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Advanced Course

Gas Tankers Advance Course


Gas Tankers Advance Course



International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for

Seafarers (STCW), 1978, as amended, sets qualification standards for masters, officers, and
watch going personnel on seagoing merchant ships. STCW was adopted in 1978 by
conference at the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in London, and entered into
force in 1984. The Convention was significantly amended in 1995. The 133 current state-
parties to the Convention represent approximately 98 percent of the world’s merchant vessel

1.1.1 Limitations discovered

Between 1984 and 1992, significant limitations to the 1978 Convention
became apparent. Many people felt that the Convention included vague
requirements that were left to the discretion of parties to the Convention.
Others felt that there were growing problems with: (a) a lack of clear
standards of competence, (b) no IMO oversight of compliance, (c) limited
port state control, and (d) inadequacies that did not address modern
shipboard functions. Meanwhile, the U.S. deferred ratification efforts and
worked for almost a decade to effect necessary changes to our licensing

1.1.1 Amendments adopted in 1995

On July 7, 1995, a conference of parties to the Convention, meeting at IMO headquarters in
London, adopted the package of amendments to STCW. The amendments entered force on
February 1, 1997.

1.1.2 Effective dates

The provisions of the Convention not tied to individual mariner certification became effective
when the IFR (Interim Final Rule) was published. However, provision was made for certain
new requirements to be introduced over a longer period. Full implementation is required by
February 1, 2002. For issuance of licenses and documents, the effective dates of the new
requirements will be according to transitional guidance published by the STW Subcommittee.
Mariners already holding licenses have the option to renew those licenses in accordance with
the old rules of the 1978 Convention during the period ending on February 1, 2002. Mariners
entering training programs after August 1, 1998 are required to meet the competency
standards of the new 1995 Amendments. For persons seeking original licenses, the Coast
Guard anticipates that most new training requirements will be incorporated into courses
approved by the Coast Guard, or by equivalent courses. To ensure that the competency
objectives of the 1995 amendments are met, parties must implement quality assurance
programs, with IMO reviewing each parties’ national program. Again, this represents a
fundamental change in thinking for the international community. It will be mandatory that the
"pulse" of the new system be checked on a recurring basis to ensure its "good health."

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1.1.3 Familiarization training:

Both the STCW Convention and the U.S. implementing regulations use the term
familiarization training or similar terminology five different ways:

a. Companies are required to ensure that seafarers who are newly assigned to a ship are
familiarized with their specific duties and with all ship arrangements, installations, equipment,
procedures and ship characteristics that are relevant to their routine or emergency duties.
Written instructions are to be issued by the company to each ship to ensure this ship-specific
familiarization takes place.

b. All persons who are employed or engaged on a seagoing ship other than passengers are
required to receive approved familiarization training in personal survival techniques or
receive sufficient information and instruction to be able to take care of themselves and take
proper action when an emergency condition develops. This includes locating and donning a
lifejacket, knowing what to do if a person falls overboard, and closing watertight doors.

c. Officers and ratings who are assigned specific duties and responsibilities related to cargo
or cargo equipment on tankers must complete an approved tanker familiarization course if
they have not had a minimum period of seagoing service on tankers.

d. Masters, officers and other personnel who are assigned specific duties and responsibilities
on board ro-ro passenger ships must complete familiarization training which covers subjects
such as operational limitations of ro-ro ships, procedures for opening and closing hull
openings, stability, and emergency procedures.

e. Masters, officers and other personnel who are assigned specific duties and responsibilities
on board passenger ships other than ro-ro passenger ships must complete familiarization
training which covers operational limitations of passenger ships.


The International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and

Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW 78/95), which contains mandatory minimum
requirements for training and qualifications of masters, officers and ratings of
chemical tankers.

This training is divided into two parts:

Level 1: Chemical tanker familiarization - a basic safety training course for

officers and ratings who are to have specific duties and responsibilities relating to
cargo and cargo equipment

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Level 1 training can also be covered through an appropriate period of supervised

shipboard service where an approved shipboard training programme is conducted by
qualified personnel

Level 2: Advanced training programme on liquefied gas tanker operations. An

advanced training programme for masters, officers and others who are to have
immediate responsibilities for cargo handling and cargo equipment.
In addition to level 2 training, such personnel must have completed level 1 and have
relevant experience on liquefied gas tankers before signing on to these positions on

This course covers the requirements for level 1 and level 2 training required by
STCW 95 Chapter V Regulation V/1 - 1.2, 2.2 and Section A-V/1 regulations 15 - 21

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02. Actual Gas Cargoes

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In the late 1920th transportation of liquefied gases in bulk started. In the very
beginning it was transportation of propane and butane in fully pressurised tanks.
When the steel quality became better and the knowledge about propane and butane
was better they started to carry those liquefied gases under temperature control.
From the mid-1960th we have carried fully refrigerated liquefied gases and now the
biggest gas carriers are more than 125 000 m3.
Liquefied gas is divided into different groups based on boiling point, chemical
bindings, toxicity and flammability. The different groups of gases have led to
different types of gas carriers and cargo containment system for gas carriers.

• IMO divides liquefied gases into the following groups:

• LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas
• LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas
• LEG - Liquefied Ethylene Gas
• NH3 - Ammonia
• Cl2 - Chlorine
• Chemical gases

The IMO gas carrier code define liquefied gases as gases with vapour pressure
higher than 2,8 bar with temperature of 37,8oC.
IMO gas code chapter 19 defines which products that are liquefied gases and have to
be transported with gas carriers. Some products have vapour pressure less than 2,8
bar at 37,8oC, but are defined as liquefied gases and have to be transported
according to chapter 19 in IMO gas code. Propylene oxide and ethylene oxides are
defined as liquefied gases. Ethylene oxide has a vapour pressure at 37,8oC on 2,7
bar. To control temperature on ethylene oxide we must utilise indirect cargo cooling
Products not calculated as condensed gas, but still must be transported on gas
carriers, are specified in IMO’s gas code and IMO’s chemical code. The reason for
transportation of non-condensed gases on gas carriers is that the products must
have temperature control during transport because reactions from too high
temperature can occur.
Condensed gases are transported on gas carriers either by atmospheric pressure
(fully cooled) less than 0,7 bars, intermediate pressure (temperature controlled) 0,5
bars to 11 bars, or by full pressure (surrounding temperature) larger than 11 bars. It
is the strength and construction of the cargo tank that is conclusive to what over
pressure the gas can be transported.

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Examples of some gas pressure at 37,8oC and boiling point at

atmospheric pressure:

Gas Boiling point at

Condensed gas pressure at atmospheric
37,8oC pressure
bars in oC
Methane CH4 Gas - 161
Propane C3H8 12,9 - 43
n - Butane C4H10 3,6 - 0,5
Ammonia NH3 14,7 - 33
Vinyl Chloride C2H3Cl 5,7 - 14
Butadiene C4H6 4,0 -5
Ethylene oxide C2H4O 2,7 10,7

2.1 LPG

LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas is a definition of gases produced by wet gas or raw
oil. The LPG gases are taken out of the raw oil during refining, or from natural gas
separation. LPG gases are defined as propane, butane and a mixture of these. Large
atmospheric pressure gas carriers carry most of the LPG transported at sea.
However, some LPG is transported with intermediate pressure gas carriers. Fully
pressurised gas carriers mainly handle coastal trade. LPG can be cooled with water,
and most LPG carriers have direct cargo cooling plants that condenses the gas
against water.
The sea transport of LPG is mainly from The Persian Gulf to Japan and Korea. It is
also from the north- west Europe to USA, and from the western Mediterranean to
USA and Northwest Europe.
LPG is utilised for energy purposes and in the petro-chemical industry

2.2 LNG

LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas is a gas that is naturally in the earth. Mainly LNG
contains Methane, but also contains Ethane, Propane, Butane etc. About 95% of all
LNG are transported in pipelines from the gas fields to shore, for example, gas pipes
from the oil fields in the North Sea and down to Italy and Spain. Gas carriers
transport the remaining 5%. When LNG is transported on gas carriers, the ROB and
boil off from the cargo is utilised as fuel for propulsion of the vessel. Cargo cooling
plants for large LNG carriers are very large and expensive, and they will use a lot of
energy. Small LNG carriers have cargo-cooling plants, and can also be utilised for
LPG transportation.

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The sea transport of LNG is from the Persian Gulf and Indonesia to Japan, Korea and
from the Mediterranean to Northwest Europe and the East Coast of USA and from
Alaska to the Far East.
LNG is used for energy purposes and in the petro-chemical industry.

2.3 NGL

NGL - Natural Gas Liquid or wet gas is dissolved gas that exists in raw oil. The gas
separates by refining raw oil. The composition of wet gas varies from oil field to oil
filed. The wet gas consists of Ethane, LPG, Pentane and heavier fractions of
hydrocarbons or a mixture of these. Atmospheric pressure gas carriers and semi-
pressurised gas carriers carry the most of the wet gas.
Ethane can only be transported by semi-pressurised gas carriers, which have direct
cascade cooling plants and are allowed to carry cargo down to –104oC. This is
because Ethane has a boiling point at atmospheric pressure of –89oC. This will
create too high condense pressure if using water as cooling medium. The cargo is
condensed against Freon R22 or another cooling medium with boiling point at
atmospheric pressure lower than –20oC.
Wet gas is transported from the Persian Gulf to the East, Europe to USA and some
within Europe. There is also some transport of wet gas in the Caribbean to South
NGL is utilised for energy purposes and in the petro-chemical industry.


2.5 LEG

LEG - Liquefied Ethylene Gas. This gas is not a natural product, but is produced by
cracked wet gas, such as, Ethane, Propane, and Butane or from Naphtha. Ethylene
has a boiling point at atmospheric pressure of -103,8oC, and therefore has be
transported in gas carriers equipped with cargo compartment that can bear such a

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low temperature. Cascade plants are used to condense Ethylene. As critical

temperature of Ethylene is 9,7oC one can not utilise water to condense Ethylene.
The definition of Ethylene tankers is LPG/LEG carrier.
Ethylene is very flammable and has a flammable limit from 2,5% to 34% by volume
mixed with air. There are stringent demands regarding the oxygen content in
Ethylene. The volume of ethylene must be less than 2% in the gas mixture to keep
the mixture below the LEL “lower explosion limit”. Normally, there are demands for
less than 0,2% oxygen in the gas mixture in order to prevent pollution of the cargo.
Ethylene is utilised as raw material for plastic and synthetic fibres.
Ethylene is transported from the Persian Gulf to the East, the Mediterranean to the
East and Europe, the Caribbean to South America. There is also transport of Ethylene
between the countries Malaysia, Indonesia and Korea


The next gas we will focus on is Ammonia, which is produced by combustion of

hydrogen and nitrogen under large pressure. Ammonia is a poisonous and irritating
gas, it has TLV of 25 ppm and the odour threshold is on 20 ppm. It responds to
water and there are special rules for vessels that transport Ammonia. We can locate
the rules in the IMO Gas Code, chapters 14, 17 and 19.
When ammonia gas is mixed with water, a decreased pressure is formed by 1
volume part water absorbing 200 volume parts ammonia vapour. A decreased tank
pressure will occur if there is water in the tank when commence loading ammonia
and the tank hatch is closed. With an open hatch, we can replace the volume,
originally taken up by the ammonia gas, with air.
One must not mix ammonia with alloys: copper, aluminium, zinc, nor galvanised
surfaces. Inert gas that contains carbon dioxide must not be used to purge ammonia,
as these results in an carbamate formation with the ammonia. Ammonium carbamate
is a powder and can blockage lines, valves and other equipment.
The boiling point for ammonia at atmospheric pressure is –33oC, and must be
transported at a temperature colder than –20oC. One can cool ammonia with all
types of cargo cooling plants. Ammonia is transported with atmospheric pressure gas
carriers or semi-pressurised gas carriers. Gas carriers carrying Ammonia must be
constructed and certified in accordance with IMO’s IGC code for transportation of
liquefied gases. The definition for ammonia tanker is LPG/NH, carrier.
Ammonia is utilised as raw material for the fertiliser industry, plastic, explosives,
colours and detergents.
There is a lot of transportation from the Black Sea to USA, from USA to South Africa
and from Venezuela to Chile.


Chlorine is a very toxic gas that can be produced by the dissolution of sodium
chloride in electrolysis. Because of the toxicity of Chlorine it is therefore transported
in small quantities, and must not be transported in a larger quantity than 1200m3.
The gas carrier carrying chlorine must be type 1G with independent type C tanks.
That means the cargo tank must, at the least, lie B/5 “Breadth/5” up to 11,5 meter

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from the ships side. To transport Chlorine, the requirements of IMO IGC code,
chapters 14, 17 and 19 must be fulfilled. Cooling of Chlorine requires indirect cargo
cooling plants.
The difference of Chlorine and other gases transported is that Chlorine is not
Chlorine is utilised in producing chemicals and as bleaching agent in the cellulose


The chemical gases mentioned here are the gases produced chemically and are
defined in IMO’s rules as condensed gases. Because of the gases’ boiling point at
atmospheric pressure and special requirements for temperature control, these gases
must be carried on gas carriers as specified by the IMO gas code. Condensed gases
are liquids with a vapour pressure above 2,8 bars at 37,8oC. Chemical gases that are
mostly transported are Ethylene, Propylene, butadiene and VCM. Chemical gases
that have to be transported by gas carriers are those mentioned in chapter 19 in IMO
IGC code. There are, at all times, stringent demands for low oxygen content in the
cargo tank atmosphere, often below 0,2% by volume. This involves that we have to
use nitrogen to purge out air from the cargo compartment before loading those
In addition, even though the vapour pressure does not exceed 2,8 bars at 37,8oC
such as, ethylene oxide and propylene oxide or a mixture of these, they are still in
the IMO gas code as condensed gases. Gas carriers that are allowed to transport
ethylene oxide or propylene oxide must be specially certified for this. Ethylene oxide
and propylene oxide have a boiling point at atmospheric pressure of respectively
11oC and 34oC and are therefore difficult to transport on tankers without indirect
cargo cooling plants. Ethylene oxide and propylene oxide can not be exposed to high
temperature and can therefore not be compressed in a direct cargo cooling plant.
Ethylene oxide must be transported on gas tanker type 1G.
Chemical gases like propylene, butadiene and VCM are transported with medium-
sized atmospheric pressure tankers from 12000 m3 to 56000 m3. Semi-pressurised
gas carriers are also used in chemical gas trade and then in smaller quantity as from
2500 m3 to 15000 m3.
Chemical gases are transported all over the world, and especially to the Far East
where there is a large growth in the petro-chemical industry. Chemical gases are
mainly utilised in the petro-chemical industry and rubber production.

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Table showing connection between cargo temperature and

type of compartment and secondary barrier requirement

Cargo - 10oC and Below -10oC Below -55oC

temperature at above down to –55oC
Basic tank type No secondary Hull may act as Separate
barrier required secondary barrier secondary barrier
where required
Intergral Tank type not normally allowed
Membrane Complete secondary barrier
Semi-membrane Complete secondary barrier
Type A Complete secondary barrier
Type B Partial secondary barrier
Type C No secondary barrier required
Internal insulation
Type 1 Complete secondary barrier
Type 2 Complete secondary barrier is

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03- Cargo Compartment


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Cargo compartment systems on gas carriers are divided into groups and types. The
group division indicates how the cargo tanks transfer dynamic strength to the vessel
hull. Cargo tanks that will be used on gas carriers must at all times have a
documented strength and certification of welded joints and steel quality. The cargo
tanks on gas carriers are rarely a direct part of the hull, but rather tanks installed
into the hull and isolated from the hull.
Gas carriers are built with two or more spaces where the cargo tanks are installed.
The space where the cargo tank is installed is called hold space. How much hold
space volume the cargo tank absorbs depends on the cargo tank’s shape. Cargo
tanks isolated from the hull, for example, cylinder tanks, must be electrically
grounded with a wire or steel strip to the hull.

Table showing connection between cargo

temperature and type of compartment and
secondary barrier requirement

Cargo - 10oC and Below -10oC Below -55oC

temperature above down to –55oC
Basic tank type No secondary Hull may act as Separate secondary
barrier required secondary barrier barrier where

Integral Tank type not normally allowed

Membrane Complete secondary barrier
Semi-membrane Complete secondary barrier
Type A Complete secondary barrier
Type B Partial secondary barrier
Type C No secondary barrier required
Type 1 Complete secondary barrier
Type 2 Complete secondary barrier is incorporated

Cargo tanks that are built for fully refrigerated gas carriers, and tanks with MARVS
less than 0,7 bars, must at all times have full or partly secondary barrier. Secondary
barrier is a tank or hull construction built outside the cargo tank itself, either in the
insulation between cargo tank and hull, or in the hull around the cargo tank. If the
hull around the cargo tank is used, it will be the ballast tank, ships side or
cofferdams that is the secondary barrier. When utilising the hull around the cargo
tank as the secondary barrier the vessel is limited as it will not have the capability to
transport cargo colder than –55oC.

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Secondary barrier will prevent cargo liquid from any possible leaks coming from
the cargo tank cooling the environment around the cargo tank, for example the ship
sides. The secondary barrier must have a construction that, at a minimum, keeps the
cargo liquid away from the surroundings for at least 15 days and maintains its full
function at static lurch of 30o.
All cargo tanks on gas carriers are constructed to a given excess pressure and
vacuum. The safety valve’s maximum allowed set point, called MARVS, is stated in
accordance to specification and pressure test, stated by the manufacturer of the
cargo tank. The tolerance of vacuum on the cargo tanks is stated in bars, kg/cm2 or
percentage of vacuum. MARVS and vacuum for each cargo tank must be specified in
the vessels “Certificate of Fitness”.
US Coast Guard has more stringent rules for safety margins for pressure tanks than
IMO, this indicates that cargo compartment on gas carriers have different MARVS
pressures for IMO and USCG.
In hold spaces and inter barrier spaces there are demands for an own bilge system
that is independent from the vessel’s other bilge systems. This is arranged with
independent ejectors or bilge pumps in the spaces and usually one in each side of
the space. Inter barrier space is the space between the cargo tank and the
secondary barrier.
The bilge arrangement is meant to pump out the cargo if there has been a leakage
from the cargo tank. The system can also be utilised to remove water from the hold
space or inter barrier space if there is accumulation of condensed water. If we have
to pump water we must be sure that all connections to the loading system is
On atmospheric pressure tankers, hold space and inter barrier space must at all
times have a neutral atmosphere, either by dry inert or nitrogen when loaded with
flammable cargo.
Nitrogen or dry air must be utilised when the cargo content is Ammonia or non-
flammable cargo. When the cargo is Ammonia one must under no circumstance
utilise inert containing CO2 in the spaces, because Ammonia has a reaction on CO2
and form a material called Ammonium Carbamate

IMO divides the cargo tanks into 4 main groups:

Integrated tanks
Membrane tanks
Semi - Membrane tanks
Independent tanks, type A, B, and C

The characteristics of integrated, membrane and semi membrane tanks is that they
all transfer static stress in the form of tank pressure to the hull around the cargo
tank when this is loaded. Independent tanks only transfer the weight of the cargo
tank and the cargo to the hull fundamentals, but does not transfer static pressure.

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The first cargo compartment system we will look at is integrated cargo tanks. It
is the same type of cargo compartment that we have on oil tankers, OBO carriers
and product tankers. The cargo tank is an integrated part of the hull so the hull
absorbs the weight and pressure from the cargo. This type of cargo compartment is
less suited and rarely approved for gas transportation. If we transport cargo colder
than –10oC, this type of cargo compartment is not approved. Then low temperature
steel in the cargo compartment is required. International rules also require a
minimum distance from the ship's side to the cargo tank of 760 mm for guiding of
toxic or flammable cargo. This prevents pollution from collision or run grounding.

Example of integral tank


Membrane compartment are divided into two groups, membrane tank system and
semi- membrane tank system. Membrane tank system is built up with two equal
membranes, while semi-membrane system have a membrane against the cargo and
metal or veneer as secondary barrier. Common for all membrane tanks is that there
is no centre bulkhead for reducing the free liquid surface, but is built up with a trunk
for narrowing the tanks up against the top of the tank.

3.2.1 Membrane tank system

Membrane tank is a cargo tank built of thin plate of invar steel, stainless steel or
ferro nickel steel with a content of 36% nickel. Characteristic for these types of steel
is a very small thermal expansion coefficient approximate equal 0. The tank shell and
the secondary barrier are built in profiles formed as a membrane; this renders the
material thickness small and no more than 10 mm thick. The membrane thickness is
normally of 0,5 to 1,2 mm. There is insulation between the secondary membrane
and the hull. The insulation is often perlite filled in plywood boxes, placed outside
each other like building blocks, or polyurethane gradually sprayed directly on as the
tank is built up. The hull takes up all weight from the cargo, and the membrane

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takes up the thermal expansion. Normal excess pressure for such cargo tanks is 0,25
bars, and there are demands for secondary barrier.
We can utilise the hull as secondary barrier for cargo temperatures down to –55oC,
but we must utilise low temperature steel in the hull round the cargo tank.
Frequently ballast tanks or cofferdams form the hull structure around the cargo tank.
For cargo colder than –55oC a tank must be placed into the insulation as secondary
barrier. French Gaz-Transport patent utilise two identical membranes outside each
other as primary and secondary barriers, with 36% nickel steel or invar steel. The
insulation in Gaz-Transport patent is perlite filled with plywood boxes.
Technigaz membrane system utilises stainless steel in the main membrane and
veneer in the secondary membrane. The main membrane is welded together of small
plates by a special shaping so that the tank tolerates expansion, the plate thickness
is about 1,2 mm. The first tanks from Technigaz utilized veneer plates, as secondary
barrier and balsa as insulation. Polyester-coated aluminium foil is now utilised as
secondary barrier, and polyurethane foam for insulation. These tank types are
utilised on large LNG and LPG tankers.

3.2.2 Sketch on membrane tank


These are tanks used on large LPG tankers. Semi-membrane tanks are built up
with an inner tank, insulation, membrane and insulation against hull. It is the
membrane that takes up the thermal expansion. The tanks are built of aluminium,
ferro nickel steel with 36% nickel, or built of stainless steel. The insulation is mostly
perlite, but can also be polyurethane or polystyrene. The hull absorbs all dynamic
loads from the cargo tank when the tank is loaded. Normal excess pressure for such
cargo tanks is 0,25 bars, and there is a demand for secondary barrier.
One can use the hull as secondary barrier for cargo temperature down to –55oC, but
one must utilise low temperature steel in the hull around the cargo tank. One can
also place a tank into the insulation as secondary barrier. One cannot utilise the hull
as secondary barrier for temperature colder than –55oC. A membrane inside is then

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built in the insulation as secondary barrier. This tank type was designed for LPG
transportation, but no LPG tankers are built with this tank type. In recent years,
Japanese yards have started to utilise this tank type on large LPG tankers.

3.3.1 Example of semi-membrane tank

3.3.2 Cross-section of gas tanker with membrane tank


Independent cargo compartment is cargo tanks that do not transfer the pressure
loads to the hull when they are loaded. Therefore, only the tank weight is transferred
to the cradles or the support points in the hull. The cargo tanks are built with
support to prevent the tank from slipping forward, astern, to the side or floating up.
Independent tanks are divided into three types: A, B and C. This division
distinguishes between the pressure the tank must tolerate and the demands for
secondary barrier. Independent tank Type A has the weakest strength of the
independent tanks, and there are demands for full secondary barrier. Independent
tank type B has greater strength than type A does, and only demands a partly

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secondary barrier. Independent tank type C is a pressure tank with no demands

for secondary barrier.

3.4.1 Independent tanks type A

Independent tank type A could be a prismatic tank and built in 3,5% nickel steel,
coal manganese steel or aluminium. The material is a recognised standard, steel
quality approved by the class companies. This type of cargo tank is utilised for
carrying LNG, LPG and ammonium.
This type of tanks is built for excess pressure less than 0,7 bars. Normal operating
pressure is 0,25 bars. The cargo tanks are mounted on building blocks so the tank
can expand freely. On top of the tanks and in the ship side or up under deck,
brackets are welded to prevent the tank from floating up.

3.4.2 Example of “anti float” brackets

A full secondary barrier for this type of tank is required. On LPG tankers designed for
minimum temperature of –48oC, the hull is generally used as secondary barrier as low
temperature steel is used in the hull construction around the cargo tank. If the hull is not
utilised as secondary barrier an extra tank around the main cargo tank are constructed.
This is done by building a tank of veneer plates around the cargo tank with
polyurethane foam as insulation in between. One can also use nitrogen or inert
between the tanks as insulation.

3.4.3 Independent tanks type B

Independent tank type B is a prismatic tank, spherical tank or membrane tank.
These tanks are designed and model tested, and they have better quality than type A
tanks. This tank type is used for large LPG and medium-sized tankers.

Prismatic tanks are produced in aluminium or 3% nickel steel in stiff plates. The
tanks rest on reinforced plywood supports for free expansion. The tanks are normally
provided with centreline bulkhead to reduce the free liquid surface. The tanks are
insulated with polyurethane or perlite. Submerged pumps or deepwell pumps are
utilised as discharging pumps.

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Spherical tanks produced by Moss-Rosenberg patent are produced in aluminium or

9% nickel steel. The tanks are supported with cargo tank shirt at equator and down
to the hull. Around the tank that is above deck there is a waterproof cover. The
tanks are equipped with submerged pumps.
Polyurethane is often utilised as foam on type B tanks as insulation; this is sprayed
directly on the tank shell. Other types of insulation are polystyrene plates placed in
layers, or perlite either filler around the tank or placed in small veneer cases. The
insulation on spherical tanks is spinned on from the bottom and up.

3.4.4 Independent tanks type C

Independent tanks, type C are either spherical tanks or cylinder tanks. The tanks are
built in carbon manganese steel, 2 – 5 % nickel steel or acid-proof stainless steel.
This type of tank has a large rate of security, and therefore does not need secondary
barrier. This tank type is utilised for fully pressurised gas carriers and semi-
pressurised gas carriers.
Tanks type C utilised on gas carriers are built in sizes from 300 m3 to 2500 m3.

Either submerged or deepwell pumps are utilised as discharge pumps.

The tanks are stored on cradles and welded to one of the cradles. The other cradle
functions as a support for the tank to expand freely. Some patents keep the tanks
down in the cradles by steel bands that are extended over the tank and fastened to
the cradle. Another patent is to weld “anti float” brackets on top of the cargo tank
and up under deck to prevent the tank from floating up. Tanks designed for cargo
colder than –10oC must have insulation. Normally polyurethane or polystyrene is
utilised as insulation.
The insulation is either sprayed directly or placed on in blocks on the cargo tank. The
thickness of the insulation is dependent of the quality of the insulation material and
the temperature of the cargo. The thickness of the insulation on tanks that carry
ethylene is about 200 mm.

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Gas carriers are tankers constructed for transporting liquefied gases in bulk. IMO
defines liquefied gases as products with a vapour pressure exceeding 2,8 bar
absolute at a temperature of 37,8oC. Gas carriers are built according to IMO’s Gas
Codes. There are three versions of gas codes; the first deals with existing gas
carriers and passes for gas carriers delivered before 31st of December 1976. The
next code passes for gas carriers delivered on or after 31st of December 1976, but
before 1st of July 1986. The third gas code, IGC Code passes for gas carriers started
or the keel set after the first of July 1986. The latest gas code is for gas carriers that
keel is laid and 1% of the construction mass is used on 1st October 1994.
The gas code has a content in demands for damage stability, gas tankers cargo
handling equipment, cargo tanks, steel qualities in cargo tanks, pipe systems for
cargo handling, personnel protection, safety valves, etc.
Gas carriers are divided into three main groups and four types. The gas carrier owner
decides which group and type the carrier should have, according to the freight the
vessel will trade.
The three main groups are:

• Fully pressurised carriers: designed for excess pressure in the

cargo tank above11 bar.
• Semi-pressurised carriers: designed for excess pressure the
cargo tank on 0,5 – 11 bars, the pressure is normally 3 – 5
• Fully refrigerated carriers: designed for excess pressure in the
cargo tank below 0,7 bars, the pressure is normally 0,25 – 0,3

Each of the groups is again divided into ship types dependent on the cargo's
hazardous properties (i.e.: toxicity, flammability, reactivity etc.). It is the ship
owner’s specification of the gas carrier, the international rules determined by IMO,
national rules and class companies rules that decide to which group and ship type
the carrier belongs.
All gas carriers classed according to IMO IGC Code for transportation of gases
mentioned in chapter 19, is given one of the following description types: 1G, 2G, 2PG
or 3G. Ship type 1G is the type that can carry all cargoes mentioned in chapter 19 of
the IGC Code, and has the largest rate of security to avoid pollution of the
Ship type 1G is a gas carrier that can carry all products mentioned in chapter 19 in
the IGC Code, and requires largest rate of security to prevent leakage from the
product to the surroundings.
Ship type 2G is a gas carrier that can carry the products marked in 2G, 2PG and 3G
in chapter 19 in the IGC Code, and that requires defensible security to prevent
leakage of the product.
Ship type 2PG is a gas carrier of 150 meters or less that can carry the products
marked 2PG or 3G in chapter 19 in the IGC Code, and that requires defensible
security to prevent leakage of the product. Also, where the product is transported in
independent tanks type C, which are designed for MARVS of at least 7 bars. Then,

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the cargo tank system is calculated for temperatures of –55oC or warmer. Gas
tankers of 150 meters or more, but with the same specification, as 2PG ships must
be calculated as 2G ships.
Ship type 3G is a gas carrier that can carry the products marked 3G in chapter 19 in
the IGC Code, and that requires moderate security to prevent leakage of the product.
The ship type is reported in column c in chapter 19 in the IGC Code.
The type of gas carrier is specified in the vessels IMO Certificate of Fitness. On the
certificate, there is also a product list of which products the vessel can carry. The
type description of the gas carrier is given by the year when the keel was laid and
the cargo tanks distance from ship side, damage stability, floating capability and of
what material the cargo tank is made.
As an example on ship type 1G, the cargo tank must lie at least B/5 parts up to 11,5
meters from the ship side. From the bottom plate and up to the tank no less than 2
meters or B/15 parts. B is equal to the vessel breadth. This type of carrier must
tolerate any damage to the ship side along the whole ship’s length. All information of
the demands made for the different ship types is located in IMO Gas Code, and all
gas tankers must have this publication onboard.

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Fully pressurised gas carriers were the first generation of gas carriers that were built
to transport liquefied gases in bulk. This type of gas carrier trades mostly where LPG
is consumed as energy, such as house heating and cooking etc. The trade area is
often limited to near coastal waters. This type of gas carrier is still built, but is built
to be more modern with discharging pumps in cargo tanks and indirect cargo cooling
plant for more flexible cargo handling. We divide this type of gas carrier into two,
one for LPG trade and one for Chlorine trade.

3.6.1 Fully pressurised LPG carriers

This type of gas carrier is the type that in proportion to displacement can carry the
lowest weight of cargo, this because it is transported under pressure at the
surrounding temperature, “ambient”. When the tank pressure increases the cargo’s
temperature also increases and the density of the liquid will be lower. The cargo tank
construction itself is heavy as these are built of common ship steel with a thick tank
shell to endure high pressure. There are no requirements for insulation of the cargo
tanks because these carriers are not allowed to transport cargoes with temperature
colder than –10oC.

These gas carriers are built in sizes up to about 3000 m3, and are built for an excess
pressure corresponding to an ambient temperature of 45oC. Propane has a saturation
pressure of 17,18 bars at 50oC. IMO has a requirement when building fully
pressurised tanks that they must be able to bear ambient (surroundings
temperature) cargo with a temperature on 45oC. The type of cargo determines the
excess pressure for which the tanks must be built. Normally, fully pressurised carriers
LPG have a relief valve setting at 18 bars, consequently, they can also carry
propylene in tropical waters.
This type of gas carrier is easy to operate, because the cargo does not need to be
cooled down on the sea voyage. To prevent vapour into the atmosphere when
loading, they can remove the excess vapour by having vapour return to shore. Fully
pressurised gas carriers don’t need discharge pumps in the cargo tanks, because the
excess tank pressure will discharge the liquid to shore. Hot gas from shore can be
used to hold the excess pressure in the cargo tank. If there is no utilisation of the
discharging pumps while discharging, the cargo tank’s excess pressure must at all
time be higher than the shore backpressure.
Some fully pressurised gas carriers are equipped with booster pump(s) (auxiliary
pump) on deck. This pump is used to discharge against a higher pressure than the
excess pressure in the cargo tanks. Booster pump is a one-stage centrifugal pump
installed on deck close to the ship manifold. Normally a booster pump manages to
increase the pressure up 9 bars. If the cargo tank’s pressure is 7 bars, then we can
manage 16 bars on the discharge line with the booster pump. We must bear in mind
that when running the booster pump against maximum pressure, the flow through
the pump is very low. We must always prime the booster pump before starting it,
generally by draining the discharge line to the ventilation mast. It is the pressure in
the shorelines that determines the manifold’s pressure and whether we should use
the booster pump or not.

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Fully pressurised gas carriers are equipped with a heat exchanger (cargo heater)
connected to the loading lines with vales and spool piece (adapter). When the heat
exchanger is not in use it is segregated from the liquid line. The heat exchanger is
used when we are loading a cargo with temperature below 0oC, for example,
propane at atmospheric pressure corresponding to –42,8oC directly into the vessels
cargo tanks. Then the cargo has to be heated to above –10oC before we load it down
to the cargo tank.
Fully pressurised gas carriers have a small cargo compressor to produce excess
pressure in the cargo tanks or remove over pressure from the cargo tanks. Vapour is
sucked from the cargo tanks to the compressor, and hot vapour is returned back to
the cargo tanks. These compressors are in general small, and are utilised only for
holding the temperature on the cargo.
Fully pressurised gas carriers are constructed with independent tank type C,
cylindrical or spherical tanks. These are tanks installed on “cradle-like” supports
down in the hold space (the space around the cargo tank), and the ship hull doesn’t
recover dynamic loads from the cargo tanks.
Actual cargo for fully pressurised carriers is LPG and some chemical gases. The kind
of cargo each vessel can carry is stated in the vessel’s IMO Certificate of Fitness.
Fully pressurised gas carriers are most utilised for carrying of ambient LPG and some
chemical gases as propylene, mainly in the Far East, South America, the Caribbean
and The Mediterranean.


• Easy to operate because all discharging takes place without pumps.

• Low costs in building because common steel is utilised in the cargo
• Low costs for maintenance, because there is little mechanical utility
equipment for cargo handling.
• Simple discharging/loading equipment on deck.
• No insulation of tanks or liner, no need in maintenance of the
insulation, and one can easily inspect the cargo tanks and the lines
from the outside.
• Transporting the cargo by surrounding temperature (ambient), no
cooling of the cargo gives low energy consumption.


• Small amount of cargo in proportion to displacement as the cargo is

transported ambient.
• Limited trade area because of dependence of discharging to
pressure tanks on shore.
• Limited cargo volume because the tankers are not built large than
• Unable to have cold cargo in the tanks because of the steel quality.
• Heavy cargo construction because of toleration of the pressure.

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3.6.2 Fully pressurised chlorine Cl2 carrier

These tankers are built as fully pressurised tankers LPG, but because of the toxicity
of chlorine, special requirements are set on this type of gas carrier. The requirements
are stated in the IGC code chapter 14, 17 and19. This type of ship must not have
cargo tanks larger than 600 m3, and total capacity must not exceed 1200 m3.
Consequently, these gas carriers are smaller than the common fully pressurised gas
carriers LPG.
The cargo tanks must be built for an excess pressure not lower than 13,5 bars, which
is saturation pressure for Chlorine at 45oC. Tanks and lines must be built in steel
quality that tolerates a temperature down to –40oC. Cargo lines must at maximum
have an inner diameter of 100 mm. Tanks and lines must be insulated. Polyurethane
or polystyrene is utilised as insulation. This information is at all times specified in
IMO Certificate of Fitness. There is also a summary in the certificate of fitness as to
what type of cargoes the actual tanker is allowed to carry.
This type of gas carrier often has an indirect cargo cooling plant with coils welded to
the outside of the tank shell. In general ethanol is used as cooling medium against
Freon (R22) in a small freon cooling plant. Other indirect cargo cooling plants utilise
freon as the cooling medium by directly pumping freon in and around the coils. It is
prohibited to use any kind of direct cargo cooling plant on chlorine.
To discharge these type of gas carriers the cargo tanks excess pressure is used.
Either the pressure established by dry nitrogen or only the tank pressure is used.
Chlorine vapour obtained from shore via the ship’s vapour lines can also be used for
discharging. Some chlorine carriers are also equipped with submerged pumps in the
cargo tanks.
This type of gas carrier mostly stays in the chlorine trade, because of the toxicity of
the cargo. There are few cargo owners that accept to load other products after
Chlorine. Chlorine carriers can, if they are accepted, also carry LPG and some
chemical gases depending on the relief valve’s set point.
Because of the toxicity of chlorine it is necessary that the chlorine carriers are
equipped with a chlorine absorption plant connected to cargo tanks and cargo lines.
The absorption plant must neutralise a minimum 2% of total cargo capacity. The gas
detector onboard must measure 1 ppm chlorine and alarm setting at 5 ppm. The gas
detector must scan the bottom of hold space, line from safety valve, the outlet from
chlorine absorption plant, into ventilation for accommodations and all of the gas area
on deck.


They are easy to operate.

Simple cargo handling equipment on deck.
Tanks and lines are insulated.
They have an indirect cooling plant, and are thereby capable to cool

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They are small tankers, and have thereby low loading capacity.
Expensive to build in proportion to the cargo amount they can
The tankers are mainly designed for Chlorine.

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Semi-Pressurised gas carriers are a development from fully pressurised carriers.
Semi-pressurised carriers are equipped with discharging pumps in the cargo tank,
cargo cooling plant, heat exchanger (cargo heater) and booster pumps. In addition,
the tanks and lines are insulated, normally with polyurethane or polystyrene. This
renders the ship type with more flexibility than other gas carrier types. Semi-
pressurised tankers are divided in two types - Semi-pressurised carrier LPG/LEG and
Semi-pressurised tanker combined gas and chemicals.

3.7.1 Semi-pressurised LPG/ LEG carriers

Semi-pressurised carriers are more complex than fully pressurised carriers due to
their extended cargo handling equipment. Semi pressurised tankers are equipped
either with direct cargo cooling plant or cascade cargo cooling plant. Which type of
cargo cooling system the gas carrier is equipped with depends on the type of cargo it
is meant to carry. If the tanker is carrying LPG or Ammonia with a boiling point at
atmospheric pressure warmer than –48oC, the choice is generally direct cargo-cooling
plant. If the vessel will transport cargo with a boiling point at atmospheric pressure
colder than –48oC, the vessel must be equipped with cascade cooling plant.
Before loading cold cargo, the cargo tank steel must be cooled down to approximate
10oC above cargo temperature. It is common that the first 30oC can be cooled the
first hour. Thereby we can cool down the shell by 10oC an hour until it is about 10oC
above the cargo temperature. The cooling of the tank steel must be done to prevent
thermal expansion and crack in the tank shell. A tank of 1000 m3 that is cooled from
20oC to –103oC shrinks about 5 m3.
In addition, when the shell is cooled down, the time for loading will be reduced and
thereby reduces the time ashore. That will save harbour expenses for the ship
owners or the charterer. It is specified in the operating manual for each vessel how
to cool down the cargo tank shell. We must be attentive to this, because uneven
thermal shrinkage of the cargo tank can lead to damage to the cargo tank.
Semi-pressurised gas carriers are normally built in sizes from 2000 m3 to 15000 m3.
They are designed to carry cargo with temperatures down to –48oC for LPG and
Ammonia, and –104oC for LEG.

Semi-pressurised gas carriers are utilised for transportation of petrochemical gases,

such as, Propylene, Butadiene, Ethylene and Ammonia, but also for gases, such as,

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Propane, Butane and Ethane. There have been plans to build semi-pressurised
tankers up to 36000 m3, but they are still not built.
Semi-pressurised gas carriers have independent tanks type C either as cylinder or
spherical tank designed for tank pressure between 0,5 – 11 bars. Either nickel steel
or coal-manganese steel is used in the cargo tanks. Semi-pressurised carriers with
spherical tanks utilise the same steel quality as in cylinder tanks. The cylinder tanks
are often a combination of twin tanks that are situated longitudinally of the ship, and
a single situated abeam. The tanks are placed below deck, but some vessels also
have cargo tanks on deck. This information is, at all times, specified in IMO
Certificate of Fitness. In the IMO Certificate of Fitness, there is also a summary of
cargo the vessel can carry.
The tanks are placed in “cradle-like” constructions and are welded to one of the
cradles; the other cradle then functions as cargo tank support by expansion of the
tank. The tanks are either strapped down with steel bands or the brackets are
welded on to prevent the tanks from floating up. Between the cradle and the tank
shell there is a layer of hard wood that acts as a fender to prevent damage to the
cargo tank against the cradle, and acts as insulation against the steel in the cradle.
On some vessels, the cargo tanks are attached to one of the cradles, and free in the
other cradle for free expansion of the cargo tank. The spherical tanks are also
installed in a “cradle-like” construction, and brackets (anti float) are welded on top of
the cargo tank to prevent the cargo tanks from floating up. The support goes
towards a bracket in the hull of the tanker, either up under deck or in the ship side.
Actual cargoes for Semi-pressurised gas carriers are LPG, LEG, Ammonia, Ethylene
and some chemical gases.
Semi-pressurised gas carriers are the type of gas carriers that is most flexible for
change of cargo and cargo handling.


• Very flexible, can load and unload temperate cargo.

• Can heat the cargo while at sea and while discharging.
• Can transport fully cooled cargo, and thereby handle heavier cargo,
lower temperature, and larger density. (Notice the safety valves
set point).
• Easier tank construction than fully pressurised tankers.
• Can cool the cargo on route, no dependence at loading to remove
excess pressure.


• Expensive to build, costly cargo handling equipment.

• Complicated to operate because of the cargo handling equipment.
• Uses more energy than fully pressurised tankers.
• Limited cargo amount (maximum approximate15000 m3).

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Semi-pressurised tankers with deck cargo tank or some transverse cargo tanks can
have stability problems in loading/discharging. This is specified in the operating
manual and the stability book for the tanker, and the operators onboard must
consider this.

3.7.2 Semi pressurised tankers (Combined gas/chemical)

These gas carriers are constructed like other Semi pressurised tankers, but they are
classified both according to IMO gas and chemical codes. This involves separate
liquid and vapour lines from each tank to the manifold, in order to segregate all
cargo tanks from each other. This means that this type of gas carriers can load
equally as much different cargo as they have cargo tanks. The cargo tanks on this
type of gas carrier are the independent type C cylinder, generally single transverse or
small alongside twin tanks.
Cargo tanks, lines, and valves are constructed in stainless steel, and these gas
carriers are equipped with indirect cargo cooling plant in addition to cascade cargo
cooling plant. They are constructed to transport cargo from –104oC to 60oC. The
indirect cargo cooling plant is often equipped with a coil welded outside the tank
shell, where Ethanol is used either to cool or heat the tank steel. When cooling the
tank steel, the Ethanol is cooled with the help of freon (R22) cooling plant. The
Ethanol is also utilised to heat the tank steel; it is then heated with the tanker steam
in a heat exchanger and pumped in and around the coils.
These gas carriers are normally designed for 3 - 4 bars excess pressure and are built
in sizes from 4000 m3 up to 15000 m3.
Actual cargo LPG / NH3 / LEG / chemical gases and chemicals.


• The tankers are very flexible, can transport both chemicals and gas.
• Tanks and lines are stainless steel.
• Direct and indirect cooling/heating.
• Can load and discharge tempered cargo and fully cooled cargo down
to -104oC.
• Access to many smaller ports/harbours because of relatively little


• Expensive to build.
• Demanding to operate because of complicated cargo handling
• Limited cargo volume because of the tanker’s size.
• The stability is a problem when loading/unloading when there are
many transverse cargo tanks or deck cargo tanks. This is specified
in the operational manual and the stability book.

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Following semi-pressurised gas carriers, the first atmospheric pressure gas carrier
was delivered at the end of the 1950s. These gas carriers are built in sizes from
15000 m3 to 120000 m3, and are designed for excess tank pressure less than 0,7
bars. These gas carriers are built either with independent tank type A or type B as
prismatic or spherical tanks, or with membrane tanks. With prismatic or membrane
tanks the volume of the hull is utilised, and tank construction is below deck. With
spherical tanks, about half of the cargo tank is above deck because the vessel’s hull
is lower than what you find with prismatic or membrane tanks.

