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CULTURAL PRACTICE FOR LOWLAND RICE (Oryza sativa)


(High Yielding Variety)

A. Seedling Stage

1. Choose the good quality seeds (at least certified seeds). The seeds must come from a
high yielding variety and must be resistant to pests and diseases.

2. The seedbed must be easy to irrigate and easily drained as well. It needs 10 sq. m. of
seedbed for every kilo of seeds or a total of 400 sq. m. for every sack of 40 kilos. For
F1 hybrid seeds only 20 kg of seeds are needed for one hectare of rice land and this
amount must also be broadcasted on 400 sq. m. of seedbed.

3. Broadcast 1 to 2 sacks (50 to 100 kg) of organic fertilizer for every 400 sq. m. of
seedbed and apply it during the final harrowing. The application of organic fertilizer
will make the soil friable and this will ease the pulling of seedlings. It will also
encourage the profuse growth of the roots of the seedlings and will make them more
robust.

Note: In a recent finding when 200 kg (4 bags) of organic fertilizer was applied on
200 sq. m. of seedbed this resulted in taller and more vigorous seedlings which allows
for transplanting rate of 1 or 2 seedlings per hill.

4. Clean the seeds by allowing them to float in water. Soak the seeds for 24 hours and
then incubate for 24 to 36 hours until the embryo starts to grow.

5. Apply Biorat, a biological rodenticide, near holes made by rats so they will not eat or
damage the seeds. This is advisable if rats are prevalent in the area.

6. Broadcast evenly the incubated seeds on the prepared seedbed.

7. Irrigate the seedbed 2 to 3 days after seeding or if the soil starts breaking-up. Maintain
the depth of the water at 2 to 3 cm and gradually increase the same up to 5 cm
depending on the growth of the seedlings.
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8. Broadcast 20 kg of ammosul (21–0–0) or 10 kg urea (46-0-0) on the seedbed, 10 days


after seeding (DAS).

9. Spray the seedling with foliar fertilizer at the rate of 0.67% solution (100ml of the
foliar fertilizer mixed with 16 liters of water), 10 days before uprooting the seedlings.
This will make the seedlings firm and give them a head start during transplanting. Mix
the appropriate crop protection chemical (e.g. biodegradable insecticide) if necessary,
with the foliar fertilizer.

B. Land Preparation

1. Irrigate the rice field 25 days before transplanting so it will be softened.

2. Plow or rotovate the rice field to a depth of 10 to 15 cm. and as much as possible
incorporate the grasses and stubble into the soil.

3. Repair all leeves and fix all openings. Submerge the rice field with enough
water so the decomposition of all organic matter will be hastened.

4. Harrow (first) the rice field 5 to 7 days after plowing or rotovating. Still maintain the
rice field submerged with enough water.

5. Harrow (second) the rice field again 7 days after the first harrowing.

6. Broadcast 8 to 10 bags of organic fertilizer in one hectare, a day before the final
harrowing and leveling operation.

Note: The organic fertilizer can also be broadcasted mechanically using a


mechanical spreader powered by a tractor. In this case, apply the organic fertilizer
before land preparation for practical reason.

7. Perform the final harrowing one day before transplanting. Try to level the soil in
every paddy field so that the water during irrigation can be leveled.
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C. Transplanting

1. If there are still rats in the field apply Biorat again. One kilo of Biorat is sufficient for
one hectare of rice field.

2. Transplant the seedlings when they are 21 to 24 days old. Plant 2 to 3 seedlings per
hill for inbred and 1 to 2 seedlings for hybrid. The water must be superficial on the
rice field during transplanting.

3. During wet season transplant the seedlings using the distance 20 cm x 20 cm


to allow for adequate sunlight in between hills. Use the planting distance 15 cm x 20
cm during the dry season.

4. Replant missing hills within 3 to 5 days after transplanting (DAT).

Note: Incubated seeds can also be drilled after the leveling operation using a
mechanical seeder (this seeder is available at the Philippine Rice Research Institute,
Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija). With the seeder it is advisable to use 40 kg of
certified seeds per hectare.

D. Care of the Rice Plant

1. Maintain the depth of the water in the rice field at 2 to 3 cm after transplanting to
encourage the growth of blue-green algae. This will suppress the growth of
weeds and the algae is also an efficient nitrogen fixer. Maintain this water depth
up to maximum tillering stage.

