UE-CS UE-LTE BSS ENB P-CSCF S-CSCF AS
UE
CS
LTE
IMS
MSC/
FW_
SAE
Remote
UE-CS
UE-LTE
BSS
ENB
P-CSCF
S-CSCF
AS
MGW
MME
Gateway
End
MSC
1. Measurement Report
2. HO
Required
3. Prep HO
Request
4. Bearer
Setup
UA
5. Set IP Address for UE
6.
Make registration
Info
8.
7. REGISTER
REGISTER
10. 200 OK
9. 200 OK
11.
Store registration
result
MSC
12. Prep HO Response
13. HO Command
14. Radio Setup
MME
15. PDP Context Request
16. PDP Context Accept w/ registration info.
MSC
17. HO Complete
18. HO Complete
19.
INVITE
20.
INVITE
21.
INVITE
22. Re-
INVITE
23. Re-INVITE
24.
200 OK
25.
200 OK
28.
200 OK
27.
200 OK
26.
200 OK
IP Bearer

Figure 3.7 CS to LTE handover signal flow

Figure 3.7 presents the whole signal flow for CS to LTE handover. The detailed operation of the handover process is described below.

Procedure 1~2: UE periodically measures the signal strength of its neighboring cells and sends about the measurement report to supporting BSS. And if handover is required, the BSS sends ‘Handover Required’ message to MSC and the MSC decides whether executes handover or not.

Procedure 3~4: When MSC decides handover, MSC executes inter-MSC handover proce- dure with FW_MME. In this case, FW_MME is considered as another MSC to CS MSC.

22

Hence, MSC sends ‘Prepare Handover Request’ message to FW_MME. When FW_MME receives this message, FW_MME prepare bearer with ENB.

Procedure 5: After bearer preparation, FW_MME executes PDP context activation proce- dure with SAE gateway using its UA functionality and receives the IP address of UE and store it.

Procedure 6~11: At procedure 6, FW_MME generates the IMS registration information us- ing the information contained at ‘Prepare Handover Request’ message that is sent from MSC. Using IMSI of UE, FW_MME generates IMPI and IMPU. Using these, FW_MME executes IMS registration procedure as an UA. And then, at procedure 11, FW_MME stores the regis- tration information. By this special operation, handover latency caused by IMS registration can be greatly reduced.

Procedure 12~13: After PDP context activation and IMS registration finished, FW_MME sends ‘Prepare Handover Response’ message to MSC. And then MSC sends ‘Handover Com- mand’ message to UE.

Procedure 14: UE changes its radio to LTE and execute radio link setup with ENB The de- tailed operation does not defined yet.

Procedure 15~16: After radio link setup, UE sends ‘PDP Context Request’ message to FW_MME. When FW_MME receives this message, FW_MME sends ‘PDP Context Accept’ message with IP address of UE. Also this ‘PDP Context Accept’ message contains the IMS registration information for UE. Therefore, by the ‘PDP context Accept’ message, UE receives both of PDP context activation response and IMS registration response. Thus UE does not need to execute additional PDP context activation or IMS registration process. By these spe- cial treatments, much portion of the handover latency can be reduced.

Procedure 17~18: UE sends ‘Handover Complete’ message to FW_MME and FW_MME reports it to CS MSC.

23

Procedure 19~28: UE sends INVITE message to translate preceding call to new end-to-end VoIP call. When IMS application server receives this INVITE message, IMS application server changes it to Re-INVITE message and sends it to remote party. And the 200 OK re- sponse message is transferred to UE pass through IMS application and CSCFs. And finally, the handover process is completed.

24

Chapter 4 Analysis and Evaluation

4.1 Models for Mathematical Analysis

The elements that consist of handover delay can be divided into four basic elements that ra- dio link delay, network node queueing delay, internet delay, and remote network delay. Each delay element has different analytic model and takes different portion of handover delay [20]

[26].

4.1.1 Radio Link Delay

We have two kinds of radio resources that analysis about delay of radio link. The one is 3G UMTS and the other is 3G LTE radio. First, for UMTS radio link, RLP is used for efficient radio link control and to enhance the performance. Therefore equation (4.1) is the analytic expression of delay caused by RLP [22]. For 3G LTE radio link, the detailed operation does not defined yet, but RLP is expected to be used. Thus we assume RLP model for 3G LTE radio link.