3.8.1 Fully refrigerated LPG carriers

The cargo tanks on fully refrigerated LPG carriers are normally built of low
temperature carbon-manganese steel. The cargo tanks are designed for LPG,
Ammonia and some chemical gases with minimum temperature of –48oC. The cargo
tanks are normally insulated either with Polyurethane or Polystyrene. Some of the
older fully refrigerated gas carriers have Perlite as tank insulation.
Fully refrigerated gas carriers are normally equipped with independent type A or B
prismatic cargo tank or membrane tanks. Fully refrigerated carriers with independent
tank type A must have a full secondary barrier. This is achieved by using low
temperature steel in the hull structure around the cargo tank.
If independent tank type B is utilised either prismatic or spherical tanks, only a partly
secondary barrier is demanded. This is achieved by utilising low temperature steel in
the hull under the cargo tank.
Independent prismatic cargo tanks are normally divided into two in longitudinal
direction with a centre bulkhead that runs to the top of the tank dome. The centre

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bulkhead is built to improve the stability on the carriers by reducing the effect of the
free liquid surface when the tanks are loaded.
There are normally one or more valves in the centre bulkhead that is called
intermediate valves. These intermediate valves are installed down in the pump sump
for the liquid to flow from one side to the other. It is important that the intermediate
valves are closed when there is no loading or discharging of cargo. Normally there
are two pumps in each cargo tank.
With the intermediate valves open, one can discharge the entire cargo tank with one

Fully refrigerated carriers with membrane tanks are without a centre bulkhead. Such
gas carriers are built with a trunk on deck that the membrane tank is formed out of,
and thereby reduces the effect of the free liquid surface.
Fully refrigerated carriers are generally equipped with the same cargo handling
equipment as Semi-pressurised carriers. Some carriers also have coils in the pump
sump that is used for liquid free the tank, hot gas is blown through the coils. Some
carriers are also equipped with strip lines in the tank that either are connected to
ejectors or transportable membrane pumps, this is utilised when loading naphtha
etc. Some atmospheric pressure tankers do not have booster pumps or heat
exchangers (cargo heaters).
Actual cargo for this type of gas carrier is LPG, Ammonia, Naphtha, and some
chemical gases, such as, Propylene, Butadiene and VCM. Information of the type of
cargo the tanker transports is located in IMO Certificate of Fitness.
When atmospheric pressure gas carrier are carrying flammable products, the hold
space or the inter-barrier space must have a content of neutral atmosphere with
either dry inert gas or dry nitrogen. When carrying non-flammable products, one
utilises dry air or dry nitrogen on the hold space.
This gas carrier type carries a lot of LPG from the Persian Gulf to the Far East and
USA. Ammonia is transported from The Black Sea to USA and the Far East.


• Transports large weight in proportion to volume because the cargo

is at all times loaded and transported at atmospheric pressure.
• Easier cargo tank construction than Semi pressurised tanker
• Tanks and lines are insulated.
• Have large cargo cooling plant.
• Large tankers are more efficient (cargo weight).

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• Not so flexible for cargo change as Semi pressurised tankers.

• Pressure limitation, not possible to heat up cargo on route.
• Carrier without heat exchanger (cargo heater) can only unload at
atmospheric pressure (fully cooled).
• Limited access on terminals and ports with limitations to draught.

3.8.2 Fully refrigerated LNG carriers

These gas carriers are special as they are designed for loading gas at atmospheric
pressure with a temperature down to –163oC. Fully refrigerated LNG carriers are
either built with independent tanks type B Moss-Rosenberg patent with spherical
tanks or French patents that utilises membrane tanks.
Spherical tanks of Moss Rosenberg patent are built in aluminium. French patents with
membrane tanks are built either in stainless steel, 9% nickel steel or ferro nickel
steel that have a 36% nickel content. Common for all these steel types is that they
have a thermal expansion coefficient close to 0.These gas carriers are built from
20000 m3 to 125000 m3. The largest LNG carriers are, at all times, contracted on
basis of long cargo contracts over about 25 years. This is because these tankers are
very expensive to build, and are designed for LNG trade. The LNG tankers compete
with gas transportation in pipelines on shore, and the sea transport amount to about
5% of the total LNG transport.
These tankers are special in that the vapour boil off from the cargo is utilised as fuel
to the vessels propulsion. For the large LNG tanker, the vapour boil off is between
0,18% to 0,25% of the cargo capacity per 24 hours. It is possible to produce cargo-
cooling plants for the large LNG tankers, but to cool 125000 m3 LNG about 6000
kW/h is required. This indicates that this is too expensive, and it is more appropriate
to utilise the vapour boil off for propulsion. The smaller LNG tankers on the other
hand have a cargo cooling plant, and they transport some in LPG/LNG/LEG trade.

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LNG carriers have a special procedure for cooling the cargo tanks before loading,
which is specified in the tanker’s operation manuals and certificates. The tankers are
equipped with a spray plant where Methane is pumped into the tank’s spray line
(perforated lines), which is installed inside the cargo tank. Understandably, one must
cool the cargo tanks a considerable amount of degrees to be ready to load. One
must never begin to load a cargo tank before there is –136oC in the middle of the
tank, or by the tank’s equator.

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The right to charter has an international colouring. This is naturally because the
activity over the world’s oceans is linking countries, nations and traditions closer
together and creates a need of uniformity. That is why common regulations
concerning transporting products is so important, but still there is a long way to go.
Ship trading is risky, and in extreme cases this fact was recognised in the days of
sail-ships. In these days the owners of the ships had a limited responsibility due to
miscalculations, and where held responsible the limitations to the area accounted for
was the value of the ship and the freight.
The rules concerning the responsibility during transport gives the answer to how far,
and to which extend, the owner is responsible to the economical loss the cargo
owner suffers by loss or damage on goods or by delay during the voyage while it still
was in the ship’s owner custody.

In the last century the ship owners signed off any responsibility due to damages
during the voyage. Clauses were made to liberate the owners from almost
everything. American cargo owners had agreements in the American court of law
saying that many of these clauses had no value, in other words: the clauses
liberating the ship owners responsibility due to miscalculations and negligence was
not valid.
The motion was against the hip owners both in USA and Europe. The ship owners
themselves decided that something had to be done, and in 1924 as a result of
several maritime court conferences, “Bill of Lading” convention was established,
called The Haag-Regulations. The Haag regulations was ratified of most maritime
trading nations, and this resulted in an almost united regulation of the most
important conflicts concerning transporting of goods, as well as the understanding of
what a bill of landing shall contain and the responsibility connected to the
information about the product.
Norway acknowledged the Haag regulations in 1938. Still the need to improve
existed and after the conference in Stockholm in 1963, another protocol was
developed with some proposals to improvements due to the Haag regulations. The
convention changed in constitution and now called the Haag-Visby regulations.
The Haag-Visby regulations represent no longer fully and updated international
accepted regulations, for instance to general cargo transporting.
A new conference was held in Hamburg and the purpose is that the Hamburg rules
shall take over for the Haag-Visby rules when they are ratified by a satisfactory
number of marine trading nations.

4.1.1 The Conventions decisions

Usually the parts in negotiations can request their desires concerning transport of a
product or an entire ship cargo, by the commitment in a freight contract. But the
participants can not make the deal totally as they want. The regulations in the “Bill of

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Lading” has to be followed, and the amount the ship owner have to be responsible
to, must be, according to the responsibility rules and not a smaller amount.
On the other hand, the opportunity to commit the shipping company to be
responsible to a higher amount is available. So, there is no way to avoid the
regulations due to the bill of lading and the transport responsibility according to the
conclusions in the international Haag-Visby regulations.
In addition to the decisions by the court of law about the partner’s deal, the
customary practice will play an important role when it comes to how a freight
contract shall be understood.
When the partners implicated have come to an agreement, a contract is established
and ready to sign. This deal is called A «charter party». Such a deal was in the past
considered to be a quit simple document. This is not the case any more. A number of
the larger charterer have today their own charter party formula. It exists a number
of different charter party formulas due to load and trade. It is quit obvious that a
charter party for a load of cattle will have to consist of a number of regulations
totally different from a ship carrying a cargo of gas or a ship carrying crude oil.
In freighting, a number of expressions which is important to be fully aware the
meaning of, is used, therefore look at the enclosure list with commonly used
expressions in the end of this part of the compendium.
As mentioned before a «charter party» is a contract about a transport mission.
When the product is taken on board a document shall be issued called a “Bill of
Lading”. A Bill of Lading is a document confirming the acceptance of the cargo
(product) to carry from one determination place to the other.
In bill of lading the ship owner is described as the freighter of the cargo, and the one
who go cargo needed to be transported is called the charter.

4.1.2 Freighting in General

We shall now go through a little extra about the different ways of freighting, but first
let us briefly say a little of what normally happens before the negotiations start.
Thereafter we will talk some about the partners involved, the mechanisms in the
market, and the shipping language with the expression habits, the rate system, the
freight market, and a little about technicalities during negotiations.
Two of the partners often mentioned in freighting are the charter one having the
cargo and the freighter whom is the ship owner. In a simple way, for example an oil
company has a cargo and wishes this cargo to be shipped from the Arabian Gulf to
SE Asia. So the company then contacts their broker in London delivering a brief
description of the cargo. For example, 4500 metric tons of propylene, which is to be
loaded in Al Jubail in the time 17-20th of May.
The London broker will then send off a telex with this cargo information and send
this telex to his broker associated in various countries, based on this brokers
knowledge and considerations due to where hip owners with suitable tonnage is
established around the world. These brokers have a wide information of ship types
and companies and when the ships are available which is extremely useful and
When it concerns shipping the free marketing mechanism is ruling. Offer and
demand control the whole scenario. When little activity in the market, it referred to

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as quit and slow. When the market is active, it is referred to as a lively demand. The
freighting level will rarely be constant. In a n active market with lively demand the
freight rates increase. This due to the fact that both ship owner and the broker
instantly read which way the demand is going. Therefore the freight rate gets higher,
and because there is shortage of tonnage, the oil company has no other alternate
than to pay.
Similarly a quit market will lead the oil companies to acknowledge that there is no
competition in market, and that ships want contracts, and since several is competing,
the oil company can press the market down and have a ship with the lowest freight
rate signed up. How far down the rate is pressed is dependent of the conditions. A
ship owner will probably not choose to lay up the ship until the freight market is so
low that the transporting income does not cover the running costs. In a short period
the owners may choose to sail with loss, reading the market and consider this as a
temporary down period. It is really extremely expensive to lie up the ships and then
break open again. Further on the low rate over a longer period will lead to less
contracting. When the market is strong and active, will on the other hand the
contracting increase. The same is to be said about buying and selling «second hand
Later on we will, when viewing the different types of transport forms, discuss the
different shipping expressions. The shipping language itself is English, but what
make it difficult to understand is all the abbreviations and special expressions. Some
of these special expressions will be found in the loading instructions, so we will try to
get the most important ones with us. Since the wars ended oil tankers have
developed different rating systems, and the one valid these days is called «World
In world scale (World-wide Tanker Normal Freight Scale) is abbreviated to WS or W,
and we find a number of basis rates for oil cargo voyages between typical
disembarkation ports and receiving ports throughout the world.

4.1.3 Basic Rate

The basic rate is calculated and intended a standard oil tanker with a loading
capacity of 75000 metric ton, and an average speed of 14,5 knots, and a day and
night consumption estimated to 55 metric tons HVF (heavy fuel) and 100 metric tons
to other purposes, plus 5 metric tons in each port.
When the partners have agreed, the contract is written. The brokers then draw the
contract, usually on a standard formula called a Charter Party. Usually the charterer’s
broker finishes the charter party and often signs the contract on behalf of the
The owner’s broker usually signs the charter party according to received power of
attorney after the owner have controlled a «working copy» of the charter party
Common procedure is that the charter himself sign the document. Often the owner
or his broker who is signing the charter party on the ship owners behalf.
The broker as a connecting link is extremely important and must be accurate and see
that no mistakes are being made which can cause conflicts leading to claims for
compensation. He will often as the negotiations is ending, send a rundown with all
the conditions agreed to, so both parts can read through it and confirm the
conditions agreed on.

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The parts in the negotiations

1. The ship owner is the one offering the ship services due to transport of
2. The charterer is the part who has cargo to transport and need tonnage.
3. The broker is the part negotiating a final contract between owner and

The parts have start the negotiations, the picture above symbolise only the
negotiation, not the negotiation form.
Now a few words about the negotiations itself. Naturally no deepen details is
mentioned. Let us go back to the oil company which had a cargo of 4500 metric
tons from Al Jubail going to SE Asia:
The procedure in the negotiations can vary, but in this case the English broker sent
the order to several of his broker connections in countries which he meant had
suitable tonnage in hand, among others several Norwegian brokers. These brokers
passes on the request from the oil company to the different owner
connections.(many owners have their own charterer sections). Only few minutes
after the Oil Company informed the market about the cargo, the order came ticking
into the owners office around the world.
The owner «Transporter Gas» has just the oil tanker available, LPG «Seagull» which
can load about 4500 metric tons of propylene and is found in the right position to be
ready for loading at the requested time. The owner is Norwegian and it is morning,
and no especial time difference between London and Oslo, so the owner is ready to
set up LPG «Seagull». The owner work out the conditions and makes an offer which
the Oslo broker send via London to the oil company. This offer stand on hold for

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about half an hour in our example, «subject reply within 1230 hours», this is
due to the fact that a new opportunity is likely to occur sudden in the market, and
rapid replays is necessary.
Such a primer offer is usually very short , there is no negotiations yet, but it is a way
to check the interest in the market for business, «subj. Details and C/P
Ref. your order Ras Tanura - Europe pleased to offer you: Subj. Replay
here 1230 hrs. Oslo time.
LPG «Seagull». 8250 metric tonn dwt. on 8,2 mtrs. Summer draft. (followed by
a short description of the ship).

Loa/beam: 126,1m/17,8m.
Blt: 1982/class GL/flag Norwegian.
Tank cap: 8073 cbm. (98%).
Last 3 cargoes: Propylene.
Cargo: Min. 4500 metric ton up to full cargo.
Segregation. Max. 2 grades within vessel’s natural
Load: One safe berth Al Jubail.
Disch. One safe port SE Asia.
Laycan: May 17/20 1994.
Rate: 68 USD/mt.
Demurrage: USD 14000 pdpr (per day pro rata)
Haag-Visby: Haag-Visby rules.
GA/ARB: (general average, arbitration) London,
English law to apply.
WSHT: (worldscale`s hours terms)-72hrs.
TTL(total) 2,5% commission on FRT/DEM.
CP form: ASBATANK (Tanker Voyage Charter
Party )

Sub further terms details.

The Owner (company) will now wait in excitement for replay, so that a “counter”
is received, meaning a counteroffer. May be nothing happens. Other shipping
companies may have reacted even faster with a replay, a ship with better equipment
and position or a better previous cargo history, that means what cargo the ship has
been carrying on previous voyages. It can also happen that another owner offers a
lower freight rate. But any way, in our example, this ship is favourable to the
charterer. Mostly of our offer is accepted and we receive the following telex:

Subj. Reply London 1245hrs.

Accept discharge range.
Rate: 62 USD/mt.

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Naturally, in the cards played one has to compromise, and after negotiating to and
from one agrees that the owner and the charterer commits to a rate on 62 USD/mt
and a DEM 9000.
When the negotiations are completed, the charterer send a rundown, where the
total contract is confirmed. The charter party is written later. The parts involved
have committed themselves on the basis of negotiations and the rundown which
have been read and accepted, but there is always written a charter party , and this is
functioning like a contract between the owner and charterer. Earlier this was a
relatively simple document written in a few lines describing the ship, cargo, freight
and the voyage. Today a charter party is a extensive document with standard
clauses which are supplied with several additional clauses (riders) which are fastened
to the charter party. These additional clauses is regulating the charterer special
needs or other more practical conditions connected to the transport.
Further on it can be clauses concerning responsibilities damaging the cargo, shut
downs, clauses of war, dividing expenses and other information about the ship,
which will be of interest to the charterer.


Choose to enlighten the document Bill Of Lading before going further into the other
variants of charter parties.
A bill of lading is defined as a document consisting of:
A confirmation from the owner on the acceptance of specific goods, cargo to
transport (carry).
A promise to transport the goods to a certain destination.
A promise to deliver goods at a determinate place in return of the document “Bill Of
After receiving the cargo, the ship captain or the vessel’s agent issues a Bill of
Lading. This will be handed over to the shipper so that the cargo can be delivered to
the one holding the original Bill of Lading (the shipper or the buyer). This third party
is the one who owns the cargo and is the receiver.
We have different types of Bill of Ladings, but the regulations are the same. When
the cargo is transported by an oil tanker, the cargo owners, after checking when the
ship is ready to embark, deliver the cargo to the tank company’s “Warehouse”. The
tank company then issues a “booking note” referring to the company’s Bill of Lading
conditions and this ensures that the Bill of Lading is issued when the cargo has been
loaded. From time to time, this “booking note” is skipped over. The cargo is then
simply received with a confirmation of the Bill of Lading, which confirms that the
cargo is received for transport. If the cargo is loaded on board a known and named
ship, the Bill of Lading will be an “Onboard” Bill of Lading. A Bill of Lading can also
state that the transportation may be executed with more than just the owner’s ship.
This Bill of Lading is called a “Through” Bill of Lading.
A document for the whole transport can be issued, when transport is executed by
car, ship, or railroad. This is called Combined Transports and the document is called
a “Combined Transport Document.”
Along the Norwegian coastline no Bill of Lading is used, but a Freight-bill is issued
instead. The strict rules for Bill of Lading responsibilities do not apply to the Freight-
bill. In special areas, like the Northern Sea and in North Atlantic trade, a Bill of

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Lading is not always used. However, a document referred to as “Waybill” is used

and this document is not enforced as a Bill of Lading.

The Bill of Lading shall state the day and place where issued along with the shipper’s
In addition, a recipient Bill of Lading will state the destination for cargo delivery.
An Onboard Bill of Lading will provide the ship’s name, nationality and location where
the cargo was loaded.
Further, if the shipper demands, the following will be noted:
The type of cargo and either the cargo weight measure or quantity of goods, based
on the shipper’s written task.
The shipper will deliver the necessary identification marks in writing, before the
loading starts, provided that the marks are clearly indicated on the cargo.
The visible condition of the cargo.
On the receiver Bill of Lading, the day receiving the cargo. On the Onboard Bill of
Lading, the day when the loading ended.
Where to and to whom the cargo will be delivered.
The size of the freight and the other terms related to the transportation and the
cargo delivery.
The owner must be critical and should, of course, in no way avoid controlling the
shipper’s information, if there is any reason to suspect they are incorrect. If this is
the case, he must control the information himself to ensure accuracy.
The shipper is accountable to the owner for the accuracy of the cargo information
regarding his task or as requested in the Bill of Lading.
As receiver, the shipper can in the Bill of Lading suggest a special person, order or
holder. The person standing as a receiver can give this right to another who can
demand the cargo be delivered to him.
A Bill of Lading is issued in as many copies as the shipper demands, but the number
should be referred to in text and the wording should be similar.

The regulations concerning the Bill of Lading responsibility are very strict. This is
because a Bill of Lading is a negotiable document - a document which represents the
cargo (the cargo’s ID card) and which can be negotiable in form of buying and
selling several times during the ships voyage. Therefore, the information in the Bill of
Lading must be correct. The buyer of cargo, which is under transportation or
scheduled for transport, has paid for the cargo and in return was granted the Bill of
Lading. Upon arrival the buyer receives the cargo upon presenting the Bill of Lading.
A Bill of Lading functions as a certificate that the cargo is as described in the
document. Protests from the owner to the shipper cannot be set in force if the Bill of
Lading has been acquired from a credulous third person.

When the person at the receiver location shows a Bill of Lading, he is regarded as
the legitimate receiver of the cargo. It is enough that one Bill of Lading is presented
where several are issued, if the others are delivered to their right owners. (This will
be viewed on the next page, “Indemnity Clause”). If more receivers appear and can
legitimate themselves by presenting examples of the Bill of Lading, the cargo will be
held back until the correct receiver is found.

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We already have mentioned that the Bill of Lading represents the cargo, and that this
is valid as evidence -confirming- that the owner has accepted and loaded the cargo
when no other information is available. Counter evidence cannot be produced if the
Bill of Lading has been acquired in good faith from a third person.
If an owner knew, or ought to have known that information about the cargo was
incorrect, there is no way to be free of responsibility. The Bill of Lading must in such
a case show that this information proved otherwise.
The owner is also responsible to the third person if cargo damage or cargo lack has
been kept hidden without being noted in the Bill of Lading, even when the owner
should have discovered this information.
So, if the third party involved suffers loss when cashing in the Bill of Lading, trusting
that the information stated is correct, the owner will be responsible. This is true
when he has or should have realised that the information in this document was
incorrect, and could have caused misunderstandings for a third party.
Law in its execution forces Haag-Visby regulations. There is no way to avoid any
responsibility for the conditions.
The conditions in the Convention concerning responsibility for loss and damages is
not an impediment for changes in the preserving of the cargo and the handling
before loading and after discharging.
The owner, or someone he answers for, is responsible for losses regarding his
obligation to keep the ship in seaworthy condition at the start of the voyage.
The Haag-Visby regulation’s Bill of Lading paragraph does not apply to freight
contracts. However, if a Bill of Lading is issued under a charter party, it must satisfy
the conditions set in the Convention. The situation will then be to judge, based on
the Haag-Visby regulations for all Bill of Lading issued for transport of a cargo,
between two flag states when:
The Bill of Lading is issued in a country which has ratified the Convention, or:
The transport is from one port in a country using the Convention already, or:
The contract contains information which confirms that the country, according to its
Convention rules or laws, have agreed to use the Convention in the transport
When a ship is time chartered, the charterer will request that a Bill of Lading is
issued. The same regulations concerning responsibility is valid as long as a document
is issued. Also, the captain must make sure that no Bill of Lading is signed which
could lead to claims of responsibility against the owner which was caused by
incorrect description of the cargo. Here the same sort of difficulties as mentioned
earlier can occur, therefore any remark concerning the cargo and its condition etc.,
must be noted in the document before signing it. A charterer will press a captain to
issue a clean Bill of Lading regardless. Here the time charterer is important. A large
reputable company can accept a “Back Letter” or “Letter of Indemnity” as
satisfactory, but be careful and leave the decision to the owner. Be aware, that P/I
companies do not cover the owner’s loss if something goes wrong. The owner’s
would have to face claims of responsibility as a result of delivering cargo without
having accepted the necessary Bill of Lading from the receiver, as required by law.
When delivering cargo, the captain must ensure and control that the cargo is
exclusively delivered to the one presenting the original Bill of Lading. If another
receiver than the one presenting in the Bill of Lading appears, it necessary to

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examine if the person involved is right according to the transport declarations (notes
added on the back side of the Bill of Lading, will confirm this).
Besides, the ship’s captain must respond similarly due to the Bill of Lading, both
when on time charter party or travel charter party and in the owners regular trading.

4.3.1 Indemnity Clause

This can cause some bother. If the original Bill of Lading cannot be produced, then
the owner has a duty to deliver the cargo in exchange for a “Letter of Indemnity”
(a written guaranty from the charterer). This is nothing like a bank guaranty, and
cannot always be considered satisfactory security for the cargo delivery. Some oil
companies use this, especially in short voyages. The owner’s instruction must, in
these cases, be followed by the captain in charge. The ship’s captain has to show
the utmost of caution when treating the loading contracts, especially the Bill of
Lading. Any doubt whatsoever, remember to follow the owner’s instructions,
prospectively contact the owner’s charterer office for further information.


A charter party is a document, which is a written confirmation between the owner
and a charterer about a commissioned transport. Several standard charter party
outlines exist concerning different types of freighting and their single type of cargo.
Large charterer usually have their own formulas with specific conditions added. Be
aware that the charter party outline also can be divided in sub groups, however this
will not be viewed her. The central issue in any charter party is who the owner is
and who is controlling the ship, the owner or the charterer and in some situations
this can be hard to determine.

4.4.1 Voyage Charter Party

Voyage chartering is probably the most common type of freighting. A number of
charter party formulas exist that are used. There will, in some cases, be clauses in
the document, which almost completely favour of the charterer. Here the shipping
company (owner) watches out for this and makes an effort to improve the terms.
Whether this turns out to be a success is no guaranty, frequently there is a situation
described as “take it or leave it”. But in an active good market, with a shortage of
ships available in the right location, then better conditions can possibly be negotiated
with success. If the market activity is slow, the solution will be to accept the terms
and be happy that the ship is in trading.
To get a more neutral charter party formula and better adjusted to the interests of
both parties, two organisations have been especially working hard to accomplish
standard charter party outlines. That is The Baltic and the International Maritime
Conference (BIMCO) in Copenhagen and the English shipping organisation Chamber
of Shipping of United Kingdom in London.
The best-known voyage charter party within the tank trade is “Tanker Voyage
Charter Party”. Most of the oil companies have their own charter party formulas
which, broadly speaking, follow each other.
In this freighting form (voyage charter party), the owner is responsible for the
operating expenses including bunker costs, as well as, the load/discharge port

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expenses which are specified in the charter party, unless other terms are agreed to.
Read the charter party.
In voyage freighting, the charterer makes an agreement on the freight before each
single voyage. The ship is paid based upon the transported quantity. We will view
the most important facts in the charter party negotiations.
We will look at a typical voyage charter party and go through the most important
content. As you will notice, this is divided in two, Part I and Part II. The
conclusions included in Part I have higher priority than the conditions in Part II.
According to common interpretations practice, the written word is preferred over the
printed, if these should come in conflict to each other. In the end of this chapter you
will find a copy of a voyage charter party “ASBATANKVOY” which we use as the
starting point here.
Preamble: Here is the information about the partners committed in this deal, as
described in Part I and Part II, and which ship this concerns.

A: Description and position of vessel: The ship’s loading capacity for the cargo
to be transported (on oil tankers it is smart to note the pumping capacity). The
loading capacity can be noted in i.e. m3 or in metric tonnes. Here we should
remember the expression: % MOLOO or % MOLCO. % MOLOO means “more or less
in owner’s option”, in other words, the ship’s captain can adjust the amount of cargo
as specified by a % up or down. % MOLCO means “charter option”. The position of
the ship and when it can be ready in loading port.
B: Lay days/Cancelling (lay/can May 17-20 1994): Lay/can estimates the time
frame (window) when the ship can arrive in loading port and be ready to load. If the
ship appears ahead of time, it cannot demand to start loading before the lay days
start, in this example 17th of May. If the ship arrives later than the cancelling date,
in this example the 20th of May, the charterer may cancel the contract or re-

C: Loading port(s) Range: It is important to agree on the load and discharge

place, but this can be described in different ways:
A determined dock: for example berth 1, Mongstad.
A determined port: for example one safe port.
A determined area: for example one safe port, Europe.
An ordered port: for example Gibraltar for order.
Several ports: for example Rotterdam, Mongstad.
It is then the owner’s duty to bring the ship to the determined port. In one part of
the charter party, we have a so-called near clause which protects the owner from
impediments which may arise after the charter party has been agreed to “or so
near there to as she may safely get and lie always afloat”.

D. Discharging port(s) range: The discharging ports can be agreed to as referred

to in point “D”.

E. Cargo description: It describes here how much and what kind of cargo the ship
should load. MOLOO & MOLCO are possibly used. If several grades are to be loaded

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the expression “Within vessel’s natural segregation”, abbreviated to (WVNS), can


F. Freight rate: Here the freight rate is given in World Scale or prize pr unit either
metric ton or cubic meter. World Scale is viewed earlier in this part of the
compendium. The freight incomes in our example should be based on the agreement
in the charter party, as follows: (185000 x 62 x 16,50): 100 = US dollar
1,892,550. For cargoes based on price pr. metric ton as in this example 65 USD/mt.
We then multiply rate with estimate cargo as e.g. 4500 mt x 65 USD/mt = 292 500

G. Freight payable to: Noted here is the name and address of the receiver of the
freight income. Paying currency is also noted.

H. Lay time: Normally agreed lay time in loading/discharging port is 72 hours

(agreed in World Scale). This time is also dependent on the capacity of the
discharging port, not only the ships. We will look closer at this when some of the
parts in Part II of the charter party is viewed.
I. Demurrage: This is the compensation the owner can claim from the charterer if
the charterer use a longer time for loading and discharging than estimated.
Demurrage is agreed to when the charter party is negotiated and is likely to be set to
a fixed cost per 24 hours. In our example we negotiated a demurrage of US
dollars 11500. - per 24 hours.

We here show a demurrage calculation based on the information from a completed

voyage charter party:
Total laytime according to CP 72 Timer
Agreed demurrage according CP 11 500 USD pdpr
Loading port
Moored at loading port 17.05.94
NOR delivered 17.05.94
NOR accepted 17.05.94
Commence loading 17.05.94
Loading complete arm disconnected 18.05.94
Total hours used on loading 39 Timer
Total hours NOR accepted to loading 40 Timer
Discharge port
Arrival anchorage discharge port 06.06.94

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Moored discharge port 06.06.94

NOR delivered 06.06.94
NOR accepted 06.06.94
Commence discharging 06.06.94
Completed discharging arm disconnected 08.06.94
Total hours used on discharging 39 Timer
Total hours NOR accepted to discharging 46,5 Timer
Total hours on NOR in both ports 85,5 Timer
Total laytime according to CP 72 Timer
Demurrage base 13,5 Timer
Demurrage claim is then (11500 / 24 x 6468,75 USD

Based on these facts, we now know what the charterer has to pay the owner if all
delays are to be claimed on the terminals.

J. Commission of: Here it is written the percent owner has to pay e.g. 2,5%.

K. The place of General average and arbitration: Here it is stated if London

or New York rules have to be used to settle claims.

L. TOVALOP: It is now cancelled

M. Special provisions: The amount of numbered additional clauses is given


Signatures: Here the owner and the charterer’s broker sign the charter party.

This was Part I in the charter party. We will take a further look at the clauses in Part
II of the charter party.

Before looking at Part II, let us be enlightened on the issue “Subjects”!. Often the
charterer, before the affair is completed, takes into consideration certain
circumstances, i.e. the cargo can be delivered to the loading place (subject stem),
that the shipper accepts the ship, that the confirmation is approved be the
company’s management or that the cargo is being sold. Usually the agreement is a
fact when the agreement is abandoned. Until this is a fact, the owner is bound. If
the cargo is abandoned both parties are free.

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Now we will look at some of the clauses written in Part II of “ASBATANKVOY”, you
must read the charter party very closely, this is IMPORTANT.
Warranty – Voyage – Cargo: (Clause 1) The vessel must have all certificates
valid that is required according to PART 1.
Dead freight: (clause 3) This clauses puts a claim on the charterer to come up
with full cargo for the ship, but if he does not, the owner will suffer a freight loss.
Full cargo is determined by what stands in the charter party Part I, A, iii. Therefore,
if the charterer does not deliver full cargo the charterer must pay dead freight costs.
Dead freight is the freight which compensates for the difference between the cargo
the ship could have loaded if the charterer had supplied full cargo versus the real
cargo the ship actually received. If the owner has had advantages like less
load/discharge expenses and shorter time in loading and discharging, then this will
be considered when calculating the dead freight. The owner should not be better off
than he would have been with full load. If the charterer does not deliver cargo at all,
the freight received is called fault freight.

For example, if our cargo is described at 4500 metric tonnes 5% MOLOO, the
maximum cargo the captain can request (4500 : 100 ) x 105 = 4725 metric

The charterer will not give the vessel more cargo than 4725 mt even if the captain
say he can take e.g. 4925 metric ton. When not receiving cargo the ship is booked
for, the captain has to deliver a written protest in the load port, and make the
shipper aware of the ship’s capacity to load more, and at the same time calculate
how much cargo is lacking.
In our example, we will find the dead freight claim based on the charter party.
Received cargo is 4650 metric tonnes. The ship can load 4725 metric tonnes
based the charter party.

The dead freight base will be: (4725 - 4650) = 75 metric tonnes.

Naming loading and discharging port: (clause 4) Charterer have to name the
load port 24 hours before the vessel readiness to sail from previous discharge port,
bunkering port or when the charter party is signed.

Laydays: (clause 5) Commence of laytime does not start before the date and time
stated in Part 1. If the vessel has not delivered NOR before 04:00 PM the cancelling
date the charterer have option to cancel the chart.

Notice of readiness/Running time: (clause 6) This is the message, which is

given when ready to load/discharge. NOR is not provided until the lay day (agreed
to in Part I) starts.

NOR is given when the ship arrives and is shown the waiting place. The lay time
starts to run 6 hours after NOR is sent. If the ship goes straight to port and starts
loading/discharging, the lay time starts to run even before the end of the first
mentioned 6 hours.

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This will be specially noted in the charter party. It is important that all hours,
concerning sending and receiving of NOR, is correct.
Running lay time is cancelled in the following situations:

• From waiting place to load/discharge place.

• Ballast handling (when this prevents load/discharge).
• Time for stops which owner and ship causes.

Time for tugboat, pilot, strike, etc.

Lay time: (clause 7). The determined number of hours for loading/discharging is
written in this clause. Note specially here “and all other Charter’s purpose
whatsoever”. The lay time only counts as long as the ship’s loading/discharging
capacity is fully used. If an impediment is caused due to the charterer’s
responsibilities, the time is counted.

Demurrage (clause 8): This is discussed on page 3 in this part.

Safe berthing/ Shifting: (clause 9) The charterer can rightfully shift the ship
within the limit of load/discharging port. The freight does not cover this, but the lay
time continues to run. The charterer must cover running expenses.

Pumping in and out: (clause 10). Cargo is loaded on the charterer account,
when the cargo is received onboard it is on the owners account.

Ice: (clause 14). The ship should not trade in ice or be forced to follow an
icebreaker. The important point here is that the ship's captain follow the nominated
ports at all times. Read this text thoroughly.

Quarantine: (clause 17). Delay in time caused by quarantine is counted as lay

time, if the quarantine was in force at the time the charterer nominated the port.

Agency: (clause 22). The company in the nominated load/discharging ports must
use the charter agent. These agents should be considered to be the owner’s agent
and is paid by the owner.

Oil pollution prevention: (clause 26) The owner shall ensure that the ship
captain is performing the following:

1. Everything based on MARPOL 73/78, particularly Regulation9/Chapter 2 of the

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from ships 1973.

2. Oil and oily water should be collected in the ships slop tank while cleaning
tanks, and after a maximum settling time the separated water is pumped over
board as stipulated in MARPOL 73/78.

3. There after the charterer should be informed of the amount of oil and water
which is left on board in addition to details concerning slop left over from

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earlier voyages, called collected washings. The charterer has the right to
decide whether this slop will be delivered ashore or be kept on board to
eventually be loaded on top of this (LOT.)
Bills of Lading: This clause is extremely important and comprehensive and has to
be studied carefully. See the section of Bill of Lading chapter 3 in part 4
This was some of the printed clauses in Charter party ASBATANKVOY. The type of
charter party vary from company to company. In addition to the printed clauses we
have option to write specified clauses.

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Besides voyage freighting, the time charter party is the most important form of
chartering. Here the charterer hires a ship for a certain period of time, for example
1month, 6months, 2years or 15years. The time period can vary, but the principle will
remain the same. In the chartered period, the time charterer can freely dispose the
ship for his purposes within the frames which the charter party contract is drawn. He
supplies cargo, instructs the ship, pays the variable expenses such as bunkers, canal-
and harbour costs in load/discharging port. The owner is paid for the time the
charterer uses the ship, either at a certain freight rate per tonnes dead weight per
month, or as regular rate per 24 hours if it is a short termed time charter, or as a
rolled-out sum per month or per fortnight. One can say that time charter is not quite
as exciting as voyage chartering. If the ship is at sea, running satisfactory, the owner
will have secure income, but the opportunity to make large profits if the activity in
the market suddenly explodes, is shut off.
In association with an expensive new building, an owner is often interested in getting
a long-term charter party for the ship. That will ease the business financing and offer
security, especially in the first years of a ships active time. In long-term charter
parties it is common practice to have a clause protecting the owner completely or
partly of rising running costs (Escalation Clause).
There are several reasons for using the time charter. The regular shipment of large
quantities of goods, for a special oil company, can be one reason. Others can be
covered by using own tonnage, some will possibly be covered by time chartering
available ships and the marginal need will be covered by voyage freight.
An owner may also have faith in a rise in freight rates and charter a ship for i.e. 6
months. When it is a success you earn money, when you fail you lose money
because you do not get covered for the time freight or the variable expenses. Time
chartering is a way to take advantage of the market, if the freight income is higher
than the time charter rent you are paying.
Just as in the voyage charter party, the time charter party has many different
formulas. During a time charter party, it is important that the description of the ship
is accurate. The characteristics of the ship are of particular value for the time
charterer, and the time charter (freight) he will pay.
If it is discovered that the owner has given incorrect information concerning the ship,
or the ship does not fulfil the description, the charterer can demand a reduction or
compensation for the damage he proves to suffer. In situations where the error is
essential, the charterer can cancel the contract and demand compensation. With a
time charter, a discussion most likely to appear, concerns the ships ability to load,
load/discharge equipment, speed and the consumption of bunkers. A charterer will
usually watch closely and make sure the ship redeems the claims in the charter
party. Usually the time charter will be determined due to the dead weight of the ship
indicated by the summer marking, and especially when it comes to talking about
heavy cargo like oil.
The time charterer pays freight for the time disposal of the ship. So the ships speed
and consumption is of great importance. The time charterer operates the ship and
pays the bunkers expenses.
Over the years, the discussion has been endless concerning speed and consumption.
This is likely to continue as long as time charters are involved. The owner is seeking

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the business and has, therefore, described the ship as positively as possible, but
since the charterer is paying he will watch the consumption from month to month.

A time-chartered ship is rented fully crewed and equipped, and the time charterer
shall operate the ship. The captain’s position on board can also appear difficult in this
connection. The owner employs him for the responsibility of the ship handling,
navigation and security. He also will take orders from the charterer concerning
loading, discharging and sailing. The charterer will of course be interested in a quick
load, quick sailing, and quick discharging. This can be a heavy load and interfere
both with the safety and the conditions of the ship which may not always be in the
interest of the owner. It is of extreme importance that the ships captain is not
influenced by the charterer on behalf of the owner, but still within reasonable limits
try to maintain a healthy relationship with the charterer. This relationship is very

In voyage freighting the owner pays all expenses connected to the voyage. In a time
charter it is different, and therefore it is important to know whether the expense is
put on the charterer or the owner’s bill.
The owner company is obligated to have crew and a seaworthy ship at the
charterer’s disposal.

The owner will be responsible for the following expenses:

• Salary and other crew expenses
• Food
• Ships insurance
• Deck-and machine accessories
• Lubricating oil
• Repair expenses/dock setting
• Classification expenses
• Interests, part payments and administration

The following expenses will be paid by the charterer:

• Bunkers
• Port expenses
• Load/discharge expenses
• Pilot and canal expenses

The ship is delivered when the owner can present the ship to the charterer, in a port
or out at sea at a determined position and on a determined date. The time charter is
payable from the moment the ship is delivered. If the delivery is executed in a port
the owner will, if nothing else is agreed to, pay the incoming expenses while the
charterer is paying the outgoing expenses. If the ship arrives at delivery port in
ballast, the usual procedure is to charge the charterer all the arrival expenses from
the time the ship embarked the pilot on board, if nothing else is agreed to. Upon
delivery time, it is important to check that all bunkers are surveyed on board. This is

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the owner’s property and must be paid for by the charterer. Usually both parties
sign a delivery certificate.

4.5.1 Delivery Certificate

During the charter party’s valid time period, the charterer may use the ship as he
wishes and may plan voyages wherever he wants. This can be done within the limits
set by the charter party. The charter can be limited by geographical limitations, ice
conditions and wars, which affects the use of the ship. A ship can be used for world-
wide trade, but with the enclosure “within institute warranties limits” (I.W.L.). When
ordering a ship to areas where additional insurance are to be paid, the owner should
preserve these expenses to be charged by the charterer.
The time charter has a set duration and is then returned to the owner. Some
difficulties can arise, because it is hard to schedule a ship to be delivered on date, so
a little room has to be allowed. For example, the charter party can add a clause
saying “14days more or less in charterer’s option” or something similar to this. The
market is of vital importance regarding the choice, made by the charterer, to return
as soon as possible or as late as possible.
The charterer should use the ship for its missions in the determined period. If the
charterer cannot use the ship, because of breakdown or other delays the owner is
responsible. The ship will appear in “off hire” and then the charterer does not pay
freight until the ship is operating again. Bunkers, which are consumed in an “off hire”
situation, have to be paid by the owner. The off hire period is not added in the
charter party unless expressively agreed.
Usually the time of return will be noted. The owner will be very interested in this in
order to plan further activities for the ship. At return a Redelivery Certificate is
signed which will note the time, date and remaining bunkers at delivery.
When the charterer has kept the ship beyond the reasonable agreed time, it is called
“overlap”. When overlap occurs the owner can claim market freight for the time lost,
if the market freight is higher than the time freight. In extremely late re-deliveries,
compensation can be claimed, if the charterer causes cancelled business, which
would have earned profit above the market level.
If not specially determined, the time freight is due to be paid in advance, as soon as
the ship is delivered on time in the right place, and fully equipped according to the
charter party. The payment is usually in advance, monthly or in 14 days termin.
If the captain is instructed not to sign the Bill of Lading, this is a successful way to
pressure an unwillingly charterer. Therefore it is especially important to examine the
time charterer’s financial capacity in long-term charter parties. A middle sized or
middle solid charterer can be influenced to get a bank guarantee, i.e. for 4 months
freight in advance.
Upon re-delivery, the ship should be in the same condition as at the delivering time,
except from the usual, normal fair wear and tear. With this I hope you have got
some understanding of a time charter party.

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The third charter form is the freight contract (transport contract) or the quantity
contract which is almost similar to the voyage charter party. This is a contract for the
transport of large quantities of oil, ore, grain, etc. over an agreed period of time.
During such a transport contract the owner company is not obliged to use a special
ship, but the owner accepts to make a suitable ship available, within the limits of
responsibility drawn in the contract. The charterer is obligated to deliver the cargo.
The afreightment contract is usually an agreement between owners of big quantity
cargo and transport companies as big ship owners. The advantage for a charterer is
the covering of the shipping program with only one company or group, and in this
way he avoids having to find a charter for every shipment. He knows that in the
contracting period, when selling the cargo, what the freighting element will be.
Furthermore, the charterer can, in some situations, negotiate a freight contract in a
time when he expects the future rate to rise.
The ship owner however may believe that the activity in the market is sinking, and
can in this way secure himself against down periods. He can go in the market and
include tonnage in time charters or voyage charters at a lower freight than he
himself receives and be compensated by the difference in income, if he is short of
The afreighting contracts are often valid for a rather long period of time and large
quantities. An example, 1.000.000.- tonnes oil pr year in a period of 2 years. It is
easy to realise that in a long-term transport contract many unforeseen situations
may occur and the common procedure is, therefore, to make clauses in the contract
to protect against these unforeseen situations.
So a freight contract stipulates no special ship and the owner can freely use any
suitable ship to execute the transport mission.
Usually the loading dates are determined within certain marginal (windows) and then
it is important to follow these and the determined quantity accurately. In addition, it
is especially important to obey the reporting regulations at all times.
Every single voyage, under a COA (Contract of Afreightment), is provided with the
regulations commonly found in a voyage charter party. Very often the shipments are
carried out regularly through the time period (fairly spread out), but occasionally the
activity in shipments vary with the season, etc.


The fourth charter form is demise charter. This form of charter lets the charterer rent
the whole ship from the company. Demise charters is, for example, where the
renting contract says the charterer shall pay all expenses concerning, crew
payments, maintenance and all running expenses.
Just as in the time charter, the freight is pre-payable per month in a demise charter.
The charterer uses the ship in the chartered period as if he is the owner and pays all
expenses and maintenance in the period including the crew expenses. The crew is
hired by charterer and employed by charterer and not by the owner. In juridical
sense a demise charter is an owner.

