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# Truss Structures

## Problem 1 Staggered Bar

A staggered cantilever bar (Ref. Fig. 1) is loaded axially at four intermediate points by
forces P1, P2, P3 and P4. Determine the reaction force R1. Plot axial force diagram and
stress. Determine displacement of the bar free end. Determine displacement at point P 3.

L F3
4

P4
L 3 F2
P3
L 2

L 1
P2
F1
P1
Fig. 1. Staggered Bar
Input data:
L1=0.3 m, L2=0.3 m, L3=0.3 m, L4=1 m
F1=0.001 m2, F2=0.002 m2, F3=0.004 m2
P1=50000 N, P2=30000 N, P3=35000 N, P4=65000 N
Bar is made of steel Young Modulus E=2e11 Pa, Poisson ratio – 0.3

## Problem 2 Hinged Support

A structure consisting of two equal steel bars, each of length L and cross-sectional area F,
with hinged ends is subjected to the action of a load P (Ref. Fig. 2). Determine the stress,
σ, in the bars and the deflection, δ, of point 2. Neglect the weight of the bars as a small
quantity in comparison with the load P.

## Fig. 2. Hinged Support

Input data:
L=1 m, θ=30°, P= 25 kN, F=0.0025 m2
Material Properties: Young Modulus E=2e11 Pa, Poisson ratio – 0.3
Problem 3 Hinged Support

A triangle structure consisting of three aluminum rods with hinged ends is subjected to the
action of a load P (Ref. Fig 3). Determine the reaction forces at the supports. Plot the axial
force and stress diagrams. Determine the deflection of free end.

## Fig. 3. Hinged Support

Input data:
L=2 m, h=1 m, P= 25 kN, A1=0.0025 m2, A2=0.001 m2, A3=0.0015 m2
Material Properties: Young Modulus E=2e11 Pa, Poisson ratio – 0.3

## Problem 4 Frame Structure

Determine the reaction forces at the supports of planar frame structure loaded by forces
(Ref. Fig. 4). Plot the axial force and stress diagrams. Find the maximum deflection of the
structure.
Using method of joints, find the axial forces in all truss elements. Compare the result with
ANSYS solution.

## Fig. 4. Frame Structure

Input data:
F=0.001 m2
All dimensions in mm.
The frame is made of Al-alloy Young Modulus E=7e10 Pa, Poisson ratio – 0.3
Problem 5 Tension of plate with rectangle hole

A plate with rectangle hole is subjected to axial force P (Ref. Fig. 5). Determine the
reaction force. Find maximum displacement of the plate under tension. Plot the axial stress
diagram. The plate is made of Al-alloy.

## Fig. 5. Tension of plate with rectangle hole

Input data:
All dimensions in mm.
Thickness t=2 mm P=2.5 kN
Young Modulus E=7e10 Pa, Poisson ratio – 0.3

Beam Structures

## A two-supported beam of standard cross-section is subjected to uniformly distributed load

q and concentrated force P (Ref. Fig. 1). Determine the reaction forces at the supports.
Check for equilibrium. Find maximum deflection. Plot the shear force and bending moment
diagrams. Determine maximum bending stress in the beam.

## Fig. 1. Bending and Deflection of Beam

Input data
L1=1 m, L2=0.5 m, L=1.75 m
q=13 kN/m, P=7 kN
Cross-section type – I-shape section
Height = 0.1 m
Flange width = 0.04 m
Thickness = 0.003 m
The beam is made of steel E=2e11 Pa, Poisson ratio – 0.3

## A two-supported beam of standard cross-section is subjected to bending moment M and

concentrated force P (Ref. Fig. 2). Determine the reaction forces at the supports. Check
for equilibrium. Find maximum deflection. Plot the shear force and bending moment
diagrams. Determine maximum bending stress in the beam.

## Fig. 2. Bending and Deflection of Beam

Input data
L1=0.5 m, L2=0.5 m, L=2 m
M=4 kN/m, P=6 kN
Cross-section type – I-shape section
Height = 0.1 m
Flange width = 0.04 m
Thickness = 0.003 m
The beam is made of steel E=2e11 Pa, Poisson ratio – 0.3

## A two-supported beam of standard cross-section is subjected to linearly distributed

pressure q (Ref. Fig. 3). Determine the reaction forces at the supports. Check for
equilibrium. Find maximum deflection. Plot the shear force and bending moment diagrams.
Determine maximum bending stress in the beam.