25

k

= # of frames

n

= # of RLP retransmission trials

p = probability of a RLP frame being in error in the air link

P

f

= seccess probability in RLP for n retranmission trials

T

trans

= end to end propagation delay over the air interface

τ = interframe time (typically order 20ms for GPRS)

P(C )

= the first frame received correctly at the detination, being the

ij

(4.1)

ith retransmission frame at the jth retranmission

P

f

= 1

p(p(2

T

RLP

=

T

trans

+

n(n

+

1)

p))

2

(k

1)τ

+

k(P

f

   

p))

 

n

j

j(j

+

1)

     

(1

 

+

 

2

P

f

 

[

∑∑

j

i

P(C )(2jT

ij

trans

(

2

+ i)τ)]

3 micro second end to end propagation delay [24] and 3 retransmission trials are assumed. And by 3GPP specification, 20 ms and 10 ms inter frame times are assume for UMTS and LTE. And the data rate For UMTS CS is 9.6Kbps~128Kbps and for 3G LTE is

1Mbps~100Mbps.

4.1.2 Network Node Queueing Delay

Network Arrival Departure Node Arrival Departure Arrival Rate : λ Service Rate : μ
Network
Arrival
Departure
Node
Arrival
Departure
Arrival Rate : λ
Service Rate : μ
Arrival Network Departure Node Service Rate : μ Arrival Arrival Rate : λ Departure
Arrival
Network
Departure
Node
Service Rate : μ
Arrival
Arrival Rate : λ
Departure

Figure 4.1 M/M/1 queueing model of network node

Each network node has different characteristic and the delay caused by a network node can be represented as a mathematical model using M/M/1 queueing model. Figure 4.1 shows the

26

M/M/1 queuing model for network node and Equation (4.2) is the analytic expression [25].

λ

μ :service rate, λ = message arrival rate, ρ

T

qNetwork_Node

=

ρ Network Node

=

μ

λ

Network Node

(1

ρ

Network Node

)

,

(4.2)

Table 4.1 presents the arrival rate of each network node and table 4.2 present the service rate of each network node. And if the characteristic of a network node change, we can follow the change by controlling these parameters [36].

Table 4.1 Arrival rate of each network node

λ

UE

λ

NodeB

 

λ

RNC

λ

MSC

λ

HLR

λ

UE

50

 

100

 

200

300

300

50

λ

CSCF

λ

MGCF

λ

Application

λ

ENB

λ

MME

λ

CSCF

500

 

500

 

500

100

900

500

Table 4.2 Service rate of each network node

μ

UE

μ

NodeB

 

μ

RNC

μ

MSC

μ

HLR

μ

UE

2500

2500

 

5000

5000

5000

2500

μ

CSCF

μ

MGCF

μ

Application

μ

ENB

μ

MME

μ

CSCF

5000

5000

 

5000

5000

5000

5000

27

4.1.3 Internet and Remote Network Delay

Arrival by UE Network Departure Node Arrival by others Service Rate : μ Arrival by
Arrival by UE
Network
Departure
Node
Arrival by others
Service Rate : μ
Arrival by UE
Departure
Arrival by others
Arrival Rate :
λ
, λ
SIP
etc
Arrival by UE Arrival by others Network Node Departure Service Rate : μ Arrival by
Arrival by UE
Arrival by others
Network
Node
Departure
Service Rate : μ
Arrival by UE
Arrival by others
Arrival Rate : λ
, λ
SIP
etc
Departure

Figure 4.2 M/G/1 queueing model of network node

Delay caused by internet or remote network is very unstable and has much variation. Hence for more accurate analysis, we use M/G/1 queueing model for internet and remote network delay. Figure 4.2 presents the models of internet and remote delay and equation (4.3) is the analytic expression of them [25]. For this case, ρ etc = 0.5 and ρ internet = 0.4 and ρ SIP =50 are used.

μ :service rate, λ message arrival rate, ρ

=

=

λ

μ

1

=

μ

s

(1

ρ

etc

ρ

sip

)

+

R

Internet

(1

ρ

etc

)

+

(1

ρ

etc

ρ

sip

)

2

λ X

sip

2

etc

+

sip

,

,μ

s

T qInternet/qRemote

R

X

=

Internet

2

etc

, X

λ X

etc

2

s

are the second moment of μ

etc

28

(4.3)

4.2 Mathematical Analysis of Service Interruption Time

From the signal flows of handover in chapter 2 and 3, we can classify the service interrup- tion period. And from the service interruption period, we can derive the equation of service interruption time by applying the analytic model that is described in chapter 4.1.

4.2.1 Analytic Expressions for Partial Procedures

RRC message

RRC message

Radio Radio Link Delay Link Delay
Radio
Radio
Link Delay
Link Delay
λ λ ENB ENB ENB ENB
λ λ
ENB
ENB
ENB
ENB