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Occasionally, the company reserves the right to insure the ship or at least the
charterer. If the charterer will arrange this before hand, then the terms must be
accepted regarding the insurance amount and the conditions. The company has to
make sure that the demise charter insures the ship responsibly and with a first class
insurance company.
Usually only the owner will pay the capital expenditures relating to the ship, but
other arrangements can be made. Some times the charterer reserves the right to
have some of their own senior officers on board the ship. The expenses connected to
this are agreed to before hand.
The demise charter is usually a long-term contract, and often in combination with
special finance and sales contracts. Often the charterer has an option to buy the ship
at the end of the charter party period. In other cases, it can be agreed that at the
end of the charter party period, the ownership passes to the demise charter.
With the demise charter, the demise charterer has bought the ship, paying the
freight in monthly terms. This has two elements - a freight element and a buying
element, which is already included in the monthly hire.
Now the charter party forms are viewed, and here we choose to enlighten you on the
word “Seaworthiness” as a conclusive and very important part of negotiated

4.7.1 Seaworthiness
The owner is obligated to make a completely seaworthy ship available, if nothing else
is noted. Seaworthiness cover many areas we do not have in mind daily. The
following will illustrate “seaworthiness”:

· (Cargo-worthiness) the ship is able to receive cargo at determined

date and time
· Sufficient amount of bunkers, and quality
· Load/discharge equipment should be operative
· Authority Regulations and Classification companies must be
· Complete and fully qualified crew
· No heating coil leakage, or leakage between cargo tanks
· Seaworthy at the departure load/discharging ports

If the charterer discovers lack of seaworthiness before a voyage he can demand this
to be improved within reasonable time, or in the worst case, cancel the contract.
When the voyage is started and lack of seaworthiness is discovered, the charterer
can not cancel the contract, but will then claim compensation for losses due to the
lack of seaworthiness. Still the assumption of delivering cargo from the charterer is
that the ship is seaworthy.

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4.7.2 Cargo samples

Make sure that samples are taken of the cargo. This is important, in case of requests
later on concerning the quality of the loaded oil. Keep samples as evidence, and be
prepared in case claims from the receiver should eventually come. The samples
should be kept on board at least 12 months. Usually, samples of the cargo are
delivered on board and then to be handed over to the receiver of the cargo. Be quite
sure that the samples are representative of the actual cargo, before you sign any
receipt approving the samples. (For receipt only).

4.7.3 Frozen in
If the ship is icebound because of the charter’s orders to lay in this specific port, the
charterer pays the time loss.

4.7.4 Maintenance
The owner of the vessel pays for classification, etc., all maintenance like docking
period and if the ship goes off-hire.

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05- Chemistry And Physics

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Organic chemistry mostly deals with chemical compounds containing carbon.


The periodic system is built on the principle that the electrons in the outer shell
determine the chemical properties of a material. An atom consists of protons,
neutrons and electrons. Protons and electrons form the atomic nucleus. The
electrons move with high velocity around the nucleus, at different levels and orbital.
The levels are numbered from K to Q and called electron shells. At maximum,
there can be 8 electrons in the outer shell. There are equal numbers of protons as
electrons in an atom, meanwhile the number of neutrons may vary.

The periodic table arranges the 106 elements in increasing number of electron
shells. Each vertical column is one of the periodic table’s main groups. The number
of electrons in the outer shell is always equal to the atom’s main group number. Two
of the main elements in the periodic system are Hydrogen and Helium, and fall under
group IA and VIIA. The atomic models are illustrated as follows:

Carbon falls under group IVA and has 4 electrons in the outer shell.

The elements in the group IA have only one

electron in the outer shell.

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It is therefore easy to emit one electron to elements within group VIIA, which has seven
electrons in the outer shell and is “short of” one electron to fill up the outer shell. Such
mutual sharing of an electron is called ion bonding. An example for such a bonding is
when Sodium (Na) and Chlorine (Cl) bond with one another and form Sodium chloride or
cooking salt.

Na + Cl Na+ + Cl- NaCl

Sodium “emits” the only electron to Chlorine, and is thereby positively charged.
Chlorine “receives” the electron and is thereby negatively charged. We call this
mutual sharing of electrons, covalent bonding. Covalent bonding is common in
both organic and inorganic chemical reactions. When two or more atoms bond
together, they form a molecule.
There are 8 side groups between the main groups IA and IIA. All the elements in
the side groups are metals, and they easily form alloys with one another.
The rows in the periodic chart indicate the periods. The 7 periods indicate the
number of electron shells. Sulphur is located in row 3 (period number 3) and has
thereby 3 shells. We also look at the electron shells as the electrons’ energy level.
The elements in group VIIA are named noble gases. Noble gases occur only in
atomic form.

Most inorganic elements are metals. The metals form metal bonding where the
atomic are organised close together.
The individual element has numbers from 1 to 106. The periodic system’s number is
the element’s atomic number. The atomic number also indicates the total number
of electrons in the atom.

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5.1.1 Carbon
You find the element Carbon in the main group IVA/period number 2, which has four
electrons in the outer shell number 2. The atomic number for carbon is 6, which
means there are totally 6 electrons divided between two electron shells with 4
electrons in the outer shell, and 2 electrons in the innermost.
There are many isotopes of carbon. Isotopes have the same number of protons, but
different number of neutron in the atomic nucleus. There are two natural forms of
Carbon, graphite and diamond. Carbon is not particular reactive in room
temperature. When heated, it will easily react with for example, Oxygen. We say that
carbon is combustible. The different products of the combustion are dependent of
accent to oxygen.
C + O2 = CO2 + 393 kJ (at complete combustion)
C + 0,5 O2 = CO + 113 kJ (at incomplete combustion)

Both reactions are exothermic, that means heat is produced in the chemical reaction.
Both reaction products are also gases. Carbon dioxide, CO2, is the product of
complete combustion of carbon and carbon monoxide, CO, which is the product of
incomplete combustion of carbon.
A partly incomplete combustion produces both less heat and more formation of
carbon monoxide than a complete combustion. Carbon monoxide is odorless and a
very poisonous gas that always is present in a real combustion process. Inert gas
produced in an inert gas generator or flue gas plant onboard will always contain
carbon monoxide due to incomplete combustion, especially when the air excess is
Poisoning of carbon monoxide occurs because the hemoglobin in the blood reacts
much easier with CO than with oxygen. When you breathe a mixture of these two
gases, CO is thereby first absorbed in the blood and seizes the absorption of oxygen.
The result of this poisoning is a sort of suffocation at very low concentrations. These
relations are very important to notice. You must always check the cargo tank
atmosphere for carbon monoxide before personnel are allowed to enter the tank.


Hydrocarbon is a common expression for all chemical compounds that
includes carbon and hydrogen.
You find the element carbon in only two different natural conditions, as graphite and
as diamond. Carbon is the element that naturally forms most natural chemical
compounds. It is not reactive in room temperature, but it will when heated up react
more easily with, for example, the oxygen in air. We say that the carbon is
combustible. The combustion is exothermic, which is a reaction that produces heat.
Hydrogen is the smallest main element. The gas (H2), is light and is flammable in air.
There are small quantities of hydrogen in free natural form on earth. Hydrogen is
strongly widespread, first of all in form of water and naturally compounds together
with carbon. Crude oil and natural gas consist mainly of a mixture with various
unequal hydrocarbon compounds. Following sketch indicates an example of a natural
gas’ composition:

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Carbon has four electrons in the outer electron shell that can be divided with others.
You may look at the four electrons as four “arms” that can connected to the
hydrogen atom’s single “arm”, and creates hydrocarbon compounds.

Some of the hydrocarbon compounds are naturally created; other are only created in
chemical controlled processes. To simplify the overview of these natural
components, and all new hydrocarbon compounds that is created in the
petrochemical industry, the different hydrocarbon compounds are grouped
dependent of how the “arms” or the chemical bonding are between the two atoms.
The most important hydrocarbon groups are:
· Alkanes, also called Paraffin’s
· Alkyls
· Alkenes, also called Olefins
· Alkynes, also called Acetylides
· Alkadienes, also called Di-olefins
· Cyclo-alkanes
· Arenes
· Alcohol
· Aldehydes
· Ketones

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In addition to above listed hydrocarbon groups there are others like

Carboxylic acid, Esters, Ethers etc.

5.2.1 Alkanes
Alkanes are the simplest hydrocarbon compounds and is the major part of crude oil
and natural gas. The carbon atom’s four arms are united to the hydrogen atoms’
single arm and has this general molecule-formula:

CnH2n + 2 where “n” is a positive integer.

All alkane compounds have the ending “-ane”. The gas methane is the smallest
molecule, and is the main component in natural gas. A methane molecule consists of
one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms.

By adding one carbon atom and two hydrogen atoms to methane, we get ethane,
which is the next component in this group.
By adding carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms, and at the same time maintain the
same simple form of binding, new alkanes are formed. The third component in the
alkane group is propane, C3H8.

When the number of carbon atoms increase, the number of possible bonding
between the atoms increase. You can arrange 20 carbon atoms and 42 hydrogen
atoms in 366319 different ways.

Many materials may have the same molecule formula, but the properties (boiling
point, density, etc.) are different because the atom structure is different. Such
bonding is called isometric bonding. Normal-butane and iso-butane are examples of
isomers where both have the same molecule formula, but different properties.

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n-Butane, C4H10

iso-Butane, C4H10
Chemical formulas and names are many times derived from each other. Pentane is
derived from the Greek word “pent”. That means “five”, it refers to the number of
carbon atoms in the material. Other names like methane and ethane are not
following this system. These names are called trivial names.

In the following list, some of the most common alkanes are listed with melting- and
boiling point at atmospheric pressure. Note that melting point and boiling point
increase by the length of chain for the straight-chained hydrocarbons.

Melting Boiling Number of

Name: Formula point point isomeric
o o
C C compounds
Methane CH4 -182,5 -161,6 0
Ethane C2H6 -183,2 -88,6 0
Propane C3H8 -189,9 -42,5 0
n-Butane C4H10 -135 -0,5 2
iso-Butane C4H10 -145 -11,7
n-Pentane C5H12 -130 36 3
n-Hexane C6H14 -95 69 5
n-Heptane C7H16 -91 98 9
n-Octane C8H18 -57 126 18
n-Nonane C9H20 -54 151 35
n-Decane C10H22 -30 174 75

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5.2.2 Alkyls
If one hydrogen atom is removed from an alkane molecule, an alkyl molecule is
created. The different compounds are named by the alkane, but with the ending “-yl”
instead of “-ane”.
The general molecule formula for alkyl groups are: CnH2n + 1

The compounds in this group are chemical products where the CH-group is attached
to various alcohol and chloride compounds.

5.2.3 Alkenes
You do not find alkenes in the natural forms. These compounds are produced in a
cracking process within the petrochemical industry. Alkenes are hydrocarbons with a
double bonding between two of the carbon atoms. The general molecule formula for
alkanes is:
The simplest alkene is ethylene, C2H4, that is produced by cracking of for example
propane, ethane, butane or naphtha.

The next alkene is propylene, C3H6, which is produced by cracking other

hydrocarbons or naphtha.
The alkenes are so-called unsaturated hydrocarbons. The double bonding may
easily loosen up, “arms” that are attached to several hydrogen atoms released, and
the alkenes may change back to (chemical reaction) alkanes.

Melting Boiling Number of

Name: Formula point point isomeric
o o
C C compounds
Ethylene C2H4 -169 -103,7 0
Propylene C3H6 -185,2 -47,7 0

1-Butene C4H8 -185,4 -6,3 4

cis-2-Butene C4H8 -138,9 3,7 4

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trans-2-Butene C4H8 -105,6 0,9 4

iso-Butene C4H8 -140,4 -6,9 4

1-Pentene C5H10 6

The number of isomeric compounds increase by the number of carbon atoms.

Double bonding also gives additional possibilities for combination because the double
bonding may be located on several different places inside the molecule. The
following molecules have the same molecule formula, but different structure and
thereby different properties. Notice the difference between a cis-bonding and a




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5.2.4 Alkadienes
Alkadienes are hydrocarbons with two doubles bonding in the molecule. The general
molecule formula for alkadienes is:

CnH2n - 2


1,3 Butadiene

Melting Boiling Number of

Name: Formula point point isomeric
o o
C C compounds
Propadiene C3H4 -136,5 -34,5 0
1,3-Butadiene C4H6 -108,9 -4,4

5.2.5 Alkynes
Alkynes are hydrocarbons with a triple bonding between two carbon molecules.
The alkynes have the same general formula as for the alkadienes:

CnH2n - 2

Alkynes are unsaturated hydrocarbons, and form a homologous serial. The simplest
compound within this group is etyne, C2H2.

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Melting Boiling Number of

Name: Formula point point isomeric
o o
C C compounds
Etyne C2H2 -82 -84 0
Propyne C3H4 -102 -23 0

5.2.6 Cyclo alkanes

Cyclo alkanes are hydrocarbons with single bonding between the carbon atoms, but
the molecules form a circular structure. The compounds are saturated, and form a
homologous serial. The general molecule formula for the cyclo alkanes is;
The circular structure of the cyclo propane:

Melting Boiling Number of

Name: Formula point point isomeric
o o
C C compounds
Cyclopropane C3H6 -126 -34
Cyclobutane C4H8 -50 13
Cyclopentane C5H10 -93 50
Cycloheptane C6H12 6 81

5.2.7 Arenes
Arenes are cyclic, but unsaturated hydrocarbons because of its double bonding. The
compounds are aromatic. Benzene, which is very stabile and frequently used
together with other products in the petrochemical industry, is a well-known product
within this group.

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Melting Boiling Number of

Name: Formula point point isomeric
o o
C C compounds
Benzene C6H6 5,5 80,1

5.2.8 Alcohol’s
Alcohol are organic compounds where the functional group is the hydroxyl-group –
OH. All alcohol ends with “-ol”. The different alcohol’s are divided in subgroups,
dependent of the form of bonding.

Melting Boiling Number of

Name: Formula point point isomeric
o o
C C compound
Methanol CH3OH -97,8 64,5
Ethanol C2H5OH -117,3 78,3

5.2.9 Aldehydes
Aldehydes have one functional group –CHO.

Melting Boiling Number of

Name: Formula point point isomeric
o o
C C compound
Formaldehyde HCHO -118 -19
Acetaldehyde CH3COH -123,5 20,2

5.2.10 Ketones
Ketones are compounds where the functional group is the carbon-group.

Melting Boiling Number of

Name: Formula point point isomeric
o o
C C compound
Acetone CH3COCH3 -94,3 56,2

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New products are continuously made in the petrochemical industry by

allowing hydrocarbon compounds participate in chemical processes and

5.3.1 Unsaturated chemicals

Unsaturated chemical compounds contain one or several double or triple bonding
between the carbon atoms. They can easily saturate the vacant valences in a
chemical reaction. A chemical reaction may take place:

· by mixing unsaturated compounds with another product.

· by increasing the temperature and pressure in the chemical
compound, alone or together with other compounds.

To visualize an unsaturated compound, a solvent bromine and water can be used. If

you mix bromine (Br) with a saturated oil, the bromine-coloured water will disappear,
because the double bonding is opened and bromine appear in every vacant valence.
A chemical reaction has appeared between two compounds, and a new compound is
If you combine ethylene and bromine, this chemical reaction will take place:

When unsaturated chemical compounds are heated under pressure, the molecules
react with each other and form large molecules, so-called macromolecules. This is
called polymerisation. To start the reactions or to increase the velocity of reaction,
a catalyst is often used. A catalyst is a material that increases the velocity of reaction
in a chemical process without changing its own state.
Linear polyethylene is a plastic raw material, which is a polymer of ethylene
produced by polymerising ethylene with a peroxide catalyst. Benzol peroxide is an
example of peroxide used as a catalyst for production of polyethylene.
Other types of polymers are made of ethylene or together with other hydrocarbon.
The properties are different, and the plastic raw materials are used alone or together
with others when producing plastic products.
Most plastic raw materials are produced like this. Molecules or mixture of molecules
which is capable of polymerise, are called monomers. The number of monomers
taking part of a polymerisation may be many thousand. A linear polyethylene has a
molecular weight of more than 6000, others are considerably smaller. The molecular
weight is controlled by temperature, concentration of catalyst or amount of ethylene.

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It is not only the unsaturated hydrocarbon compound that may polymerise. In 1907,
Baekeland managed to control three-step polymerising with phenol and
formaldehyde. The product “Bakelite” was the first synthetic polymer that was
produced, and has great significance even today.
The following list demonstrates some of the most common plastic materials today,
and how they are produced:

Polymer Monomer: Polymerisation:

Polyethylene (CH2)n Ethylene
Polytetrafluorethylene (C2F4)n Tetrafluorethylene
Polyvinylcloride (PVC) (H2CCHF)x Vinylcloride
Polypropylene (C3H5)n Propylene
Polystyrene (C6H5CHCH2)n Styrene monomer

5.3.2 Peroxides and inhibitors

Peroxides are highly explosive, and can form into unsaturated compounds, as for
example butadiene and VCM if oxygen is present. They can appear as powder in
pipes and tanks and are very unstable and can easily explode. The formation of
peroxides in butadiene can entail polymerising with powerful heat generation.
To avoid such a chemical reaction, the content of oxygen in the tank atmosphere is
kept as low as possible.
To assure that all oxygen is removed, an inhibitor is added to the individual cargo.
An inhibitor is a material that itself, in low concentrations, reacts with the oxygen.
Some types of inhibitors have the capability to react with radicals so that the velocity
of reaction reduces or to cease up. Most inhibitors are very dangerous to our health,
and must therefore, be handled with the utmost care.
1,3 Butadiene and VCM are examples of cargo that are added inhibitors.
Approximately 5 ppm hydroquinon is added to VCM to prevent polymerisation. US
Coast Guard requires that one add 100 ppm TBC (Tertiary Butyl Catechol) to 1,3
butadiene to prevent a polymerisation with strong heat generation.
Humidity and water will reduce the effect of inhibitors, in some cases water will
accelerate a chemical reaction.
Cargo that is inhibited must have a certificate with:
• name and amount
• inhibitor date and for how long the inhibitor is efficient
• precautions, if the voyage lasts longer than the effect of the inhibitor
• eventual temperature limitation

The above mentioned inhibitors are only present in the liquid phase. In all
probability, dangerous peroxides will be formed inside the lines of the cooling plant’s
“condensate” system. It is recommended that these parts of the system are checked
regularly, when the inhibited cargo is cooled. Further, it is recommended to circulate
some inhibited liquid through the part of the system where “condensates” remains
without the inhibitor.

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Introductorily, we have said that polymerising can occur if the temperature is high
enough. The following restriction of maximum outlet temperatures from the
compressor is required:
· maximum 60 oC for butadiene
· maximum 90 oC for VCM

5.3.3 Reaction with other cargo and materials

Some cargo can react strongly with other cargo. This makes great demands for
cleaning, before loading and full segregation against other cargo. Whenever cargo
segregation is required, spool pieces must be used. It is important that all materials
are compatible with which the cargo can come in contact. The material must, for
example, in all gaskets that can be in contact with propylene oxide be of PTFE or a
similar approved material type.


When you mix cold and warm water, the temperature will eventually be a specific
average temperature. If multiple objects, with different temperature, are placed in a
room, the temperature of the objects and the temperature in the room will
eventually be the same. This is the heat theory’s O. law that forms the basis for
measuring the temperature with a thermometer.
Empirically, the heat will, at all times, move from the warmer material to a colder
material. One can prevent heat transmission by a heat-insulating barrier. If the
barrier is totally heat insulated, it is called adiabatic. If a material, or a collection of
materials (a system), is totally surrounded by adiabatic barriers, no heat exchanging
can occur with the surroundings.
The temperature characterises a fixed stated condition of a material, and can only be
measured indirectly by measuring another directly measurable size, that changes
with the temperature. With a mercury thermometer or an alcoholic thermometer, the
temperature can be determined from how the liquid changes the volume.
Because of this, the individual materials change the volume differently at varying
temperatures. Graduation on a mercury thermometer must necessarily be different
from the graduation of an alcohol thermometer. One calibrates thermometers by
measuring the temperature at one or several fixture points. Boiling water at 760 mm
HG is one example of such a fixture point.
Measuring the temperature based on other material’s characteristics has its obvious
weaknesses. Different temperature scales make its impossible to establish a uniform
method of many thermal calculations.
William Thompson, later ennobled as Lord Kelvin, was one of many physicists that
worked to find an absolute temperature scale independent of another material’s
properties. He defined a theoretical temperature scale, which later acquired the
name “Kelvin” (or K).
The Kelvin scale, adopted by the SI-system, begins at the absolute zero point, which
is defined to –273,15oC, but has the same graduation as the Celsius-scale. In most
thermal calculations, it is sufficient to estimate the zero point of the Kelvin scale at –
273oC, which will be used as conversion factor in this compendium.

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A temperature difference has the same measured value in Kelvin as in the Celsius-
scale. Converting from Celsius to Kelvin is:

Temperature in Kelvin ⇒ 273 + temperature in Celsius degrees

- 50oC = (273 + (-50))K = 223 K

0oC = (273 + 0)K = 273 K

+50oC = (273 + 50)K = 323 K

When a car decelerates, the velocity of the car delerates, the kinetic energy is
reduced. The temperature on the brakes rises simultaneously. An electric driven
compressor, which compresses the gas, increases the temperature of the gas, but
consumes electrical power simultaneously. If we switch on the hotplate, the
temperature rises, simultaneously the hotplate consumes electrical energy. When oil
burns, chemical combined energy falls as the temperature rises. Mutually, for all
these phenomena is that a temperature increase is in progress simultaneously as we
copy energy in one or another form. Mechanical energy, electrical energy, chemical
energy, or heating energy, are all expressions for energy that can be summarised as:

“Energy is the capability to perform work”

We will mainly go into two forms of energy in this compendium, potential (position)
energy and kinetic energy.
A temperature increase can take place by transfer of heat from one material to
another at lower temperature. It is natural to conclude that heat transfer is also a
form of energy transfer. Heat is often defined as the energy that is transferred from
one system to another, because of difference in temperature. We measure heat with
the same unit as all other forms of energy.
The heat (quantity) required to heat up one gram of water one degree Celsius at a
temperature of 14,5oC, is defined as one calorie (cal).
The SI-system uses the unit “Joule” for heat. If 41855 Joule is supplied to 1 kg water
at a temperature of 14,5oC, the temperature will rise 1K.
Conversion between the units calorie (cal) and Joule (J) is therefore;

1 cal = 4,1855 J or 1 kcal = 4185,5 J

One can transfer heat from one place to another in different methods. If an iron bar
is heated at one end, the whole bar will gradually be warm. The heat will spread
through the material and we say that the heat occurs as stationary thermal-

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At thermal conducting, the heat is, at all times, deducting from a location with higher
temperature to a location with lower temperature. The speed of the thermal
conductance is a temporary dependent of the material. Metals are good heat
conductors, gases the inferior.

Stationary thermal conductance or heat flow through one level is defined as:
F = l/d x A x (T1 - T2) where:

l = specific thermal conducting ability or thermal conductivity with unit W/mK

δ = the thickness of the material in m
A = the area of the material in m2
T1 = temperature on the warmest side in Kelvin
T2 = temperature of the coldest side in Kelvin
General expressions for heat flow, heat quantity, work or energy is always with the
SI-unit J (Joule). When above mentioned energy forms are measured or calculated
during a stated period, the measuring unit is always in J/s, which is the same as
Watt (W).
In liquid and gases, the molecules move by heat conductance. The heat alters the
density, and different density provokes flow that takes the heat ahead. When heat
conductance takes place by movement in the material, we say that the heat is
transferred by convection.
Heat can also be transferred by radiation. In the vicinity of a heated material in cold
surroundings, one can feel the heat at a long range. We say that the material
radiates heat or emits heat rays. You can not lead the heat you feel through the air,
because as you hold a shield against the heat source, the heat is gone.
To produce heat from radiation, you have to stop it with a material. The radiate is
slightly enervated in air. The faster and darker the material is, the easier the radiate
absorbs and converts to heat. The influence of heat radiation is often
underestimated. Understanding this type of heat transfer is important in the work of
reducing heat transfer.
Emission or emanation is also a form of radiation. A practical example is in a
thermos. Double walls with vacuum alone does not prevent transfer of products, in
spite of fact that thermal conductance in vacuum is zero. Some heat is transferred by
radiation between walls. To eliminate this, the sides that face into vacuum are
silvered. This reduces the heat radiation to a few percent.
You can express the relation between absorption and emission as the absorption
capability of two materials that has to conduct to each other as emission capabilities.
One measures and describes pressure in different ways independent of what is
measured, who measures it and how it is measured. The engineer reads the
pressure in a system on a manometer. The mate reads the atmospheric pressure on
a barometer or a mercury column. In thermal technical charts and diagrams, the
expression absolute pressure is used.

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One can easily describe the different “pressure” by help of a diagram. The lowest
possible pressure that can exist is vacuum. Therefore one estimate absolute pressure
from this starting point. The pressure of the manometer is pressure above the
atmospheric pressure. As the atmospheric pressure will vary, the logical choice is to
show pressure dependent values as a function of absolute pressure, like for example
in thermal technical charts and diagrams.
On can use a mercury column or a water column, both to indicate atmospheric
pressure and excess pressure. A normal atmospheric pressure is defined as 760 mm

The gravity of or the pressure that a liquid column of 760 mm Hg amounts to can be
calculated in this way:

p=r xgxH where:

p= pressure in N/m (Newton per square meter)
r= the density of liquid (The density of mercury 13595,1 kg/m3
g= the gravity of shaft ration (9,81 m/s2)
H= height of the liquid column in meter (760 mm = 0,76 meter)

p = (13595,1 x 9,81 x 0,76)N/m2 = 101359 N/m2

1 normal atmospheric pressure define as = 1013 mill bars

1 atmosphere = 105 N/m2 = 100 000 Pa = 100 kPa = 1 bar

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Back in the antiquity, about 2500 years ago, oil was mentioned in scripts from Asia.
The scriptures describe hot springs and that oil lamps were known and in use.
However, centuries went by before the oil was in common use. As a matter of fact
danger of fire was one reason which prevented utilisation of oil. In USA, which today
is rich in oil sources, did not take the oils in common use until the midst of the last
century. At first the oils were used in medical treatment then to heal such as
rheumatism and pneumonia.
The first well was drilled in USA in 1859 and supplied 1500 litres oil every 24 hours.
The oil consumption and development increased dramatically from this time on. John
D. Rockefeller founded the «Standard Oil Company» in 1870. The Dutch « Royal
Dutch Oil Company» was founded in 1890. In 1909, the English founded «Anglo-
Iranian Oil Company». This development has continued up to this day where these
companies operate around the world. The need for oil increased at the same speed
as the oil discoveries increased. At the same time, knowledge about oil’s nature,
physics and chemistry improved.

5.5.1 The Oil Transportation

As a start, the oil was transported in barrels by ordinary liners. The oil tankers today
were first used at the end of the last century. These tankers have since then
changed dramatically through a radical process up to today’s technically advanced
tankers. Due to the world’s oil demand, tank tonnage has increased enormously,
along with the average size of ships.
The personnel (crew) operating the ships provide a wide range of knowledge
regarding ship operations and its specific cargo. To be an educated and qualified
“Ship Officer”, it is necessary to have a basic theoretical knowledge and a lot of
practical experience on board the ships. In this part of the compendium, the oil’s
physical properties are reviewed.
Physics is the learning of different substances and property forces and their energy
Chemistry is the learning of the substance’s composition and the substantial or
permanent changes these substances may under go.
The theory about atoms and molecules understands that substances are able to
divide into smaller parts, atoms and molecules.

5.5.2 Aggregate States

Solid, fluid and gas form conditions must be seen in connection with the
understanding of molecule forces. An example:
When splitting a piece of wood the molecules separate along the split area. The force
being used corresponds with the force binding the molecules together. If you now
wish to force the two pieces together again, a certain power has to be used. The
first power in use will be called the force of cohesion. The second power in use will
be called the force of expansion. Cohesion and expansion summed, is called
intermolecular force.

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The cohesion is due to the fact that all substances (elements), including the smallest
parts in a substance, execute a mutual back sweep on each other. We therefore
have the same nature as the force of gravity. It decreases rapidly when the distance
between the smallest parts increases.
The expansion is due to the fact that the molecules in all substances, both solid, fluid
and gas forms execute movements or vibrations and therefore fill-up an entire room.

5.5.3 Solid Substances

A solid substance has a fixed form and fixed volume. An iron bar is resists being
lengthened or pressed together. The molecules in the iron bar will try hard to keep a
certain mutual distance to each other. The iron bar is resistant to rubbing and
bending. In solid substances the molecules have fixed places according to each
other, and the same applies to the substance’s volume and form. This is because the
cohesion and expansive force is very large.

5.5.4 Fluids
Fluids have a fixed volume, but do not have any fixed form. To squeeze water in a
cylinder with tight-fitting piston is hard without using large power. Similar to the
molecules in solid substances, the molecules in a liquid substance have a certain
mutual distance between each other. The liquid molecules on the other hand have
no fixed positions according to each other. Liquid will always be shaped based on
where the liquid is stored. The cohesion force in liquids is not powerful enough to
prevent the molecules from moving freely according to each other. However, the
force is still strong enough to maintain the distance between each of the fixed
molecules. The expansion force is equal as in solid substances.

5.5.5 Gases
Gases have no fixed volume or fixed form. A gas will always try to fill as great a
volume as possible, and will therefore fill the room, the tank and so on, where the
gas is stored. The cohesion force in gas is too small to prevent the molecules from
changing both the distance and the position in accordance with each other. The
expansion force gets free scope and the gas expansion is total and unlimited. By
exposing gas to forces greater than the expansive force itself, the gas will be

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5.5.6 Phase changes

Any substance can be transformed from one condition to another, by means of

temperature changes or varying temperatures and pressure. Ice, water and water
vapour are the same substance in different forms. The transformation between
cohesion and expansion with water molecules goes through these three phases -
solid substances, liquids and gases.

5.5.7 Melting
When a solid, pure crystal substance is continuously supplied with heat, the
substance will melt. For example:

1 kg of ice with a temperature of -20oC exposed to heat (the pressure is 1 atm). A

thermometer placed in the ice will show a rise in temperature up to 0oC, which is
melting point of the ice. The heat supplied after the melting point is achieved will
have no effect to any temperature rising, as long as the ice is present.
During the melting, the temperature is invariable, and the heat supplied during the
melting process is consumed in melting the ice. When all the ice is melted, the
temperature in the water will rise. So, the amount of heat supplied to 1 kg of the

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solid substance, in order to reach the melting point where the change from solid to
liquid form occurs, is called the “melting heat”.
The heat needed to transform a solid substance at a given temperature, into a liquid
substance with the same temperature, is called the “specific melting heat”. The unit
for specific melting heat is Joule/kg.
The heat necessary to evaporate one kilo of a certain liquid substance is called
“specific melting heat”, abbreviated “r”. The unit for specific evaporation heat is J/k.

5.5.8 Enthalpy
A substance’s total energy consists of the external energy (work) plus the internal
energy. Enthalpy is an expression for a substance’s internal energy abbreviated “h”.
This enthalpy is an expression of how much energy is tied up in one kilo of the
substance. The unit for enthalpy is Joule/kg. The comparison of enthalpy to
temperature change of gradients shows how much energy is needed to be supplied
to bring ice through the three different stages.

5.5.9 Evaporation
A liquid change to gas is called evaporation. This may happen by evaporation or
boiling. To achieve evaporation, heat of evaporation is needed. Some liquids
evaporate very quickly, such as gasoline and ether. Other liquid substances
evaporate very slowly, such as in crude oil. Evaporation is vapour formed out of the
liquid surface and occurs at all temperatures.
This is explained by some of the liquid’s surface molecules being sent into the air,
which is strongest at high temperatures, dry air and fresh wind. The specific
temperature calls the amount of heat needed for one kilo of liquid with fixed
temperature to form into one kilo of steam with the same temperature”. The heat
from evaporation is set free when the steam forms to liquid again, or condenses.
The heat necessary to evaporate one kilo of a certain liquid is called “specific heat of
evaporation”, abbreviated as (r). The unit for specific heat of evaporation is J/kg.

5.5.10 Boiling
Boiling is steam formed internally in the liquid. The boiling occurs at a certain
temperature, called “the boiling point”. Water is heated in normal atmospheric
pressure (1 atm), in an open container. In common, some parts of air are always

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dissolved. The rise in temperature is read from a thermometer placed in the liquid’s
surface. When the temperature has reached 100oC, steam bubbles will form inside
the liquid substance, especially in the bottom of the container. With continuous heat
supply, the bubbling will rise like a stream towards the surface and further up into
the air. The water is boiling.
The formation of bubbling steam can be explained as follows:
During the heating, the water molecule’s kinetic energy increases, consequently the
molecules demand more space. During the boiling, as long as there is water in the
container, the temperature will be 100oC.
The boiling point is dependent upon the pressure. If the steam or the atmospheric
pressure increases above liquid substance, the boiling point will also rise. If the
surface temperature is just below the boiling temperature, then the water steam will
evaporate on the surface. The evaporation point and the boiling point will be the
same accordingly.
The pressure from the surrounding liquid is the total amount of pressure above the
liquid, Pa, plus the static liquid pressure.
P = Pa + (ρ x g x h )
P = pressure in Pascal (100 000 Pa + 1 bar)

Pa = barometer pressure

ρ= the liquid density in kg/m3

g = force of gravity acceleration (9,81m/s2)

h = liquid column in meter.

When reducing the pressure above the liquid, the boiling point will also be reduced.
A practical use of this characteristic is the production of fresh water on board (fresh
water generator).

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5.5.11 Condensation
Condensation is the opposite of evaporation. If a gas is to be changed to liquid at the
same temperature, we must remove the heat of evaporation from the gas. A gas can
be condensed at all temperatures below the critical temperature. By cooling a gas,
the molecule speed decreases hence the kinetic speed. The internal energy
decreases, as well as, the molecule units and liquid forms.

5.5.12 Distillation
Distillation is a transferring of liquid to vapour, hence the following condensing of
vapour to liquid. Substances, which were dissolved in the liquid, will remain as solid
substance. With distillation it is possible to separate what has been dissolved from
the substance which was being dissolved. When a mixture of two liquids with
different boiling point is heated, will the most volatile liquid evaporate first while the
remaining becomes richer on the less volatile? On board, for instance, seawater is
distillated by use of an evaporator.

5.5.13 Saturated, Unsaturated or Superheated Steam

Let us imagine boiling water, releasing vapour from a container, leading the steam
into a cylinder that is equipped with a tightening piston, a manometer and two
valves. The steam flows through the cylinder and passes the valves, whereon the
valves are closing. There now is a limited and fixed volume of steam in the cylinder.
Around this cylinder a heating element is fitted. Vapour from the container is
constantly sent through this heating element to ensure that the temperature is
maintained constant.

The piston is pressed inwards, and now the manometer should show a rise in
pressure. But, the manometer shows an unchanged pressure regardless how much
the volume is reduced. What’s happening is, the further the piston is pressed
inwards, some parts of the steam is condensed more using less volume. The vapour
from the heating element removes the condensed heat, which is liberated during the
condensation process.
We find that the amount of steam, which is possible to contain per volume unit,
remains constant when the steam’s temperature is equal to the condensation point
at the set pressure. The room cannot absorb more vapour, it is saturated with steam
and called “saturated”. If the piston is pressed outwards, the pressure will still show
constant. The conclusion is:

· With temperature equal to the condensation point by set pressure,

steam is saturated.
· Steam above boiling water is saturated.
· Saturated steam with a set temperature has a set pressure. This is
called saturation pressure.
· With constant temperature saturated steam cannot be compressed.

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This also concerns vapour as saturated steam of other gases. Using the same
cylinder arrangement as before.
The cylinder contains saturated steam, no water. The piston is drawn outward.
When no water exists over the piston no new steam will be supplied underneath. The
manometer will now show reduced (falling) pressure as the steam expands. When
saturated steam expands without supplying new steam, it is called unsaturated
steam. The room has capacity to collect more steam.

5.5.14 Unsaturated steam contains lower pressure than saturated steam

at the same temperature. The unsaturated steam in the cylinder can be made
saturated again in two ways. Either by pushing the piston inward to the originated
position, or let the unsaturated steam be sufficiently cooled down. When the
temperature is reduced, the saturation pressure will reduce. Unsaturated steam will,
in other words, have a too high temperature to be saturated with the temperature it
originally had. Therefore, this often is referred to as superheated steam.


The gas laws are laws that describe the basic facts for ideal gases. Many actual
gases under pressure and temperature that we normally get in touch with can not
observe as ideal gases. Calculations based one-sided of the gas laws, will therefore
necessarily often depart from reality.
The gas laws are meanwhile important by that the laws establish simple and clear
connections by the condition changes of the gases.

5.6.1 The Boyles law

Boyles law, of Mariottes law establish that when the gas quantity is confined and the
volume varies under constant pressure, the pressure will vary so that the product of
pressure and volume is constant. The law can also express as:

p x V = constant

One illustrate the law a by thinking a cylinder filled with gas. A well-adjusted piston
closes the gas inside the cylinder.

The pressure in the gas is p, by a volume V, before changing. If the piston is

removed so that the volume alters to V, the pressure p after volume change is:

p1 x V1= p2 x V2

p2 = (p1 x V1) / V2

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A change of state in the gas where the temperature is constant is called an

isotherm alteration.

The Boyles law agrees to good approach for air and hydrogen up to about 100
pressures of the atmosphere. For other gases as carbon dioxide, the law is only for
lower pressure.
If the pressure is 1 bar and the volume 1 litre before alteration, after reducing the
volume to half, the pressure will be:

p2 = (p1 x V1) / V2= (1 x 1) / 0,5 = 2 bar

5.6.2 Gay-Lussacs laws

Gay-Lussacs establish that the gas volume varies proportionally in condition
to the absolute temperature of the gas when the pressure is constant. The law can
also express as:

V1 / T1 = constant

The law can illustrate by thinking a cylinder filled with gas. A good adjusted piston
that moves free shuts the gas inside the cylinder.
The pressure in the gas is constant and determined by the weight of the piston. If
you heat the gas so that the temperature alters from T1 to T2, the volume alters
from V1 to V2. The new volume is:

V1 /T1 = V2 /T2
V2 = (V1 x T2) / T1

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An alteration of state in the gas under constant pressure is called an isobar


Gay-Lussacs establish that the pressure of a gas quantity is proportional to

the absolute temperature of the gas when the volume is constant. The law can also
express as:
p1 / T1 = constant

One can illustrate the law by thinking a cylinder filled with water. The piston is locked
so that the volume stays the same.
If you heat the gas so that the temperature is altered from T1 to T2, the pressure
will alter from p1 to p2. The new pressure after heating will be:
p1 /T1 = p2 /T2

p2 = (p1 x T2) / T1

A state of proportion in the gas with unaltered volume is called an isochor


5.6.3 The absolute zero point.

Gay-Lussacs experiment is used to decide the absolute zero point. If you heat a small
glass tube in water where a small mercury droplet fences an air column, the state
between the air volume and the temperature is plotted in a diagram when the
temperature changes.

When the temperature rises, the volume increases. The read off values for
temperature and volume is close to a straight line. The differences are so small that
they are inside the accuracy. The line that emerges shows how the volume varies
with the temperature under constant pressure. The pressure will at all times during
the experiment be the total amount of the atmospheric pressure and the weight of
the mercury droplet.

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The Avogadros law

The Avogadros law says that equal volumes of two gases with the same pressure
and temperature contains the same amount of molecules.
A conclusion of this statement is that the state between two gases density (p) at the
same pressure and temperature, has to be equal to the state between the masses of
the individual molecules in the gases or the state between the relative molecule
masses (M).
r1/r2 = M1/M2

The Dalton Law

The Dalton law say that the total pressure in a gas mixture is equal to the total
amount of the partial pressures (part-pressure), that each of the gases will alone
in a room with the same temperature as the mixture. The law expresses as:

ptotal = p1 + p2 + ………….pn

The Dalton law is logical. Every gas fills all the volume, independent of other gas
molecules that are present. The molecules itself obtains itself an utmost small part of
the volume. Therefore every gas will have a pressure that responds to this.
One can also see the restriction of the law from this explanation. It has no longer
any existence when the pressure is so large that the molecules occupy a perceptible
part of the volume. It has also no accuracy when the gas molecules has influence on
one another, and also not if the gases has a chemical reaction against one another.

The Joules law

The law of Joules say that the inner energy in a precise amount of ideal gas only
depend of its temperature and is independent of the volume. If pressure and volume
is changed in a process, the inner energy will remain constant if the temperature is
According to the kinetic gas theory, the inner energy in an ideal gas is equal the
complete kinetic energy that the molecules have because of its disordered
movement. This can express, as the inner energy in a precise amount of ideal gas is
proportional with the absolute temperature. A conclusion of this statement is if an
ideal gas expand (gets a larger room), the temperature and with that the inner
energy will remain unchanged after expansion.
Indirectly, the law is demonstrated by experiments with actual gases. These
experiments indicate that the inner energy of an actual gas is dependent of the gas
volume, but this dependence decreases the more the gas approach to become an
ideal gas. In an actual gas the force of attraction works between the molecules. The
force of attraction between the molecules by usual pressure is small, but is not equal
zero. It is therefore necessary to perform work to increase the distance between the
molecules and expand the gas volume. If the expansion is adiabatic, that is without
heat exchange between the surroundings. This work can only be because in expense
of the molecule kinetic energy and the temperature of the gas sink.

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Joules-Thompson effect
The Joules-Thompson effect describes the divergence from the Joules law of an
actual gas. According to Joules law, the temperature will not change if a gas expand
freely without working.
Practical the temperature will fall freely for most gases of hydrogen and helium that
is heated during expansion. When air expand from about 50 bar to the atmospheric
pressure, this is cooled with about 13K. It is the result of this effect one can observe
or feel when air or another gas is let out from an air bottle and the delivery valve
(expansion valve) is noticeable colder.
Cooling plants that are used on board expand the vaporisation of the gas. The
Joules-Thompson effect in such plants is insignificance and therefor not calculated

Bromic gas that has a brown colour is well suited to demonstrate diffusion between
gases. If you fill a glass with bromic gas and a glass filled only with air on top, one
can after a while se that the content in both glasses is gradually brown-coloured.
Diffusion has taken place. In despite of that bromic gas has five times as large
density as air diffuses that gas up in the top glass with air.
All gases can mix at diffusion. As the molecules in the gases are accidental and
unorganised, a precise gas molecule will over time come any where in the room that
is available (according to the kinetic gas theory). From the kinetic gas theory it is
natural to draw the conclusion that the diffusion velocity is faster the larger velocity
the molecules have. At experimental experiments the Englishman Graham reached
following connections:
The diffusion velocity for a gas is converted with the square root of the density of the
gas and directly proportional to the square root of the absolute temperature.
These can mathematical express as:

v1/v2 = √r2/√r1

As equal volume of two gases contain, at the same pressure and temperature, that
same amount of molecules (Avogadros law), the state between the density of the
gases (p) and the masses of the individual molecules and the relative molecule
masses (M) be:

r1/r2 = M1/M2

From above mentioned two expressions, gases diffusion velocity can express as:

v1/v2 = √M2/√M1

This formula can be used to find how fast gases diffuse in proportion to one another.
When the molecule mass to nitrogen is 28 and the molecule mass to hydrogen er 2,
we find the relative diffusion velocity for nitrogen to:
v1/v2 = √M2/√M1 = √32/√2 = 4

that shows that hydrogen diffuse 4 times faster than nitrogen.

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There is seven different principals for cooling, but we are to concentrate
about the process that has been known the longest and that has the
largest distribution.

The process of evaporation is the process that is used at the most in modern cooling
technique. It is here the cooling medium evaporation heat that is utilised to transfer
heat from one place to another. For a liquid to evaporate one must supply heat to
the liquid. The heat is taken from the surroundings that thereby are cooled. In an air
condition plant on board, Freon liquid is lead into an evaporator, the heat from the
air is transferred to the liquid that evaporate, and the air is cooled.
One must here emphasise that there is always in speak of transport of heat from a
warmer media to a relative colder media. Equal that water flows from a higher level
to a lower because of that the gravity will heat from a higher temperature to a lower.
How can then heat transfer from the relative cold Freon gas that is sucked back to
the compressor and transfer to the relative much warmer seawater?
To elevate water from a lower to a higher level, work has to be done (by help of a
pump) of the water. To transport heat from a lower temperature to a higher or

The thermodynamics 2nd main sentence say:

“Heat can only be transported from a body with low temperature to a body with
higher temperature by converting of mechanical work.”