2. Release the water from the rice field at 15 DAT then broadcast the mixture of 1
bag urea (46-0-0) and 2 bags of complete fertilizer (14-14-14) per hectare.
Replace the 2 bags of complete fertilizer with 2 bags of ammophos (16-20-0) if
the soil is heavy clay.

3. Spray foliar fertilizer using 0.67% solution (100 ml of the foliar fertilizer to 16
liters of water) at 30 DAT. One liter of the foliar fertilizer is sufficient to spray
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one hectare. Mix the appropriate biodegradable (green label) insecticide, if


necessary, with the foliar fertilizer.

4. Maintain the depth of the water at 5 cm from maximum tillering up to flowering


stage.

5. Broadcast the mixture of ½ bag of urea (46-0-0) and ½ bag of muriate of potash
(0-0-60) for one hectare of rice field at 45 DAT.

6. Spray foliar fertilizer using 0.67% solution at 55 to 60 DAT or at panicle


initiation stage. Again, mix the appropriate insecticide, if necessary.

7. Spray foliar fertilizer, using 0.67% solution at 85 to 90 DAT or during milking


stage. If necessary, mix with the foliar fertilizer the appropriate fungicide.

8. Release the water at 25 to 30 days before the grains are expected to ripen. Be
careful to release the water if the soil is light or loamy to prevent erosion.

E. Harvesting and Postharvest Activities

1. Harvest the crop at the right stage of maturity normally when 85 to 90 % of the grains are
already matured. Majority of the grains are already golden yellow and firm.

2. If the weather is fine let the harvested panicles be exposed under the sun to temper the
grains.

3. Carefully gather the harvested panicles so as to minimize shattering of the grains.

4. Thresh the panicles using an efficient mechanical thresher to avoid grain losses.

5. Dry the threshed grains as soon as possible until the moisture content is 14%. They can
be dried on a concrete floor or “solar drier” if weather permits. A mechanical flush drier
can be used instead during inclement weather.
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6. Store or keep the dried palay (padi) in a warehouse which is free or protected from
rodents, rice weevils and other pests until they are ready for milling.

7. Do not mill newly-dried grains for they are susceptibly to breakage. Organically grown
rice will exhibit higher milling recovery compared to the one fertilized with 100%
chemical fertilizer.

Important: The rice plant fertilized with organic fertilizer is more resistant to pests and
diseases and not prone to lodging. The farmer will also experience substantial savings on
farm inputs ( fertilizer and crop protection chemicals) when he employs organic farming.
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Recommended Practice for Seed and Seedbed Preparation for Hybrid Rice

A. Seed Preparation

1. Wash and then soak the F1 seeds in clean water for about 12-24 hours and watch
until seeds have swelled. Do not remove the seeds that float. Prepare 20 kg of seeds
for every hectare to be planted.

2. Change water every 3-5 hours. This is necessary to prevent fermentation.

3. After soaking place 4 kg of seeds in a plastic bag. Five bags are needed for every 1
bag (20 kg) of seeds. Keep the bags open.

4. Keep the seeds moist by washing with clean water within 24-36 hours. It is
advisable to mix the sees while washing. During cooler months incubation may take
longer.

5. Wait until 80% of the seeds have opened and a white dot appears (this is part of the
root). The seeds are ready for broadcasting in the seedbed.

B. Seedbed Preparation

1. Prepare 400 sq. m. of seedbed for every bag (20 kg) of hybrid seeds.

2. Make 1 meter plots and raised 4-5 cm high with appreciable lengths.

3. Four bags (200 kg) of organic fertilizer are needed or 1 bag (50 kg) for every 100
sq. m. of seedbed. Example: If the length of the plot is 20 meters you need to
broadcast a total of 10 kg or 1/ kg of the organic fertilizer per square meter.

4. If necessary, apply 3-4 kg of ammosul fertilizer (21-0-0) at 7-8 days after seeding
(DAS)

5. Spray 0.67% solution of foliar fertilizer on the seedlings at 14 DAS. The solution is
prepared by mixing 100 ml of the foliar fertilizer in 16 liters of water.
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6. Mix with the foliar fertilizer a fungicide/bactericide spray (e.g. BLB Stopper 20
EC), if necessary.