λ λ

RNC RNC RNC RNC
RNC
RNC
RNC
RNC

λ λ

ENB ENB ENB ENB
ENB
ENB
ENB
ENB

Radio

Radio

Link Delay

Link Delay

λ λ ENB ENB ENB ENB Radio Radio Link Delay Link Delay T T RRC RRC

T

T

RRC

RRC

= 2T

= 2T

RLP

RLP

+ 2T

+ 2T

qNodeB

qNodeB

+1T

+1T

qRNC

qRNC

= 2T RLP RLP + 2T + 2T qNodeB qNodeB + 1T + 1T qRNC qRNC

ETC

ETC

RRC RRC UE UE CS CS IMS IMS NodeB NodeB RNC RNC RRC System Information
RRC
RRC
UE
UE
CS
CS
IMS
IMS
NodeB
NodeB
RNC
RNC
RRC System Information (BCCH)
RRC System Information (BCCH)
RRC Connection Request
RRC Connection Request
(CCCH)
(CCCH)
NBAP : Radio Link
NBAP : Radio Link
Setup Response
Setup Response
Start RX
Start RX
NBAP : Radio Link
NBAP : Radio Link
Setup Request
Setup Request
ALCAP : Establish
ALCAP : Establish
Request
Request
ALCAP: Establish CNF
ALCAP: Establish CNF
DCH-FP : Downlink
DCH-FP : Downlink
Synchronization
Synchronization
DCH-FP: Uplink
DCH-FP: Uplink
synchronization
synchronization
Start TX
Start TX
RRC Connection Setup
RRC Connection Setup
(CCCH)
(CCCH)
NBAP : Radio link
NBAP : Radio link
Restore Indication
Restore Indication
RRC: RRC Connection Setup Complete
RRC: RRC Connection Setup Complete
(DCCH)
(DCCH)
UE UE UMTS Domain UMTS Domain MSC/ MSC/ CS CS IMS IMS NodeB NodeB RNC
UE
UE
UMTS Domain
UMTS Domain
MSC/
MSC/
CS
CS
IMS
IMS
NodeB
NodeB
RNC
RNC
VLR
VLR
RANAP :Initial UE
RANAP :Initial UE
RRC: Initial Direct Transfer [CM Serviec Request ]
RRC: Initial Direct Transfer [CM Serviec Request ]
Message [CM Service
Message [CM Service
Request ]
Request ]
RANAP: Direct
RANAP: Direct
Transfer
Transfer
[Authentication
[Authentication
RRC: Downlink Direct Transfer [Authentication Request ]
RRC: Downlink Direct Transfer [Authentication Request ]
Request ]
Request ]
RRC: Uplink Direct Transfer [Authentication Response ]
RRC: Uplink Direct Transfer [Authentication Response ]
RANAP: Direnct
RANAP: Direnct
Transfer
Transfer
[Authentication
[Authentication
Response ]
Response ]
RANAP: Security Mode
RANAP: Security Mode
Cammand
Cammand
RRC: Security Mode
RRC: Security Mode
Command
Command
RRC: Security Mode Complet
RRC: Security Mode Complet
RANAP: Security Mode
RANAP: Security Mode
complete
complete
RANAP: Direct
RANAP: Direct
Transfer [TMSI
Transfer [TMSI
Reallication Cammand ]
Reallication Cammand ]
RRC: DL Direct Transfer [TMSI Reallocation Cammand ]
RRC: DL Direct Transfer [TMSI Reallocation Cammand ]
RRC: UL Direct Transfer [TMSI
RRC: UL Direct Transfer [TMSI
Reallocation Complete ]
Reallocation Complete ]
RANAP: Direct
RANAP: Direct
Transfer [TMSI
Transfer [TMSI
Reallocation Complete ]
Reallocation Complete ]
RRC: Setup
RRC: Setup
RANAP: Setup
RANAP: Setup
UMTS Domain UMTS Domain MSC/ MSC/
UMTS Domain
UMTS Domain
MSC/
MSC/

VLR

VLR

Figure 4.3 CS attachment signal flow

To derive the equations for service interruption time, first we need to define some partial procedures. Figure 4.3 presents the detailed signal flow of CS attachment procedure. Left part of figure 4.3 presents the RRC setup procedure. And right part of figure 4.3 presents the re- mained procedures that include authentication and TMSI allocation. From the signal flow, CS

29

attachment procedure can be modeled as equation (4.4) and (4.5). And for LTE attachment procedure,
attachment procedure can be modeled as equation (4.4) and (4.5). And for LTE attachment
procedure, similar procedure is assumed. Equation (4.6) and (4.7) is the model of LTE at-
tachment procedure. For both case, attachment procedure includes RRC setup procedure.
= 4T
+ 7T
+ 4T
+ 2T
(4.4)
T UMTS_RRC
RLP
NodeB
RNC
UE
= 11T
+14T
+11T + 3T
(4.5)
T CS_Attach
RLP
NodeB
RNC
MSC
= 4T
+ 7T
+ 2T
(4.6)
T LTE_RRC
LTE_Radio
ENB
UE
= 11T
+14T + 3T
(4.7)
T LTE_Attach
LTE_Radio
ENB
MME
UE
LTE D om ain
SAE
CS
LTE
ENB
MME
Gatewat
D irect Transfer: Activation PD P C ontext R equest
R AB Assignm ent R eauest
R esponse
ALC AP Iub D ata Transfer Bearer Setup
R
adio Bearer Setup
R adio Bearer Setup C om plete
C reate PD P C ontext
Request
Response
D
irect Transfer : Activation PD P C ontext R esponse