It is this law that is utilised in any cooling plants or condensation plant for cargo on
gas ships. Heat is transferred from the relative cold cargo gas to the relative much
warmer seawater. For this to be possible one must perform a work on the gas by the
compressor compressing the gas to a higher pressure and temperature than the
seawater; and heat can thereby transfer from the gas to the seawater in a heat
exchanger. Since the compressor secures a continuous high pressure and
temperature in the heat exchanger, both the supplied heat quantity under
compression and the evaporation heat transfer to the seawater. The gas condenses
and is allowed back by a regulation valve and back into the tank.
The job of the regulation valve is to secure a liquid lock for thereby to maintain a
high pressure in the condenser, and to distinguish between the low-pressure side
and the high-pressure side in a condensation plant. Without this valve it is
impossible to maintain the condensation pressure and keep the cooling process up.
In many cooling plants thermostatic expansion valves are used at this purpose. A
thermostatic expansion valve is not regulated by the liquid level in a liquid collector
before the valve, but by the overheating temperature inside the evaporator.
Regardless of the valve is a regulation valve or a thermostatic expansion valve, the
job is the same and the valve has no “cooling technical” qualifications in itself. (ref.
Joules-Thompson effect).
On ships that transport condensed gases in bulk, the cargo in the cargo tanks will at
all times be in its boiling point. As the temperature difference between the cargo and

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the surroundings are partly very large, heat will transfer from the surroundings to the
cargo. Isolation will never prevent heat-transfer, only reducing this.

The heat to the cargo will lead to temperature increase with thereby following
pressure increase. This process will unprevented be in progress until the temperature
of the cargo is equal as the surrounding temperature. If the cargo is propylene and
the surroundings ambient temperature is 27oC, the pressure in the cargo tank will
gradually build up to about 11 bar. With exception of fully pressurised gas carriers,
there is no gas ship with cargo tanks that is constructed to resist such a pressure.
To maintain the tank pressure less than the pressure the cargo tanks is designed for
(MARVS), it is necessary to remove the supplied heat. This can be done in three
different ways. We can condensate the vapour back to the cargo tank, we can use
the vapour as fuel or we can blow the vapour out in the atmosphere. LNG ships use
the vapour in the propulsion machinery and that is a part of the chart.
How the cooling plant is constructed depends of the size of the ship and what kinds
of cargo the ship is built to carry. Roughly the cargo cooling plant is divided into in
three main types:

• Direct cooling plants; the cargo condensing directly against seawater.

• Cascade plants; the cargo gas is condensing at a cooling media as for example
• Indirectly cooling plants; the cargo is cooled or condensed against a cooling
media or a without compression of the cargo gas.
As mentioned earlier, there is unqualified necessary to cool a compressed gas under
its critical temperature to condensing this. As the condensing temperature normally
is no lower than 5oC above the seawater temperature, we can set a cool technical
limit for what can be condensed against seawater.

The diagram shows a saturation curve and the critical point for the most actual gas
cargo. It is here drawn a reflected boundary line at a condensing temperature of
37oC. We then suppose that the seawater temperature in the area the ship is trading
will be maximum 32oC and that the highest condensing temperature thereby is 37oC.

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06- Cargo Handling Equipment

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Centrifugal pumps are utilised as main unloading pumps on gas tankers. The
unloading pumps are located down in the cargo tank’s swamp or as close to the tank
bottom as possible. This is because the centrifugal pumps do not suck, and are
thereby dependent upon good drainage. The pumps are either the deepwell pump
type, submerged type or booster pump. Normally, the number of revolutions on
deepwell and submerged pumps lie on 1300 – 1800 RPM. Pumps driven with
hydraulics have the advantage that the number of revolutions can be adjusted.
Electrically driven pumps normally have a stated number of revolutions, but lately
they are delivered with a variable number of revolutions, for example 1370/800 RPM.
Booster pumps normally have revolutions from 3500 – 4000 RPM. It is very
important to follow the user manual supplied by the pump manufacturer to ensure
what to do before we start a pump, and what routines to follow at overhaul and
inspection of the pumps.


Deepwell pump is the pump type that is often used on gas tankers. Deepwell pumps
are pumps with a long shaft between the driving motor and the pump. The shaft
goes inside the tank’s discharge pipe from the pump up to the tank dome. The
discharge pipe is a solid pipe that goes up through the tank and out to the flange on
the tank dome to the liquid line. The discharge pipe is constructed with several
lengths with pipes, and there is a shaft bearing on each flange. The bearings are
lubricated and cooled down by the liquid that is pumped from the tank. It is very
important not to run the pump without liquid. This may result in damage of bearings
and then the shaft.
The motor that drives the pump is either electric or hydraulic. There is a mechanical
sealing device between the motor and the discharge pipe in the cargo tank. When
using the pump, we must have at least one bar higher pressure on top of the
mechanical seal than we have in the tank. It is important to closely read the pump’s
user manual about the routines before discharging, because the routines vary some
from different manufacturer.

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6.1.1 Submerged pump

Submerged pumps are multistage centrifugal pumps that are often used as discharge
pumps on large LNG and LPG tankers. The motor and pump are submerged down in
the tank sump or as close to the tank bottom as possible. The motor is connected
directly to the pump with a short shaft on this type of pump. The liquid that is
pumped lubricates and cools the pump’s bearings. It is therefore essential that the
pump is used only when there is liquid in the tank. The liquid is pumped up through
the tank’s discharge pipe and up to the liquid line.
This type of pump is equipped with electrical motor. The cables to the electric motor
are either made of copper or stainless steel. If copper is used in the cable, the cables
must be sheathed with stainless steel to prevent damage on the cable from corrosive
cargoes. When transporting Ammonia, the cable and engine must be sheathed with
a thin layer of stainless steel. It is important that the stainless steel sheathing is kept
unbroken, and we must avoid a sharp bend on the cable to protect the stainless steel
sheath. One must at all times check the resistance of the cable insulation before
starting the pump.
Submerged pumps are also installed as portable pumps. The discharge pipe is then
the steering pipe for the pump. At the bottom of the discharge pipe it is a non-return
valve that opens when pump is lowered and shut when the pump is taken up. Before
opening the discharge pipe it must be gas freed, this is done either with inert gas or

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6.1.2 Booster pumps

Booster pumps mentioned here are auxiliary pumps for cargo handling. The pump is
one-staged centrifugal pump and is often installed on deck near the pipe manifold.
The booster pumps on gas tankers are used either as a main discharge pump,
auxiliary discharge pump, deck tank supply pump or heater feed pump.
The booster pumps are driven with electric or hydraulic motor. The engine and the
pump are connected together with a short shaft with coupling in
between. It is very important that the motor and the pump are aligned according to
the manufacturer manual, and the clearances specified inside are followed.
Booster pumps that are regularly utilised should, as a good rule, be turned by hand
once a week to prevent destruction of the motor and pump bearings. It is important
that the booster pumps are blended off on LPG/LEG tankers when carrying cargo
with lower temperature than –50oC. Booster pumps are rarely designed for
temperature lower than –50oC.

6.1.3 6.1.3 Hold spaces and inter barrier spaces

In hold space and inter barrier space there is requirement of drainage system
separated from the machinery drain system. The drain system could be submerged
pumps, deepwell pumps or ejectors. These pumps can be used to drain water or
cargo spill from the bilge.
Generally, there are spool pieces (short pipe pieces) that are produced especially for
each hold space and on each side and fit both to the cargo system and the seawater
system. It is important that the spool pieces are disconnected, and the flanges are
blinded off when the bilge system is not in use.

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Example of ejector in hold space

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6.2.1 Loading lines and pipes
The loading lines and pipes mentioned here refer to gas carrier’s cargo handling
system. This involves liquid lines, vapour lines, condensate return lines, lines to vent
mast, pipes inside the cargo tank and seawater pipes to the cargo cooling plant.
All loading lines on gas carrier: liquid lines, gas lines and lines to vent mast have the
same requirements as pressure vessels regarding of temperature and pressure they
are meant to handle. All welding on pipes exceeding 75 mm in diameter and 10 mm
wall thickness or more must be X-rayed and classed by the class company. The same
regulation do we have on flanges and spool pieces also.
All loading lines outside the cargo tank must be produced by material with melting
point no less than 925oC. The loading lines on gas carriers are mostly produced of
stainless steel, but low temperature nickel steel is also in use. All loading lines with
an outside diameter of 25 mm or more must be flanged or welded. Otherwise, lines
with an outside diameter less than 25 mm can be connected with treads.
Loading lines designed for cargo with low temperature, less than –10oC must be
insulated from the ship hull. This to prevent the ship hull to be cooled down to below
design temperature. The hull has to be protected against cold cargo spill under spool
pieces and valves on all liquid lines. This is done with wood planks or plywood. To
prevent cold cargo spill on the hull plates, a drip tray must be placed under the
manifold flanges.
All lines that are thermally insulated from the hull must be electrically bonded to the
hull with steel wire or steel bands. On each flange on lines and pipes where gaskets
is used, there must be electrical bonding with steel wire or steel band from flange to
On all cargo lines where it can be liquid it is required with safety valve. Vapour from
the safety valve outlet must go back to the cargo tank or to the vent mast. If the
return goes to vent mast the pipe must be equipped with a liquid collector to prevent
liquid to the vent mast. The safety valve’s set point is dependent upon the pressure
for which the line is designed. The safety valves must be tested and sealed by the
ship Class Company.

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6.2.2 Valves
The most common valves used on the cargo handling equipment on gas carriers are
ball valves, butterfly valves and seat valves. All valves used on cargo lines have to be
installed with flanges, and the valves must be electrically bonded to the line either
with steel wire or steel bands.

6.2.3 Ball valves

On semi and fully refrigerated gas carrier’s ball valves are often used on the cargo
lines and cargo cooling plant. The ball valves tolerate high pressure and large
thermal variations, and they are also approved for chemicals. The valve seats and
sealing devices are produced in Teflon, the ball and spindle is produced in stainless
steel. The ball valve principle function is the pressure on one side of the ball forces
the ball against the seat and the valve is closed. If the pressure is equal on both
sides of the valve, leakage may occur.
On some types of ball valves the ball is fastened to the spindle, other types of ball
valves have floating ball. With a floating ball the pressure is equal all around the ball,
and the ball is pressed even toward the seat. With the ball fasten to the spindle it is
pressed aslant towards the seat and the valve seat can be damaged and the valve
will leak.

Frequently, particles are left between the valve ball and the valve house, and these
particles can easily cause damage to the valve seat and the ball. The valves must
from time to time be opened and the ball and seat have to be cleaned especially the
manifold valves. There is a drain hole on the ball itself. It is of importance to ensure
that when the valve is closed, the drain hole pointing where it is least natural
pressure, then the liquid inside the ball can be drained or boiled off. This prevents
large pressure inside the ball, liquid expansion and wreckage of the sealing devices
around the spherical occurs.

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Sketch of operation of drainage hull:


Ball valves tolerate large pressure and thermal variations due to the shape of the
ball. Tolerates both gases and chemicals. Easy to maintain and overhaul.

The valves are expensive, and have costly spare parts. They can be difficult to shut
at temperatures down to –90oC and colder (this can be relieved by adding a thin
packer between the to parts of the valve house). Ball valves are unfavourable as
regulation valves, as it is difficult to adjust to low flow through the valve.

6.2.4 Butterfly valves

Butterfly valves are often used on the seawater line on gas carriers, such as water to
heat exchanger (cargo heater), seawater condenser, oil cooler, the compressors etc.
Butterfly valves are also often used on lines with large diameter as cargo lines,
where there is not such a large pressure or thermal difference. Butterfly valves
should be moved at regular intervals to prevent the seat from fastening and be
damaged and cause leakage valve.

This type of valves has more reasonable price than ball valves. They have lower
weight than ball valves to corresponding pipe diameters. They are better than ball
valves for regulation of flow.

They are exposed to cavitation damage on the valve seat and flap when too high
liquid flow through the valve. They are less suitable at low temperatures than ball

Seat valves
Seat valves are frequently used as one-way valves (check valves) on loading lines, as
the pressure valve on the discharging pump, on condensate return lines back to the

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cargo tank and on the inert gas lines. Seat valves are opening by turn the spindle
anti clockwise and the valve seat can wander freely on the spindle. When the
pressure increases in the line under the valve seat, the seat is lifted up and the valve
is open. When the pressure ceases under the valve seat or the pressure increases
above the valve seat, the valve seat will drop down and shut the valve. Opening or
choking the valve regulates the amount of flow through the valve.

Example on seat valves:

Sketch on spring-loaded seal valve:

Seat valves that are used as check valves, must be overhauled at regular intervals,
and especially the seat and contact faces must be polished/grounded as they are
expelled for mark and wear and tear when the valve operates often. The seat valves
must also be moved regularly when they are not in use for a long period of time.

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The seal valves are reliable and simple to operate. Have large range of utilisation.
Have few wearing parts. Reasonable to maintain.

Require strict inspection. Start leaking if wrongly operated.

Needle valves
Needle valves are used for regulation of cargo cooling plants, both air regulation and
for regulation of Freon in cascade cooling plants. The needle valve is the valve type
that empirically is best suited for regulation of low flow volume.


Heat exchangers are utilised in several different parts of cargo handling on gas
carriers, as heat exchangers (cargo heater), condensers for cargo cooling plant,
vapour risers, super heaters and oil coolers for compressors. In most of the heat
exchangers seawater is used as the medium on gas carriers, which the products are
cooled or heated against.

The heat exchangers that are used for cargo handling must be designed and tested
to tolerate the products the gas carrier is certified for. Heat exchangers that are used
for cargo handling are considered as pressure vessels, and IMO requires one safety
valve if the pressure vessel is less than 20 m3 and two safety valves if it is above 20
m3. All heat exchangers that are used for cargo handling must be pressure tested
and certified by the gas carriers Class Company.

Heat exchangers where water is used as the medium and are utilised for heating
have little or no effect with water temperature less than 10oC. Seawater became ice
at about 0oC and starts to free out salt at about 50oC. So with operating

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temperatures with a larger variation than from 10oC to 45oC, one ought to use
another cooling medium than seawater. Some terminals do not accept water as
medium in heat exchangers, therefore one must either heat the cargo on route at
sea or the gas carrier must have heat exchangers that do not use water as medium.
It is of importance to ensure that the water out of a heat exchanger is never below
5oC. These prevent the water in the heat exchanger from freezing and eventually
damage the heat exchanger.

Tube heat exchangers

Tube heat exchangers are produced with tube bundles either as straightened pipes
or u-formed pipes placed into a chamber. The pipes in the tube bundle have an
inside diameter on 10 to 20 millimetres. There is a cover installed on each end of the
chamber to clean the pipes more easily and maintain these. It is, at all times,
important to ensure that the velocity of the liquid that is being pumped through the
heat exchanger is not too high, to prevent cavity damage in the tube bundle or the
end covers.

The tube bundle is made of stainless steel, carbon steel, copper-nickel alloy,
aluminium-brass alloy or titan.
Which choice of material one decides to choose, depends on the product one will
operate and the costs associated with the investment and maintenance.
In tube heat exchangers, where seawater is used as medium, the product to be
heated goes in the tube bundle. This prevents remaining seawater from freezing or

remnants of salt deposits inside the tubes. Tube heat exchangers must at regular
intervals be cleaned to prevent particles from settling inside the tubes in the tube
bundle or in the end covers. One must closely check for cavity damage when
cleaning the heat exchanger. Ensure that the gasket is produced in a quality that
tolerates the products and temperature one operates it with. Also, ensure that the
gasket is correctly placed.

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Plate heat exchangers

Plate heat exchangers are more utilised in cold storage plants on shore, for example
in the fish industry and the meat industry. Plate heat exchangers are built with thin
plates with double liquid channels. The plates are installed with the flat side toward
each other. The cooling medium and product are pumped each way in the channels
to achieve the best possible cooling or heating. Water or oil is used as the cooling
medium and is dependent upon the temperature of the product that is to be cooled
or heated. Plate heat exchangers are also used as condensers on newer cargo
cooling plants aboard gas tankers.

Plate heat exchangers must be cleaned at regular intervals to prevent the channels
from clogging with salt deposits or particles from the medium or the product. One
must ensure, after cleaning, that the gaskets are properly placed, and that one uses
gaskets that tolerate the medium and temperatures one operates within the heat

Different heat exchangers utilised onboard gas carriers for cargo handling

Cargo heater:
A cargo heater is used to heat the cargo when discharging to an ambient shore tank.
A cargo heater is also used when loading a fully pressurised gas carrier with cargo
with temperature less than –10oC. Seawater or oil is used to heat the cargo in the
cargo heater. It is of importance to remember that the cargo heater is full of water
and have good flow out with water before letting cold cargo into the heater. Fully
pressurised gas carriers are carriers that are designed to transport condensed gases
at ambient temperature, and they normally don’t have cargo cooling plant.

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Cargo condensers in a direct cargo cooling plant condensate the vapour against sea
water, Freon or other medium as propylene after it is compressed in the cargo
compressor. Cargo condensers in a direct cargo cooling plant can on some gas
carriers also be used as cargo heaters and are designed in low temperature steel that
tolerates a minimum of –50oC.

Intermediate cooler
An intermediate cooler is used in a 2-stage direct cargo cooling plant and cascade
cooling plant. Vapour from the first stage on the cargo compressor is pressed down
on the bottom of the intermediate cooler and is condensed against the cargo liquid in
the bottom. The cargo compressor’s 2nd stage sucks simultaneously from the top of
the intermediate cooler to keep the pressure down. Floaters or D/P-cells regulate the
liquid level in the intermediate cooler. The condensate inside the coil came from the
cargo condenser and is under cooled by the liquid in the intermediate cooler before it
is pressured further back to the cargo tank.
Sketch of intermediate cooler

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Freon condenser:
Water is used to condense Freon in the Freon condenser in a cascade cooling plant.
The liquefied Freon is used to condensate the cargo in the cascade cooling plant’s
cargo condenser. Liquefied Freon is also used in indirect cargo cooling plants. The
condensate is then pumped in pipe coils, and cools either directly on the tank steel or
as a cooling medium for ethanol or other mediums.

Vapour riser:
A vapour riser is used to produce vapour from the cargo liquid. Steam or heated oil is
used to heat up and vapour rise the liquid. The liquid is pumped from one of the
cargo tank, deck storage vessel or from a shore tank and into the vapour riser. The
vapour is used to gas up or maintains the pressure in one or several cargo tanks.

Oil coolers:
The cargo cooling plants oil coolers use water as a cooling media. The oil coolers
must hold the oil temperature on the different compressors within the specifications
determined by the manufacturer of the cargo cooling plant.

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6.4.1 Compressors
Compressors are used as vapour pumps in all modern cargo cooling plants, either to
compress or pump cargo vapour. Compressors are also used to compress or pump
cooling medium as Freon vapour on indirect cargo cooling plant and cascade plant.
The compressors in the cargo cooling plants are produced either as piston, screw or
centrifugal type. We will now look at the different types of compressors and starting
with piston compressors.

6.4.2 Piston compressor

Piston compressors used directly against cargo are of oil free type. Oil free
compressors are used to prevent pollution of oil into the cargo, and thereby
contamination of the cargo. All cargoes we are cooling demand a high rate of purity.
Consequently, it cannot be mixed with oil or be polluted by other products. With an
oil free piston compressor, we mean that the cylinder liners are not lubricated or
cooled with oil.
Piston compressors that are used against Freon normally have oil lubrication of
cylinder liners. Piston compressors are either built with cylinders in line, v-form or w-
form. Compressors with cylinders in line are built with two or three cylinders either
single-acting or double-acting. V-form compressors are built with two, four, six, eight
or twelve cylinders and are single acting.

6.4.3 Double-acting compressors

Double-acting compressors are normally oil free and compress the vapour above and
under the piston. The vapour is compressed on top of the piston when the piston
goes up and vapour is sucked into the cylinder below the piston. The vapour is
compressed below the piston when the piston goes down and is sucked into the
cylinder above the piston. This indicates that each cylinder has two suction valves
and two pressure valves. The pistons are equipped with compression grooves and
are not equipped with piston rings.
There is no oil lubrication of the piston itself, but there is oil in the crankcase on the
compressor. It is of importance that the sealing device between the cylinder liner and
crankcase is intact. In the first stage, the oil pressure in the crank is checked and
compared to the suction pressure and the cargo tank pressure. Check the user
manual for the cargo compressors and the marginal values for the pressure
difference with oil and suction. This type of compressor is used as cargo compressor
onboard gas carriers. It is important to change the oil in the crank when changing
cargo. This to prevent pollution to the next cargo from the previous cargo. Small
amounts of leakage between the cylinder and crank will at all times occur, so the oil
in the crank contains some of the product that is cooled.

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6.4.4 Single-acting compressors

Single-acting compressors compress and suck the gas on one side of the piston and
then normally above the piston. A suction valve and pressure valve is then installed
in the top of the cylinder. The cylinder top is spring-loaded as a safety precaution
against liquid “knock”. The compressors are built with the cylinders in pairs: two,
four, six, eight and twelve, then often as v-form or w-form. Single-acting
compressors are used both as Freon and cargo compressors on gas tankers.
Piston compressors are operated by electric motor with direct transmission or strap
transmission with a constant number of revolutions. The number of revolutions is
between 750 to 1750 rpm. Unloading of the compressor occurs by hydraulic lifting of
the suction valves. The drawback of piston compressors is that they are vulnerable
when the cylinder liner is filled with liquid and they also have relatively low capacity
for cooling.
Onboard many gas tankers, there is a liquid receiver on the vapour line between the
cargo tank and the cargo compressor, which prevents the liquid from being carried
with into the compressor. The liquid receiver is equipped with a level alarm to control
the liquid level.

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6.4.5 Screw compressor

Screw compressors are either oil free or oil lubricated. The type used on the cargo
side must be of oil free type for the same reason as the piston compressors.
The principle for screw compressors are two rotating screws, the screw that operates
has convex threads and the operated screw has concave threads which rotates them
in different directions. Vapour is screwed through the threads and with rotation on
the screws, the confined gas volume decreases successively resulting in compression.
Please also refer to “cargo cooling process” for more information.

The advantage with screw compressors is that they wear few parts and have low
weight in proportion to cooling capacity. Oil free screw compressors are operated by
electric motors with a constant number of revolutions and have a gear transmission
for the compressor, which has approx. 12000 rpm. The high speed prevents leakage
between the pressure and suction side. Screw compressors with oil injection in the
rotor house have a lower number of revolutions, about 3500 rpm. One can also use
electric motors with direct shaft transmission.

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Oil free screw compressors are used on the cargo side. On the Freon side,
compressors with oil injection are used. The oil causes a film on the outside of the
rotors that prevents leakage between the pressure and suction side. This
compensates for the temperature difference inside the compressor. The capacity of
screw compressors is adjusted by a slide, which is inside the compressor. However,
when we reduce the capacity the excess gas flows back to the suction side. Screw
compressors are not destroyed if they suck liquid, as we find with piston

Cargo compressors with motors that are installed inside a deckhouse have two parts,
one room for the compressors and one room for the motors. The room where the
motors are installed is gas safe with a constant excess pressure of air preventing
flammable gas from flowing in. If the excess pressure is too low, the power to the
electric motor room will be shut off and the cargo cooling plant stops. The shaft from
the electric motor room to the compressor room is rendered gas-tight. A mechanical
seal device with automatic oil lubrication is normally used. To prevent bearing
breakdown, it is important that electric motors and compressors are aligned
according to specifications from the manufacturer of the compressor and motor.

6.4.6 Centrifugal compressors

On gas tankers, centrifugal compressors are used to deliver vapour to shore or to
supply the cargo compressors with vapour from the cargo tanks.
Centrifugal compressors are operated by electric motor, hydraulic motor or with
steam, and have a gear transmission. The compressor has a number of revolutions
from about 20000 rpm to over 35000 rpm. This high number of revolutions sets large
demands on accuracy and tolerances at aligning motor and compressor. The
centrifugal compressor is built on the same principle as a centrifugal pump.
When a centrifugal compressor is used to feed the cargo compressor, it creates a
higher suction pressure on the cargo compressor, and thereby gives better cooling
capacity. Another area of operation for centrifugal compressors is pumping vapour
back to shore tank while loading. The centrifugal compressor can also be used when
changing cargo. Either to blows hot vapour or to be used as ventilation fan. The use
of centrifugal compressors depends on how flexible the piping system to the
compressor is. On gas tankers, the centrifugal compressor is mounted on deck close

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to the cargo manifold. The capacity of the centrifugal compressor is from

approximate 2000 m3 and upwards.

6.4.7 Indirect cargo cooling plant

Indirect cargo cooling plants are used on cargoes that not can be compressed or
exposed to high temperatures, as they either polymerise or start chemical reactions.
Typical cargo that uses indirect cooling is propylene oxide, ethylene oxide, mixed
propylene oxide and ethylene oxide and chlorine. There are some different methods
for indirect cargo cooling.
One type of indirect cargo cooling plant use the discharge pumps and pumps the
cargo liquid through a Freon heat exchanger and back to the cargo tank. This
method is energy demanding as we have to use discharging pump, Freon cooling
plant and seawater pump to control the cargo temperature. On this type of cooling
plant the discharge pump should be of submerged type, deepwell pumps can also be
used but we must try to avoid running those while at sea. Deepwell pumps with
revolution regulation can be used if the ship is not rolling or pitching to mush.

6.4.8 Indirect cargo cooling plant with utilisation of discharge pump

Another indirect cargo cooling plant resembles the first a lot, but the discharge
pumps are not used. Instead the cargo vapour is condensed in a Freon heat
exchanger and the condensate is pumped back to the cargo tank with a small pump.
This indirect cooling requires less energy than if one also uses discharge pumps.
A third indirect cargo cooling plant also uses a Freon cooling plant where cold Freon
liquid is pumped to a coil installed inside the top of the cargo tank or is welded
around the outside of the cargo tank. The Freon compressor sucks Freon vapour
from the Freon liquid collector then presses the vapour to the condenser where it is
condensed against seawater. One can also use ethanol in this cooling system;
ethanol is then pumped round in the coils and Freon is used to cool down the

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6.4.9 Indirect cargo cooling plant with utilisation of Ethanol in coil round
the cargo tank

6.4.9 Direct cargo-cooling plant

A direct cooling plant is used to control temperature on cargoes as LPG, Isobutane,
Ammonia and some chemical gases like VCM, Propylene and Butadiene. Common for all
direct cargo cooling plants is that the cargo vapour is compressed directly in the
compressor. It is the seawater temperature and the type of cargo that decides which
condensation pressure is achieved provided that the cargo is pure. If one for example
has loaded Propylene and the seawater temperature is 20oC, the condensation pressure
will be approximate 9 bars. The pressure needed in proportion to the temperature is
located in the density table for the actual cargo.

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Direct cargo cooling plants are operated as one or multistage, dependent upon the
type of compressor, the cargo and the temperature on the seawater. Most gas
carriers that are designed for LPG have direct cargo cooling plants that can be
operated as a one-stage or multistage operation.
With one-stage direct cooling, vapour is sucked by the cargo compressor from the
cargo tanks. The vapour is then pressed to the condenser and assembles in the
liquid collector. The liquid level in the collector is regulated either by two floaters or
the differential pressure above the liquid level in the liquid collector. The condensate
is pressured back to the cargo tank from the liquid collector via a regulation valve
and in the condensate return line. To use one-stage cooling, the pressure difference
between tank pressure and condensate pressure must be less than 6 bars.
With 2nd stage direct cooling without an intermediate cooler the cargo compressor
sucks from the cargo tank with the 1st stage cylinder. The vapour is thereby pressed
to the compressors 2nd stage suction side and then to the cargo condenser where
the vapour is condensed against seawater and collected in the liquid collector. The
liquid is pressured back to the cargo tank via a regulation valve and the condensate
return line from the liquid collector. The pressure in the liquid collector is equal to the
pressure in the cargo condenser, and is at all times higher than the cargo tank
pressure. 2nd stage direct cargo cooling plant is delivered with or without an
intermediate cooler.

Some direct cargo cooling plants are delivered with intermediate cooler
(inter cooler), this achieves lower temperature and pressure on the 2nd
stage suction side.
These cargo cooling plants are used on semi-pressurised LPG carriers and
atmospheric pressure LPG/ NH3 carriers.

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6.4.11 Cascade cooling plant / direct cooling

Cascade cooling plant is basically a direct cargo cooling plant where the cargo
is condensed against Freon and Freon is condensed against water.
Sketch of cascade plant

In a cascade cooling plant there is a Freon cooling plant in supplement to a direct

cargo cooling plant. The Freon cooling plant contain of a compressor, Freon liquid
collector, oil collector, Freon separator, regulation valve and pump. Freon are
condensed against water, and the Freon condensate is pumped from the separator
to the cargo condenser where the cargo is condensed. The Freon plant have to be
started first, so the condensation and circulation of Freon in the cargo condenser is
normal. There must be accuracy in the start-up to prevent oil from leaking with
Freon and removing the condensation effect. When the Freon plant operates
normally, one can start the cargo compressor.

On the cargo side in a cascade cooling plant there is mostly 2nd stage direct cargo
cooling plant equipped with compressor, intermediate cooler, cargo condenser, liquid
collector and regulation valve.

The vapour is sucked from the cargo tank and into the cargo compressor’s 1st stage.
The vapour is then pressured to the intermediate cooler where it is condensed
against the liquid in the bottom of the intermediate cooler. The cargo compressor
sucks vapour with the 2nd stage from the top of the intermediate cooler and press
the vapour to the cargo condenser where the gas is condensed against Freon. The
condensate is then pressured against a coil in the intermediate cooler and further
through a regulation valve to the condensate line, and back to the cargo tank.

This type of cargo cooling plant is used on semi-pressurised LPG and LEG carriers,
and on large atmospheric pressure LPG carriers. A cascade cooling plant must be
used for condensation of Ethane and Ethylene, but can also be used for Propane,
Ammonia and Propylene. Some cascade cooling plants are constructed for use as a

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two or one-stage direct cargo cooling plant. Generally when cooling Butane,
Butadiene or VCM one can also condensate Propane and Propylene directly if the
seawater temperature is low enough.

This type of cargo cooling plant has a lower dependency of the seawater
temperature than a direct cooling plant. The larger volume of Freon, seawater
temperature has less influence on the plant. It is difficult to cool regardless of the
kind of cooling plant’s if the surrounding temperature e.g. seawater temperature is
higher than 35oC.


On gas carriers inert gas is used for different purposes, some are requirements
other is to maintain the ships hull and spaces:

· Have neutral atmosphere in hold and inter barrier spaces

· Elimination of cargo vapour from the cargo tank when gas freeing

· Eliminating oxygen from the cargo tank before loading

· Drying up hold spaces or inter barrier spaces to achieve a neutral atmosphere

and to prevent corrosion in the spaces

· Placing a neutral vapour above the cargo if required

When carrying flammable cargo on fully refrigerated gas carriers there is a

requirement to have a neutral atmosphere in the hold space or inter barrier space
either with dry inert gas or nitrogen. If the gas carrier does not have an inert gas
plant or nitrogen plant, it must have a storage vessel with inert gas or nitrogen with
capacity of 30 days and nights consumption. The definition of consumption here is
the leakage in the vents and manhole. If the cargo is not flammable we can have dry
air, inert gas or nitrogen in the spaces.

If the cargo is Ammonia, one must not use inert gas that contains carbon dioxide,
only dry air or nitrogen, because carbon dioxide reacts chemically with Ammonia. It
is always beneficial to keep spaces around the cargo tanks dry.

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The inert gas generator is built up with a combustion chamber, scrubber, O2

analyser, dryer and heater. The fuel oil is injected into the combustion chamber,
mixed with air, combusts and flue gas or inert gas is formed. The inert gas is blown
through the scrubber where carbon particles and sulphur is washed out with the
water. The O2 analyser measures the O2 content against the stated limits before the
inert gas is blown further into the dryer. There is two types of dryers for inert gas
plants either Freon dryer or absorption dryer. The most common is the Freon dryer.

After the scrubber the inert gas is cooled in a dryer to reduce the dew point. With
use of Freon dryer the dew point will be minimum 5oC. Water is condensed out while
the dew point is reduced and we have to avoid temperature to sink below 0oC so we
do not clog the inert channel with ice.

In an absorption dryer the inert gas is compressed with a compressor and pumped
through a material that absorbs water and the dew point sinks to minimum –80oC.

Strict demands are made regarding inert gas plants on gas carriers. IMO makes
demands for maximum content of 5% O2 by volume. Inert gas is produced on gas
tankers by their own inert gas generator. Inert gas produces by consuming gas oil,
diesel oil or light fuel oil. The O2 content in the inert gas adjusts by quantity of air
added to the oil that is injected into the combustion chamber.

To achieve as pure inert gas as possible, very good combustion is required. A rich
oil/air mixture gives a lot of carbon, high content with Carbon monoxide and low O2
content. A lean mixture (more air) gives higher O2%, less carbon and less carbon
monoxide. The air/oil mixture is produced manually or automatically on the control

6.5.1 Sketch of inert gas plant

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6.5.2 O2 Control

O2 analyser is connected to a two-way valve where the inert gas either can be sent
to a ventilation mast or to a consumption unit (dryer, tanker). The limit value is set
manually between 5% by volume O2 and the minimum value for the inert gas
generator for example 0,3% by volume O2. The inert gas then automatically goes to
the vent mast if the O2 content reaches more than 5% by volume or below 0,3% by
volume. O2 content is set to the required O2 volume, for example 1% by volume.
The inert will then go to the dryer and is consumed when the O2 content is between
1% and 0,3%.

6.5.3 Drying

The inert gas is saturated with water when it comes out of the scrubber, that means
100% humidity. The temperature on the inert gas after the scrubber is about 5oC
above the seawater temperature.

The inert gas therefore must be dried before it is sent to the cargo tanks, hold space
or inter barrier space to prevent condensing of water into the tanks or spaces. The
inert gas temperature should be higher than the atmosphere that one will inert. Inert
gas dryer is a Freon heat exchanger, absorption dryer or a combination of both.

6.5.4 Freon dryer

Freon dryer are frequently used and require less space in proportion to an absorption
dryer. The principle with the Freon dryer is that Freon flows through small pipes in
the inert gas channel. The inert gas is cooled down and thereby condensate the
water from the inert gas when it passes the Freon pipes. The Freon is condensed in
its own cooling plant. The temperature of the inert gas after the Freon heat
exchanger must not be less than 5oC. The inert gas that comes out of the Freon
dryer has a dew point of about 5oC and a water content of 6,75 gram per m3 inert

6.5.5 Absorption dryer

With use of absorption drier the inert gas is then pressed through a medium that
absorbs water, for example silica gel or Aluminium Oxide. The inert gas has a
temperature a bit above seawater temperature when entering into the dryer blower.
The temperature of the inert gas is higher when it emerges from the dryer, from
30oC to 60oC, depending on the required dew point. The result of temperature
increase is that the compressor compresses the inert gas. One can have an inert gas
dew point down to –80oC with an absorption dryer, but the inert gas volume that is
delivered for consumption decreases. The inert gas contains 0,0013 gram water pr
m3 at a dew point of –60oC. Inert gas with temperature of 40oC and dew point at –
60oC has a relative humidity of 0,025%.

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6.5.6 Inert gas heater

An inert gas heater is a heat exchanger where steam or an electrical coil is used for
heating the inert gas. The dried inert gas can absorb more humidity when it is
heated. Heating reduces the relative humidity on the inert gas. The relative humidity
is 28,72% at a temperature of 25oC with Freon dryer and an inert gas dew point of
5oC. If the inert gas is heated to 50oC, the relative humidity will sink down to
8,13%. It is of importance that one first removes humidity, and thereby heats the
inert gas so it can absorb more humidity.

The inert gas dryer and heater can also be used in connection with venting tanks and
spaces with air.

To maintain the function of the inert gas generator to specification, one must run it
regularly, generally once a week and preferably several hours each time. This is a
good opportunity to refill spaces and lines, which are not used.

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6.5.7 Sketch of thermal drier

A Drying tower
B Tower that is dried
C Heater
D Cooler
E Fan
F Water separator
S Solenoid valves

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6.5.8 Sketch of pressure swing drier

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6.5.9 Composition of inert gas and dew point


Gas carriers must have safety valves on all cargo tanks, spaces and cargo lines
where cargo liquid residue may remain. Cargo tank’s safety valves are either pilot
(pressure loaded) or spring loaded valves. Spring-loaded valves are normally used on

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fully pressurised tankers and semi pressurised tankers with a tank pressure above
0,7 bars and on cargo lines. The pressure loaded valves are normally used on
atmospheric pressure tankers and semi pressurised tankers.

There must be two safety valves on all kinds of pressure vessels on more than 20
m3. There are also demands that there is a safety valve on all kinds of pressure
vessels below 20 m3. The maximum set pressure on a cargo tank’s safety valves
depends on the cargo tank MARVS. MARVS is maximum allowed safety valve set
point. The pressure required by MARVS is located in the gas carriers IMO Certificate
of Fitness. The cargo tank safety valve must be located on the tank’s highest point
above deck. Each safety valve must be connected to vent mast without impediment
or valves.

The vent mast’s outlet must be at least B/3 or 6 meter above weather deck or
gangway, B is the ships breadth. The distance should at least B or 25 meters from
the nearest air inlet or opening in the accommodation. This distance can be
shortened for gas carriers of less than 90 meters in length, but the flag state
authorities, for example Norwegian Maritime Directorate, must approve it.

All safety valves on cargo tanks must be prototype tested and approved by IMO and
the gas carriers class company. The cargo tank’s safety valves must be tested within
the IMO limits +-10% for 0 to 1,5 bars, +-6% for 1,5 to 3 bars and +-3% for 3 bars
and higher pressure. The tanker’s class company has to seal the safety valves after
authorised personnel have tested and calibrated the safety valves.

6.6.1 6.6.1 Cargo tank safety valve’s function

Safety valves used on cargo tanks have one or more pilots to hold the valve closed.
The safety valve contains of an adjusting spring, three membranes, two valve seats,
an exhaust pipe and an equalising pipe. The pilot is adjusted by a pilot spring in
order to get the needed pressure, for example 0,5 bars.

The pilot valve’s seat is attached to two membranes and the pilot spring. The pilot
main valve seat is attached to the main valve membrane. The pilot valve is
connected to a pipe on the highest point on the cargo tank.

There is the same pressure below and above the main valve seat and on the below
the boost membrane when the pilot valve is shut. When the pressure in the cargo
tank is higher than the pilot valve’s setting, the boost membrane will lift, pull the
pilot seat up and the pressure above the main valve membrane is ventilated to the
atmosphere. The pressure will now be higher above the main valve seat than below
and the valve is open and vapour is ventilated to the vent mast.

When the cargo tank pressure sinks again, the boost membrane will sink and the
pilot seat will go to the shut position. The pressure above the main valve membrane

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increases to the same pressure as in the cargo tank. The main valve seat will then be
closed and the valve shut.

6.6.2 6.6.2 Example of a tank safety valve

There are extra setters that are installed on the pilot valve to achieve the right set
point on fully pressurised tankers and semi-pressurised tankers. The setter consists
of an adjusting spring with spring tension equal to the pressure, for example 2,3
bars. When the setter is screwed down on the pilot, the set point will be at 2,8 bars.

The cargo tank safety valves on atmospheric pressure tankers are normally the
membrane type. The principle is the same as with seat valves. When the valve is
shut there is equal pressure under and over the main membrane and under the
boost membrane. When the pressure is higher than the pilot setting, the boost
membrane in the pilot will press the pilot seat up and the valve start to open. When
the pressure sinks, the pilot seat is pressed back and shut.

The valve opens when the tank pressure exceeds the spring tension. When the tank
pressure sinks below the spring tension, the valve shuts again. An adjustment screw
is attached on top of the valve that is used for calibrating the spring tension.

On fully refrigerated gas carriers there is often options to mount extra weights during
loading or change of cargo. The extra weights are mounted on top of the pilot and
increases the set point with approximates 100 to 150 grams.

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6.6.3 6.6.3 Safety valves on cargo lines/ pipes

Seat valves are mainly used as safety valves on lines. These safety valves are spring-
loaded and must be according to the certified line pressure. The set point and the
number of the different safety valves can be found in the gas carrier valve list. The
safety valves must be overhauled, pressure tested and calibrated by authorised
personnel. Then sealed and by the ships class company.

Example on safety valves on cargo lines/pipes

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07- Monitoring and control

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All gas carriers must have a minimum instrumentation for control of cargo and cargo
equipment. The instrumentation varies from local instruments to remote instruments.
The cargo control room or instrument room is located in a gas safe area, normally in
connection with the deckhouse.


A level gauge for cargo tanks is normally of float type or radar type. The float type
can be controlled by a guide-wire or placed inside a perforated pipe. The float’s
movements are transferred to a counter through a steel band. The counter are
normally local, but on new ships it is also remote reading. It is of importance to
check that the counter is at the correct level. On the counter, there are marked
values indicating the reading when the float is at the bottom and on the top. Control
and necessary adjustments are made using these values. To avoid damage to the
float and band, it is of importance that the float is hoisted and locked when the ship
is sailing.
Other types of floats are connected to an arm with a switch, which sets off or on an
alarm circuit when the liquid reaches a given level. This type is used as level alarms
in cargo tanks and in small tanks as liquid receivers. The liquid separator on the
suction side of the compressor is an example of a tank equipped with this type of
alarm. If liquid is carried away with the vapour to the compressor, the liquid will
assemble in the liquid separator on the vapour line. The float in the liquid separator
will at a stated level float up and actuate an alarm and then shutdown the
compressor and liquid is prevented to came into the compressor.

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7.1.1 High-level alarm

To prevent over loading of cargo tanks high level alarms are required. There are two
separate floats that give the alarms, one is high-level alarm the other is high-high-
level alarm. The high-level alarm is activated when the cargo tank is nearly full,
normally at 95% filling. The high-high-level alarm is actuated at 98% or 99% filling.
Valves on the actual tank are closed and discharge pumps are automatically stopped
when liquid reaches the actual level. To open the valves and start the pump again
the 98%/ 99% circuit has to be reset and switched off.

7.1.2 Emergency Shut-Down System (ESD)

All gas carriers are equipped with an emergency shutdown system that is manually
activated from at least two locations onboard. It closes the liquid valves in the cargo
pipe-system. At least one of the locations must be located outside the cargo area or
in a cargo control room. The system is normally a part of the cargo valve’s control
system and both pneumatic and hydraulic system is used. The emergency shutdown
system must be “fail safe”, that is by loss of pressure or voltage, the valves are shut.
A spring or lack of pressure closes most of the actuators used in the ESD system.
The liquid valves should fully close under all service conditions within 30 seconds.
Thermal fuses (fusing plugs) that activate the emergency shutdown system are
located on tank-domes and manifolds. On some gas carriers the fuses also activate
the water spray system. If fire ignites or temperature rise of other reason, the fuses
have to melt at temperature between 98oC and 104oC.
When the emergency shutdown system is activated, the power circuit to the cargo
plant is broken and compressors and discharge pumps will stop. Some terminals
require that the ESD system onboard must be activated also from the jetty when
handling cargo. Most gas carriers therefore have the possibility to place an extra ESD
release button on jetty.
For gas carriers with MARVS above 0,7 bars it is required that all pipes connected to
the cargo tanks, with exception from pipes to the safety valves and instrument pipes,
are equipped with remote-operated valves. Gas carriers with MARVS below 0,7 bars
only require such valves on the manifold. A pneumatic or hydraulic actuator placed
on the valve operates the valve in the pipe system and can also be remote
The connected actuators for valves in the pipe-system have an adjustable closing
time. Adjustable closing time is a requirement from IMO to avoid over loaded cargo
tanks or pressure surge on the terminal pipes. The valve’s closing time can be
regulated by adjustment of a needle valve on the actuator.