## Fig. 3. Bending and Deflection of Beam

Input data
L=2 m
q=18 kN m
Cross-section type – Channel section
Height = 0.16 m
Flange width = 0.06 m
Thickness = 0.003 m
The beam is made of steel E=2e11 Pa, Poisson ratio – 0.3

## A two-supported beam of standard cross-section is subjected to uniformly distributed

pressure q, bending moment M and force P (Ref. Fig. 4). Determine the reaction forces at
the supports. Check for equilibrium. Find maximum deflection. Plot the shear force and
bending moment diagrams. Determine maximum bending stress in the beam.
Fig. 4. Bending and Deflection of Beam

Input data
L1=0.6 m, L2=1.6 m, L3=2.6 m, L=3.1 m, L4=1 m
q=3 kN/m, M=5 kN m, P= 4 kN
Cross-section type – Channel section
Height = 0.16 m
Flange width = 0.06 m
Thickness = 0.003 m
The beam is made of steel E=2e11 Pa, Poisson ratio – 0.3

## A two-supported beam of standard cross-section with a hinge located between supports is

subjected to set of forces P1, P2 and P3 (Ref. Fig. 5). Determine the reaction forces at the
supports. Check for equilibrium. Find maximum deflection. Plot the shear force and
bending moment diagrams. Determine maximum bending stress in the beam.

## Fig. 5. Bending and Deflection of Beam

Input data
L1=1 m, L2=4 m, L3=1.5 m, L4=1.5m, L=6 m
P1=4000 N, P2=6000 N, P3= 2000 N
Cross-section type – T-shape section
Height = 0.18 m
Flange width = 0.08 m
Thickness = 0.004 m
The beam is made of steel E=2e11 Pa, Poisson ratio – 0.3

Problem 6 3D Frame

A spatial cantilever frame (Ref. Fig. 6) is subjected to force P at free end and to uniformly
distributed pressure q. Determine the reaction forces at the support. Check for equilibrium.
Find maximum deflection. Plot the axial force Nx, shear forces Qy and Qz, torque moment
Mx and bending moments My and Mz diagrams. Determine axial, bending and total stress
in the structure.
Fig. 6. Spatial Frame Structure

Input data
L1=1 m, L2=2 m, L3=2 m
P=6000 N, q=4000 N/m
Cross-section type – Hollow rectangle
Height = 0.22 m
width = 0.1 m
Thickness = 0.006 m
The frame is made of steel E=2e11 Pa, Poisson ratio – 0.3

## Problem 7 2D Arch Frame

A cantilever arch frame (Ref. Fig. 7) is fixed at one end and is subjected to axial force P1
and shear force P2 at free end. Determine the reaction forces at the support. Find
maximum deflection. Plot the axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams.
Determine axial, bending and total stress in the structure.

## Fig. 7. 2D Arch Frame

Input data
R=1 m
P1=8000 N, P2=4000 N
Cross-section properties
Area = 0.522e-3 m2
Moment of Inertia = 0. 772e-6 m4
Height = 0.1 m
The frame is made of steel E=2e11 Pa, Poisson ratio – 0.3

## Problem 8 2D Arch Frame

A cantilever arch frame (Ref. Fig. 8) is fixed at one end and is subjected to uniformly
distributed pressure q. Determine the reaction forces at the support. Find maximum
deflection. Plot the axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams. Determine
axial, bending and total stress in the structure.

## Fig. 8. 2D Arch Frame

Input data
R=1 m
q=5000 N/m
α=120°
β=60°
Cross-section properties
Area = 0.522e-3 m2
Moment of Inertia = 0. 772e-6 m4
Height = 0.1 m
The frame is made of steel E=2e11 Pa, Poisson ratio – 0.3

## Problem 9 Simply Supported 2D Arch Frame

A simply supported arch frame is subjected to forces P1 and P2 and bending moment M
(Ref. Fig. 9). Determine the reaction forces at the support. Find maximum deflection. Plot
the axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams. Determine axial, bending and
total stress in the structure.
Fig. 8. Simply Supported 2D Arch Frame

Input data
R=2 m
P1=2000 N
P2=1000 N
M=3000 N m
β=30°

Cross-section properties
Area = 0.522e-3 m2
Moment of Inertia = 0. 772e-6 m4
Height = 0.1 m
The frame is made of steel E=2e11 Pa, Poisson ratio – 0.3

## Problem 10 3D Arch Frame

A spatial cantilever frame (Ref. Fig. 10) is subjected to force P and torque moment M
applied at free end. Determine the reaction forces at the support. Find maximum
deflection. Plot shear force, torque moment and bending moment diagrams. Determine the
maximum bending stress.

## Fig. 10. 3D Arch Frame

Input data
R=2 m
P=2000 N
M=3000 N m
Cross section – rectangle with height 0.2 m and width 0.1 m. The frame is made of steel.