Figure 4.4 PDP context activation

30

UE ENB/ MME P-CSCF HSS S-CSCF Register Cx-Query/ Cx-Select-Pull Cx-Query Resp/ Cx-Select-Pull Resp Register
UE
ENB/ MME
P-CSCF
HSS
S-CSCF
Register
Cx-Query/
Cx-Select-Pull
Cx-Query Resp/
Cx-Select-Pull Resp
Register
Cx-put/Cx-Pull
Cx-Put Resp
/Cx-Pull Resp
401 (Unauthorized)
401 (Unauthorized)
Register
Register
200
OK
200
OK

Figure 4.5 IMS registration

Figure 4.4 and 4.5 present the detailed signal flow of PDP context activation and IMS regis- tration. From the signal flows, we can derive equation (4.8) and (4.9) that the delay of PDP context activation and IMS registration procedure for LTE system [27].

T

PDP

= 4T

LTE_Radio

+ 4T

ENB

+ 4T

MME

+ 4T

SAE_GW

T

IMS_Reg

= 4T

LTE_Radio

+ 4T

ENB

+ 4T

MME

+ 8T

CSCF

+ 3T

HSS

(4.8)

(4.9)

4.2.2 Analytic Expressions for Service Interruption time

Using above equations we can derive the analytic expressions of service interruption time for call re-establishment approach. They are equation (4.10), (4.11) and figure 4.6 and 4.7 present the detailed signal flow of call re-establishment handover process. Since the delay of RLP is depends on the size of message, T RLP_utu in equation (4.10) is the RLP delay with CS user-to-user message. Therefore the value of T RLP_utu is calculated as equation (4.1) with CS user-to-user message,

31

= 3T + 3T + 4T + 9T + T + T + T T
=
3T
+
3T
+
4T
+
9T
+
T
+
T
+
T
T Call_Re_LTEtoCS
Remote
Internet
AS
CSCF
MME
ENB
LTE_Radio
(4.10)
+
2T
+
2T
+
2T
+
2T
+
2T
+
T
MGCF
MSC
RNC
NodeB
RLP_utu
CS_Attach
=
3T
+
3T
+
4T
+
9T
+
3T
+
3T
T Call_Re_CStoLTE
Remote
Internet
As
CSCF
MME
ENB
(4.11)
+
3T
+
T
+
T
+
T
+
T
+
T
+
T
LTE_Radio
MGCF
MSC
RNC
NodeB
RLP_utu
LTE_Attach
UE
IMS
LTE
CS
MSC
MME
MGCF
IM-MGW
MRF
I-CSCF
S-CSCF
AS
Remote
IP Bearer
Notify (LTE to CS transition indication)
Notify
200 OK
200
OK
CCCF request announcement port on MRF
UPDATE
(SDP MRF
endpoint)
UPDATE (SDP MRF endpoint)
Service Interruption
200
OK
200
OK
Bearer for announcemnet
Notify (
PS to CS transition Preparation complete)
Notify
UE releases LTE radio and
changes its domain to 3G CS
RRC setup and registration with MSC
Setup
IAM
INVITE
INVITE
UPDATE
(Offer MGCF)
UPDATE (Offer MGCF)
200
OK
200
OK
200
OK
200
OK
ANM
Connect
CS Bearer
IP Bearer

Figure 4.6 Signal flow of call re-establishment: LTE to CS handover

32

UE IMS LTE CS MSC MME MGCF IM-MGW MRF I-CSCF S-CSCF AS Remote CS bearer
UE
IMS
LTE
CS
MSC
MME
MGCF
IM-MGW
MRF
I-CSCF
S-CSCF
AS
Remote
CS bearer
IP bearer
CS to PS transition Notification via USSD
CCCF request announcement port on MRF
UPDATE
(SDP MRF
endpoint )
Service
Interruption
UPDATE (SDP MRF endpoint)
200
OK
200
OK
Bearer for announcemnet
CS to PS transition Prepare complete Notification via USSD
UE releases CS radio and
changes its domain to LTE
RRC setup and
registration
INVITE
INVITE
UPDATE
(Offer MGCF)
UPDATE (Offer MGCF)
200
OK
200
OK
200 OK
200
OK
ACK
ACK
IP Bearer

Figure 4.7 Signal flow of call re-establishment: CS to LTE handover

The analytic expressions of service interruption time for gateway approach are equation (4.12), (4.13). And figure 4.8 and 4.9 presents the detailed signal flow of gateway approach.