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7.1.3 Pneumatic system

In cargo control systems pneumatic is used to control cooling plants and valves. The
emergency shutdown system can be complete or partly pneumatic. Pneumatics is
also used to control the water spray-system and regulate the cargo cooling plant.
For a satisfactory function of the control air systems it is of importance that the air is
as dry as possible. Poor air-treatment and humidity is the major cause of interruption
in such systems. Regular control and maintenance of the air dryer, normally by the
“heatless dryer” type, is also of importance.
7.1.4 Example of pneumatic ESD system

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7.1.5 Fixed gas detector system

It is required that all gas carriers are equipped with a fixed gas detector that
continuously measures the concentration of hydrocarbons in the atmosphere, and
activates an alarm if the concentration exceeds 30% LEL.
The fixed gas detector is normally located on the bridge or in the cargo control room.
The detector pump sucks the atmosphere from sample points to the sensor from
selected areas around the vessel. The following areas are specified in the IMO’s Gas
code and must be monitored by this type of equipment:

• · Compressor room
• · Electric motor room
• · Cargo control room unless designated as gas-safe
• · Airlocks
• · Hold spaces for all cargo tanks except for independent tanks type C
• · Other areas in the cargo area where flammable mixtures may
• · Sample points at ventilation inlets to the accommodation, in the
engine room and in the forecastle.

It is required that the detector must measure all sample points consecutively and not
exceeding 30 minutes intervals on the same sample point. Both audio and visual
alarms should be activated.
The next page illustrates a flow sheet for one type of gas detector. The pump sucks
continuously from all points, but only one point is measured at a time. When a point
is measured, a precise time purges the instrument before measuring the next point.
If the concentration at a measure-point exceeds 30% LEL, the alarm is released. An
indicator panel on the instrument indicates, at all times, what point is measured and
from where the alarm is released. If restrictions or similar in the suction-line take
place, a “flow-failure” is released.
The gas detector has a fixed connection for sample gas for calibration. Calibrating
and testing the equipment must be done regularly. This is normally a routine that is
executed once a week. It is of importance that calibrating and testing is logged.
The instrument should regularly be calibrated for the cargo carried onboard. This is
used to adjust the difference between the span gas and the cargo onboard.

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7.1.6 Fixed gas detector

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A re-condensation plant for LNG is both complicated and expensive. It is
therefore more moderate to utilise the boil-off from the cargo as fuel.

The amount of boil-off from a LNG ship lies at about 0,25% per day and night. For an 85
000 m3 tanker this covers about 60% of the fuel need. For a large LNG carrier the boil off
covers a larger share of the fuel needed. The boil-off can be utilised as fuel in boilers,
dual-fuel engines and gas turbines.

Strict regulations are made for control and security when we use LNG as fuel, especially
regarding ventilation. Emergency shutdown and double shut-off valves are essential on
the vapour line. With a stop of the plant, the vapour line is flushed with nitrogen. Boilers
and engines are both made for oil and gas. It is required that at all times we must use
about 5% fuel oil on the pilot burner. This secures that all vapour in the pipe to the boiler
is continuously set on fire.

Example 1:
A loaded LNG carrier of 87 000 m3 has a heat transfer to the cargo tanks of 700kW.
The cargo temperature is -160 0C. How much vapour boils off per day at unaltered
cargo temperature?

The size of the heat transfer to the cargo tanks determines how much methane that
is boiled off. We find specific heat of vaporisation for methane in the heat technical
table to be 506,2 kJ/kg at -160 0C. This indicates that 506,2 kJ must be supplied to
evaporate one kg methane. The total amount that evaporates at a heat transfer of
700 kW is then:

(heat transfer x time ) / specific vaporisation

700 kW x (24 x 3600)s / 506,2 kJ/kg = 119.500 kg/day = 119,5 MT/day

The ship can during the existing condition consume 119,5 MT per day and night for
propulsion. This corresponds to 0,33% boil-off per day.
The ballast journey to the next load port must be planned thoroughly when we use
the boil-off as fuel on the boilers and machinery. The quantity needed of cargo for
propulsion and cooling of cargo tanks must be calculated before commence
discharging. The amount of boil-off from the cargo tanks is regulated with the spray

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Electrical equipment should be of a type that eliminates the chance of fire

or explosion when carrying flammable cargo. Precautions must be made
to exclude spark sources from areas where flammable gases may appear.

On shore one operates with different zones of explosive areas, as you found in the
following table:


Zone 0 Explosive gases are present continuously or in long


Zone 1 Explosive gases are present in periods during normal

operating conditions.

Zone 2 Explosive gases are rarely present and occur only in short

If applying these criteria to ships, zone 0 includes cargo tanks with cargo handling
equipment, zone 1 includes the remaining part of a gas hazardous area and zone 2
includes the remaining part of the cargo area. Rooms containing cargo-handling
equipment, for example, cargo compressor rooms must also be treated as zone 1.

7.3.2 Gas hazardous areas

Gas hazardous areas are defined onboard as the areas in the cargo tank area that
have no approved arrangement ensuring that the atmosphere has, at all times, no
content of flammable mixtures. The areas are clearly specified in the regulations.
Areas outside the specified gas hazardous areas are considered as gas safe.
The electric motor room or the control room is an example of a gas safe area.
These rooms are considered as safe in all circumstances provided that the ventilation
system prevents flammable mixtures penetrating into the rooms. Normally this is
arranged with the suction pipe for the ventilation to the rooms are located outside
defined flammable areas and the room has always an overpressure. Access to the
room is through a airlock, and the room is made “dead” in case of a failure in the
ventilation system.



• · All cargo tanks and rooms containing cargo tanks or pipes.

• · Pump room, compressor room and other rooms where gas appears.
• · A radius of 4,5 meters around ventilation outlet from the compressor
room and pump room.

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• · A radius around the ventilation outlet from cargo tanks at 9 meters.

• · A zone on open deck in the cargo tanks area up to 2,4 meters above
deck and 3 meters ahead and aft of the cargo tank area.
• · A radius of 3 meters around pipe lines for cargo.

All vessels are issued with a drawing that indicates these areas. The drawing
normally named, “Hazardous Areas”, is posted around the vessel for the crew to
familiarise themselves with these hazardous areas.

The conditions onboard and around operation of gas carriers are special, and the
rules are more restrictive than ashore. The equipment onboard is exposed to hard
strains, the maintenance is often more complicated, and none the less, the
consequences of fire or explosion are very seriously. Ashore there are individual
national rules. For gas carriers and other ships the Flag State, Class Society and IMO
rules apply. Terminals and charterer also have individual rules that have to be
Special rules exist for pump room, compressor room, pipe tunnels, control room in
the cargo tank area, electric motor room and the area on the forecastle.
Access to electric motor room and cargo control room occurs through an airlock.
These rooms must have a mechanical positive pressure system. The doors must be
equipped with alarms and if both doors are left open too long and the pressure drop,
the rooms automatically render “dead”. This is normally arranged by a DP-cell
(differential pressure cell) that measures the pressure difference inside the room and
the surroundings.
Compressor room, pipe tunnels and pump rooms must be equipped with explosion-
proof lights. Cargo control, monitoring and automation equipment must be
independently secure in a flameproof enclosure. The light arrangement disperses
over at least two switchers, and all switches and protection equipment must be
placed in a gas-safe area. Electrical cables are not allowed to be open exposed
throughout the room.
Explosion-proof and independently secured equipment are approved to be used in
gas hazardous areas on deck. Automation and communication equipment must on
the other hand be of independently secure enclosure.

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Area: Approved enclosure:

Pump room and compressor Electric motor and lighting fixture must
room be Ex d.

Alarm , automations and

communication equipment must be Ex

Cargo tanks General demand for Ex ia

Open deck area Ex d, Ex e, Ex ia and Ex ib are all


The above-mentioned different types of electrical equipment characterise “explosion

proof equipment”. This equipment is divided into three groups; each of them
approved for its stated area. One must not fail to believe that if the equipment is
“explosion proof”, it can be used in all flammable areas onboard.

7.3.3 Flameproof proof enclosure

English: Flameproof enclosure
American: Explosion proof
German: Druckfeste kapslung
CLC symbol: d
Flameproof equipment does not secure against penetration of vapour. The enclosure
must be mechanical and strong enough to resist the inner pressure that can arise
because of an explosion. Eventual spurt of flame and warm gases will be sufficiently
chilled to prevent ignition of the same gas mixture outside the equipment.
Manufacturing longer openings with the help of threads and fissures constructively
solves this.
As we can see, the safety of this equipment depends upon whether the equipment
can resist an interior explosion or not, and that warm gases and flashes maintain a
long enough distance to be chilled. The weakness in this type of equipment is also
here. The equipment with threads and fissures are especially exposed to corrosion
and salt deposit. If the small passages are blocked or corroded, the safety is lost and
the equipment can not be used.
Equipment for high effect, like for example electric motors for pumps, has this
Two different types of methods are used for cable inlet to explosion safe equipment -
direct or indirect inlet. The nipple that is used to direct the cable inlet for explosion
proof motors consists of many parts that must be installed right to maintain safety.

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This type of cable inlet is mainly used on English or American equipment. This type
of equipment is delivered finished bored and threaded. There are big problems in
locating the right compensation, if the nipple need to be changed, because the
replacement must be the same type as the exchanged. It is not allowed to make
adjustments for a new nipple, as such a modification may weaken the strength of the
Bulkhead pipes from a flammable to a gas proof area must be compressive. Special
cable boxes filled with a special expanding type compound must be used for this
At the indirect cable inlet to explosion proof equipment a connection box of an
intrinsically safe design is used.

7.3.4 Increased safety

English: Increased safety
German: Erhohte sicherheit
CLC symbol: e
This design secures against high temperatures and formation of flame/sparks in the
equipment during normal operation. The design is mostly used on illumination and
connection boxes and in combination with other types of enclosures. Explosion proof
electrical motors of type d are normally equipped with an indirect cable inlet of
increased safety type. Increased safety can be used in some flammable areas. This is
approved for zone 1 ashore. The special conditions onboard limits the user areas
some for this equipment.

7.3.5 Intrinsically safe

English: Intrinsically safe
German: Egensicher
CLC symbol: i

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During normal operation or by error, an intrinsically safe enclosure will not be able to
produce spark or heat by such a character that ignition of a flammable gas mixture is
operative. Current and voltage limits by transistor relays or zener batteries maintain
the safety. Intrinsically safe equipment only uses voltage of 8-12 V and current of
about 5 milliampere. Test equipment that produces high voltage can not be used on
intrinsically safe areas. The circuits can be destroyed and at worst form sparks in the
hazardous area.
All intrinsically safe equipment must be delivered with certificate from an approved
test institution. Installation of the equipment must be executed with care. To secure
misconnection or interference of the equipment, the cables must lie in their own
canals, their own terminal blocks and preferably of blue colour. The distance to other
cables should be at least 50 mm to protect the intrinsically safe circuit. Intrinsically
safe relays and barriers must be placed in a gas proof area.

Intrinsically safe enclosure divides into two categories:

ia Equipment not capable of causing ignition of flammable mixture in

any combination of two imaginable errors with the equipment. The
whole circuit is approved.
ib Equipment not capable of causing ignition of a flammable mixture
regardless of what simple error arises. Only the barrier is approved.

7.3.6 Other designs

On installations ashore other explosion proof designs are used. Equipment can be
filled with oil or sand to prevent penetration of flammable gases. This type of
equipment is marked Ex o for oil and Ex q for sand.
Excess pressure design, Ex p, prevents penetration of the surrounding atmosphere
with help of a protective gas with higher pressure than the environment. Such
equipment requires surveillance of the pressure. If the pressure falls below a precise
limit the equipment dies. A complete electrical plant with this design is not relevant.
But the principle use, as for example, for an electric motor on a gas vessel.
Special design, Ex s, appears in combination with another design. Ex s is not a pure
intrinsically safe design.

7.3.7 Classification of Ex equipment

IEC, International Electro technical Commission, is an assembly with the task to
make standardised recommendations about electrical equipment. This
recommendation is published as IEC Recommendations.
CENELEC, The European Committee for Electro technical Standardisation, has the
task from IEC to make a standard for electrical equipment in hazardous areas.
Equipment classified and marked by this standard will be approved in all of EU. The
standardisation of flameproof equipment will in time ease the work by choosing the

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right equipment at installation and replacement, plus execute necessary control on

installed equipment.
The equipment in use today is marked by a number of different standards. We will
concentrate on the three most relevant:

CLC that signifies the European standard

VDE that signifies the former West-German standard
USA that signifies the USA’s standard

Flameproof equipment is tested and classified considering the different gases. The
gas ignition energy, spontaneous ignition temperature and explosion progress are
the primary factors.



CLC VDE USA Example of gas:

I 1 Gr. D Methane (pit gas)
II A 1 Gr. D Methane (industrial)
II A 1 Gr. D n-Pentane
II A 1 Gr. D Petroleum gases
II B 2 Gr. C Ethylene
II C 3b Gr. B Carbon disulphide
II C 3n Gr. A All gases
Equipment marked explosion group “I” is used in mines. The other equipment is for
use in the industry.
The different flammable gas mixtures have different spontaneous ignition
temperatures. To secure electrical equipment, which comes in contact with the
relevant gas mixtures and has a surface temperature lower than the gas mixture
spontaneous ignition temperature; the equipment is marked with a temperature

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Spontaneous CLC VDE USA Example of gas:

>450 oC T1 G1 T1 Acrynolitrile (481 oC)
>300 oC T2 G2 T2 n-Pentane (309 oC)
>200 oC T3 G3 T2 D Acrolein (278 oC)
>135 oC T4 G4 T3 Acetaldehyde
>100 oC T5 G5 T4 A Carbon disulphide
>85 oC T6 T5

For CLC-classes, the maximum surface temperature follows the spontaneous ignition
temperature of individual gas. The former West-German VDE-classes operate with
both a spontaneous ignition temperature and a maximum surface temperature of the
equipment. The surface temperature is stated a bit below the spontaneous ignition
temperature. As an example, a gas that falls under the temperature class G1 is
allowed a maximum surface temperature of 360oC.

From the European Standard, all electrical equipment in hazardous areas must be
marked, for example Eex d IIB T3 where:

EEx The equipment is tested and classified according to

the European Standard for utilisation in hazardous
d The enclosure is flameproof.
IIB The equipment falls under explosion group IIB
T3 The equipment is tested and will at maximum have a
surface temperature of 200 oC.

7.3.8 Protection of electrical equipment

Installation of electrical equipment must be of a precise strength and resistant to the
environment it is exposed to. Demands are made on the equipment from
classification companies. A normal demand is that the equipment must bear the
effect of 1 kg that falls down on the equipment from a height of 0,7 meters. Tests
are also executed regarding chemicals. If the equipment is on open deck and lacks
resistance to sun and rain, a cover must be installed above. Normally electrical
equipment is constructed to bear a surrounding temperature of between 40oC and –

A table indicating what the different protection extents imply:

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Grad: Physical contact: Protection Protection

against dust and against water
foreign objects: penetration:
IP 00 No protection No protection No protection
IP 20 Against contact Against constant No protection.
with fingers. particles larger
than 12 mm in
IP 41 Against contact Against constant Runny water.
with tools particles larger
than 1 mm in
IP 43 Against contact Against constant Water spray.
with tools particles larger
than 1 mm in
IP 54 Against contact Against damaging Water jet.
with tools dust.
IP 55 Against contact Against damaging Water jet.
with tools. dust
IP 56 Against contact Complete Water jet.
with tools. protection.

Most classification companies require that equipment on open deck must have a
protection that corresponds to IP 56. As it may be difficult to obtain all electrical
equipment with this protection, exception for equipment used ashore is made. A
minimum protection of IP 44 is required. This equipment must be covered with, for
example, a tarpaulin when the vessel is sailing.

7.3.9 Portable electrical equipment

Demands on portable electrical equipment for use in hazardous areas are the same
as for fixed installations.

7.3.10 Maintenance and installation

Ex-material must not, as a rule, be repaired onboard. A flameproof enclosure with
damaged wards must be scrapped. One must not be tempted to make new and
larger wards. There is no control of the mechanical strength of the enclosure after
such a repair. Repair of flame splits must not be executed.
The best way to look after, and thereby to extend the length of life for this expensive
equipment, is regular inspection. External protection against corrosion is of
importance. Flameproof electric motors where end covers or bolts are wrecked by
rust, are not safe and will entail duty of replacement at inspection. The flame splits
are opened for cleaning and application of special “grease” that protects the surface
against corrosion. Rejection of large electric motors often occur in connection with
the ordered 5-year control where the flame splits are so corroded that it is no longer
proper to repair these.

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A flameproof enclosure does not prevent gas, and thereby water, from penetrating
into the equipment. Pay special attention to the accumulation of water in such
equipment in regions with large temperature variations.
Choose Ex e in cable insertion to Ex d equipment if possible. A normal PG nipple is
then sufficient and installation/control/maintenance is much easier.
Deck light in hazardous areas is flameproof, which increases safety. This equipment
is cheaper, easier to maintain, and easier to control than a flameproof lighting
All electrical equipment must be grounded. Indirect cable insertion forms no
problems, since all earth connection takes place inside the connection box.
When dismantling equipment, the cables must be disconnected at the feed line end’s
connection box or the exposed ends should be terminated temporarily at the
connection box of the same design as the dismantled equipment.
New installation or changes of electrical equipment demands approval from
classification companies. If the equipment is removed from its area, the same rule is
regarded. Electrical motors that are coiled normally must have new certification.


Seawater is utilised for the following purposes in the cargo tank area:

• · Cooling and condensing of cargo in heat exchangers and condensers

for cooling plant.
• · Heating of cargo in a heat exchanger during discharging/ loading.
• · Condensing of Freon in Freon condensers.
• · Cooling/ heating of glycol in a heat exchanger.
• · Fire fighting in a deluge system.

Seawater for the above-mentioned purpose is delivered from pumps in the machine
room. Dedicated pumps are normally used for the individual groups of utilisation
areas. LPG-pumps deliver water to heat exchangers in the cooling plant and cargo
equipment. All vessels have dedicated pumps for fire fighting.
The seawater wires to the users should be on deck. If these are placed in hold
space, the consequences of leakage may be expensive. Water from the cooling plant
is normally put out through hold space amid ship on both sides. The valve is
operable from deck over board.

7.4.1 Glycol system

Enclosed is an example of a glycol system onboard a gas vessel. Glycol is utilised in
systems where the danger of seawater freezing is large. By mixing 60% glycol in
water, the freezing point is let down to about –55oC. Another good glycol quality is
that it’s not as corrosive as water.
A cargo-cooling compressor has both cold and warm areas. Parts of the suction side
can get down to –60oC while the warm outlet side can be more than 100oC. A
“cooling system” for such a compressor has the duty to both warm the cold areas
and to cool the warm areas of the compressor.

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7.4.2 Example of a glycol system

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7.4.3 Example of Water spray

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08- Safety and environment

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There are two conventions in particular that deals with safety at sea. One is the
“International Convention on Load Line, 1996, that was adopted at an IMO
conference in 1996. The other is the “International Convention for the Safety of Life
at Sea” as Amended/SOLAS 1974. This international convention was signed in
London on the November 1974. It was 68 different nation at this conference,
where the purpose was to come to a decision, as quickly as possible.
Both conventions are valid in Norway and are included in the required inspection of
ships. The Safety convention and all rules are in the “SOLAS 1974” with supplement
1 and 2 were translated to Norwegian. It is this convention that establishes fire-
fighting arrangements etc., with which we have to comply.
The Safety convention is a comprehensive convention that intervenes in many areas
regarding safety of human life at sea. It starts with the construction of the ship to
maintain a as high level of safety as possible due to divisions, stability of the
machinery and electrical installations. There are detailed rules for fire, protection, fire
discovery and fire extinguishing and of life saving equipment.
In addition to “SOLAS 1974”, national authority and classification companies will
include further requirements of equipment and arrangements.
There are regulations to consider, international as well as national. We will, in
particular, study what involves oil tanker and gas tankers in this part of the

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8.2.1 Fire Emergency preparedness onboard is comprised of the
· - Sufficient and adequate equipment.
· - Organisation and management.
· - Training and practice.
Organization and management are essential factors, which deserves a great deal of
attention. The leader of the fire fighting must, in any case, consider the situation and
depending on a number of circumstances execute adequate initiatives. The leader of
the fire fighting should be able to take care of his/her responsibilities in the best
possible way. Essential to this, training and practice must be fulfilled.

8.2.2 Fire onboard - Management’s duty:

A fire burst onboard represents a threatening and critical situation. To prevent
disaster, a quick and determined effort from the whole crew on board is needed.
For most of the people, fire is an unfamiliar event and it is therefore natural that
such a threatening occurrence can lead to unpremeditated actions and panicky
contributions to the situation.

When this happens, it is the management’s first duty to, as soon as possible, activate
the different teams in accordance with the fire instruction plan. Fire resistance
arrangements onboard the specific vessel should be utilised to the fullest extent.
If a fire should occur, the management will be confronted with a lot of problems that
all seem to be equal in importance. It is important to prioritise when dispersing the
tasks. This means that those tasks that seem to be most important must be
delegated to the most competent unit or team in the emergency squad. The squad
will have to do their best to solve the problems in a satisfactory way. In many cases,
the first decisions must be made based on few and uncertain pieces of information
about the situation. Any hesitation from the management about which approach to
use, will promote the feeling of fear and insecurity among the crew.

Since the crew has been trained in relevant practical skills, the management must
also be prepared and trained for the problems they are expected to solve. The ship’s

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fire instructions must be considered as a tool. The benefit and effect that this tool
will give depends on how the management decides to utilise it.
There is nothing that can really replace the valuable experiences you will get by
managing extinguishing operations in real fire situations onboard. As this, of course,
is practically impossible to accomplish as part of a training programme, other
methods have to be tried out. Typically the standby crew (e.g. fire brigade, first aid
teams, civil defence) will need to make quick decisions and judgements of the
This type of responsibility requires special training. Imagine a situation and try to
picture the conditions and based on that try to find out how you can, as best as
possible, use the resources you have available. This is one way to manage a
situation. However, you have to be aware that in a real situation, the approach to
the problem cannot be changed to fit your own perception.
By using similar methods onboard, consider imagined fire situations and at leisure
find out how to handle the situations, so that the management of the ship can
prepare their fire fighting duties. Even though you have worked through a lot of
imagined situations, and one day there is a fire, there will never be a situation similar
in detail to one of the imagined situations. On the other hand there will most likely
be a situation similar to something you had been through before. In any case you
will be better prepared, at least mentally, to manage the situation.

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8.2.3 Plans of Action

The more people know the main guidelines for fire fighting situations onboard each
particular ship, the better the chance for a successful response. Therefore it is of
urgent importance that the management group (The Captain, The Chief Engineer
and The Chief Officer) is fully aware of the existing plans. When considering these
imagined situations where you find the best solutions, several point of views will
improve the plans.
The management group together should work out the plans for the actions for
different kinds of fire situations. Therefore, the managers will be informed about the
plans, which will make it easier for them to manage accordingly.
In hectic situations, as a fire, it will be easier to change an existing plan rather than
making a new plan from scratch. The plan will be easier to execute, if more people
know about its contents.
If training is arranged according to appointed plans, the crew will get familiar with
the plans in addition to variations in training. Realistic and well-planned training
exercises are good practice, as well as, it is interesting and instructive. Successful
fire fighting is a result of good planning, good leadership and a well-trained standby

8.2.4 Tactics
By tactics we really mean line of action. It is a calculated way to act out a plan of
action where we want to use the crew available, in such a way that maximises the
effect achieved.
The intention with tactics is to reach the goal you have set. You have to be aware of
what you want, what is the result you aim for. In a fire situation, it should be easy to
conclude that you want to extinguish the fire, as soon as possible, with as little mess
as possible, without any risks to the fire fighters.

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8.2.5 Select an Action

When planning a line of action, choose tactics, try to clarify the situation first
(reconnoitre). The more details you know about the situation, the easier it is to
evaluate the situation. In a critical situation, decisions have to be made quickly. The
next step in the planning process will be the evaluation of the situation. Based on the
information known, you have to try to determine how the fire will grow. Here it is
important to prioritise, as there could be parts of the fire that has to be stopped no
matter what. Meanwhile, other things have to be held off, as long as possible. There
are may be some parts that can be temporarily disregarded.
With the evaluation of the situation as a basis the disposals of resources are being
made. The extents of the contribution depends on how important the effort is, how
demanding the work to be done is, and how quickly it has to be effectuated. You
should always be prepared to change tactics if unforeseen difficulties occur. Well-
prepared tactics considers all known factors whether there are only a few, or many
and detailed at any stage.

8.2.6 Conditions for actions

One condition for actions is that you have resources available. The following estimate
can be put up to show the connections in an action of extinguishing onboard:

Personnel + Officers = Crew.

Equipment + technical arrangements = Material/Force
Training + Practice = Techn./resources
Reconnoitre + Evaluate situation + = Tactics/action
Instructions + communications = Management/effect

A crew organised in fire protection and with sufficient and adequate equipment forms
the force. To be able to perform their duties, the force has to master the necessary
skills. Technique is to use the equipment in such a way that a maximum effect is
achieved. Extinguishing technique covers the correct use and handling of the
particular parts of the extinguisher equipment and the fire technical installations. This
also includes practical skills, methods of practice and routines, knowledge of how the
particular equipment works, effect, capacity and limitations.

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8.2.7 Extinguishing Tactics

Extinguishing tactics make use of resources available so that maximum effect in an
action is achieved. It also makes a sufficient effort at the right place at the critical
moment. Offensive tactics is a well-known expression, it means that you will use all
resources in the fight to win back the terrain and to get the situation under control.
Defence tactics are when you use the whole force to last as long as possible to
prevent being forced to back out, avoid loss of terrain, try to hold the position, as
long as possible, while waiting for backup. In the following, you will find some
situations listed where you will have to consider the influence these situations have
on the actions to be taken.

8.2.8 The site of the fire

It might be difficult to get access to the site of the fire, as well as it might be
unjustifiable to send people in there. Alternative extinguishing methods might cause
large damage to the environment. The risk of loosing lives should be considered
more important than avoiding a large loss of materials.

8.2.9 The extent of the fire

The extent of the fire can be so large that the possibilities for extinguishing with
available equipment are small. An extinguishing effort with the capacity available
might reduce the opportunity to successful back out.

8.2.10 Force available

A well-trained force, which is familiar with the use of the equipment and the facilities,
will be an advantage in a difficult situation.

8.2.11 Mobility
A well-trained force, which can quickly attack the fire, has a greater chance for

8.2.12 Communication
It is very important to have a good communication because it will make it easier to
manage the operation. The force can easily be re-directed and there is a quicker
determination of how the situation is developing.

8.2.13 What is on fire?

There may be combustibles in the fire zone that can produce poisonous gases when
heated. Fire fighters must be well protected.
We will further mention other situations, such as where and in which directions the
fire can spread, changing the ship’s course to achieve the best possible conditions,
the fire-technical arrangements intact, element of risk in the fire zone, e.g. oil tanks,
transportable gas holders, chemicals etc.

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Fire preparedness is the capability the crew has to fight a fire with the help of the
equipment available on board. To manage a fire situation, preparedness promotional
efforts are done. Fire preparedness is the result of a number of arrangements and
different efforts, for example fire protection organisation, strategic placing of
equipment, instructions, maintenance of equipment, training, exercise. Remember
the preparedness is not stronger than the weakest link.
Practical (technical) exercises are meant as a test to see if the crew has the
necessary skills. The exercises are also designed to train in the skill of being
prepared. Tactical exercises will reveal the management’s capability to evaluate
situations and delegate the right effort at the right time. The practical and technical
skills together will contribute to an effective force. It is therefore very important that
realistic and varying exercises are exercised on board. The technical will cover the
quality of the “tool” at disposal, while the tactical will cover what capability one has
to utilise the strength at his disposal.

8.3.1 Alarm instructions

Central part of fire preparedness on board is the safety plan part on the fire fighting
organisation. The ship’s alarm instructions provide the emergency plan if there is a
need for a united and systematic effort of the crew. Main features in the emergency
plan should include special distribution of the crew, duties when fire fighting, plus
another special distribution, if preparations for abandon the ship become a reality. All
emergency plans organise the crew into practical teams or units, plus instruct of the
duties that everyone has when the organisation is active. Emphasise the importance
of knowing the alarm instructions well, on board your specific ship. There can also be
other situations that can be covered by the preparedness organisation, for example
man-over-board, tank accident, and personal injury and helicopter preparedness.

8.3.2 Layout of the instructions

The layout of instructions for the individual team in the fire preparedness
organisation offers the same challenge as splitting up the crew into teams. At the
outburst of fire, there are a number of duties to execute regardless of the site and
situation of the fire’s location. For example: starting of auxiliary engine, starting the
pump, set pressure on the fire lines, stop the fans, close ventilation to the fire area,
switch off the electrical plant in the fire area, prepare for manoeuvring, change
course and speed, clarifying the extinguishing equipment etc.
The purpose of the instruction is to allow the first effort’s execution without waiting
for special orders.
In connection with the distribution and the instructions for the individual units in the
fire protection organisation, there are a number of other instructions that needs

1. 1. - Instructions for the navigator on duty.

2. 2. - Instructions for the engineer on duty.
3. 3. - Instructions for the extinguishing leader.
4. 4. - Instructions in utilising the main extinguishing plant.
5. 5. - Instructions for the officer on duty in port.

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6. 6. - Instructions for helicopter landing.

7. 7. - Instructions for the person who detects fire.

All instructions must overlap one another so that all conditions are covered. The
purpose with the instructions is to eliminate doubts of who does what. At the same
time secure that what is being done is rational and in right time.
One can compare the fire protection organisation to machinery with many wheels
that all must overlap one another in such a way that the machinery is functioning.
The instructions are the force that will run the machinery.
The symbol for teamwork characterises a well drilled fire crew.

The individual links in the fire protection organisation approach by the instructions on
board. This is regarded to the captain, extinguishing leader, extinguishing team,
technical team, engine room team, instruction for engineer on duty, bridge
instruction, instruction for navigator on duty, radio station, security team, first aid
team, life boat team, evacuation team, instruction for officer on duty in port.
In addition to instructions for the individual fire protection organisation, there are
also instructions for special situations. It is important for all those who will operate a
CO2 plant that they follow the instructions clearly and categorically, because before
triggering of the plant can take place, it must be ascertained that no one is in the
area that the plant covers. Get to know the fire alarm on board and follow your
instructions when this sounds, and get to know the CO2 alarm and follow the
instructions. If the CO2 alarm sounds, one should act as though the fire alarm has
sounded, even before the fire alarm.

We will pay particular attention to the advice upon fire discovery, which gives all
of the crew practical advice and directions of how to react if you are the person
discovering the fire. The principal points, in such an instruction, are:

· Immediately shout of alarm in order to call on more people.

· First try to extinguish the fire, provided this is possible and without

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· Close doors and try to prevent, as much as possible, an influx of air

to the area.
· Try to inspect rooms nearby the fire area where personnel might
be, that could be overwhelmed by smoke, or in bed.
· Realise the element of risk, such as toxic gas, explosions etc., and
where escape equipment is possibly placed.
· Upon alarm the significance of all to show up at their post, as
quickly as possible, to state if someone is missing. This will avoid time
loss resulting from unnecessary searches. Be very strict in having all
present at their post. Those who don’t show up are basically missing.
· If fire bursts out in port, immediately try to call the local fire
· Organise in the normal procedure to put fight the fire when there is
fire in port.

Alarm instruction layout, crew distribution, layout and content of the special
instructions will vary by the type and size of the ship, the number of crew members,
extent of equipment, plus other relevant conditions. Common for all alarm
instructions is the desire to, as much as possible, have a flexible preparedness plan
that gives the possibility for all to contribute his best in the management of a
number of different situations.

8.3.3 Some important guidelines:

· The entire force on board is available and able to be on the spot
· Because of continuous duty, fire is detected at an early stage.
· Equipment and facilities are nearby.
· The area is restricted.
· Alter the course in favour of the fire fighting.
· The amount of equipment is limited.
· Mobilise maximum force immediately.
· The crew/force is naturally experienced with the surroundings.
· Simple checks if someone goes missing.
· The most flammable areas are covered by fixed fire fighting
· The retreat possibilities are very restricted.

When onboard during fire, it is similar to being “on the roof of the burning building”.
The escape routes are limited and few. Because of the extraordinary conditions on
board, limited retreat possibilities and the great chance of blocking off the rescue
units in a fire situation, it is natural that retreat route security and clarification of
these routes has high priority.
As the conditions on board are extremely special compared to ashore, the manager
must treat the retreat as a very important point in his procedural duty. Further the
fire control officer must observe the four following main tasks:

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1. 1. - Rescuing life.
2. 2. - Extinguishing fire.
3. 3. - Restriction of fire.
4. 4. - Executing the retreat.

8.3.4 Rescuing of life

In most cases, it is not direct contact with the fire that causes the loss of life. In a
fire, smoke and the damaging gases that develop cause most deaths.
As soon as someone is determined missing, the manager must be informed so a
search can be carried out. Notice that this search involves risk for the rescue crew,
plus it directly delays the extinguishing activity because of impaired capacity and
conditions that may have vital importance to the outcome.
It effects fire fighting and the security work drastically when a delay is caused by the
search for personnel who not are in any danger. It is therefore an unalterable
requirement that all the crew show up at their posts according to instruction, as
quickly as possible, and that missing personnel are immediately revealed.

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8.3.5 Extinguishing of fire

The faster the extinguishing activity is effectuated, the greater the chance of a
successful result. In choosing an extinguishing method, quencher remedy and
capacity, the goal must be total elimination. One must also consider the amount of
damage the extinguishing agent will cause to the area. However, put out the fire
before causing any larger damage.
In some parts of the vessel, one can choose between permanently installed
extinguishing equipment and manual efforts. On parts of the ship, a manual effort is
the only alternative. Permanent equipment should be used in an area where the fire
risk is large and has a large risk of spreading.
Any manual combating involves a large risk for the extinguishing force. The decision
about what to utilise in a specific situation must be well substantiated.

8.3.6 Securing the retreat

Due to the limited possibilities on board, it is natural upon securing the retreat will
involve clarifying if is necessary to abandon the vessel. The fire may block the access
to rescue units. In addition, it is very important that the psychological effect will
influence all of the crew in the knowledge that the retreat is prepared and protected
in case of ending the fire fighting.

8.4.1 Manual call point plant
Fixed fire detection’s plants, discovery and alarm equipment should be installed on
vessels that are regulated by SOLAS. Approval type for these detection’s plants takes
place according to a determined procedure by posting the plant’s documentation.
This documentation should contain user instructions, procedures for routine testing
on board, fault location procedures, power supply information, connection of
detector loop, alarm organs, fan failure, door magnet, assembly work, function
description, accordingly all requirements in accordance to the documentation claim.
The plant is tested to determine if it fulfils the regulations required. The manual call
point plant should at all times be according to the regulations in force. Some of the
criteria follow:

· It should give optical and acoustic alarm at fire.

· It should indicate where fire breaks out.
· It allows for fault warning.
· The central unit automatically goes over to reserve power to supply
upon voltage failure.
· Positive indication on the panel by interruption of functions.

Otherwise according to the approval companies, it is important to notice that the

plant should have two independent power sources. If one “falls out” the other will
operate the plant with full power. However, please refer to the regulations regarding
complete approval.

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8.4.2 Safety plan

The fire control draft or as called on board; the “safety plan” illustrates the safety
installations and equipment on board. The draft shows the vessel sidewise and a
sketch of each deck top wise.
It indicate zones with isolated bulkheads and fire doors, manual call point plants with
detectors, alarm buttons and alarm bells, the fixed main extinguishing plant and
where on board these can be remote controlled. Valves to stop engines, machinery,
and from where one can remote operate these are also indicated.
It indicates where the ventilation plant with fans, ducts and damper is and from
where one can stop the plant. All portable extinguishing equipment, protection
equipment and utility equipment appear on the draft, and where on the vessel the
equipment is kept. It also displays all decks, rooms, and all emergency exits.
Symbols for marking equipment are utilised to make the draft well arranged. Also, on
the draft is a list with an explanation of the different symbol. Colouring is often
utilised to keep the symbols apart. This draft is available for all on board. To
effectively utilise the different fire technical installations, thorough knowledge of the
individual plants is required, plus how to use them.
The gangway during the port stay should keep a copy of the safety plan. If anything
occurs during the stay and local help is required, the local fire department can
quickly approach the plan, and from an early stage, have knowledge of the
preparedness plan.
All are advised to thoroughly study the “safety plan” in detail.

8.4.3 Fire pumps

A fire pump in the engine room is connected to the fire pipeline network. In addition,
there is a separate fixed emergency fire pump installed in a distance from the engine
room. One can either operate the emergency fire pump by its own diesel engine; it
can be hydraulically driven or electrically driven by power from the emergency power
Oil, for at least 12 hours of running power, is kept nearby the emergency pump, in
addition to oil for the fuel tank itself in case it a should be filled at any time. Fire
pumps, which are able to produce more pressure than the pipeline network is
designed for, are at all times equipped with a safety valve. All centrifugal pumps, for
instance, are supplied with non-return valves.

8.4.4 Fire pipeline network

The fire pipeline network branches all over the vessel and has a number of hydrants
- hose connections with valves. The pipeline network is divided into sections with a
cross over, arranged in a way that if damage occurs on a part of the system, the
damaged part is shut off without shutting off the entire pipeline network. Properly
study the pipeline network on board to understand how the network is divided, plus
where the shut-off valves are placed. If parts of the network are damaged, it is
possible to bypass the damaged part by help of hoses from hydrant to hydrant.
Hydrants are placed such that two water jets at the same time can reach any part of
the vessel, one jet from a hose length, the other from two hose lengths. On the main

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line of the tank area there should be one shut-off valve for each 40 metres. This is,
of course, fitted to the size and type of the vessel.

8.4.5 Main fire extinguishing plants (For gas and chemical carriers)

8.4.6 Dry chemical system

Powder is elected as extinguishing remedy on the tank deck of gas carriers and chemical
tankers. A number of minor stationary powder aggregates can be placed on deck or a
powder central unit with pipes forward to a number of powder monitors and hose
stations on deck. One or several powder containers are placed with a capacity
calculated for the specific vessel with accompanying pressure bottles in the powder
central unit. The plant can be released from each powder post by opening the valve
of the releasing bottle. The gas is lead into tubes to the releasing mechanism of the
pressure bottles in the powder central unit. It opens the valve of the powder tube
that proceeds to the powder post being released. Several posts can be utilised at the
same time, but each post must be triggered in the same way.
Stationary dry powder systems are normally delivered with powder (NaHCO3 –
natrium hydrogen carbonate or KHCO3 - calcium hydrogen carbonate) for
extinguishing fire in class B or E. That is all types of liquid like: petrol, alcohol,
acetone, oil, painting etc., and different types of gases like methanol, methane,
butane, propane etc.

Dry powder systems utilise N2 (Nitrogen) or CO2 (carbon dioxide) as propellant gas.
The gas is kept in pressure cylinders. A gas pressure regulator reduces N2 –gas or
CO2 – gas (200kg/cm2) to 20 kg/cm2 before it goes via the riser in to the powder
aggregate. The riser’s gas taps are very important, as the powder together with the
propellant gas must be able to “float” as a liquid through the pipe system and the
powder jet.

The stationary powder post (monitor) should have a capacity of at least

10kg/second. Manual equipment, “hand hoses”, should have a capacity of at least
3,5kg/second, but not too large for one man to operate. The length of a hand hose
should not exceed 33 m. It is very important that the hose is pulled out to its full
length before setting the pressure. The extension should be at a minimum of 10
metres for both stationary and hand based equipment. The plant’s powder capacity
should be of the size that utilises all posts. The delivery of powder should progress at
a minimum of 45 seconds.

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Below is an example of this with the following data: 4 stationary and 4 hand stations:

Stationary: (4 pcs. x min.10kg./s x min. in 45s) = 1800 kg.

Hand based: (4 pcs. x min.3,5kg./s x min. in 45s) = 630
kg. Minimum powder capacity: = 2430

8.4.7 Technical description

The powder type NaHCO3 and KHCO3 has an extinguishing effect based on a reaction
inhibitor along with some cooling of the fuel surface and the gas face. Powder is not
electrically conductive in dry conditions. To avoid humidity in the powder, a water-
repellent material is added usually silicon.
Dry chemical systems consist of a mechanical part that includes a powder aggregate
with valves, release mechanism, pipe system and jets. Everyone must memorise
maintenance routines and test routines, based on the plant on the specific vessel.
(This is part of the fire drill onboard).

8.4.8 Water - spray system

(Gas and chemical carriers)
In addition, certain ship types should be equipped with a “water-spray system”,
as an object for a cooling, fire preventive and crew protective effect. We refer here
to the IGC-code, chapter 11, point 11.3.1, what areas the plant should cover. The
plant onboard the specific ship is designed according to this.

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The system should have the capacity to cover the designated area with at least 10
ltr./m2 pr minute on horizontal surfaces, and 4 ltr./m2 pr minute on vertical surfaces.
If parts of the line are damaged, shut-off valves must exist on the main line so that
the line can still be utilised. This is operable by shutting off the line to the damaged
area. The alternative is that the system is devisable into several sections that can be
operated independent of each other.
The delivery pumps should have such a capacity that they can deliver simultaneously
with full capacity to the whole plant. The plant should contain a material that is
resistant to corrosion.
There has to be a possibility of remote start of the water delivery pumps, plus
remote control of the plants shut valves from a place outside the cargo area.
We recommend studying the plant on your vessel, how it is operated, where the
remote control is, plus the inclusion of this in the fire drill executed onboard.

8.4.9 Main extinguishing plant (oil tanker)

8.4.10 Foam in general
A system consisting of gas or air bubbles bound in a water coating (membrane), is
called foam. Constant foam is when the wall/membrane consists of a constant
material, such as pumice stone, gas concrete and foam rubber are examples of
constant foam. When the wall has a coating, we are talking about floating foam,
such as soapsuds. Different types of floating foams are used for fire extinguishing.
On new gas and chemical carriers we also find foam utilised for fire extinguishing.

8.4.11 Producing foam

In order to produce foam that will extinguish fire, you need: water, a frothing
material that dissolves in water in anatomised condition, and a non-flammable gas
mixed with the solvent. The foam is shaped when gas/air is mixed into the
foam/frothing liquid and into the water by help of mechanical equipment. The result
is mechanic foam.

8.4.12 Mechanical foam

Different types of pumps, sprinklers and foam pipes are used. The foam liquid is
dissolved (or emulsified) in the water. After this, the air is mixed in by mechanical
means. Normal equipment produces bubbles, which have a diameter of 0,1mm to

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Extinguish effect
Foam has a suffocating effect and acts as a cooling extinguishing agent. The
suffocating or the cooling effect can be more or less the dominating effect, but
depends on what material is burning and what sort of foam is used. By extinguishing
a burning liquid with a surface temperature higher than +100o C, the cooling effect is
the dominating force. This is caused by evaporation of the liquid that penetrates into
the surface’s layer of the burning material as the foam collapses. By extinguishing
fire when the temperature in the surface is below +100oC, the extinguishing effect is
connected with the heat-insulating foam and, above all, a differentiation effect.
When the foam cover has spread outward across the liquid’s surface, the heat rays
from other, still burning parts of the liquid surface, is not able to penetrate through
the area covered with foam. Therefore, combustible gases are no longer formed,
evaporation ceases and the fire dies out.

8.4.13 Foam plant

Foam is chosen as the main extinguishing agent for the tank area. A foam plant
consists of a foam central unit with a foam tank, foam pump that is also connected
to an emergency generator, distribution manifold, foam jets, automatic valves, and a
pipe system connected to fixed monitors on the tank deck. The capacity of the plant
should be big enough that the whole tank area could be covered with foam. If the
vessel has an inert gas plant, the foam capacity must have a volume that can deliver
foam for a minimum of 20 minutes. The demand is at a minimum of 30 minutes if
the ship is not equipped with inert gas plant.
The main foam line from the foam central unit to the monitors should contain shut-
off valves within determined requirements, in order to bind the line in case of
damage. The foam line going to each monitor has a delivery valve installed to supply

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foam. The valve can also be used to regulate the amount of foam supplied in order
to achieve the right mixture condition between foam and water.
A foam jet pipe is attached to the monitors. Study the plant installed on your vessel,
and understand how this plan is operated. This equipment (the foam plant) is
mandatory for oil tankers.
Mobile foam equipment is also available on many ships, gas and chemical carriers
also. This consists of a fire hose with a foam nozzle unit, small foam containers (20
litre), a foam ejector, a small hose for the transmission of foam from a foam
container to a foam hose pipe, and protection equipment. This equipment is
prepared for use with fire hoses and a foam nozzle unit connected to the fire line. A
foam ejector with a tap for supplying foam liquid is installed between the fire hose
and foam nozzle unit. Water pressure is established, foam liquid is sucked (ejector
function) from the foam container via hose connection between the foam container
and ejector.

8.4.14 CO2 – plant

The engine room and pump room are protected with a bar plant that utilises CO2 as
an extinguishing agent. CO2 (carbon dioxide) is a colourless, non toxic, scentless,
corrosion free, non-electrical leading gas with qualities that extinguish fire quickly
and effectively with a recommended gas concentration, which does not damage
electronic equipment and requires no clearing/cleaning after use.
CO2 plants are delivered either as a “Total Flooding System”, where the entire room
is filled with gas, or as “Object Protection”, where a part of the room is filled with
gas. The room on vessels with “Total Flooding System” is filled with a CO2 -content
corresponding to 40% by volume, that is 0.72 kg/m3 with gas.
CO2 plants consist of CO2 cylinders with valves, a cylinder rack, releasing mechanism,
accumulating manifold, pipe system and jet.

8.4.15 Extinguishing effect

CO2 has a suffocating extinguishing effect in that the oxygen content in the air is
reduced to the point where combustion becomes impossible.
Familiarise yourself with your vessel’s plant.

8.4.16 Choosing extinguishing agents

If an active extinguishing method is chosen, the extinguishing agent must be
properly suited for the actual situation. The extinguishing agent should:

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· - extinguish the fire, as quickly as possible.

· - not cause the fire object any additional damage.
· - not harm the environment.
· - not cause damage to the user.
· - not demand risky operation.
· - give protection to the user.

8.4.17 Water
Water must be in direct contact with the fire to gain an extinguishing effect. The
effect emerges when water changes to vapour. Water takes heat from the fire via
evaporation; the vapour displaces air and consequently the oxygen. Since water
does not evaporate, it can add to the object’s damage. To obtain maximal
evaporation, the water must have as large surface as possible when hitting the heat
zone. A scattered jet obtains this, the water comes in shape of drops, the smaller the
drop, the larger the surface. Drops with 1 mm diameter have a surface of 0.126 cm2,
the same water amount in drops of 0,1 mm in diameter have a 1,26 cm2 surface.
The smaller the drops are, the shorter the air throw is needed. With a drop size of
0,2 – 0,3 mm, the most practical proportion between air throw and surface is
obtained. By throwing, as much as possible, atomised water into the warmest part of
the fire zone, the largest effect is obtained.

8.4.18 Powder
To have any effect, the powder must be lead down to the fire object. To obtain an
extinguishing effect, one must reach a position from where the powder can reach the
fire itself. The powder works partly by suffocating and partly by poisoning the flame,
it also has a little bit of a cooling effect. Danger of re-ignition is therefore large until
the temperature is brought down below the self-ignition temperature.
The powder has no direct damaging effect on the object. In sensitivity instruments
and in electronic equipment, powder has a disturbing effect on the functions.

8.4.19 Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide is utilised either as a “total flooding” agent where the whole area on
fire is filled with CO2 in large concentration, or is used as a spot extinguishing agent.
The gas has little cooling effect, so that re-ignition is a danger. One must utilise total
flooding, as early as possible. Evacuation of the area is necessary, and before
releasing the plant, one must check that no one is missing. The gas has no damage
on the environment. In utilising spot extinguishers, the thermal effect may cause
damage to sensitivity instruments.

8.4.20 Foam
Foam has both a cooling and suffocating effect. Light foam contains less water than
heavy foam, and thereby the extinguishing agent causes less damage. One can

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utilise light foam to cover larger areas and thereby suffocate the fire. One can also
utilise foam as secondary remedy to prevent re-ignition, or prevent ignition from oil
leakage, etc.

When selecting an extinguishing agent, one must consider the type of fire:

· only a glow, or glow and flames, (fire in solid material), where the
fire core has high temperature.
· only flames (fire in liquids) where gas vaporised from the surface is
on fire, relatively low temperature in the liquid itself.
· fire in alive, electrical components (glow/flame fire in isolation
materials, painting, lubricating oil etc.).

The main rule when choosing an extinguishing agent is:

· a. glow fire and glow/flame fire is extinguished by cooling (damp

extinguishing remedy).
· one extinguishes a flame fire by suffocating.
· one extinguishes an electrical fire with a dry extinguishing remedy.

One must also consider the surroundings (as little extinguishing damage as possible),
special circumstances (alive plants), danger of re-ignition (need of cooling), special
material (chemicals, explosives, dangerous goods, swelling), protection of the fire
squad (protect the users).
One must also evaluate the practicality of utilising a combination of mutual
extinguishing remedies. For example, at first extinguish the flames with powder,
thereby cooling with water, and possibly cover with foam to prevent spontaneous

8.4.21 Portable fire extinguishing apparatus

There are a number of transportable fire extinguishing apparatus (hand-
extinguishing apparatus) placed in different places onboard. The placement and
type of apparatus is in accordance to the regulations based on the specific vessel.
These apparatus are marked by symbols on the vessel’s “safety plan”. Knowledge of
placement and use is introduced in the fire exercises onboard.

Normally there are 10 litre apparatus placed in different locations onboard. 10 litres
is a very limited amount, and has a period of use lasting approximately 60 seconds.
Some types have a united jet, while others alternate between united and spread jets.

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There are mostly 12 kg powder apparatus onboard, except for where something else
ahs been determined, for example 25 kg, 50 kg or 6 kg. This is clearly found in the
“safety plan” onboard. A 12 kg powder apparatus has a period of use lasting
approximately 20 seconds; a 50 kg apparatus has a period of use of approximately
60 seconds. The apparatus has good air throw, and will provide the user good
protection. To utilise powder extinguishing equipment at full effect, a well-drilled
technique is demanded. Add this to the training exercises onboard.

Carbon dioxide
There are carbonic acid apparatus of 6 kg stationed on board. These apparatus have
a very limited capacity and no air throw. The protection for the user is poor. The
period of use is approximately 20 seconds. These apparatus are suited for spot
extinguishing of relatively small fires.
One should have high goals regarding knowledge in utilizing, of function and capacity
of the fire extinguishing apparatus on board your vessel.

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The requirement onboard oil tankers, as well as onboard gas tankers less than 5000
m3, are 4 sets of fire fighter equipment. Onboard gas carriers of more than 5000
m3, a minimum of 5 sets of fire fighter equipment is required. Each set consists of:

· One breathing apparatus (BA) with an air capacity of minimum 1200 litres.
· Protection suit including boots and gloves.
· Fire resistance safety line with belt.
· Safety lamp.
· Fireman’s axe.

The equipment is specified in SOLAS, chapter 11-2, rule 17. National, and
classification companies requirements may come in addition. This is of course
considered for each vessel and the equipment is at all times in accordance to existing
requirement and rules.


The breathing apparatus onboard must be of an accepted type, and must fulfil the
requirements in accordance to the regulations. Frequent training exercises on board
will familiarise you with the apparatus and use of a breathing apparatus.
The requirement for the air content in bottles is minimum 1200 litre clean air. Spare
bottles are required for each apparatus, so that each apparatus has a period of use
of 2 hours minimum. If a consumption of 60 litre air pr. minute (equivalent to hard
work) is assumed, one obtains, as follows:

· Min. 1200 litre: 60 litre pr. minute = 20 minutes pr. bottle.

· 2 hours (120 min. : 20 min.) = 6 bottles
· Totally (1200 litre x 6 bottles) = 7200 litre air pr. apparatus.

A compressor is also required to fill up the breathing bottles after use. The period of
use for the apparatus is dependent upon the consumption of air pr. time unit, for
light or heavy work and the bottle size.

An air bottle of 7 litres and a pressure of 200 bar give (7 x 200) = 1400 litres clean
air. Assume that heavy work is to be carried out with a consumption of 60 litres pr.
minute. Disposal time will then be (7 x 200): 60 = 23,3 minutes.

The apparatus has an audio signal that alerts the user that it’s time to abandon the
area. This audio signal is released at approximately 40 bars, and leaves us with
(40x7) = 280 litres air for retreat. The time for retreat is (280: 60) = 4,66 minutes.
We then have 4,5 minutes to abandon the area.

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It is recommended to train in the use of the apparatus in order to learn the special
breathing technique for such an apparatus. The definition of breathing technique is a
rational way of utilising the air to obtain a maximum safe user time.
The user is dependent upon the state of the apparatus when residing in smoke or
gas filled rooms. Before entering such rooms, the user himself must control the

After strapping the bottle on his back, a special routine must be followed regardless
of the duration and regardless of others. The procedure varies with each apparatus.
It is of great importance to knowledge of the apparatus onboard your vessel. The
control will mainly be, as follows:
1. Bottle pressure: Open the bottle valve 2-3 shifts and read the manometer
pressure. Then put on the mask, the panorama mask is put on with all straps
extended. Set the chin in the mask and lead the straps behind the head. Tighten the
lower strap, then the upper straps and finally the top strap.
2. Retreat signal: Shut the bottle valve and breath carefully until the retreat
signal appears. The manometer indicates approximately 40 bars when the signal
appears. If there is a change over valve on the apparatus, ensure that this is in the
right position. The change over valve is activated when the retreat signal appears
and has an opening effect for spare air to release.
3. Mask’s seal ability: Suck the mask empty of air. The mask will then be
pressed against the face, if not, tighten the head straps. If it is airtight, open for air
4. Pneumonic automatic: The bottle valve is set fully open, breath a few times to
make sure that the pneumonic automatic unit is working.
5. Flushing button: The button on the pneumonic automatic unit is activated and
air will flow into the mask. Sometimes extra air in the mask is needed.
6. Bottle pressure: Control again the pressure manometer to make sure that the
bottle is full. Place the manometer back in the clip.

All tests must be repeated for each exercise, or change of bottle, to make sure of
satisfactory operation at all times.


The fire stations are marked on the safety plan, and also the content of all required
equipment at the stations. In addition to mentioned fire fighting equipment, the
content must include personal protective equipment, fire hoses, jet nozzles that can
switched from jet to fog dispersement, keys to hose coupling and an extra fire axe.
Other equipment included is an electrical drill with 5/8” drill steel together with an
extension cord. It is smart to obtain a smaller drill steel to drill a pilot hole, if this is a
matter of necessity. A portable oxyacetylene torch that renders it possible to make a
quick carving of a manhole or other openings to ease access is also included. This
equipment is marked on the safety plan, where it is placed onboard and at the right
number according to type and size of vessel.

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Everyone is encouraged to know the seriousness of exercises onboard, being

prepared in a realistic and objective way can be, as a matter of fact, very interesting
and informative.
Anxiety is relieved because confidence leads to safety.


SOLAS chapter II-2, rule 19, deals with the international “land coupling” that is
required onboard all vessels in accordance to this rule’s specification. The existence
of this is shown in the safety plan. It must be readily available during harbour stay.
It is used as connection between the vessel and harbours equipment, in case of fire
during the stay.
Familiarise yourself with the escape and protection equipment onboard the gas
tanker/chemical tanker, masks with filter for all onboard, appropriate protection
equipment placed for easy availability. This protection equipment contains large
aprons, special gloves with long cuffs, appropriate footwear, coveralls made of
chemical resistant material, tightened glasses or face shields. Clothes and
equipment must protect all body parts.
An escape apparatus with oxygen mask that makes the carrier independent of the
oxygen in the air at a minimum of 15 minutes must be available on all vessels. This
is only for use of escape. Specifications state how much of this equipment exists
onboard. The safety plan informs where it is located.


Before boarding tanks and closed spaces, one must take measurements, make sure
that dangerous gas is non-existent and that the oxygen content is satisfactory. After
tank ventilation, take great care in the measuring and the certainty of the
atmosphere before entering. Ensure that the pump room is well ventilated by
running the fans for awhile before entering. There is monitor supervision of the
pump room atmosphere onboard many vessels today. This takes place by
automatically testing the pump room atmosphere at different sampling points. Then
it is analysed and indicated on the control room monitor. This is also equipment you
need to be familiar with.


When entering tanks, it is very important to prepare equipment and make it easily
available in case of emergency. Preparation includes a complete set of fire fighting
equipment (also an extra fresh air mask in case it is needed for a rescue action),
lines, communication, and crew on deck for supervising. The knowledge of the
number and names of crew in the tank at all times is very important in order to be as
prepared as possible for any rescue action.

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What is health? In short, it is when the physical is in balance with the non-physical,
and the harmonisation here has a natural function. The result is good health. To
maintain this, knowledge about harmonisation is the vital factor in health. Health is
different for each one of us based on individual tendencies and external/internal
influences that mark (or chooses to mark) our life.
All crewmembers that sign on a vessel should have been through a medical check in
order to have a regular status of his/her health condition. Life at sea is a special
place to work, it is important that the general health condition at all times is good.
What can be done to maintain a good general health condition on board? The
answer is built into the safety and protection of personnel on board. You can also
take care of one another in a good manor by being aware of the risks that may have
direct and external effect on health, regarding the special cargoes carried onboard
your vessel.
Primarily, you can take good care of your own machine, the body, by paying
attention to the “fuel”, which contains the nutrients the body needs. It is very
important that the “chef” onboard has basic knowledge about anatomy/physiology,
in order to assemble the right raw material into the right article of food, in the form
of nutrient rich meals. Together with good cleanliness and comfortable surroundings
in the galley, the best basis is given. If the meals are “spiced-up” with a nice
atmosphere, in addition to existence of an inter-human working environment and
well-being, the result is solidarity, well-being at work, increased efficiency, less
sickness absence and saved costs.
A positive mental attitude toward life is also important and, at the same time,
improves or maintains health. This is an important factor of the human’s total health.
For example, one can turn a “I will not, cannot” behaviour pattern into a “I can, I
will” attitude. This will increase co-operation between the people onboard. With an
attitude change based on positive thinking, the result is noticeable onboard, due to
well being, solidarity, better performance, and a healthier atmosphere for the whole
crew. The human resource is the only resource.

8.6.1 THE BODY

The doctrine of how the body is built is called anatomy. The doctrine of the body’s
function is called physiology. This will be roughly illustrated to achieve a synopsis of
how the “machine” functions.
8.5.2 The cell
This is the smallest, independent unit of the body and the basis for all living
organisms. All the processes in the body are caused by the chemical reactions that
take place in the cells. Cells in different tissue and organisms co-operate in their
duties. The cell has a water content of approximately 70% in addition to proteins,
carbohydrates, fat and inorganic material. All the cells have the same basic structure
and a number of mutually basic qualities. Simultaneously each part of the cell has its
function. We all utilise nutrients both to achieve energy and as “building stones”. In

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new cell components, glucose (grape sugar) is the most important energy source. It
is important to have nutrient rich and varying diet.

8.6.3 TISSUE

Cells that look alike remain lying to form tissue. All surfaces of the body are covered
with epithelial tissue (type of tissue that mainly covers all surfaces, the cavity and
channels of the body). Connective tissue and support tissue forms the tissue network
in the body and keeps tissue and organs together. There is an innumerable of
tissues, for example osseous tissue, muscular tissue and nerve tissue. The cell co-
operation is controlled by chemical signals. These signals consist of two types, nerve
signals and hormone signals. These two systems co-operate for an appropriate
reaction. This is fully necessary for our survival. The hormone system controls the
activity of many internal organs, the nerve system controls muscles and glands.
Several organ systems co-operate to keep the composition of tissue fluid constant.
The blood renews this tissue fluid. The blood must circulate the whole time. The duty
of the lymph artery is to drain excess tissue fluid.


These demolish and absorb nutrient material. It is very important that the nutrient
content satisfies the body’s need.


These absorb oxygen and partly carbon dioxide. Respiration is an exchange of gases
between the blood arteries and the air in the lungs. The blood absorbs oxygen into
the body’s cells and partly the excess carbon dioxide that arises. The respiratory
organs consist of the bronchia and the lungs. Gas exchange between blood and air
takes place in the lungs.


These regulate the composition of the tissue fluid. The urinary organs consist of the
kidneys, urinary tract, bladder and the urethra. The kidneys' most distinct duty is to
separate water from waste. The resultant urine is processed in the urinary tract and
bladder then empties via the urethra.


The blood circulation carries materials between the organs in the body. The tissue
fluid is constantly renewed from the blood in the capillaries. The heart is a pump that
makes blood circulate. “Heart valves” help the blood run in the right direction. The
heart musculature sends blood through the coronary artery (the heart’s arteries).
The heart is the most persevering muscle in the body. The blood flows from high
pressure to lower pressure. The pulse is thereby a regulator in the blood. The blood
pressure is the pressure inside the artery, which is part of the blood circulation. The
blood acts, as a sort of, transportation system. Blood sends tissue circulating through

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the artery system. This contains blood cells floating in a protein rich fluid – blood
plasma – with two main types of cells, red and white. The red cells are important for
transportation of oxygen from the lungs to the different body tissues, while the
white, in different ways, participates in the body’s defence against disease. It is
important to remember that one cannot mix different blood types. Blood cells are
formed in the bone marrow.


Our senses tell us about the surroundings. The main senses are sight, hearing,
touch, smell and taste. There are also important senses in the muscles, the joints
and the equilibrium organ in the inner ear. Each sensory organ has its best reaction
to a certain type of stimulation, but has a different reaction to long lasting

8.6.9 THE SKIN

The skin forms an essential boundary to the surroundings, and is the body’s largest
“breathing organ”. The skin consists of different tissue with different qualities and
covers the body surface, like an almost impenetrable protective film. The skin is an
important sensory organ with large adaptability.


This system protects the body and consists of several parts. There is no possibility of
living a normal life without this defence, as its duty is to render harmless infective
agents or other strange material. In addition to combating infection from outside,
this defence system also fights against any internal cell changes.


This consists of skeleton and muscles. The skeleton is the body’s framework,
consisting of almost 200 large and small bones tied together by link and ties. The
muscles can move the bones by shortening (contracting) using an impulse from the
nervous system.
This was a short description of the “human machine”. When experiencing something
exciting, frightening, unexpected, stressing, surprising or likewise, energy runs
through us like an electrical blow. In such situations, one experiences the effect of
endocrine hormones.
The part of us that consists of feelings, thoughts, vibrations, intuition, ergo not
physical parts of us, are also an important part of us (in many cases a decisive part).
It is very important to provide stimulation and nutrients to these parts, as discussed


Positive thoughts and attitudes together with a healthy diet form the basis for good
health. We can do a lot ourselves by choosing the right things, as we are free to

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We now take a look at your work place, onboard a vessel, and the influence this has
on your health. We will also discuss what external influences can be found in the
atmosphere and the injuries/incidents that may occur on board.
Onboard different types of vessels carrying different types of cargo, danger to health
from external influences are considered regarding the vessel’s protective equipment
and routines. This protective equipment is placed practically and can be utilised, as
necessary. Familiarise yourself with the equipment onboard your vessel and use it!
With a sudden injury or illness on board, medical advice and guidance can be
gathered from Radio Medico – the radio medical service for vessels at sea. It is
important to have all the important information when help is needed for a serious
condition onboard, such as:
· Age
· Sex
· Weight
· Duration of the illness
· Extent of the injury
· Symptoms
· Patient's comments (complaints)
· Clinical findings (sign of a specific illness)
· How the injury happened
· Character of the pain (grumbling, stabbing, squeezing)
· Whereabouts of the pain
· Face colour, limpness, drowsiness, temperature, pulse, breathing trouble,
nausea, blood, mucus, urination, etc.

All of the above is important.

There is a “hospital” onboard containing ordered equipment for treatment and
medication. The ship medical directions regarding the ship’s hospital deal with the
maintenance, supply, inspection, etc.
It is important to know how to protect oneself against harmful skin contact, skin
absorption and respiratory absorption of dangerous gases in the atmosphere
surrounding us, such as entering tanks and closed spaces.
Help given in the first minutes of an emergency situation is crucial. All must
endeavour to have respectable first aid skills.

8.6.13 FIRST AID

First aid is used with sudden unconsciousness, stopped breathing and lack of air.
(Call for help, but do not abandon the patient, immediately start helping.)
A Air: Try to free the air flow, lie the patient on a flat surface, bend the head
backwards, remove any dentures, vomit, etc.
B Breathing: If the patient is not breathing, start resuscitation with 3-5
breaths/insufflations. Use the “Pocket Mask” as an option. Hold the head curved
backward, check the pulse on the neck. If pulse is felt, continue with 12 respiration’s
per minute
C Circulation: With deadly paleness and no pulse, give 2-3 powerful knocks over the
heart. If this has no effect, start external heart compression once per second.

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Alternate 2-3 respirations and 15 heart compressions.


One respiration for each heart compression. When compressing; press the
breastbone down 4-5cm.

8.6.16 ABC

The method stands for air, breathing, and circulation.

The priority of first-aid training and practice is of great importance. The better you
are at first aid in an emergency; the chance of a good outcome is greater.


Heart problems can be suspected if sudden, strong pain behind the breastbone is
experienced. For cardiac arrest, use the ABC.


Description of shock is acute circular failure. This may be caused by reduced blood
volume from bleeding, shock by drop of blood pressure or reduced pump functions
from a cardiac infarction. If a big incident occurs, shock must be calculated. The
symptoms are fast pulse, coldness, pail and difficulty in breathing. Supply oxygen,
warm blankets and fluids.


All knocks against the head must be taken seriously. The symptoms are headache,
nausea and dizziness. Flat bed rest for 2-3 days. Limited fluid intake and be sure to


Refer to the IMCO’s book “Medical First Aid and Guide for use in accidents involving
dangerous goods”. This refers to the data sheets on the different cargo onboard.
(This is illustrated later on in this part). Poisoning and etch injuries appear in
connection with cargo contact, as air absorption, swallowing or skin absorption (skin
contact). The symptoms are pink coloured skin, smell of almonds on the breath,
headache, dizziness, nausea and vomiting. Remember that in connection with cargo
contact, the emergency squad should efficiently use protective equipment, gloves
etc. Supply oxygen and follow the instructions on the data sheet for the cargo in

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In fire injuries, ensure a stabile lateral position for the patient, if possible. Supply
oxygen and fluid. With fire injuries, quick help is double the help. Quickly cool for at
least 20 minutes. Estimate the extent of the injury. The patient mustn’t freeze.
Provide warm blankets and abundant fluid. The patient should rest, be under
supervision, and have their pulse checked. Check the medical box for proper use of
medication and bandages.


Localised frost injuries on the skin’s top layer begins with a prickling feeling, then
ascends to white spots on the skin. Careless handling of pipeline and cranes
onboard vessels, which carry strongly cooled gases, can lead to localised frost
injuries. Important: Frozen hands and feet must not be warmed up actively with
warm water. Cover frozen skin parts with a soft woollen garment. Do not massage
or rub. It helps a lot to warm up frozen skin with warm skin


A lot of injuries are sprains, fracture and soft part injuries. Use the ICE method, as
the proper first aid, in such injuries. ICE means ice, compression and bandage, and

I – stands for ice. Ice the injury in order to lower the injured spot’s temperature. By
doing so, the bleeding is reduced in the underlying tissue. Swelling and pain will also
be reduced.

C - stands for compression bandage or compression. If cooling the injury is not

sufficient, compression around the injured spot is recommended in order to counter
the pressure from haemorrhage and reduce swelling and pain. Confer with the
patient regarding the tightness of the bandage.
E – stands for elevation and rest. To decrease the blood pressure and reduce the
seepage of blood on and around the injured place, raise an injured arm or foot to
approximately heart height and rest for 1-2 days.


Refer to the vessels medical cupboard regarding remedies for infection.


Poisonous materials can be taken in by inhaling (gas, dust), skin penetration, skin
absorption (gas and liquid) and swallowing (gas and fluid). If any of this occurs,
different reactions will occur depending on the kind of material, how much, etc.
Refer to the material’s data sheet regarding treatment. Blood is most important,
since it is the higher brain centre that is first affected from lack of oxygen.
A poisonous material emerges quickly to the brain cells and deprives them of oxygen.
This may cause unconsciousness, at worst death. By inhaling small concentrations,

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we are exposed to localised effects (nasal, throat, and lung) or poisonous gas
absorption into the blood.
Through skin penetration, gases and fluids are quickly absorbed into the blood and
the effects depend on the characteristic of the material, the velocity of the
penetration and poisonous elements. If material is swallowed, this is easily absorbed
by the mucous membrane in the mouth.

8.6.26 THE EYES

The eyes are very exposed to any spill or contact to cargo. There is normally
irritation, burns and tears from harmful exposure. It is of utmost importance with a
very fast first aid and abundant rinsing with water.
With all injuries and illness it is of the utmost importance to administer first aid and
contact competent medical help if any doubt of the outcome exists.
Enclosed is a data sheet for Propane, which illustrates the layout and the content of
information. There are such sheets for all types of dangerous cargo, which are made
readily available and visible onboard.
The data sheets tell us about the cargo’s character, the emergency procedure for a
cargo fire or cargo spill. There is also information about health hazards, fire,
explosion, chemical data, reaction data, physical data and the condition of the
material in freight. Information regarding the quality of material is required with the
freight of the material.

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Pollution is not a problem recently discovered. When people settled down in small
towns and gathered in communities they experienced, as time went by, the
difficulties in getting rid of garbage and so on. Civilisations dumped all sorts of waist;
garbage, dead animals and so on, in open ditches just outside the small towns.
This can be directly connected to large epidemics and disasters, which have arisen
during different époques throughout history.
Around year 1800, the first attempts were made to make simple constructions of
drain arrangements and some kind of garbage removal arrangements. During this
period of time the rate of illness and disease showed to be higher in the crowded
small towns compared to the countryside. When the Industrial Revolution ended -
large crowds of people gathered in proportionately small areas. The local
environment was extremely loaded because of this. The development of new
substances and materials increased rapidly - and lack of knowledge concerning the
effect and damages to the environment due to these new substances and so forth -
led to free flow of the new substances both into the sea and the air.
In some cases, both cause and result of these uncontrolled outlets almost
immediately appeared. Even today, the reasons for these damaging effects on the
environment are questioned. In later years, people really have become aware of the
environmental effects this pollution causes. A media focus on oil pollution disasters,
industrial leakage, and so on, has contributed to the development of very strict
regulations and demands to preserve security that protects us from environmental
pollution. However, there is still a long way to go.



Note that pollution is usually related to human activity. Phenomena, such as radiation
due to natural radioactivity in the earth, volcano eruptions and the like, are not
usually considered as pollution. They exist, however, in areas where the environment
is burdened. This is nature’s own way to balance and renew itself.

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Any pollution has a main source and a receiver. The main receivers are air, sea, and
soil. The most effective way of spreading pollution is through air. But eventually the
pollution always falls to the ground and into the sea. The earth is most resistant to
pollution as a receiver, but the problems appear because this pollution almost
without restrictions has free flow to pollute sea and waters. Compare the human
body with its own immune system to the environmental system (Eco-system), and
you will find that all basic “building blocks” are linked together in some way or
another with the same influence and with the same purpose. Every part is equally
important in obtaining the ability to function as a whole unit.


Substances and materials spread through air - sea - and soil that cause damage and
malfunction due to human activity.
Many factors contribute to pollution, such as the chemical, physiological or biological
characteristics. Life on earth is dependent on solar energy. Plants turn solar energy,
water and carbon into plant tissues. This is called the first tropic level. The
herbivores (vegetable-only eating animals) cannot exploit solar light directly in their
growth or tissue change. Herbivores use the plants to produce tissue. This is called
the second tropic level. The energy loss caused by transmission from the first level to
the second level is calculated to be at approximately 90%. An even greater loss
appears at the next level, which is the third tropic level. This level includes the
humans and the animals, which survive by eating animal meat. The demolishing link
in this process is the carrion eaters and small organisms, which demolish dead plants
and animal materials into simple organic and inorganic compounds, which the plants
need to grow.
An Ecology System appears as a result of developing and adapting to each other as a
species in nature throughout millions of years. Accurate balance and stability is
obtained and smoothly functioning. This system is an everlasting process and is
continuous throughout time and space. An Ecology System can endure huge changes
and variations in nature, but faced with artificial factors and synthetic substances
spread by human actions, important parts (areas) in this process can be demolished.
The reason is simply that no natural mechanism exists to keep the process active
and in balance. In numerous cases, these unwanted non-natural substances are
spread throughout the nature process creating disharmony and malfunctions both
geographically and ecologically.


Heavy metals are basic elements. These elements exist in some relation or another
in nature, and further on in raw materials used by Industry. Some of the most
polluting heavy metals are lead, quicksilver, cadmium, nickel and vanadium. Heavy
metal is supplied to water, partly by natural flow, through human activity, through
the atmosphere, directly to water and spreading on the ground. These heavy metals
affect not only single organisms, but also the Ecology System using their ability to
function with the other organisms to obtain and keep harmony and balance.
Therefore pollution of heavy metals can influence and lead to direct malfunctioning

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and cause changes in the composition of a species. This creates disharmony in the
Natural, clean and nutrient-rich water demonstrates a well-adjusted and balanced
Ecology System.




Burning sulphurous fossil fuel forms sulphur-dioxides and compounds of this gas.
The gas responds to air and transforms into sulphur acid.
Nitrogen oxides are also formed by combustion of fossil fuel, and release nitrogen
mono oxides, which again transforms into nitric acid and nitrogen oxides.
Carbon mono oxides formed by uncompleted consumption of organic material can
further react to air and transform into carbon dioxide.
Further, a number of gases are released with the gas freeing of cargo tanks and
cooling plant. These are CFC – gases (chlorous fluor carbons).
Carbon dioxide and CFC - gases function as a glass roof in a hothouse, the heat
radiation from the sun is easily received and is harder to let go. This is the hothouse
effect in a nutshell.
Sulphur and nitrogen oxides in outlets (pollution) cause huge destruction of soil and
sea. The consequences of this are recognised in areas where the forest is dead and
fishing lakes are empty.
Below is a bird, which represents just one of the many members of nature, well
worth fighting for. Protect and preserve all parts of our Ecology System.

Below are some figures, which show the outlet/pollution from internal combustion
engines in the Norwegian coasting trade.
In accordance to the investigations performed by the Governmental Pollution
Inspection and representative figures were presented in 1985:

Air pollution Chemical names Amount in 1000 tons

Nitrogen oxides NOx 85,5
Carbon monoxide CO 11,75
Sulphur dioxide SO2 12,57
Hydro carbons HC 7,59
Various particles 1,35


The following shows the consumption of fuel in domestic waters:

Marine Fuel 514 000 tons

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Heavy Fuel 163 000 tons

Total 677 000 tons

The average sulphur content in different bunker types:

Gasoline 0,1 kg/mt

Marine Fuel 5,4 kg/mt
Heavy Fuel 43,7 kg&mt
Heavy Fuel in the fishing trade 44,0 kg/mt

The outlet of NOx from the coastal trade represents 45% of the outlet from the
mobile sources and 38% of the total outlets/pollution in Norway.


Through International Conventions, Norway made a commitment to reduce the

outlets of nitrogen oxides by 30% within the year 1998. The Norwegian domestic
trade represents approximately 40% of our total outlet. In order to reduce outlet
along the Norwegian coastline, efforts in following areas were made:

1) Engine technical methods, which concern construction improvements of

engines and the engine equipment.

2) Fuel technical methods as a use of alternative fuel and higher graded

demands to the compounds of the fuel.

3) Purifying technical methods as catalyzer and absorbents.

4) Other technical methods as better shaped hulls and alternative propulsion



In all these fields with intense investigation, new solutions in future engines and
maximisation of already existing engine types is put in priority.
Concerning economical views, the investigation has shown increase in costs
calculated to be 0,1 % - 0,9% regarding the cargo trade, when the actual reducing
actions are executed.


The total pollution from the fleet world wide is enormous and represents one of the
greatest threats to the environment today. The world’s great oceans are continuously
exposed to pollution. This causes tragic consequences to animals, fish and all life at
sea. The consequences for mankind will be just as tragic, unless this development is
reversed. The Ocean has, is and will always be an important food supply and
reservoir for human life. If life at sea comes to an end, this will of course lead to the

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increase in lack of food and then starvation for millions of people. Various species are
threatened of extension as a result of the pollution.
The most “significant” oil disasters caused by oil tankers that caused damages and
destruction of coastlines and the oceans are: “Tory Canyon” (Southern England
1967), “Amoco Cadiz” (Normandy 1978) and the “Exxon Valdez” (Alaska 1989).
These disasters influenced the public opinion and led to new laws and regulations.
The last mentioned accident was the direct event leading to new strict American
regulations, OPA.


In USA, the accidents involving “The Exxon Valdez” and “Mega Borg” were in focus
and were well covered by the media and press, which influenced public opinion. This
resulted in the OPA90. The media distributed pictures of the rich animal life and the
magnificent coastline in Alaska covered with oil and showing the suffering of dying
seals and seabirds. This presentation made a strong impression, which made the
U.S. Congress realise that the existing International Conventions had to be reviewed
and bettered, in order to protect and take care of the American interests. American
lawyers developed the OPA90 and the Congress supported the proposed Act.


1. The threat of unlimited responsibility.

2. Demand of double hull.

3. Direct access to the means in P & I - Companies, in case of indemnity due to


4. Higher graded demands meant for the crew regarding narcotics and alcohol

5. Use of pilot in sensitive waters.

Entering American waters OPA requires drill (training) according to OPA90

The drill (training) should be logged and reported due to the ship owners/operators
OPA90 regulations are in force for all kind of ships.

8.10 MARPOL 73/78

The IMO Convention to prevent pollution from ships of 1973, with The Amendment
Protocol of 1978 - came in force October 2nd, 1983.
The Convention is named MARPOL 73/78 and is introduced in the Norwegian
Shipping Control Regulations, section 21 (page 757 and in 1996 edition).

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This is the most important pollution agreement ever adapted and it has been of great
significance contributing to pollution prevention regulations from ships.


-MARPOL-73, which is The International Convention about preventing ship-pollution.

(Marine Pollution 73).
-TSPP-78, which is a 1978 Protocol to MARPOL -73 (Tanker Safety and Pollution
Prevention 1978).
The MARPOL Convention is extremely important to be familiar with.
The Convention consists of 20 articles, 2 Protocols and 5 Enclosures:
The 5 Enclosures are as follows:
Enclosure I - Oils
Enclosure II - Chemicals
Enclosure III - Damaging elements in wrapped form, barrels, tanks, containers
and so on.
Enclosure IV - Sewage
Enclosure V - Garbage
MARPOL 73/78 - Enclosure I (Oils). The following information referred to is from
MARPOL 73/78, enclosure I:


The amount of oil pumped from an oil tanker on a ballast voyage in open sea, is set
to be 1/30 000 of the loading capacity for all “new ships” (ships contracted later than
31.12 1975 or delivered later than 31.12 1979).

Ships older than these can pump as much as 1/15 000 of the loading capacity.
Nevertheless - no rule allows discharging more than 30 litres pr. nautical mile during
the voyage.

Several exceptions exist other than the before mentioned dates, but it is too
extensive to view in this text. In the MARPOL regulations 73/78, which should be on
board all ships, you can find a complete definition of what “new” and “old” ships are.

As mentioned before a “new” ship of 200 000 dwt could legally discharge a total of
(200 000 : 30 000) = 6,67 tons of oil during a ballast voyage- if a maximum limit 30
litres pr nautical mile is in compliance.


In respect for the maritime environment, there are some areas regarding Prohibition
Law for Oil Pollution.

These areas include among others, the Eastern Sea, the Mediterranean, the Black
Sea, the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea and have the definition as follows:

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“The Baltic Sea” area means the Baltic Sea proper with Gulf of Bothnia, the Gulf of
Finland and the entrance to the Baltic Sea bounded by the parallel of the Skaw in the
Skagerrak at N57o 44,8`.

“The Mediterranean Sea” means the Mediterranean Sea proper including the gulfs
and seas therein with the boundary between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea
constituted by the N41o parallel and bounded to the west by the Straits of Gibraltar
at the meridian of W5o 36`.

“The Black Sea” area means the Black Sea proper with the boundary between the
Mediterranean and the Black Sea constituted by the parallel N41o.

“The Gulfs” area means the sea area located north west of the rhombi line between
Ras al Hadd (N22o 30`, E059o 48`) and Ras al Fasteh (N25o 04`, E061`).

“The Red Sea” area means the Red Sea proper including the Gulfs of Suez and
Aqaba bounded at the south by the rhombi line between Ras si Ane (N12o 08,5`,
E043o 19,6`) and Husn Murad (N12o 40,4`, E043o 30,2`).

The definition of clean water means a content of maximum 15 ppm (parts pr. million)
of admixture consisting of water/oil. This “clean water” can be pumped over board -
even in the special areas.
Oil tankers should be equipped to load a new cargo on top of the saved oil deposits
after tank washing and so forth. The system is known as LOT, Load On Top.


IMO agrees tithe commitment of air pollution regulations for ships, but not the
stringent demands of the rules. Norway, for instance, has the attitude that the
presented environment regulations allow for too large sulphur outlets. After seven
years of negotiations, IMO probably will adapt regulations concerning pollution from
ships in the autumn 1997. The dispute will concentrate on how restricted these
regulations will be. This will mainly concern the introduction of upper limits in the
sulphur content in bunkers. Sulphur contributes to acid rain. A limit of5% has been
proposed and Norway has proposed a limit of 3,5%. An analysis done by DnV proves
that bunkers for sale worldwide contain hardly more than 4,2%sulphur. Average
level is 2,7% sulphur. Norwegian dealers believe realistic limits to be around 4%.
During the negotiations the Baltic countries suggested that the Baltic should be a
special area and should have even stronger demands and regulations to sulphur
pollution than these presented by IMO regulations. The same proposition will be
requested concerning the Northern Sea area. Here, the sulphur limits in air is
suggested set to 1,5%. The ship owners will then have the opportunity to select for
themselves what type of oil to use that contains low sulphur values or rinse purifiers
for the outlet of sulphur. The NO pollution will be evaluated in this conference as
well. Even if IMO in autumn should vote for enforcing pollution regulations, it will still
be an open question when these regulations will be set in force. The term for this to
happen is one of the disagreements yet to be resolved. Keep yourself updated in this
field concerning air pollution and the regulations enforce in the nearest future!

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All new crude oil tankers (20 000 dwt or more) and already existing ships (ships
delivered before 1.6. 1982 with 40 000 dwt or more) have to be supplied with crude
oil washing equipment, described as COW (crude oil washing). Existing ships
between20 000 dwt and 40 000 dwt do not need to have this washing equipment,
but should have inert gas equipment for use in cargo tanks during operations. These
demands are noted in the MARPOL protocol of 1978 to MARPOL 73/78 and are useful
in reducing oil pollution at sea.
The National Governments have the obligation to put this in force and check that the
regulations presented by IMO are in compliance. The Norwegian Maritime Directorate
will perform inspection on the Norwegian trading fleet to control that these
regulations are executed. When it comes to COW, classification companies are
elected to evaluate the documentation and reports after inspection and testing of the
equipment on board.

8.9.13 ODME

On board all ships carrying oil there are demands for the installation of Oil Detection
Monitoring Equipment that will survey all pumping of ballast and slop water over
The equipments simply described:
An analysis instrument, which analyses the content of oil in the ballast water before
pumping it over board.
A control unit that calculates the received information and records this on a printer.
A sampling pipe from the high over board line.
A flow meter on the high over board line.
To operate headmen some information has to be manually programmed. This is the
ship’s speed, flow rate, year, month, day and time. Study this manual for the specific
ship and note that the manual must to be available at all times.


Ships constructed for SBT (segregated ballast tanks) have the advantage of already
minimised oil pollution. Ships without have CBT (clean ballast tanks) where the cargo
tanks are used both for departure and arrival ballast. IMO’s regulations on the tanks
used for departure and arrival ballast state that the tanks must be crude oil washed.
Before arrival at discharging port, a discharging plan including crude oil washing
should be worked out and it should also contain departure condition that shows the
loaded departure ballast. The amount, the quantity and where the departure ballast
is placed are viewed in part 10 in the compendium. This departure ballast is called
dirty ballast.
After departure and in waters allowing water washing of tanks used for arrival
ballast, this washing operation should be executed according to regulations in force.
Arrival ballast tanks must be crude oil washed beforehand according to the
regulations in force. This procedure is done at the last discharging port. The water

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washing is performed using the specialised washing system on board meant for
crude oil washing - the only difference is that the medium now is water.
Set pressure on the line system with water from the sea, and via crude oil washing
machines, arrival ballast tanks are water washed. Supplied water is stripped from the
actual tank and into the primary slop tank. Via the balance line, the liquid is
transferred over to the secondary slop tank, and further the separated water is
pumped over board via ODME.
To finish water washing of arrival ballast tanks, lines and pumps have to be
thoroughly washed. Here the same washing procedure from primary to secondary
slop tank is performed and pumped over board via ODME. Now it is time to change
ballast. In other words, clean ballast should be pumped in arrival ballast tanks, while
dirty ballast should be pumped out from departure ballast tanks. The dirty ballast is
pumped over board via ODME.
The last oil deposits are stripped into the primary slop tank and after a settling time
(when oil and water separates completely), the clean water is pumped over board via
ODME. At last the secondary slop tank is pumped into the primary slop tank. This
way the ship arrives at the loading port with slop in one of the slop tanks. This saved
slop contains the oil deposits from stripping and water washing and the load on top.
This is available if it is requested from the charter.
This is specified in the charter party for the present voyage. Note: The line system
has to be properly cleaned before arriving at the loading port, where the clean
ballast is pumped over board.
When the ballast changing, line washing and slop handling is completed, the ship
contains only the arrival ballast. The arrival ballast is the so-called “clean water”,
which is a mixture of water/oil containing a maximum of 15 ppm. This arrival ballast
is pumped over board via ODME.


This is an extremely important book and must be recorded with accuracy, in order to
comply with the regulations in force. All ships should have one oil record book or
more in order to record operations, which involve pumping, transferring, ballast
handling, bunkers, slop handling, any kind of cargo handling whatsoever. All items
mentioned must be recorded in the oil record book.
The oil record book must be available at all times to show authorities when arriving
at any ports. Remember to keep this book updated and in necessary order at all
Be environmentally conscious in all aspects on board

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09- Gas Measurement

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9.1.1 True vapour pressure (TVP)
All petroleum products and crude oil are essentially mixtures of a wide range of
hydrocarbon compounds. The boiling points of the compounds range from –162oC
(methane) to well in excess of +400oC, and the volatility of any particular mixture of
compounds depends primarily on the quantities of the more volatile elements. The
volatility is characterised by the vapour pressure. When transferring a petroleum
product to a gas-free tank it begins to vaporise, that is, it liberates gas into the space
above it. This gas has also a tendency to re-dissolve in the liquid. The pressure
exerted by this gas is called the equilibrium pressure of the liquid, usually referred to
simply as the vapour pressure.
The vapour pressure of a pure compound depends only upon its temperature. With a
mixture of compounds, the vapour pressure depends on the temperature, elements
and the volume of the gas space in which vaporisation occurs.
The true vapour pressure (TVP) or bubble point vapour pressure is the equilibrium of
vapour pressure of a mixture when the gas/liquid ratio is effectively zero. The
highest vapour pressure is possible at any specified temperature. As the temperature
of a petroleum mixture increases, its TVP also increases. If the TVP exceeds
atmospheric pressure, the liquid begins to boil. The TVP of a petroleum mixture gives
a good indication of its ability to give rise to gas, but unfortunately it is a property
which still is extremely difficult to measure.