T

LTE_to_CS_interrupt

T

CS_to_LTE_interrupt

=

T

RRC

+

+

2T

MGCF

3T

+

RLP_utu

4T

CSCF

=

T

RRC_LTE

+

3T

MME

+

+

4T

T

PDP

CSCF

+

+

3T

NodeB

2T

AS

+

+

3T

RNC

2T

Internet

+

3T

MSC

+

2T

Remote

+

+

T

IMS_reg

2T

AS

+

+

2T

3T

+

3T

LTE_radio

+

2T

ENB

Internet

Remote

33

(4.12)

(4.13)

UE LTE CS IMS MGCF/ LTE CS ENB MME RNC MSC Gateway CSCF AS Remote
UE
LTE
CS
IMS
MGCF/
LTE
CS
ENB
MME
RNC
MSC
Gateway
CSCF
AS
Remote
MGW
IP Bearer
Measurement Report
HO
Required
Handover Request
MAP HO
Relocation
Request
Request
Relocation
Request ACK
MAP HO
Response
Handover Prepare Response
Handover Command
Service
Interruption
RRC Setup
Handover Complete
Relocation
Complete
Setup
IAM
INVITE
INVITE
reINVITE
reINVITE
200 OK
200
OK
200 OK
OK
200
ANM
Connect
CS Bearer
IP Bearer

Figure 4.7 Signal flow of gateway approach: LTE to CS handover

UE LTE CS IMS MGCF/ LTE CS ENB MME RNC MSC Gateway CSCF AS Remote
UE
LTE
CS
IMS
MGCF/
LTE
CS
ENB
MME
RNC
MSC
Gateway
CSCF
AS
Remote
MGW
CS Bearer
IP Bearer
Measurement Report
HO
Required
Handover
Request
HO Request
Radio Resource
Reservation
HO Response
HO Prepare
Response
Handover Command
Service
Interruption
RRC Setup
Handover Complete
Relocation Complete
PDP Context Activation
IMS registration
INVITE
INVITE
reINVITE
reINVITE
200 OK
200
OK
200 OK
OK
200
IP Bearer

Figure 4.8 Signal flow of gateway approach: CS to LTE handover

34

And finally, the analytic expressions of proposed scheme are (4.14), (4.15). The detailed signal flows are presented in previews chapter that figure 3.4 and 3.7.

T

LTE_to_CS_interrupt

T

CS_to_LTE_interrupt

=

T

Remote

+

T

ENB

+

+

T

Internet

+

T

UE

+

T

RRC

2T

+

S CSCF

T

NodeB

+

+

T

AS

T

MSC

+

T

FW_MME

+

T

RLP_utu

=

2T

+

2T

+

2T

5T

6T

+

+

2T

AS

Remote

FW_MME

Internet

ENB

+

T

UE

+

S CSCF

5T

LTE_Radio

4.3 Numerical Result

(4.14)

(4.15)

4.3.1 Service Interruption Time Comparison

1.6 Call Re-establish Gateway 1.4 FW-MME 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 20 40
1.6
Call Re-establish
Gateway
1.4
FW-MME
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Service Interruption (second)

Data rate (Kbps)

Figure 4.9 Service interruption time for LTE to CS handover

Using the analytic models of service interruption time in section 4.2, we can compare the service interruption time of three kinds of solution approach. Figure 4.9 presents the service

35

interruption time of LTE to CS handover for three kinds of approach. The result shows that call re-establishment approach has the largest service interruption time. Gateway approach reduces service interruption time using a signaling gateway. Thus it has smaller service inter- ruption time than call re-establishment approach. Since our scheme introduces not only signal- ing gateway but also optimizing methods, our scheme shows smallest service interruption time among the three solutions. And if we look at the absolute service interruption time, only our scheme can satisfy the requirement of voice call handover that less than 300 ms service inter- ruption time.

1.3 Call Re-establish Gateway 1.2 FW-MME 1.1 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0 1
1.3
Call Re-establish
Gateway
1.2
FW-MME
1.1
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Service Interruption (second)

Data rate (Mbps)

Figure 4.10 Service interruption time for CS to LTE handover

Figure 4.10 shows the service interruption time for CS to LTE handover. Similar to LTE to CS handover, call re-establishment approach has largest service interruption time and gateway approach has smaller service interruption time than call re-establishment approach. And our scheme has smallest service interruption time. For CS to LTE handover, due to end-to-end SIP session requirement, we can’t make a new access leg before radio transition. Therefore CS to LTE handover has larger service interruption time than LTE to CS handover. Although our scheme introduces some optimization method, our scheme has more than 300 ms service inter-

36

ruption. But about 500 ms service interruption time is reasonable in wide sense.