9.1.2 The Reid Vapour Pressure (RVP)

Testing is a simple and generally used method for measuring the volatility of
petroleum liquids. Measurement of the RVP is conducted at 37,8oC (100oF). The
greater the RVP value, the more volatile is the oil. Normally crude oil has a RVP of
between 0,1 and 0,8kg/cm2.
A sample of liquid is put into the test container at atmospheric pressure. The volume
of liquid should be one fifth of the container’s total volume. Then the container is
sealed and immersed in a water bath, which is heated to 37,80C. The container is
then shaken in order to mix the liquid properly and the rise in pressure due to
vaporisation can be read on the attached pressure gauge. This pressure gauge gives
a close approximation in bars.
Because the liquid’s vapour pressure is at 37,8oC, RVP is useful for generally
comparing the volatility of a wide range of petroleum liquids. However, it has, small
value as a means of estimating the likeliness of gas evolution in specific situations,
mainly because the measurement is made at the standard temperature of 37,8oC
and at a fixed gas/liquid ratio. For this purpose TVP is much more useful. As
mentioned, in some cases, correlation exists between TVP, RVP and temperature.
For safety measures against fire on ships, the Norwegian Maritime Directorate in the
Regulation of December 3rd1979 uses 61oC as limit value for flash point and
2,8kg/cm2 for vapour pressure at 37,8oC. The oil referred to in this regulation is:

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· Mineral oils with a flash point below 61oC, such as kerosene, benzene, gasoline and
crude oil or other flammable liquids with a flash point below said limit.

· Mineral oils with a flash point of 61oC or higher, such as marine gas oils, fuel oil,
diesel oil, lubricating oil, which give off flammable gases when heated.

· Oils and fats of animal or vegetable origins, such as whale oil, groundnut oil,
linseed oil etc., which give off flammable gases when heated.

The liquid chemicals referred to are:

· Chemicals with an absolute vapour pressure lower than 2,8kg/cm2 at 37,8oC.

The condensed gases referred to are:

· Chemicals with an absolute vapour pressure of 2,8kg/cm2 or higher at 37,8oC.

9.1.3 Flash Point

The flash point for an oil product is the temperature at which it is possible to ignite
the vapour above the liquid. In other words, the flammable gas concentration above
the liquid is close to the lower explosive limit. Determination of the flash point is
done with a special apparatus and according to specific rules.
A sample of liquid is gradually heated in a special pot and a small flame is repeatedly
and momentarily applied to the surface of the liquid. The temperature is recorded
when a small flame initiates a flash or flame across the liquid surface, thereby
indicating the presence of a flammable gas.
In this test the space above the liquid is kept closed except for the brief moments
when trying ignite the liquid’s surface. This test is called “Closed cup Flash Point”.
When we do the test with the liquid surface permanently open to the atmosphere,
the result of such a test is called “Open cup Flash Point”.
Because of the greater loss of gas to the atmosphere in the open cup test the open
cup flash point is always a little higher (about 6oC) than the closed cup flash point.
The restricted loss of gas in the closed cup apparatus also leads to a much more
consistent result than can be obtained in open cup testing. For this reason, the
closed cup method is generally favoured. However, open cup test figures, still may
be found in the registration of various national administrations, in classification
society rules and other such documents.
If the temperature is increased further beyond the flash point, the liquid will obtain a
temperature so high that the evaporation will take place fast enough to support a
flame. This is called “The Burning Point"“.

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9.1.4 Burning Point of some hydrocarbons

Burning point in
degree Celsius
Asphalt +204
Benzene -50
Benzene -11
Butane -35
Crude oil -10/+30
Diesel oil +70
Ethan -125
Fuel oil (no. 1&2) +38
Fuel oil (no.4&5) +54
Fuel oil (no.6) +65
Hexane -28
Methane (LNG) -175
Mineral oil +193
Naphtha (mixtures) +38/+60
Paraffin wax +320
Pentane -40
Propane -105
Lub.oil (motor oil) -149/+232
Propylene -108
Ethylene -150

For refined products, the flash point increases from light to the heavy hydrocarbons,
for gasoline it is about –50oC and for kerosene over +60oC. The flash point for
liquids is used in rules and regulations for transportation and storage.
Crude oil from various sources may have quite different flash points, usually between
–10oC and +30oC.

9.1.5 Flammability
The burning process means that hydrocarbon gases react with the oxygen in the air
to produce carbon dioxide and water. This reaction gives enough heat to form a
flame which goes through the mixture of hydrocarbon gas and air. When the gas
above a liquid hydrocarbon is ignited, the heat that is produced is usually enough to
evaporate sufficient fresh gas to maintain the flame and the liquid is said to burn. In
fact, it is the gas that is burning and continuously being replenished by the liquid.
9.1.6 Flammable Limits
A hydrocarbon gas mixture and air cannot be ignited and burned unless its

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composition lies within a range of gas-in-air concentrations, known as the

“flammable range”.

The lower limit of this range is known as the “LEL” (lower explosive limit). The “LFL”
(lower flammable limit) is also used. This level means that hydrocarbon
concentration has an insufficient amount of hydrocarbon gas to support and
propagate combustion. The mixture is “too lean”.

The upper limit of the range known as the “UEL” (upper explosive limit), or also
known as “UFL” (upper flammable limit). This level means that the hydrocarbon
concentration has an insufficient amount of air to support and propagate
combustion. The mixture is “too rich”.

Between these two areas, the mixture is flammable and results in a fire or explosion,
if ignited. With hydrocarbon gases from crude and sediments, it is usually assumed
that the upper explosion limit lies at about 10% by volume of hydrocarbon gas-in-air
and the lower explosion limit at about 1% by volume of hydrocarbon gas.

9.1.7 Explosion limits in % flammable gas in mixture with air.

LEL, volume UEL, volume

% %
5,3 14,0
Ethan 3,1 12,5
Propane 2,1 9,5
Butane 1,5 9,5
Pentane 1,5 7,8
Hexane 1,2 7,5
Hepthane 1,2 6,7
Octane 1,0 3,2
Nonthane 0,8 2,9
Dechane 0,8 5,4
Hydrogen 4,0 75,0
4,3 45,0
12,5 74,0
Crude oil 1,5/2,5 8,0/11,0
Benzene 1,4 7,6

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Naphtha 0,9/1,1 6,0/6,7

Propylene 2 12
Ethylene 2,5 34
VCM 4 31

9.1.8 Air
The mixture of gases found in the atmosphere is given the name air. The ratio of
mixture between various gases is the same, independent of time and place, except
for the water vapour content, which can have great variations.

Nitrogen, N2 78,09%
Oxygen, O2 20,93%
Argon, A 0,93%
Carbon dioxide, CO2 0,03%
Other gases 0,02%
AIR 100%

There may be a significant amount of water vapour in the air. Different results are
measured depending on whether water or moisture is removed or not. The amount
of water vapour, which the air may contain, will depend very much on the
temperature. The air is saturated with water vapour when the air contains a
maximum amount of water vapour at a certain temperature. Saturated air being
cooled will release the excess water in droplets.
At high humidity and high temperature, there will be a reduction of oxygen and other
gases that is caused by the increased water vapour content.
The atmospheric pressure will influence the measurement result when using gas
measure instruments. For example, when using a portable oxygen analyser that is
calibrated to read 21% oxygen by volume in clean air at atmospheric pressure, the
reading will increase as the atmospheric pressure increases.
To compensate for the changes in atmospheric pressure, the instrument has to be
calibrated with clean air from time to time. The instruments used for measuring
hydrocarbon gases will also be influenced by the atmospheric pressure, depending
on the instrument’s measuring principle.

-200C 0,1 volume %
00C 0,9 volume %
200C 2.3 volume %
400C 7,3 volume %

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600C 19,7 volume %

800C 46,7 volume %
1000C 100 volume %

The risk of fire or explosion is drastically increased if air is replaced by pure oxygen.
As known, oxygen leakage during welding has resulted in several fatal accidents.
However, when reducing the oxygen below 21% by volume, the fire and explosion
hazard is reduced. When reducing the oxygen content to below 10,8% by volume,
fire and explosion cannot take place even though both hydrocarbon gas and ignition
sources are present.
9.1.9 Hydrocarbon gases
Crude oil is formed from plants and animals residues and contains several thousand
different chemical compounds. Most of these materials consist of only the element
hydrogen (H) and carbon (C) called by the common name hydrocarbons.
The simplest hydrocarbon is methane, which is the main element of natural gas.
Butane, propane and ethane are also composed of hydrogen and carbon atoms and
they are all called hydrocarbon gases. For example butane, C4H10 means that this
gas contains a total of 4 carbon atoms and 10 hydrogen atoms. Hydrocarbons with
up to 4 carbon atoms are liquefied gases at room temperature and atmospheric
pressure. From 5 to 16 carbon atoms the hydrocarbons are liquids, and above 16
carbon atoms, the hydrocarbons are solid materials such as wax and asphalt.
When the crude oil is taken out of a well, hydrocarbon gases and solid materials are
dissolved in the oil. When reducing the pressure, gases will bubble out. To separate
these liquefied gases the crude must pass through one or more processing units
(stabilisers). The crude oil is called “stabilised crude”, but even stabilised crude oil
will give off hydrocarbons from the surface.
Methane gas is lighter than air. Ethane gas has approximately the same density as
air. The gases butane and propane from higher hydrocarbons are heavier than air.
The gas mixtures given off from crude oil, sludge and sediments are all heavier than
air. Until such gas mixtures have been mixed with air inside inert gas, the highest
hydrocarbon concentration will appear near the bottom.
“Spiked crude oil” (also called “enriched” or “tailored” crude) is crude oil, which has
had hydrocarbons, added in gas or liquid form. The spiked crude may contain rather
large amounts of added hydrocarbons and therefore emit heavy gasses under certain
conditions (during loading, crude oil washing, discharging).

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The toxic hazards to which personnel are exposed in tanker operations arise almost
entirely from exposure to various kinds of gasses.

TLV (Threshold Limit Value) has been in use within the industry for a number of
years, and is often expressed as a “Time Weighted Average” (TWA). The use of the
term “PEL” (Permissible Exposure Limit) is becoming more commonplace and refers
to the maximum exposure to a toxic substance that is allowed by an appropriate
regulatory body.

The PEL is usually expressed as a Time Weighted Average, normally averaged over
an eight hour period, or as a “Short Term Exposure Limit” (STEL), normally
expressed as a maximum airborne concentration averaged over a 15 minute period.
The values are expressed as parts per million (ppm) by volume of gas in air.

1 ppm corresponds to one-millionth part by volume pollution in air. Compared with a

value quoted in percent by volume, we find that 1% by volume = 10000 ppm.

List of TLV (PEL) are adjusted from time to time, so take into consideration the
experience gained. Keep the list up to date at all times.

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9.2.1 Ingestion
There is a very slight risk of swallowing significant quantities of liquids during normal
tanker operations. The oral toxicity from petroleum is low, but if swallow it causes
acute discomfort. Liquid petroleum may be drawn into the lungs during vomiting
resulting in serious consequences.

9.2.2 Skin contact

Petroleum products cause skin irritation and remove essential oils from the skin,
leading to dermatitis. Oil can also cause serious skin disorders from repeated and
prolonged contact. The effects of a gas mixture from crude oil include headache, eye
irritation, reduced sense of responsibility and dizziness similar to drunkenness.
Higher concentrations may lead to paralysis, numbness and death.

To avoid direct contact, always wear appropriate protective clothing and


9.2.3 Petroleum gases

The toxicity of petroleum gases has a wide variation depending on the major
hydrocarbon constituent of the gas. For a short period of time the human body can
tolerate a somewhat higher concentration than the corresponding TLV.
Toxicity can greatly be influenced by the presence of some minor compounds, such
as benzene and hydrogen sulphide.
A TLV of 300ppm, corresponding to about 2% LEL is established for gasoline
vapours. Such a figure may be used as a general guide for petroleum gases, but
must not be used for gas mixtures containing benzene or hydrogen sulphide.

The following are typical effects found at higher concentrations:

Concentration Effects
0,1% vol. Irritation of the eyes within one
(1.000ppm) hour.
Irritation of the eyes, nose and
0,2% vol. throat, dizziness and
(2.000ppm) unsteadiness within half an
0,7% vol. Symptoms as of drunkenness
(7.000ppm) within 15 minutes.
Rapid onset of “drunkenness”
1.0% vol. which may lead to
(10.000ppm) unconsciousness and death if
exposure continues.
2,0% vol. Paralysis and death occur very
(20.000ppm) rapidly

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9.2.4 Benzene
Aromatic hydrocarbons include benzene, toluene and xylene. These substances can
be found in varying amounts, in many typical petroleum cargoes, such as gasoline’s,
naphtas, special boiling point solvents, turpentine, substitutes, white spirits and
crude oil.

Benzene primarily presents an inhalation hazard. It has poor warning qualities.

Benzene can be absorbed through the skin and is toxic if ingested.

For handling cargo that contains benzene, use the described operation procedures
for this kind of hydrocarbon.

9.2.5 Hydrogen sulphide (H2S)

If the vessel is carrying sour crude, it is absolutely essential to check the tank(s)
atmosphere for hydrogen sulphide before entering.

A lot of crude oil comes out of the well with high levels of hydrogen sulphide, but is
usually reduced by a stabilisation process before the crude oil is delivered to the
vessel. This stabilisation may, however, decrease over time.

The nose has no trouble detecting the smell from hydrogen sulphide at low
concentrations, which is like the smell of rotten eggs, but the sensory cell in the nose
is immediately put out of function if higher concentrations are inhaled.

The effects of the gas at concentrations in air in excess of the TWA (Time Weighted
Average) are, as follows:

Concentration Effects
Eye and respiratory tract
50 - 100 ppm irritation after exposure of
one hour.
Marked eye and respiratory
200 - 300
tract irritation after
exposure of one hour.
Dizziness, headache,
nausea etc. Within 15
500 - 700 minutes, loss of
ppm consciousness and possible
death after 30-60 minutes
Rapid unconsciousness,
700 - 900
death occurs a few
minutes later.
1000 - 2000 Instantaneous collapse and
ppm cessation of breathing

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Persons over exposed to H2S vapour should be taken to clean air, as soon as
possible. The adverse effects of H2S can be reversed and the probability of saving
the persons life improved, if prompt action is taken.
For handling cargoes containing hydrogen sulphide follow the operation procedures
described for such a cargo.

9.2.6 Toxic Elements in Inert Gas

Inert gas’s low oxygen content is the main hazard. Inert gas produced by
combustion, either in a steam boiler or in an inert gas generator, contains a various
amounts of toxic gases, which may increase hazard to the personnel exposed to it.
Follow the precautions to protect personnel against toxic hazards. These precautions
do not include the requirements for direct measurement of the trace flue gas
element’s concentration. This is because when gas that is freed from a tank, the
hydrocarbon gas concentration is about 2% by volume to 1% LEL. Until there is a
steady 21% by volume oxygen reading, it is sufficient to dilute these elements to
below their TLV’s.

9.2.7 Nitrogen Oxides

Flue gas contains approximately 200ppm (0,02%) by volume of mixed nitrogen
oxides. Nitrogen oxide (NOx) is generally removed in the water scrubber in the inert
gas plant. The NOx gas is colourless with a weak smell at its TLV of 25ppm. Nitrogen
dioxide is even more toxic with a TLV of 3ppm.

9.2.8 Sulphur Dioxide

Flue gas produced by the combustion of high sulphur content fuel oils typically
contains about 2,000 ppm of sulphur dioxide (SO2). Inert gas system water
scrubbers remove this gas with an efficiency, which depends upon the design and
operation of the scrubber, giving inert gas with sulphur dioxide content usually
between 2 and 50 ppm.
Sulphur dioxide produces irritation of eyes, nose and throat and may also cause
breathing difficulties in sensitive people. It has a distinctive smell at its TLV of 2 ppm.

9.2.9 Carbon Monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is normally present in flue gas at a level of only a few parts
per million, but at abnormal combustion conditions and slow running it can give rise
to levels in excess of 200ppm. This gas is an odourless gas with a TLV of 50ppm. It
is insidious in its attack, restricting the blood to absorb oxygen, causing a chemically
induced form of asphyxiation.

9.2.10 Oxygen Deficiency

For several reasons the oxygen content in enclosed spaces may be low. On oil
tankers the most obvious one is that the space is in an inert condition. Also it can be
due to a lack of oxygen based on chemical reactions, such as rusting or the
hardening of coatings.
When the available oxygen decreases below 21% by volume, breathing tends to
become faster and deeper. Symptoms indicating that an atmosphere is oxygen
deficient may not give adequate notice of danger. Most persons would fail to

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recognise the danger until they were too weak to be able to escape without help.
This is especially so when escape involves the exertion of climbing.
Entry into spaces with oxygen less than 21% by volume must never be permitted.


In principle, inert gas is used to control the tank atmosphere in order to prevent the
formation of flammable mixtures. Inert means inactive and the primary requirement
for an inert gas is low oxygen content. The composition of inert gas can vary. The
following table provides an indication of typical inert gas components from flue gas,
expressed as a percentage by volume:

Before After
Inert gas
scrubber scrubber
Approx. 80% Approx. 80%
Nitrogen, N2
vol. vol.
Approx. 14% Approx. 14%
vol vol.
Oxygen, O2 2 - 5% vol. 2 - 5% vol.
approx. 2%
Water Approx. 5%
vapour, H2O vo
approx. 7%
Carbon CO Approx. Approx.
monoxide, 0,01% vol. 0,01% vol.
Nitrous Approx. Approx.
gases, NOX 0,02% vol. 0,02% vol.
Approx. Approx.
0,3% vol. 0,005% vol.
Ash and
300mg/m3 30mg/m3
Density 1.044 1.044

When hydrocarbon gas burns in air, the oxygen in the air reacts while the nitrogen
gas is inert and does not take part in the reaction. Examples of inert gases are
nitrogen, carbon dioxide or combustion gases.
On a crude oil tanker, the production of inert gas is done with flue gas from the
ship’s boilers or by a separate inert gas generator. The flue gas being produced,
before being transferred to the cargo tanks, is first cooled and cleaned of soot and

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corrosive gases. This prevents fire and explosion. The maximum permissible oxygen
content in the inert gas delivered to the cargo tanks is 5% by volume (all kinds of
Approximately the content of carbon dioxide in the inert gas is 14% by volume
depending to some extent on quality of the oil being burned and on the air supply.
The carbon monoxide contained in the supplied inert gas is approximately 0,01% by
volume, but if the excess air is reduced too much in hopes of reducing the oxygen
content, the concentration of carbon monoxide could increase significantly.
The concentration of nitrogen in inert gas will more or less be the same as for the
concentration in air, broadly speaking, about 80% nitrogen by volume.
A small amount of Nitrous Gases (NO and NO2) is formed, following the reaction
between nitrogen and oxygen in the air at higher temperatures. It will be
approximately 0,02% NOX by volume.

The concentration of sulphur dioxide in the inert gas depends on the sulphur content
of the oil being burned. It will be approximately 0,3% by volume in the flue gas.
After passing the scrubber, depending on the efficiency of this, the content is
reduced to approximately 0,005% by volume.
Flue gas contains soot as high as 300mg/m3, but is reduced to below 30mg/m3 after
passing the scrubber.
The oxygen concentration in flue gas will be different, before the scrubber, than in
the inert gas, after the scrubber. Some ships use the same fixed instrument for
measuring the oxygen content in the flue gas, before passing the scrubber, and the
inert gas, after the scrubber. This is done by providing a choice of sampling lines
from two different places into the same instrument. The main problems are in the
flue gas measuring with greater reading and guarding against instrumentation error.
It is strongly recommended to have a separate oxygen-measuring instrument for
inert gas, after the scrubber.
When recalculating inert gas through the scrubber beware of the oxygen content
increase due to the evolution of oxygen from the seawater.
The figure to below shows an example of design of a scrubber for cooling and
cleaning of the flue/ inert gas.

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9.4.10 Sampling lines and pumps
It is very important to realise that the quality of the sampling hose has influence on
the measuring result, and that correct use and maintenance are important. If the
hose is not properly chosen, it is likely that a poor quality hose will absorb
hydrocarbon gases.
Make sure that the quality of hoses being used on your ship is approved and in good
condition. Examples of hoses which have proved acceptable:
1. Teflon inner hose, neoprene outer hose. This hose’s inside diameter is 3mm,
which corresponds to an inner volume of about 7cm3 per meter length.
2. “Tanol” (Trade mark of MSA). This hose is marked: “Tanol” - synthetic rubber
sampling line, low solvent absorption, anti-static. Note: In an enclosed container use
adequate electrical bonding. The inside diameter is 5mm corresponding to an inner
volume of about 20cm3 per meter length.
When ordering a measuring hose make sure you are getting an approved one.
Always ask the deliverer for a certificate, which shows the authorisation. It is very
important to -m

9.4.2 Pumps
The hand pumps used are often in a rubber form with a volume of 40cm3 or more.
When using long hoses, it is important to know the number of pump strokes from
the sampling point that are necessary for the gas to reach the instrument. The
number of strokes depends on the hose length, as well as, the inside diameter of the
The number of strokes may vary from 6 to 15 for a hose length of 30 metres,
depending on the inner diameter. The numbers mentioned are based on a pump
volume of 40cm3. Some types of instruments are fitted with built-in pumps. Follow
the user instruction for such a pump.

9.4.3 Cleaning of hose

If the sampling hose gets dirty with oil on the outside, immediately clean it with a
dry cotton rag. If the hose is dipped by accident in oil and oil is drawn into the hose,
discard the hose because it is very hard to clean it.
Always follow this rule: Each gas measuring instrument has its own hose only for
using with the specific instrument. Do not mix hoses with hoses, which belong to
another instrument.

9.4.4 Leakage, plugging, contamination

Always check the hose, instruments and pumps before use, in order to detect any
leakage, plugging or contamination. Follow the procedure check for the instrument
being used.
Place a finger on the hose opening and check that the hand pump remains squeezed
together for about 1 minute. If there is a built-in pump, the flow indicator gives an
alarm. See the illustration to your right.

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Carry out measurements with and without the sampling hose to check that the hose
not influence the measurement by absorbing or releasing gases. For this purpose use
clean air and a calibration gas, depending on the type of gas measuring instrument
being checked.
Also carry out a leakage test on the instrument, and if applicable, on a drop catcher
or other optional equipment that has been fitted. See the illustration to your right.

9.4.5 Maintenance
Make it a rule to always purge the hose by pumping clean air through it after use.
And blow the measuring hoses with compressed air from time to time to remove
water droplets and dust. As the analysers are of vital importance, they must be
carefully maintained and tested strictly in accordance with the manufacturer

9.4.6 Filters
Normally used in hydrocarbon gas meters are cotton filament type filters, catalytic or
non-catalytic. Additional filters are not normally needed. In extremely moist or wet
conditions, for example during tank washing, excessive water can be removed from
the gas sample using materials that retain water, but do not affect the hydrocarbons.
Materials for this purpose are granular calcium chloride or sulphate. If required, soda
asbestos will selectively retain hydrogen sulphide without affecting the hydrocarbons.
However, it also retains carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide and must not be used in
tanks, which are inerted with scrubbed flue gas.
The use of water retaining filters is essential when using an oxygen analyser,
especially the analysers based on the paramagnetic principle. This is because the
presence of water vapours in the sample can damage the measuring cell. Use only
manufacture recommended filters.

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9.4.7 Calibration gas

Always have the appropriate calibration gas for the instruments on board. This
calibration gas has to be the right type and the availability has to be good. Also,
knowledge how to use the different types of calibration gas must be properly
understood. Always follow the manufacture's recommendation when ordering
calibration gas. Also demand a certificate on the ordered calibration gas to be sure
that you are receiving a gas of high quality.
Explosimeters use a mixture of hydrocarbon gas and air, approximately 50% LEL or
lower, as a calibration gas. (It is important to have a certificate on the specified
hydrocarbon gas, showing the exact percent of LEL).
Various types of hydrocarbon gas measuring instruments may have different
requirements of calibration gas. Make sure you have the right one on your vessel.
Oxygen analysers used at low concentrations usually use nitrogen as the calibration
gas in order to get a zero adjustment and dry air is used for the 21% O2 by volume

9.4.8 Attention
Those using the measuring instruments on board must have sufficient knowledge
about the instrument, and all such instruments must have the operating instructions
attached to the instrument. Also keep a log for each instrument, where records are
made of the calibration performed, replacement of parts or other repairs, faults and
irregularities. Always have additional spare parts in supply, which may have to be
replaced from time to time.
If the instrument not is in use for a long period of time, remove the batteries; even
the leak proof ones.

For the sake of safety, all instruments must be operated and serviced by qualified
personnel only. Read and make sure you fully understand the instruction book before
using or servicing the instrument.

9.4.9 Volume % hydrocarbon gas measuring instruments

We are going to discuss various principles for the measurement of hydrocarbon
gases given off by crude oil.
In order to measure hydrocarbon gases in a mixture with other gases, for example
inert gas, an instrument is used, which measures the absorption of infrared light.
Such infrared absorption instruments are found both as laboratory instruments and
as instruments for fixed installations on board ships.
In the early 1970’s, when trying to find portable gas measuring instruments for the
determination of % by volume HC in a tank atmosphere, there were few commercial
instruments, which appeared suitable. An interferometer was modified and the Riken

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Interferometer Type 17HC, with the measuring ranges 0-5% by volume and 0-30%
by volume HC, was developed in collaboration with Riken Keiki Fine Instrument Co.,
Japan. At this time, only a few ships had an inert gas system on board. The
instrument was used for measuring hydrocarbon concentrations in air, which were
higher than the lower explosive limit, to check for freeing gas with air before tank
washing in a “too lean” atmosphere. Later on, the instrument also came to be used
for the measurement of hydrocarbon gas concentration in an inerted atmosphere.

9.4.10 Riken portable indicator Model 17HC Operating Principles

This instrument measures volume by percent of hydrocarbon gases above crude oil
using an optical registration at the speed of light, which passes through the air and
gas/air mixture respectively. The gas in question is sucked into two chambers that
are placed in sequence and equipped with glass end walls enabling the light to pass
through. The volume percentage is registered on a double scale that is graduated 0-
5 and 0-30 and is read through an adjustable lens.
With Riken 17HC one can measure concentrations of hydrocarbon gases by utilising
the difference between the speed of light through air and the gas. The difference
increases with increasing hydrocarbon gas concentration.
The refractive index for a gas is an expression of the ratio between the speed of light
in vacuum and in the gas. The speed in the gas will depend on pressure and
temperature. The refractive index is normally quoted at a pressure of 1 atmosphere
and either 0oC or 20oC.
Compared with the refractive index for the various hydrocarbon gases, the
hydrocarbon mixture index used by Riken is closest to butane.
The instrument is tested for working within a temperature range of +113oF (45oC)
to –22oF (-30oC). Hotter gases should be cooled down to come within this range.
The interferometer was originally chosen to determine hydrocarbon gases in air. The
conditions become more complicated if the interferometer is used for measuring
hydrocarbon gases in inert gas. There will be a difference between the zero adjusts
for air without hydrocarbon gas and inert gas without hydrocarbon gas.
Oxygen and nitrogen have rather similar refractive indexes, but there will be a
positive deviation in relation to air when the oxygen content decreases from 21% by
volume. If the oxygen content is reduced from 21% by volume to 5% by volume, the
reading on the interferometer increases from 0% by volume HC to 0,5% by volume
Carbon dioxide has a higher refractive index than air, so the reading on the
interferometer for 1% by volume CO2 is approximately 0,15. Inert gas, which
contains close to 14% by volume CO2 and approximately 5% by volume O2, will
therefore give a reading on the interferometer of 2,5. (Approximately 2,0 is due to
carbon dioxide and about 0,5 is due to low oxygen content). When the
interferometer is used for measuring hydrocarbon gas in inert gas, a correction is
therefore necessary for the difference between zero setting in clean air and zero
setting in inert gas.

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Previously a method was used whereby carbon dioxide was removed from the gas
mixture before the introduction to the interferometer. The gas mixture was passed
through a tube filled with soda lime, as an absorption material. Experience has
shown that the absorbent often is not very efficient, so that measurements with the
interferometer have given too high values. It is therefore recommended to correct
for the difference between zero setting in clean air and in inert gas by using a
method, which does not include the use of the external filter. Inert gas contains 12-
14% CO2. To remove such a large concentration by means of the external filter has
proved difficult. Instead of using the filter the measurement is read directly and the
values read are reduced by 2,5%. If there is a risk of sucking in water
vapour/condensate, one can use a moisture collector (which usually accompanies the
instrument) and install it between the suction hose and the instrument.
When measuring hydrocarbon gases in an inerted tank atmosphere with an
interferometer without the soda lime, the reading must be corrected by subtracting
2,5 from the values read. For example, the correct value will be 2,5% by volume HC
for a reading of 5,0.
Optical diagram

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Function of parts:
1. Inlet port to which the sampling tube is connected.
2. Outlet port to which the aspirator tube is connected.
3. Push button switch to illuminate the scale.
4. Screw off cover to protect zero setting from any disturbance in handling the
instrument during tests.
5. Zero adjusting knob for setting interference fringe to zero position in fresh air.
6. Cock to change the sampling route either HIGH RANGE or LOW RANGE.
7. Eyepiece lens and protecting push on cover (on chain) to the right. The lens can
be focused for personal vision by turning in either direction.

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8. Aspirator bulb.
9. Screw on covers, replaceable moisture absorbent cartridge and single cell
flashlight battery.
10. Cover for electric bulb for the light source. Preparation:

1. a) Secure auxiliary filter in leather strap. Connect rubber tube to gas inlet port (1)
through auxiliary filter.
2. b) Connect rubber aspirator to gas outlet port (2).
3. c) Place cock (6) in position 5 and squeeze aspirator (8) at least five times in fresh
air to clean gas chamber.
4. d) Press the switch (3) and observe interference fringe through eyepiece.
5. e) Remove protective cover (4) of zero setting knob (5). Adjust the right one of
two black lines, just on the zero position of scale, by rotating the zero setting knob.
6. f) Put the cover back on, in order to protect the knob from any accidental
1. Suck the gas to be examined into instrument by squeezing aspirator about 5 times
or more if extension tube is used.
2. Press the switch and examine amount of shift of marked black line through
eyepiece, which gives percentage of gas on 0 - 5% scale.
3. If the marked black line or fringe is beyond scale, gas concentration is higher than
5%. In such case, change cock position to 0 - 30% scale.
4. Suck clean air into instrument by squeezing aspirator 3 to 5 times.
5. Press the switch and examine amount of shift of marked black line through
eyepiece, which gives percentage of gas on scale 0 - 30%.
After reading:
Place cock position to 5 and clean gas chamber with fresh air.

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In gaseous atmosphere draw in test sample by squeezing bulb at least 4 times for
each meter of sampling hose in use.
Press the switch (3) and observe new position on scale of RIGHT HAND EDGE of
The reading indicates the percentages of hydrocarbon gas. Repeat for further gas

9.4.11 Percent LEL measuring instruments & Explosimeters

Most types of instruments giving concentration of flammable gas in air in %LEL use
catalytic combustion as the measuring principle. Such instruments are usually called
A catalyst is a substance, which helps a chemical reaction to take place.
Exsplosimeter normally use platinum metal or platinum alloyed with other metals as
a catalyst. To make the reaction take place, the catalyst has to be heated to a high
Certain types of Explosimeters use a platinum wire as a catalyst and the reaction
between flammable gas and the oxygen in the air takes place on the surface of the
metallic wire.
The temperature of the wire may then be 1000oC. Other types of Explosimeters have
a coating on the outside of a heated metal wire, and it is the coating which catalyses
the reaction. The reaction takes place somewhat easier on this coating, and a
temperature of 500oC may be sufficient. The part of the instrument where the
reaction takes place is normally called a sensor or detector.

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The flammable gas to be measured is burned on the surface and the heat generated
results in a temperature increase. The electrical resistance of the metallic wire
increases with the temperature. The change in resistance is proportional to the
increasing temperature and to the concentration of flammable gas in the air. This
applies only to a lean mixture below the lower explosive limit.
The instruments are usually designed in such away that they first have to be
adjusted to zero with clean air. Then the atmosphere that should be measured is
sucked into the instrument where the sensor is located and a reading is made.
Finally, clean air is sucked in again and the zero setting checked. Some types of
instruments are intended for monitoring and are designed so that the sensor is
located at the spot where the measurement is to be performed.
Explosimeters are calibrated with a certain gas, for example butane. It should be
marked on the instrument, which gas is used for calibration gas. To some extent the
explosimeter will also be suitable for measurement of other flammable gases, and
many manufactures of instruments quote the correction factors for various gases
other than the calibration gas. The most frequently used calibration gases for
commercial explosimeters are methane, propane, butane, pentane, hexane or
nonane. For ships carrying crude oils, it is recommended to use butane in air or
alternatively propane in air.
Theoretical calculations of the sensitivity of an explosimeter for various flammable
gases show that the reading for 100% LEL of the gas mixture is proportional to the
heat of combustion, to the diffusion coefficient of the flammable gas and to the gas
concentration at the lower explosive limit. The diffusion coefficient is an expression
for the speed at which the molecules can move to the catalyst surface where the
reaction takes place, and the lighter molecules move faster than the heavy ones. For
example, the methane molecules move faster than the propane molecules.
Theoretical calculations of sensitivity have been performed for nearly 100 different
flammable gases, and the value for hydrocarbon gases are given in the table below:

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Type of
HC gas
Methane 100
Ethane 68
Propane 55
Hexane 37
Heptane 38
Octane 38
Nonane 31

The above figures are given in arbitrary units. As an example, an exsplosimeter

calibrated with propane will theoretically give a deflection for 100% LEL of hexane
which is (37:55) x 100 = 67% LEL. There is however, some difference between
theory and practice.

In practice there will not be the same conversion factors for different types of
Explosimeters, since the details of how the instruments are designed are of great
importance. There may also be a large difference from one instrument to another
instrument of the same type, which is greatly dependent on how good of a control
the manufacturer has over own production.
From what we have seen so far, explosimeters calibrated with butane should show
higher values for methane, lower values for pentane, hexane and the other heavier
hydrocarbon gases.
There is a complicating factor, however, in that methane is a gas, which requires a
more efficient catalyst and/or a higher catalyst temperature. On the market there are
some types of explosimeters with low sensitivity for methane and several types of
explosimeters which have been investigated showing that the sensitivity to methane
may drop after a short period of time of using the instrument. However, it still gives
a correct reading for the heavier hydrocarbon gases.
For explosimeters being used on board LNG-carriers, methane must be used as the
calibration gas. Explosimeters to be used on ships carrying crude oil, butane is
recommended to be used as calibration gas, alternatively propane. This is because
the gas mixture given off by crude oil contains relatively small amounts of methane
gas and the gas given off from sediments and oil residues contain quite negligible
concentrations of methane. Be aware that the exsplosimeter will give somewhat
misleading low values for the hydrocarbon gases that are heavier than the calibration

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The catalyst will, when used gradually, lose its ability to bring about combustion, and
all types of explosimeters have, to a greater or lesser extent, the regrettable
characteristic that the sensitivity is reduced.

All explosimeters must therefore from time to time be checked with its calibration

Certain gases may poison the catalyst, and it is known that hydrogen sulphide from
sour crude may act in this manner. A poisoning will lead to the properties of the
catalyst being temporarily or permanently damaged so that the sensitivity of the
instrument to flammable gases is greatly reduced or vanishes altogether. The best-
known catalyst poisons are silicones and vapours from leaded gasoline, which give a
solid deposit on the outer surface of the catalyst.
We have mentioned that the reading of the explosimeter depends on the
concentration and diffusion coefficient of the flammable gas. This only applies when
we have a lean mixture of flammable gas in air. For high concentration of flammable
gas, the reading will instead depend on the concentration and diffusion coefficient of
oxygen. Very high concentrations of flammable gas, in relation to oxygen, at the
catalyst surface may result in the combustion reaction being completely prevented,
so that the explosimeter gives reading of close to zero for such a high concentration.
High concentrations of flammable gas and/or low concentrations of oxygen give
misleading, ambiguous readings and may also damage the catalyst in that a sooty
layer is formed.

Therefore, never use the explosimeter at concentrations of flammable gas higher

than 100% LEL, and never at lower oxygen concentrations than approximately 10%
O2 by volume

9.4.12 Riken, portable combustible detector, model GP-204 General description
The model GP-204 hand held portable gas detector is a compact battery operated
portable instrument used for taking an air sample and indicating the presence and
concentration of combustible gas. Samples of the air under test are drawn by means
of a rubber aspirator bulb and analysed for combustible gas content on a heated
platinum filament in a Wheatstone bridge measuring circuit. A built-in meter indicates
combustible gas content in units of explosibility. Power for operation of the
instrument is provided by built-in dry cells. A probe and extension hose permit
sampling from remote locations and the instrument fits in a compact leather case
with an over the shoulder-carrying strap. The model GP-204 is suitable and
recommended for testing tanks, manholes, vessels other spaces to determine
presence or absence of combustible gas in pressure cylinders, pipe lines and other
closed systems. It is a valuable aid to safety of operations whenever combustible
gases or vapours are handled.

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”D” is exposed to the gas.

”C” is isolated from the gas.
The resistance ”D” increases during catalytic combustion.

Samples of air , which may contain flammable gases or vapours, are sucked through
the instrument by means of a suction bellow.
The content of flammable Gases effects a heated platinum filament (D = detecting
element) which forms part of a Wheatstone bridge measuring circuit as shown in the
circuit diagram on the right hand side. Besides the measuring filament “D”, this
circuit includes a compensating filament “C” and two fixed resistance’s “R1 & R2”.

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The flammable gases or vapours in the air are oxidised and burn at the surface of
the measuring filament “D”, and the evolution of heat causes a change in the
resistance of the platinum wire which gives rise to an imbalance in the Wheatstone
bridge. This corresponds to the content of flammable gases in the sample. Operation
In a gas hazardous area the instrument should always be in the carrying case and
strapped to this.
Before taking the instrument to the hazardous area, check the battery voltage. To
check the voltages, put the switch in “VOLT ADJ:” position. Meter should rise to the
“check” position near top of the scale. Lift and turn VOLT ADJ. Control clockwise to
determine maximum voltage setting. If the needle cannot be set beyond the VOLT
ADJ mark, batteries need recharging or replacing for full capacity. Do not attempt to
use instrument at all if reading cannot be set up to the mark or beyond the mark.
Do not replace batteries in a hazardous area; bring the instrument to a safe area
before changing taking place.

If the voltage is satisfactory, continue with the next steps of preliminary adjustment,
as follows:
1. Confirm operating of pilot light/meter illuminating lamp.
2. With sample inlet in fresh air, squeeze bulb several times to flush out any
remaining gas from the instrument.
3. Check zero setting by turning the switch in “ON” position. Meter should read close
to zero. If not, lift and turn the “ZERO” knob to bring the reading exactly to “0”.
4. Couple the sampling hose to the instrument’s inlet pipe, which is located on the
left-hand end, and also connect the probe to the end of the hose.
5. Admit a sample of some combustible gas to the end of probe and confirm that the
meter rises upscale.
Instrument is adjusted and ready to use. Now it may be turned off and carried to the
job area. To run a gas test, proceed as follow:

1. Turn the instrument to VOLT ADJ. position, adjust voltage if necessary

2. Turn the instrument to ON position, zero adjust if necessary.
3. Hold probe within space to be tested. Squeeze bulb several times (4 times for
each metre of sampling hose being used) while watching the meter and observe
maximum reading.
4. After completion of test, remove probe from test space. Flush the instrument with
fresh air and turn it off.
The sampling hose being used for this instrument should not be used for sampling
with other instruments. Make it a rule that a specific measuring instrument has its
own sampling hose. Interpretation
Meter readings are taken on a scale graduated 0 – 100% LEL. The abbreviation LEL
stands for Lower Explosive Limit and represents the lowest concentration which can
be ignited by a source of ignition, hence the lowest concentration which can produce
an explosion. This quantity is also spoken as the LFL – Lower Flammable Limit.

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The mode GP – 204 is calibrated before shipment to read directly in percent of LEL of
iso-butane in air, based on the known LEL for iso-butane of 1,8% by volume. This
1,8% by volume will produce a reading of 100% LEL and lower concentrations will
be read in proportion.

Other combustible gases will read approximately correctly in terms of explosibility,

but for the maximum accuracy a calibration curve for various gases has to be used.
This curve is delivered together with the instrument. This curve is drawn in terms of
percent LEL for both co-ordinates. See the table below. Maintenance

Calibration and adjustment - In addition to the normal operating controls found on

the top of the panel, the following auxiliary controls are available.

Calibration potentiometer - This adjustment is used to set meter reading to the

desired level, while sampling a known concentration of combustible gas. In the GP-
204 the top plate must be removed by taking out the screws in each corner. The
calibration potentiometer is a slotted-shaft control located above right upper corner
of meter. Turn clockwise to increase meter reading.
Element replacement - The element assembly, consisting of an active filament and a

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similar but enclosed reference filament, should be replaced if zero cannot be set
within range of “ZERO ADJ.”, or if reading cannot be set high enough on a calibration
gas, using calibration potentiometer.
1. Loosen the two panel hold-down screws, remove and invert top panel.
2. With switch off, loosen (do not remove) the three screws holding the terminals for
red, black and white wires. Pull wires from terminal.
3. Remove the two Phillips head screws holding cross-shaped element retainer in
place. Pull out both filaments and replace with new ones in same position.
4. Check that gaskets are in place on element before installation. Be sure that the
active (black wire) filament is in the cavity with the flame arrestor. Install wires on
terminals as before.
5. Turn instrument on and adjust zero.
6. If a calibration gas is available reset span. Batteries
The model GP-204 is furnished with two standard size “D” dry cells. These dry cells
(UM-1/1,5 size D/R 20 Maxell 100) will give 3 hours (maximum) of operating time.
When meter cannot be set as high as the “Check” line with switch in “VOLT ADJ:”
position and “VOLT ADJ.” knob all the way clockwise, batteries require replacement
or recharging.
To replace batteries, remove instrument from hazardous area. Take the instrument
out of the leather case, and loosen the coin slotted captive screw found in centre of
bottom plate. Remove bottom plate, exposing batteries in their spring contact
holders. Pull old batteries out and install new ones in the same position. Observing
polarity as marked on holder. Sample system

The hose used is Teflon lined synthetic rubber jacketed and immune to absorption or
attack by any combustible vapours or solvents. Keep hose clean and are sure that
couplings make airtight contact. Check occasionally by holding finger over hose inlet.
Bulb should remain flattened after squeezing if there is no leak. Extension hoses in
various lengths are available.

Flame arrestor
The active filament is installed within a sintered bronze porous metal cup, which acts
as a flame arrestor to retain explosions that may occur when sampling explosive
gas/air mixtures. The flame arrestor may be removed by taking out the four screws
that hold the plate in which the elements are installed. If flame arrestor is dusty,
wet, oily or corroded, it must be cleaned or replaced.
Preferred cleaning method is by washing in detergent solution, rinsing from the
inside out, and drying thoroughly in air. Before re-installing flame arrestor in
instrument, be sure that the reaction chamber cavity and incoming lines are clean
and dry.

Meter Lamp
The meter lamp is on whenever the instrument is on, and provides illumination to
permit reading meter in dark places. If lamp fails, replace it as follows:

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1. Remove four screws holding top plate to the top panel. Take off top plate
exposing lamp. Loosen set of screws, which lock lamp wires to terminal and pull the
lamp out. Install new lamp in the same position. Precautions and notes on operation

1. Heated samples - When sampling spaces such as hot tanks that are warmer than
the instrument remember that condensation can occur as the sample passes through
the cool sample line. Water vapour condensed in this way can block the flow system
and corrode the flame arrestor. A water trap can be used to control this, and is
available as an accessory. If heated hydrocarbon vapours of the heavier
hydrocarbons (flash point 90oF or above) are present, they may also condense in the
sample line and fail to reach the filament. Thus an erroneous low reading may be
2. Element poisoning - Certain substances have the property of desensitising the
catalytic surface of the platinum filament. These substances are termed “Catalyst
Poison” and can result in reduced sensitivity or in failure to give a reading on
samples containing combustible gas. The most commonly encountered catalyst
poisons are the silicone vapours, and samples containing such vapours even in small
proportions should be avoided. Occasional calibration checks on known gas samples
are necessary, especially if the possibility exists of exposure to silicones. A calibration
check on a known iso-butane gas is the most dependable as an indication of normal
sensitivity. A convenient calibration accessory is available and described under
3. Rich mixture - When high concentrations of gas are sampled, especially those
above the LEL, considerable heat is liberated at the filament. This heat may cause
damage to the filament or tend to shorten its life, so sustained testing of samples
beyond the meter range should be avoided. When sampling rich mixtures, the
following instrument action may be expected.
· Mixture up to 100% LEL reading on scale.

· Mixtures between LEL and Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) readings at top of meter.