4.3.2 Service Interruption Time and Error Rate of Air

0.5 0.45 0.4 9.6 Kbps 19.2 Kbps 64 Kbps 128 Kbps 0.35 0.3 0.25 0
0.5
0.45
0.4
9.6 Kbps
19.2 Kbps
64 Kbps
128 Kbps
0.35
0.3
0.25
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
Service Interruption (second)

Frame Error Rate

Figure 4.11 LTE to CS service interruption time vs. frame error rate

In this section, more detailed analysis about our scheme is presented. Figure 4.11 presents the service interruption time for LTE to CS handover corresponds to data rate and frame error rate. The result shows two kinds of relation that the relation between service interruption time and data rate and that between service interruption time and frame error rate. First, the service time tends to decrease when data rate is high. But data rate higher than 64 Kbps does not cause the decrease of service interruption time. This is because of the limitation of the size of CS signaling message. And for second relation, service interruption time increases exponen- tially as frame error rate increase. More than 30 % frame error rate can critically decrease the performance.

37

0.59 0.58 0.57 0.56 0.5 Mbps 1 Mbps 0.55 2 Mbps 10 Mbps 0.54 0.53
0.59
0.58
0.57
0.56
0.5 Mbps
1 Mbps
0.55
2 Mbps
10 Mbps
0.54
0.53
0.52
0.51
0.5
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
Service Interruption (second)

Frame Error Rate

Figure 4.12 CS to LTE service interruption time vs. frame error rate

Figure 4.12 presents the service interruption time for CS to LTE handover correspond to data rate and frame error rate. For this case, more than 1Mbps data rate does not effect to ser- vice interruption time. The reason of this is that more than 1Mbps data rate is large enough to transmit control signal packet in one data frame. Also the frame error rate more than 30 % can critically decrease the performance

38

4.3.3 Service Interruption Time and Propagation Delay of Air Link

0.55 LTE to CS handover CS to LTE handover 0.5 0.45 0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25
0.55
LTE to CS handover
CS to LTE handover
0.5
0.45
0.4
0.35
0.3
0.25
0.2
10 -6
10 -5
10 -4
10 -3
10 -2
Service Interruption (second)

Propagation delay

Figure 4.13 Service interruption time vs. propagation delay of air

In this section, more detailed analysis about the effect of propagation delay is presented. Figure 4.13 presents the service interruption time variation that corresponds to the propagation delay variation of air link. When the range of propagation delay is smaller than 10 -3 second, the increment of propagation delay does not cause much increment of service interruption time. But when the range of propagation delay is larger than 10 -3 second, the increment of propagation delay causes much increment of service interruption time. Since the speed of elec- tro-magnetic wave is very fast that close to the speed of light, the propagation delay of air link does not exceed 10 -3 second for general telecommunication system. Therefore, the variation of propagation delay does not cause much effect to service interruption time.

39

4.3.4 Service Interruption Time and Queueing Delay Variation of Net- work Node

1.6 LTE to CS handover CS to LTE handover 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4
1.6
LTE to CS handover
CS to LTE handover
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
10 -4
10 -3
10 -2
10 -1
Service Interruption (second)

Order of Queueing delay

Figure 4.14 Service interruption time vs. queueing delay variation of network node

0.55 LTE to CS handover CS to LTE handover 0.5 0.45 0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25
0.55
LTE to CS handover
CS to LTE handover
0.5
0.45
0.4
0.35
0.3
0.25
0.2
10 -4
10 -3
Order of Queueing delay
10 -2
Service Interruption (second)

Figure 4.15 Service interruption time vs. queueing delay variation of network node:

Observe in reasonable range

40

In this section, more detailed analysis about the variation of queueing delay of network node is presented. Figure 4.14 presents the service interruption time variation corresponds to the queueing delay variation of network node. The result shows that increment of queueing delay causes much increment of service interruption time. Since the general queueing delay of network node is tens of millisecond [26], figure 4.15 presents for reasonable range of queue- ing delay that order of 10 -4 ~10 -2 second. From the result of this section, the queueing delay of network node is an effective factor of service interruption time.

41

Chapter 5 Conclusion

All IP convergence and inter-working between different network technologies is a major trend of today’s network evolution. In this environment, mobile node can moves between dif- ferent network technologies and the movement of mobile node can disrupt the continuity of ongoing session. Thus handover between different network technologies is necessarily re- quired that called inter-system handover. Since different network technologies have their own characteristic, inter-system handover has difficult problem to be solved.

Voice call handover between 3G LTE and 3G CS system is one of inter-system handover and it is a hot research topic of 3GPP working group. To provide handover between 3G LTE and 3G CS system, there are two critical problems that the absence of interface between two net- work systems and radio resource limitation to single radio. Due to this single radio limitation, the handover problem between 3G LTE and 3G CS system is called SRSC. Additionally the characteristic of voice call handover that very sensitive to service interruption time makes the problem more difficult. There are three kinds of approaches to solve this SRSC problem, that combinational approach, call re-establishment approach and gateway approach. But no one can provide complete handover solution and they can’t satisfy the strict service interruption time requirement of voice call handover less than 300 ms.

In this paper FW_MME scheme has proposed to solve the SRSC problem, The FW_MME scheme introduces a new powerful network entity called FW_MME and the FW_MME pro- vides various functionalities to achieve seamless handover. Using the functionalities of FW_MME first, we can achieve the inter-working between 3G LTE and 3G CS network. And also we can achieve simplification of handover procedure especially on network attachment procedure.

Analytic result shows that other approaches have more than 500 ms service interruption time

42

and they can’t satisfy the strict requirement of voice call handover that less then 300 ms. But using proposed FW_MME scheme we can achieve strict voice call service interruption time requirement that less than 300 ms. And finally, we can conclude that using proposed FW_MME handover scheme we can provide seamless voice call handover between 3G LTE and 3G CS system.

Further research is needed to reduce service interruption time for CS to LTE handover. And research about the characteristic of internet and remote network with various parameters also required to more accurate analysis.

43

References

[1] 3GPP S2-062718, “on CS Call continuity”, Aug 2006.

[2] 3GPP S2-062889, “RAN Impact for Single Radio VCC”, Sep 2006.

[3] 3GPP TR 23.806, “Voice Call Continuity between CS and IMS Study”, Dec 2006.

[4] 3GPP S2-063159, “Single Radio Voice Call Continuity”, Aug 2006.

[5] 3GPP S2-070735, “Single Radio VCC: Outline of Basic Scenarios”, Feb 2007.

[6] 3GPP S2-070745, “IMS-controlled Voice Call Continuity between CS Domain and the LTE/SAE”, Feb 2007

[7] 3GPP TS 23.206, “Voice Call Continuity between Circuit Switched and IP Multimedia Subsystem”, Sep 2006.

[8] 3GPP S1-99306 “Quality of Service”, May 1999

[9] 3GPP TS 23.002, “Network Architecture”, Dec 2005

[10] 3GPP TS 23.060, “General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Service description; Stage 2”, Jun 2006

[11] 3GPP TS 23.228, “IP Multimedia Subsystem”, Sep 2006.

[12] 3GPP TR 23.882, “3GPP System Architecture Evolution: Report on Technical Options and Conclusions”, Nov 2006.

[13] 3GPP TS 24.228, “Signaling Flow for the IP multimedia call control based on Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and Session Description Protocol (SDP)”, Sep 2006.

[14] 3GPP TS 23.009, “Handover procedures”, Mar 2006

[15] 3GPP TS 25.413, “UTRAN Iu interface RANAP signaling”, Jun 2006

[16] 3GPP TS 29.002, “Mobile Application Part (MAP) specification”, Dec 2006

[17] 3GPP TS 43.129, “Packet-switched handover for GERAN A/Gb mode; Stage 2”, Jun

44

2006

[18] 3GPP TS 08.08, “Mobile-services Switching Centre - Base Station System (MSC - BSS) interface; Layer 3 specification”, Sep 2003

[19] 3G/UMTS complete mobile originated circuit switched call setup, www.3g4g.co.uk/ZG

[20] Nilanjan Banerjee,Wei Wu , Kalyan Basu

and Sajal K. Das, "Analysis of SIP-based

mobility management in 4G wireless networks“, Computer Communications Volume 27, Issue 8 , May 2004, Pages 697-707, Advances in Future Mobile/Wireless Networks and

Services

[21] Dirk Pescha, Maria Isabel Pousa and Gerry Fosterb;, “Performance evaluation of SIP- based multimedia services in UMTS”, Computer Networks, Volume 49, Issue 3 , 19 Oc- tober 2005, Pages 385-403, Selected Papers from the European Wireless 2004 Conference

[22] S.K. Das, E. Lee, K. Basu, S.K. Sen, “Performance optimization of VoIP calls over wire- less links using H.323 protocol”, IEEE Transactions on Computers 52 (6) (2003) 742–752

[23] Fathi, H.; Chakraborty, S.S.; Prasad, R. “Optimization of SIP Session Setup Delay for VoIP in 3G Wireless Networks”, Mobile Computing, IEEE Transactions on Volume 5, Is- sue 9, Sept. 2006 Page(s):1121 - 1132 Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TMC.2006.135

[24] Esmael Dinan, Aleksey Kurouchkin, and Sam Kettani “UMTS Radio Interface System Planning and Optimization”, Bechtel Telecommunication Technical Journal Volumue 1, Number 1, December 2002.

[25] L. Kleinrock, QUEUEING STSTEMS vol.1 Theory, Wiley, New York, 1975 [19] McNair, J.; Fang Zhu; “Vertical handoffs in fourth-generation multinetwork environments” Wire- less Communications, IEEE, Volume 11, Issue 3, June 2004 Page(s):8 - 15 Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MWC.2004.1308935

[26] 3GPP TR 25.853 v4.0.0 Delay Budget within the Access Stratum

[27] Kyungmin Kim, Hyunduk Jung, Jaiyong Lee, Eunhui Bae, and Sungho Choi, "Delay Analysis of Voice Call Handover between UMTS CS, UMTS PS and WLAN," ITC-

45

CSCC 2007, Busan, Korea, TA1-2

[28] Jaeho Lee, and Jaiyong Lee, "Route Enhancement Scheme using HMIP in Heterogeneous Wireless Data Networks", Revised Selected Papers of ICOIN 2006, LNCS 3961, Springer-Verlag, vol. 3961, pp. 21-30, Jan. 2006

[29] Hyosoon Park, Sunghoon Yoon, Taehyoun Kim, Jungshin Park, Misun Do, and Jaiyong Lee, "VERTICAL HANDOFF PROCEDURE AND ALGORITHM BETWEEN IEEE802.11 WLAN AND CDMA CELLULAR NETWORK," CIC2002, Seoul, Korea, 2002.11, pp217-221

[30] Taehyoun Kim and Jaiyong Lee, "Mobility and QoS Support in 4G Wireless Networks," Journal of Communication and Networks (JCN), vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 178-191, June 2005

[31] Taehyoun Kim, and Jaiyong Lee, "On Reducing IP Mobility Cost in Mobile Networks", IEICE Transactions on Communications, vol. E89-B, no. 3, pp. 731-738, March 2006.

[32] Esmael Dinan, Aleksey Kurouchkin, and Sam Kettani “UMTS Radio Interface System Planning and Optimization”, Bechtel Telecommunication Technical Journal Volumue 1, Number 1, December 2002.

46

국문요약

3G LTE 네트워크와 3G CS 네트워크 사이에서의 음성 호 핸드오버 방안

다양한 네트워크 기술들의 융합은 오늘날 네트워크 기술의 진화의 큰 흐름이다. 이 같은 변화에 따라 다양한 종류의 서로 다른 네트워크 기술은 공존하게 되며, 각각의 네트워크 기술들은 서로 다른 범위의 서비스 영역을 그리고 다양한 특성 을 가지게 된다. 이러한 환경에서 무선단말은 다양한 네트워크 기술들 사이를 이 동해 다닐 수 있으며 이 같은 단말의 움직임은 현재 사용하고 있는 세션의 연속 성을 유지하는데 문제를 일으킨다. 따라서 다양한 네트워크 기술들을 이동하는 단 말에게 끊김 없는 서비스를 제공하기 위한 핸드오버 기술이 요구된다. 그런데 이 러한 이종망간의 핸드오버를 제공하는 데에는 서로 다른 네트워크의 특성, 네트워 크 연동 문제, 라디오 자원의 제약 등으로 인한 어려움이 따른다.

3G LTE 네트워크와 3G CS 네트워크 사이에서의 음성호 핸드오버는 이 같은 이 종망 사이의 핸드오버 중 하나로 현재 3GPP의 주요한 연구주제 중 하나이다. 3G LTE 네트워크와 3G CS 네트워크 사이에서 핸드오버를 제공 방안을 만드는 데에는 두 가지의 큰 문제점이 있다. 첫 번째 문제점은 두 네트워크 사이에 연동을 위한 인터페이스가 존재하지 않는다는 점이며 두 번째 문제점은 한번에 한가지 라디오 만 사용할 수 있다는 라디오 자원 활용 측면에서의 문제 점이다. 게다가 음성호의 경우 서비스가 끊어지는 시간에 매우 민감한 특성을 가지고 있어서 끊김 없는 핸 드오버를 제공하는데 더 많은 어려움이 따른다.

본 논문에서는 지금까지 제안된 3G LTE 네트워크와 3G CS 네트워크 사이의 핸 드오버 방안들을 평가하고 향상된 핸드오버 방안을 제시한다. 또한 제안된 핸드오 버 방안 및 기존의 핸드오버 방안들을 수학적으로 분석하여 각각의 성능을 비교 한다. 분석 결과는 제안된 방법이 가장 짧은 서비스 장애시간을 가지며, 또한 제 안된 방법만이 300 ms 이내라는 엄격한 음성 호 핸드오버의 요구조건을 만족시킬

47

수 있음을 보여준다. 이 같은 결과를 바탕으로 제안된 3G LTE 네트워크와 3G CS 네트워크 사이에서의 음성호 핸드오버 방안을 이용하여 끊김 없는 서비스를 제공 할 수 있음을 알 수 있다.

핵심이 되는 말 : 음성 호, 핸드오버, 3G LTE, 3G CS, 이종 망 간 핸드오버

48