· Mixtures above UEL – When a sample is introduced, the meter is sent to the top of
scale, then comes back down on scale or below, depending upon concentration. Very
rich mixtures will give a zero or negative reading. The alarm circuit thus insures that
a very rich sample will not be overlooked, as it could otherwise be with a simple
indicating instrument.

4. Oxygen deficient mixtures - Samples, which do not have the normal proportion of
oxygen, may tend to read low if there is not enough oxygen to react with all
combustible gas present in the sample. As a general rule, samples containing 10%
oxygen or more have enough oxygen to give a full reading on any combustible gas
sample up to the LEL.
5. Oxygen enriched mixtures - Samples having more than the normal proportion of
oxygen will give a normal reading. However, they should be avoided because the
flame arrestor used is not dense enough to arrest flames from combustible gas in
oxygen, which can be much more intense than those in air can. Do not attempt to

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use the model GP-204 on samples of combustible gas in oxygen.

6. Accessories - Additional lengths of extension hoses may be used for sampling from
deep tanks and spaces. The polyurethane hoses are satisfactory for most samples
including natural gas, hydrogen, and gasoline vapours. Where there is danger of
water being drawn into the instrument, a water trap should be used. This glass-
bodied trap, with sintered metal filter, couples to the indicator inlet and will collect
water that is drawn into or condensed in sample hose. Inspect trap periodically while
in use, and empty or clean bowl and filter whenever visible water or dust
accumulate. Regular sample hoses connect to inlet of trap when it is installed on the

9.4.13 Servomex, oxygen analyser, type OA 262

WARNING! To ensure safe operation in hazardous applications, the analyser must be

used to comply with the conditions of certification, relevant standards and codes of
practice. Failure to do so may invalidate the certification. Any modification to the
standard analyser, or repairs or servicing using parts that are not specified or
approved by Servomex, will invalidate certification. In case of doubt contact
Servomex or their agents. General description

The Servomex portable oxygen analyser type 262A is a robust lightweight instrument
built for industrial, marine and laboratory applications.
The oxygen content of the gas is indicated directly on a 70mm scale taut band meter
after suitable zero and span adjustments. The ranges, 0-100, 0-25, and 0-10% are
selected by a rotary switch on the front panel. Battery checks are also selected with
this switch.
This analyser is used on marine applications throughout the world. The front panel
controls are symbolic, such that engineers from many different nations can
understand them.
All analysers are supplied with a hand aspirator and silica gel dryer. Batteries are not
supplied with the analyser.
The 262A is powered by dry cells batteries which are housed in a waterproof
compartment at the rear of the analyser.
The analyser is supplied with a filter, elements of which are and simply replaced from
the front of the instrument. Hazardous area and shipboard use

Hazardous area - For hazardous areas the 262A is certified by BASEEFA as
intrinsically safe code Ex ia s IIC T4 to SFA 3012, SFA 3009. Certificate BAS No.

Instruments up to serial no. 2983 are approved by “Factory Mutual” for use in class
1, division 1, groups B, C and D hazardous locations. Report 25243 dated August
30th, 1975 applies.
Seaworthiness - Lloyds has approved the analyser as suitable for shipboard use.

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Certificate Lon. 409515.574 applies.

The Norwegian Maritime Directorate (Sjøfartsdirektoratet) has also approved the

analyser for use on board ship. (Reference letter A-44140/75.AGR/MI dated 24.10.75

Specification Specification
0-10%, 0-25%, 0-
100% O2. Selected
by front panel
Oxygen ranges
switch. Indication
on front panel

0-100% O2. +/- 3%

Accuracy F.S.D.0-25% O2.
+/- 3% F.S.D.0-
10% O2. +/- 3%
The analyser will
operate between
the temperature of
–10oC to 50oC (14
to 122oF). The
Effect of ambient
accuracy will be
temperature .
maintained for a
temperature change
of +/- 10oC (18oF)
of the calibration
0,01% oxygen per
Effect of tilt
Weight (net) 3kg. (6,5Ib).
Maximum inlet
Sample pressure pressure, 2 psi.
0 to 3 I/min,
Flow rate pressure depending on
Acetal copolymer,
Glass micro fibre,
Materials contact
Nickel, Platinum,
with sample gas
Pyrex glass, Quartz

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glass, Stainless steel

316, Synthetic
rubber, Viton.
Zero on O2 free
nitrogen (N2). Span
Calibration gases on clean dry air or
high purity O2 if
Waterproof case
with shoulder strap.
Accessories Drying tube. Two
hexagon wrenches
(2,5 and 3mm).
Polypropylene. The
case is splash proof
and sealed against
ingress of water,
provided the sealing
Case material
gaskets around the
front panel and
compartment are in
good condition. How the Servomex oxygen analyser works

The physical property, which distinguishes oxygen from most other gases, is its
paramagnetism. Faraday discovered this in 1851, who demonstrated that a magnet
attracted a hollow glass sphere at the end of a horizontal rod supported by silk fibres
when filled with oxygen.

In portable oxygen analysers, the convenience and sensitivity of Faraday’s

arrangement are increased by having a sphere at both ends of the bar, forming a

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“dumb-bell”, which seals the gas surrounding it. The dumb-bell is suspended in a
symmetrical non-uniform magnetic field, and being slightly diamagnetic, it takes up a
position away from the most intense part of the field. When the surrounding gas
contains oxygen, the dumb-bell spheres are pushed further out of the field by the
relatively strongly paramagnetic oxygen. The strength of the torque acting on the
dumb-bell will be proportional to the paramagnetism of the surrounding gas: it can
therefore be used as a measure of the oxygen concentration.

The only common gases having comparable paramagnetic susceptibility are NO, NO2
and CO2. A magnetic oxygen analyser cannot therefore be used where these gases
occur in the mixture other than in trace amounts. It is important to note, however,
that in the direct method of measuring susceptibility no other physical property of
the gases has any significant effect.

The heart of the Servomex analyser is a measuring cell using these principles, but
having a rare metal suspension in place of the delicate materials used in earlier
designs. The “zero” position of the dumb-bell is sensed by a split photocell receiving
light reflected from a mirror on the suspension. The output from the photocell is
amplified and fed back to a coil wound on the dumb-bell, so that the torque, due to
the oxygen in the sample, is balanced by a restoring torque, due to the feedback
current. The measuring system is thus “null-balanced”, and has all the inherent
advantages of this type of system.

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Because of the extremely linear relationship between the feedback current and the
susceptibility of the sample, a proportional output voltage can be developed, and
various ranges can be obtained by means of a switched attenuator. Linearity of scale
also makes it possible to calibrate the instrument for all ranges by checking at two
points only. For example, accurate calibration is obtained by using nitrogen for zero
and air for setting the span at 21% Operating procedures

Installation and changing of the batteries. The following batteries are required:
3 of 1,5V Type IEC LR6 (HP7)
1 of 9V Type IEC 6F22 (PP3).
It is recommended that alkaline batteries be used.

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The batteries are housed in a waterproof compartment at the bottom of the

analyser. This compartment is opened using the 3mm-hexagon wrench supplied with
the analyser.

A battery strap is provided for easy removal of old batteries. The batteries must be
installed with the correct polarity, as indicated by + and - signs moulded into the
plastic holder.

Various resistors are potted into a recess in the battery compartment.

Under no circumstances should these components be removed or tampered with.

The stud of a 1,5V battery is “+” and the base “-”. These batteries will not make
contact if fitted the wrong way round. The 9V battery has a terminal clip that can
only mate when the battery is correctly positioned.
Care must be taken, when fitting new batteries, not to damage the gasket sealing
the edge of the battery compartment. If the analyser is to be stored for a longer
period of time, remove the batteries.
Do not replace batteries in a hazardous area Battery checks

Check that the batteries are fully operational:
Select switch position “B1”. The reading should be greater than 60 on the 0-100
scale. Change the 9V battery if the reading is low.
Select switch position “B2”. The reading should be greater than 60 on the 0-100
scale. Change the 1,5V batteries if the reading is low. Calibration
Frequency of calibration - Check the zero adjustment weekly. If there is a large
difference in ambient temperature between the point of measurement and the last
calibration, it is advised that calibration should be rechecked.
The span adjustment should be checked daily when in use, due to variance in
atmospheric pressure.
Set Zero - Switch the control to 10% range. Introduce oxygen free nitrogen into the
instrument at a pressure between 1 to 2 psig. (7 to 14 kPa). Stop the gas flow.
Adjust the screw for zero adjustment so that the meter reads 0% oxygen. Span
Switch the control to the 25% range. Introduce dry air into the instrument at a
pressure between 1 and 2 psig (7 to 14 kPa).
The hand aspirator and a drying tube are convenient for this. Stop the gas flow.
Adjust the screw for the span adjustment so that the meter reads 21% oxygen on
the 0-25% scale.
When changing from air or oxygen to nitrogen or vice versa, ensure that the filter,
cell and sample lines have been purged thoroughly. One minute with the standard
hand aspirator should be enough. With long sample lines a pump is recommended.
When using the instrument for higher concentrations of oxygen it is recommended
that pure oxygen is used on the 0-100% range for optimum accuracy.

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To prevent possible damage, it is not recommended that air or pure oxygen be put
into the analyser when it is switched to the 0-10% range. Measuring sample gas

Connect the hand aspirator to the sample inlet by means of the drying tube. Connect
sample tube to the aspirator and place in space to be checked.
Check the battery voltage. Set switch to range required.
Pump the hand aspirator until the reading is steady. Ensure that sufficient sample
gas has been taken to flush out the sample lines.

The drying tube must always be used, unless the sample is known to be dry. The
analyser will be damaged if water or liquids are allowed to get into the instrument.

However, the crystals can be regenerated by removing from the drying tube and
drying in an oven at about 110-1200C. Maintenance

Only qualified personnel who are familiar
with good workshop practice should do
maintenance of the analyser.
Replacement parts should be to the
quality specified by Servomex in the part
lists. The use of inferior replacement
components may degrade the
performance of the analyser and
invalidate any certificates, which may
apply. Replacement of measuring cell

1. Remove the six hexagon socket stainless steel screws holding the front panel into
the case and keep them in a secure place.
2. Remove the chassis by placing one hand over the front, and turn the analyser
upside down. This will prevent the chassis falling out accidentally. Should the chassis
not come out very readily, bring the analyser sharply down on the flat of the hand,
which is guarding the front. Never substitute a hard surface for a hand.
3. Unscrew the nuts on the cell supporting the gas connections (use non-magnetic
4. Unsolder the electrical leads. Apply minimal heat to the pins on the cell.
5. Remove the two hexagon socket screws, which retain the cell and slacken the
third retaining screw, which is situated between the inside of the lower magnet space
and the chassis wall.

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6. Withdraw the measuring cell and replace it with a new cell type 286. When fitting
a new cell, ensure that the ball of the dumbbell, which is nearest to the cell window,
is nearest the front panel.
7. Tighten the remaining screws in the reverse order described for the removal of the
8. Solder the electrical connections to the solder pins on the cell. Black to the pin
with a black spot near it and yellow to the pin with a yellow spot.
9. Reconnect the cell gas connections.
10. Adjust the zero and span of the analyser.
Should the analyser not zero or the adjustment is at one end of its travel, readjust
the photocells. It may not be possible to span the analyser, in this case change R23
on the printed circuit board 00262905, to a value, which gives a reading with air
between 20 and 22 % oxygen. For circuit diagram, see the instruction manual. Replacement of photocells

1. The photocells are located to the side of the magnet assembly, just in front of and
above the measuring cell.
2. Release the two screws, which fix the retaining plate to the photocell mount.
3. Remove the screws and plate and manoeuvre the photocell mount through the
springs of the support.
4. Unsolder the leads.
5. Replace the new photocells on their mount in reverse order.
6. Leave the two retaining screws slack and pass nitrogen into the analyser.
7. Ensure the zero adjustment is at the centre of its travel and move the photocells
until the analyser reads as near to zero as possible.
8. Tighten the screws and make a final zero adjustment.
9. Adjust the span.
10. Confirm with the analyser’s instruction book. Replacement of LED

1. Remove the two screws, which hold the photocell mount to the control magnet
2. Allow the photocell assembly and mount to lay away from the magnet.
3. Remove the two screws holding the LED mount. Withdraw the LED and mount and
unsolder the leads to the LED.
4. Remove sleeving from old LED and discard lamp. Replace with new LED and
sleeve and solder the leads.
5. Replace the LED and secure the retaining strip.
6. Replace the photocell assembly and mount.
7. Replace the cell.
8. Adjust the zero and span.
9. Confirm with the analyser’s instruction manual.
For replacing the amplifier board, meter, filter block and circuit description do
confirm with the instruction manual.

Any doubts about the analyser or its equipment, contact the manufacturer or any of
the manufacturer's agents.

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9.4.14 Riken portable oxygen indicator, Model Ox - 226

1. Summary
Riken portable oxygen indicator, Model OX-226 and OX-227 provide a quick,
convenient method for determination of oxygen content of any atmosphere. It is
intended primarily as an indicator of oxygen deficiency, with good readability from 0
– 25%. The instrument is routinely calibrated on normal atmospheric oxygen
concentration (21%). These models are most suitable and recommended for testing
tanks, manholes, vessels and other spaces to determine safety from the standpoints
of oxygen deficiency before entering and while work is in progress.

2. Principle
The oxygen cell operates by an electro-chemical process in which a voltage is set up
between two electrodes. Under a test where one electrode is exposed to the
atmosphere, a change in oxygen concentration on this electrode produces a
proportional change in the cell’s output voltage.
Therefore, an increase in oxygen concentration will “speed up” the electro-chemical
process, producing a higher output voltage, and a decrease in oxygen concentration
will “slow down” the process, lowering the output voltage. The centre electrode is
exposed to the atmosphere by means of a Teflon membrane placed directly in
contact with the polished top surface. This Teflon membrane serves two functions
simultaneously. First, it has the ability to pass oxygen molecules freely, thus placing
the electrode in direct contact with the atmosphere and secondly, it keeps the
electrolyte contained in the cavity between the two electrodes.

3. Measurement procedure
a). Preparation - Connect the sampling hose (6) to the gas sampling probe (7) and
then connect it to the gas inlet of the instrument.
b). Voltage checks of battery - Turn the control switch (1) to “Batt” zone and check
the meter needle marks inside of “Batt” zone. If the case of model OX-226, the

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battery drop can be heard as a buzzer sound.

c). Span adjustment - Turn the control switch (1) to “25” and make span adjustment
by spanning adjusting knob so as to bring the meter needle to 21%. When making
span adjustment of Model OX-227, try it with 0-25% range.

4. Measurement
After finishing the above procedure items 1, 2 and 3, the instrument is ready to run.
Introduce the sampling probe to the source and start measurement. In the case of
Model OX-226, when the oxygen concentration is less than 18% by volume, alarm
light (4) illuminates and it gives us the warning of oxygen deficiency by buzzer
1. Check the flow pump by the flow monitor during operation.
2. Operate the instrument in leather case when in use.
3. The replacement of batteries and recharging procedure must be done in non-
hazardous areas.

5.Maintenance procedure
The replacement of batteries and recharging procedure.
a). Take off the leather case from the instrument and turn the battery box knob (11)
to “open” position.
b). Pull out the whole battery box and replace the batteries with new ones.
c). When the replacement of batteries is finished, put back the battery box in correct
position and turn the battery box knobs (11) to “Lock” position with finger press.
Replacement procedure (Ni-Cd battery).

When Ni-Cd batteries are used for the instrument, detach the label (12) of charging
inlet and insert the exclusive charger to the charging jack, and plug the charger into
AC 100V. The recharging takes 15 hours.

Replacement of sensor.
When the meter needle can not be adjusted to 21% by turning the span adjusting
knob and the indication of meter needle gets unstable, this is the sign to replace the
sensor. In this case, take off the bottom screws of the instrument and remove the
cover. The cover comes off by sliding it sidewise. Turn the sensor to left and adjust

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the mark to “open”. Now the sensor can be removed. Insert the new sensor and turn
it in clockwise direction to the mark “lock”. Place the cover back.

Replacement of filter
The filters are filled in the gas-sampling probe and in instrument. When they appear
dirty, replace them with new ones.

Take off the tip of the sampling probe by turning the metal part of roulette and
replace the cotton filter with a new one.

Pull out the filter holder (10) of the instrument’s flank and take out the filter. Replace
it with a new one.

Zero adjustment
As the zero adjustment is factory set, there is no need of zero adjustment procedure
in normal operation. But, when it is high sensitive type instrument such as Model OX-
227A with 0-5 and 0-25% etc., make zero adjustment. Induct 100% clean nitrogen
and turn the adjusting screw to bring the needle to zero.

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9.4.15 Detector tubes for health hazardous gases

Health hazardous gases may be detected through chemical colour reactions, and
several manufacturers make metering pumps and accompanying detector tubes for a
great number of various gases.
Probably the most convenient and suitable equipment to use for measuring very low
concentrations of toxic gases on board tankers are chemical indicator tubes.
These tubes consist of a sealed glass tube containing a proprietary filling which is
designed to react with a specific gas and to give a visible indication of the
concentration of that gas. To use the device, the seals at each end of the glass tube
are broken, the tube is inserted in a bellows-type fixed volume displacement hand-
pump, and a prescribed volume of gas mixture is drawn through the tube at a rate
fixed by the bellow’s expansion rate. A colour change occurs along the tube and the
length of the discoloration, which is a measure of the gas concentration, is read off a
scale integrated with the tube. In some versions of these instruments, a hand
operated injection syringe is used instead of a bellow pump.
It is important that all the components used for any measurement should be from
the same manufacturer. It is not permissible to use a tube from one manufacturer
with a hand pump from another manufacturer. It is also important that the
manufacturers’ operating instructions are carefully observed.
Since the measurement depends on passing a fixed volume of gas through the glass
tube, if an extension hose is used it should be placed between the glass tube and the
hand pump.
The tubes are designed and intended to measure concentrations of gas in the air.
Thus measurements made in a ventilated tank, in preparation for tank entry, should
be reliable.
Under some circumstances errors can occur if several gases are present at the same
time, as one gas can interference with the measurement of another. The
manufacturer should be consulted for guidance.
For each type of tube the manufacturer must guarantee the standards of accuracy
laid down by national standards. Tanker operators should consult the regulatory
authority appropriate for the ship’s flag.

9.4.16 Dräger Multi Gas Detector

In our experience, detector tubes and metering pumps made by “Dräger” are the
most frequently used. A more detailed description is given in the instruction book for
“Dräger Multi Gas Detector”.

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Various chemical substances are used for tube fillings, depending on the gas to be
analysed. For some gases there are several types of tubes, so that there are tubes
for measuring very low concentrations and for measuring larger concentration
ranges. In some cases two scales will be marked on the tube, corresponding to
different numbers of pump strokes.
It is important that the pump is checked to see if it is tight before it is being used,
sealing the opening with an unused detector tube does this. The bellows should then
use more than 10 minutes to expand for the pump to be satisfactory. Cleaning the
valves, according to the instructions accompanying the instrument may usually
eliminate any leakage that has arisen.
To avoid corrosion, the pump must be purged with air by performing a number of
pumping strokes each time after use.
To perform measurements with difficult accessibility, an extension hose may be
used. The detector tube is placed in the suction of the hose. Opening of the tubes

Both ends of the tube are opened in the hole, which is provided for that purpose in
the pump. A breaking socket accompanying the apparatus can also be used for this.
This prevents glass fragments from falling down. Installation of the tube in the pump

The opened sampling tube is inserted into the pump head so that the arrow on the
tube points toward the pump. The tube must be attached firmly and tightly in the
pump head so that false air is not sucked in.

Gas Tankers Advance Course Suction of a gas sample

The bellow is pressed together completely and is then released. During the
compression the air is squeezed out of the bellow through an exhaust valve. The
suction action of the pump takes place when the compression springs inside the
bellow expand after the compression. The air (to be measured) flows through the
sampling tube and into the bellow while this again expands to its original volume.
The suction movement comes to an end when the distance chain is tight once again,
and at this stage 100cm3 has been sucked through the tube.
The operating instructions, which accompany each packet of tubes, give i.e. the
approximate time for each pump stroke, for example 15 - 25 seconds. The time will
depend on how tightly the powder is packed in the tube.
The specified number of pump strokes, indicated in the operating instructions, should
be used for each sampling tube.

9.4.17 MSA – Detector Tubes and Kwik-draw Pump

1. Quick and inexpensive to use.
2. A reliable method of testing more than 120 hazardous gases and vapours.
3. Kwik-draw pumps offer accurate one-handed automatic stroke counter and unique
end of stroke indicator on deluxe version.
4. Tubes are printed with easy-to-read scales.
5. Specialised kits are available for use in HAZMAT work and underground storage
tank applications.

SA’s Kwik-Draw and Kwik-Draw Deluxe Pumps can be used with an assortment of
MSA detector tubes to spot-test the atmosphere for a wide variety of toxic
substances. Kwik-Draw Pumps are designed for one-hand operation and consistent
delivery of a sample draw volume of 100 millilitres (ml). The pumps are constructed
with a shaft-guided compression system for a more consistent and replicable flow
rate and volume per stroke than may be available with hand-guided pumps. MSA
offers detector tubes for measuring more than 150 gases and vapours.

Kwik-Draw Detector Tube Pumps

Kwik-Draw Pumps allow detection of gases and vapours with the squeeze of a

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handle. To obtain a precise (100ml) sample volume, the user simply grasps the
handgrip and pushes the knob. The pump’s compression system provides the guiding
action to drive a spring-loaded bellow pump.
An internal easy-to-read stroke counter shows the exact number of strokes
performed and provides a positive stop when the stroke is fully compressed.
A second model, the Kwik-Draw Deluxe Pump has a unique end-of-stroke indicator
that “winks” after the precise volume of air is drawn, confirming that enough air has
been sampled for a successful reading.

Detector tubes.
MSA/Auer detectors are made of glass, have break-off tips and are filled with treated
chemical granules for sampling a variety of substances. Most MSA/Auer detector
tubes are packaged 10 in a box.
For ordering information, see the Detector Tube Summary Chart which follows the
Detector. After selecting the appropriate tube, the user would break off the tubes’
end tips and attach the tube to the sampling pump. After air is drawn through the
tube by the pump, the chemical layer in the tube changes colour if the test gas or
vapour is present in the air.
The length or shade of the colour-change, indicates the concentration of the gas or
vapour in the air. A scale is printed on each tube for interpretation of data.

Controlled Interchange ability of MSA/AUER Detector Tubes and Pumps with Other
Manufacturers’ Tubes and Pumps.

As long as a pump meets the following criteria, it may be used with any detector
tube designed for use with that kind of pump. Pumps meeting these criteria are
1. The characteristics of the pump- volume per stroke, sampling time and flow –
must be within the same accuracy range.
2. The detector tubes must have an outer diameter of 7 mm and be factory-
calibrated with a pump that meets the criteria of (1) above.
3. The manufacturer of tubes and pumps must operate under a certified quality
assurance program.
Based on these criteria, the following pumps are interchangeable:
· MSA's Kwik-Draw Pumps.
· AUER's Gas Tester II H Pump.
· Dräger's Model 31 Bellow Pump.
· Dräger's Accuro Pump.

Sampling Pump Operation and Maintenance.

The Kwik-Draw Pump is designed to measure concentrations of gases and vapours

when used with AUER/MSA Detector Tubes.
Description - The Kwik-Draw Pump is a one-handed, manually operated bellow pump
of 100cc capacity.
Tube Holder - This rubber part permits mounting of detector tubes, remote sampling

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lines or other detectors.

Filter Disc - This porous plastic disc mounted in the rubber tube holder protects the
pump from dirt and dust particles, which may alter the flow or damage the pump.

Exhaust Valve - Located under the valve cover, this valve closes as the bellow re-
inflates, and readily opens on the exhaust stroke so that blow-back through the tube
holder is negligible.

Stroke counter - For convenience, a stroke counter is incorporated into the pump

End-of-stroke indicator - As the bellow begins to re-inflate, and after the knob is
released, the indicator eyeball turns high visibility green. As the vacuum decreases,
the eye begins to roll back to black. The stroke is over when the eye is all black.

Note! - Kwik-Draw Pump (part no. 488543) does not have an end-of-stroke indicator.

· Using the breaker on the pump, break off both tips of the detector tube.

· Using a twisting motion, insert the tube into the rubber tube holder. The arrow on
the tube should point toward the pump.

· Re-zero stroke counter.

· With all four fingers on the handle, depress the knob with your palm.

Note! Watch the stroke counter to ensure proper sample volume, the counter will
only advance if a full pump stroke is taken.
· Release the knob.

· As the pump re-inflates, the end-of-stroke indicator turns to high-visibility green.

The stroke is over when the eye returns to the all black state.

Note! If your pump does not have the end-of-stroke indicator, wait 30 seconds after
full bellow inflation to ensure that all 100cc of the sample has been drawn through
the tube. The detector tube must be held in the sampling area during this period.

· To evaluate the stain, follow the instructions provided with the detector tubes.

Remote sampling
Remote sampling is accomplished by putting the pump, connecting tube, remote
sampling line and detector tube together, in this order.

Under conditions of normal use, this pump should require little maintenance.
Depending on the frequency of use, periodic cleaning and checks for correct

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performance as recommended.
Tube holder - Replace tube holder when it shows signs of wear or loss of elasticity. If
filter is not clogged or cracked, save the filter discs for re-use in new tube holder.
Filter disc - Periodically remove the filter disc for cleaning or replacement.
Remove filter disc from tube holder by rolling flange part of tube holder down and
away from the disc.
Gently tap or blow on the surface to remove any foreign matter.
Replace disc so previously exposed surface is once again facing away from pump.

If shaft becomes dirty or if bellow inflation is jerky, remove shaft by unscrewing,
then clean with auto wax.

1. With the valve cover removed, check the valves for dirt or debris.

2. Remove dirt with a gentle puff of air or by using a soft brush.

3. Replace valve(s) if necessary.

Pump performance test

After extended idleness and periodically during use, check the pump for proper
performance with the following test:

1. Plug pump inlet by inserting an unbroken detector tube into tube holder.

2. Deflate pump fully, release, and wait 10 minutes. The pump is leak-free if the
distance from the bellow to the frame is ½ inch or greater after 10 minutes. If the
pump leaks check the tube holder and, if necessary, the valves (see Maintenance).
After repair, re-test for leakage.

Warning! Use of a pump that leaks may result in the under-estimation of a hazard
and could result in property damage, injury or death.

Read the instruction book following the Detector!


In 9.4, we saw that when measuring oxygen content we use the instrument
“Servomex OA-262”. For measuring hydrocarbon gases in percent of volume the
instrument, we use the “Riken 17HC”, and an explosimeter, “Riken GP-204” is used
for measuring combustible gas below LEL in air. Finally, the “Drager Multi Gas
Detector” is used for measuring low concentrations of toxic gas.
When an inert gas, typically flue gas, is added to a hydrocarbon gas/air mixture, the
result increases the lower flammability limit hydrocarbon concentration in order to
decrease the upper flammability limit concentration.
The effects illustrated on the following two diagrams, one for crude oil and one for
propane gas, should only be regarded as a guide to the principles involved, and

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should not be used for deciding acceptable gas compositions.

Every point on the diagram represents a hydrocarbon gas/air/inert gas mixture,
specified in terms of its hydrocarbon and oxygen contents.
The first flammability diagram is for hydrocarbon gas above crude oil where the UEL
is 11% and the LEL is 1,5%. The left side of the diagram (vertical) gives the
hydrocarbon gas value. The bottom line of the diagram (horizontal) represents the
oxygen content from 0% to 21%. Note that 21% oxygen represents 100% clean air
and, as mentioned before, 10,8% by volume of oxygen is the minimum oxygen
content present in a mixture's ignition.
Also when measuring 21% oxygen, the atmosphere contains 100% clean air, so the
ratio will be close to one to five. For example when measuring the oxygen content at
20,5% volume, 0,5% volume oxygen is still missing in the atmosphere in order to
call it clean air. When multiplying 0,5% with 5, the result will be 2,5%, and the
amount of clean air in the atmosphere will be (100-2,5)= 97,5%. The missing 2,5%
from the clean air contain unknown gas concentrations. So, proper tank venting is
extremely important.
The following example is based on a cargo of crude oil. During discharging the cargo
tanks where refilled with inert gas. The quality of the supplied inert gas was in
accordance to the regulations in force. After discharging is completed the tank
atmosphere contains a mixture of inert gas and “cargo gas”. During the ballast
voyage, the arrival ballast tanks are cleaned. Water washing takes place in an inerted
atmosphere and before any tanks are vented with air, they have to be re-inerted, in
order to avoid entering the flammable zone.

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Follow example “1” on the this page:

After water washing is completed the measurements in point “A” give the following
values: HC=15%, O2=3%. These values are plotted on the diagram and give the
point “A”.
Point “B” represents 21% oxygen and 0% HC.
From point “B” a line is drawn against the left side of the diagram by keeping
sufficient clearance from the flammable zone. The inert gas that is supplied contains
an O2 of 4,5%.
Point “C” on the diagram is the point, which the re-inerting is heading toward. All
measurements will follow a straight line from point “A” to point “C”.
Where the line from point “A” crosses the line from point “B” the following
measurements are found: HC= 2,6% and O2= 4,2%, point “D”.
In point “D” we stop the inerting and start venting with air. All measurements taken
from now on will follow a straight line from point “D” toward point “B”.
If we had started to vent with air at point “A”, all the measurements taken would
have followed a straight line from point “A” toward point “B”, through the flammable
zone involving a great deal of danger. Avoid all contact with the flammable zone!
At point “D” there it is still too early to use the explosimeter, because the content of
hydrocarbon gas is above LEL. Continue to use the instrument, which measures
hydrocarbon gas by volume until the HC-gas content is below 1,5% by volume. This
is the LEL value in this example. Also, to repeat, the hydrocarbon concentration of

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1,5% by volume corresponds to 100% LEL.

In point “E”, the measurements are HC= 1% and O2= 15,3%. The hydrocarbon gas
concentrations are now below LEL and the explosimeter can be used. It is also
possible to calculate the explosimeter reading ahead of the measuring by using the
formula where measured HC gas is multiplied by 100 and divided by LEL. In our
example, the explosimeter in point “E” will show (1 x 100): 1,5 = 66,67% of LEL.
After sufficient venting the measuring in point “B” will be HC= 0% and O2= 21%.
The tank is ready to enter.
After inspection/repairing, the tank(s) must be re-inerted before arrival at loading
port in order to achieve the required tank atmosphere according to the regulations in

Example “2” .

The above example is based on propane cargo. In the example, nitrogen and air are
used for tank purging and air venting. Follow the diagram for propane.
After some time purging with nitrogen, a measurement is taken at point “A”: HC=
12% and O2= 0%.
Just like in example “1”, a line is drawn from point “B” toward point “C” on the left
side of the diagram by keeping sufficient clearance from the flammable zone.
Continue to purge with nitrogen until reaching point “C” where the measurements
are HC= 3,75% and O2= 0%.

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Stop purging with nitrogen at point “C”. Start dilution with air. All measurements will
now follow the straight line toward point “B”.
Take a measurement at point “D” which is HC= 2,4% and 02= 8%. When the LEL
for propane is 2,1% by volume, it is too early to use the explosimeter.
At point “E”, the measurements are HC= 1% and 02= 15,25%. The explosimeter will
in point “E” show (1x100) : 2,1 = 48% of LEL.
After sufficient dilution, point “B” end up with measurements of HC= 0% and 02=
After inspection/repairing etc., the tank must be treated according to routines and

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10- Cargo Pumps

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10 Cargo pumps
10.1 Classification and selection of pumps
There are a number of different pump types. Each type has its own special quality
and therefore certain advantages and disadvantages. The selection of pumps is
determined by a thorough study of the capacity needs and under which operational
conditions the pump will operate. The following factors are important when you
evaluate these conditions:

· Estimated back pressure

· Capacity requirement

· Capacity range

· Requirement for installation and arrangement

· Expenses for purchase, installation and maintenance

· Availability of parts and service

· Suction terms

· Characteristics for the liquid to be pumped

Selection of the right pump for a determined purpose qualifies a close co-operation
between the customer and the producer of the pump. The customer has a special
responsibility to clarify all conditions concerning the pump installation, so the
producer can choose the best pump from his product range with the best match.

When you choose a pump you must find out how much the pump needs to deliver
under a specific condition. Definition of capacity range is important. Demand for
capacity or capacity range and expected discharge pressure must be specified. The
capacity requirement is determined by the intended use of the pump. The discharge
pressure is determined by various conditions where the pump’s delivery pipeline
design, the capacity of the pump and the liquid’s characteristics, is the essential.

Alternative installation locations of the pump are limited due to special demands from
Class and Shipping Authorities and also from lack of space.

Purchase and installation cost is important. Future maintenance expenses, availability

of parts and service now and over the next years, are also important and must be
included in the evaluation of alternative pump supplies.

The liquid’s properties and which other arrangements you have to consider, often

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limits the options. Density, viscosity and boiling point are important properties to
consider. The liquid temperature and corrosive properties are important factors when
pump material is selected.

The pump’s suction condition is determined from where the pump is located in
relation to the liquid to be pumped. A given suction pipe creates a certain resistance
that will have influence on the pump capacity. The main principle is to minimise
resistance on the suction side by decreasing the suction pipe length, have the largest
diameter possible and few as possible restrictions in form of bends, valves and so on.

The different types of pumps are divided into two main groups, displacement and
kinetic pumps. The displacement pumps displace the liquid by reducing the volume
inside the pump. An example is a piston pump where the piston is moving up and
down inside a cylinder or when the screws revolve inside a screw pump. Kinetic
pumps (kinetic energy is equal to “movement” energy) increase the liquid’s velocity
through the pump.

The diagram below gives a brief view of the different available groups and types of
pumps. The diagram would be more comprehensive if the pumps were divided in all
details according to number of rotors, design of pump inlet/outlet and flow

A kinetic pump like the centrifugal pump increases the liquid’s velocity in the pump
by means of a rotating impeller. A displacement pump, like the piston pump,
mechanically displaces the liquid in the pump, either by help of a piston or screws.
Resistance on delivery side gives a liquid pressure rise (pump delivery pressure). One
should be aware of this difference for these two pump types.

The pressure rise on a kinetic pump is restricted by the increase in velocity over the
pump, which is controlled by the pump design. All kinetic pumps therefor have a
designed or built-in limitation for maximum discharge pressure. The displacement
pumps limitation depends only on available power and the constructional strength. In

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contrast to a kinetic pump, such a pump will operate against resistance with all its
available power. A closed-delivery valve on a displacement pump is damaging. The
same closed delivery valve for a kinetic pump will not bring any immediate danger.

Piston pumps and screw pumps have good suction capacity and are used where
these characteristics are required. The weakness of these pumps is the complex
construction and the relatively low capacity.

Centrifugal pumps are simply constructed with few parts and no valves. There are no
immediate problems if the outlet of the pump is closed. These qualities result in
relative low purchase and servicing costs. Operation at high speed makes the pump
small in proportion compared to the capacity and flexibility in relation to the pump’s

The most negative side of using a centrifugal pump is the lack of self-priming
capacity. This weakness is improved by constructional efforts and positioning, which
consolidate the free flow of liquid. Location of a pump, for instance below the liquid
level, can reduce the flow resistance. High viscosity liquids are therefore particularly
difficult to pump due to this condition.

A centrifugal pump’s efficiency is high only within a small range. This is the reason it
is especially important to have a clear understanding of what capacity range the
pump will operate under, in connection with the selection of a centrifugal pump.

The differential pressure over each impeller is relatively low. Using so-called
multistage pumps where several impellers are mounted in serial, increase the pump’s
capacity to deliver against higher backpressure.

A centrifugal pump will, without a non-return valve on delivery side, give complete
back flow at the time the pump stops. For all operators of centrifugal pumps, this
relationship is important to know

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Examples of various pump types

Double-suction split-casing centrifugal pump

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The ejector design is simple and is used for stripping and as bilge pumps in hold and
interbarrier spaces. The ejector has no revolving or reciprocating parts and is thereby
especially easy to maintain.

The propellant (driving water), is forced through a nozzle into a mixer tube. The
velocity of the propellant will naturally increase as it passes through the nozzle. Due
to the propellant’s velocity and direction, plus the friction force between the
propellant and the liquid, the surrounding liquid will be sucked into the ejector’s
mixer tube. The mixer tube is connected to an expanding tube, the diffusor. Here
some of the kinetic energy supplied to the liquid in the mixer tube is transformed
into potential energy. The capacity depends on the friction force between the two
mediums, suction head, delivery head and the propellant’s velocity. The ejector has
the advantage that it does not lose the suction capacity even if it sucks air or vapour.
The ejector’s efficiency is between 30% and 40%. Even if the propellant’s efficiency
is up to approximately 70%, the total efficiency for the whole ejector system is far
less than compared to a pump system, such as a centrifugal pump. Another

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drawback with ejectors is that the propellant is mixed with the pumping liquid. This
implies that if the ejector is to be used in cargo transfer operation, the cargo itself
must be used as propellant liquid.

The ejector is frequently used as a bilge pump in hold spaces. A common

arrangement for a hold space is as follows:
The ejector is usually submerged in a bilge sump and the propellant is normally
supplied from a seawater pump. Onboard gas carriers where the hull is the
secondary barrier, the ejector may also be used to pump cargo from hold space. In
that case, the liquefied cargo itself must be used as a propellant.


· Be aware that the ejector has a limitation on the propellant’s pressure. Higher
pressure than recommended by the supplier may result in reduced suction capacity.

· Start the ejector by opening all valves on delivery side first, and then adjust the
correct propellant pressure. The ejector’s suction valves should be opened last, which
will prevent the propellant’s flow back into the tank that is to be stripped.

· Stop the ejector by using the opposite procedure.

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As the drawing shows the ejector is positioned 3 meters above the liquid level. The
liquid level in the slop tank is 15 meters above the ejector and the propellant's
pressure is 8 bars. The ejector’s capacity can be found by use of the performance
curve for the specific ejector.
In the performance curve the ejector capacity is set as a function of the propellant
pressure. Observe that this curve has curves for different suction lifts. The different
performance curves are marked with different suction lifts. The ejector’s suction lift
in this example is 3 meters; this specific curve shall be used.
You can find the capacity of the ejector by drawing a vertical line from 8 bars on the
scale for a delivery head of 15 meters and up to the performance curve with a
suction lift of 3 meters. From this point of intersection, draw a horizontal line to the
left and over to the ejector’s capacity side. The found capacity in this case is 600

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The ejector’s Performance Curves

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10.3 The centrifugal pump

10.3.1 The theory of the centrifugal pump
The sketch below indicates a radial section of a rotor-blade wheel for a centrifugal
pump. For plainness, we observe the liquid as an amount of small particles and see
what occurs with one of these on its way through the rotor-blade wheel. We
presume further that the rotor-blade wheel is filled with liquid when this is rotating.

The inlet at the end of the blade will have a precise velocity and direction, marked
ua. The direction is the key to the circle of the point. The size of the vector is given
by the angular velocity of the rotor-blade wheel, w. The connection between the
sizes, can be expressed as:

ua = w x r when w = 2 x p x T

The liquid particle will, at point A, be affected by power, from the blade marked Fua.
The energy works in the same direction as the velocity vector ua. It means that the
particle performs power F that is equal, but in the opposite direction as Fua, which is
toward the blade housing.

When the blade influences a liquid particle, the particle achieves a certain velocity.
The velocity is causing the particle’s centrifugal force, F, which has a direction
leading straight out from the centre. This force gives the liquid particle certain
acceleration, a., the relation between proportions may be expressed as:

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Fsa = m x a or a = Fsa/m

As we see from the sketch, the energy forces Fsa and F1 to produce energy, marked

When the rotor-blade wheel is rotating, the liquid particles will move lengthways
along the blade because of the centrifugal force. Since the blade governs the liquid,
the relative velocity will have the same direction as the blade. The relative velocity
factor will try to accelerate the particle, but the liquid’s inner friction (viscosity)
resists and reduces the centrifugal force influence. If the only consideration is the
liquid’s viscosity, the relative velocity will achieve a certain proportion when the inner
friction compensates for the centrifugal acceleration. The system is in balance and a
certain relative liquid velocity is achieved. The relative velocity is a direct expression
of the flow through the rotor-blade wheel (the pump).

The liquid particles are influenced by the relative velocity vector (V) and the blade’s
velocity vector (U). The resulting velocity vector gives the particle’s absolute velocity
(C). This vector (C) determines the particle’s track through the rotor-blade wheel.

In the point “D” the liquid particles leave the rotor-blade wheel. As a result of the
relative velocity vector (Vd) and the rotor-blade wheel’s velocity vector (Ud), an
absolute velocity (Cd) has been achieved with direction and proportion.

The blade’s deflection will determine the relative direction of the liquid that comes
out of the rotor-blade wheel. When it is the blade that set the liquid in motion, you
see that the liquid’s absolute velocity can never exceed the rotor-blade wheel’s
peripheral speed.

The rotor-blade wheel sets the liquid in motion; i.e. the liquid is supplied with kinetic
energy, Wk. This energy is transformed to potential energy, Ws, and/or pressure
energy, Wt. The connection between these energy forms may be expressed as:

Kinetic = Potential energy = Pressure energy


Wk = Ws = Wt

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If the pump is connected to a high riser, the liquid will stabilise at a certain level. All
kinetic energy is transformed to potential energy. The centrifugal pump’s lifting
height, H, is then:

½ mv2 = mgH

H = v2/2g

The pump’s lifting height is dependent on the liquid’s mass and consequently, the
liquid’s density.

If a centrifugal pump is running against a closed valve, all the kinetic energy will be
transformed to pressure energy. The pressure after the pump is then:

½ mv2 = mp/r

p = ½ v2r

Also, the pressure after the pump is proportional with the liquid’s density.

If we are placing a number of rotor-blade wheels in serial in order to prevent energy

loss. The liquid’s absolute velocity out of the pump will be to equal to the peripheral
speed. The theoretical maximum lifting height, Ht1, for the pump will be:

Ht1 = Cd2/2g

when Cd = Ud, we will obtain:

Ht1 = Ud2/2g

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The volume flow is determined by the liquid’s density. When the lifting height is at a
minimum, the volume flow will be at a maximum. The theoretical pump
characterisation, QHt1, which emerged, will be linear.

But in our example, we only have one rotor-blade wheel. The liquid’s absolute
velocity will be less than the peripheral speed. A new pump characterisation, which
has adapted real velocity, is shown on the diagram to you right (marked QHt2).

In all pumps a certain loss will always occur. The friction between the liquid, the
rotor-blade wheel and deflection loss can be empirically set to:

h1 = k1 x Q2

k1 = an invariable determined by the specific rotor-blade wheel.

In addition, it is entrance loss and shock loss, which are theoretically set at:

h2 = k2 x (Q - Qs)2

Out of the above formula: h2 = 0 when Q = Qs

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This will occur when the liquid’s relative velocity into the blade has the same
direction as the inlet blade. The loss curves h1 and h2 give a resultant loss curve, h3.

From the theoretical pump characterisation QH1, 2 and the resultant loss curve, h3,
a theoretical calculated pump curve emerged, marked QH.

10.3.2 The centrifugal pump’s mode of operation

A centrifugal pump consists of a rotating impeller inside a pump casing. The liquid
inside the impeller is affected by the “blades”, and will be lead through the “blades”
due to the centrifugal force. Energy in forms of kinetic energy (velocity energy) is
added to the liquid. New liquid is constantly lead into the impeller and put into
rotation. A flow through the pump is established.

If the delivery pipeline from the pump is open to the atmosphere and has sufficient
height, the liquid will adjust itself to a precise level given by the energy, which was
added to the liquid through the impeller. Here, all kinetic energy is transformed into
potential energy.

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The difference in liquid level is called net delivery head. A pump’s delivery head is
dependent on the individual pump’s construction. If the level in the tank is lowered,
the liquid level in the delivery pipeline will be correspondingly lower. Net delivery
heads (H1, H2, H3) will be equal for the same pump provided that flow disturbance
does not occur on the pump’s suction side.

However, the pump’s delivery pressure is dependent on the liquid’s density and
delivery head. In this case, the liquid is water with a density (r) of 1000 kg/m3 and
the head (H) is 100 meters, the manometer pressure (pm) after the pump will be
read at:

pm = r x g x H = (1000 kg/m3 x 9,81 m/s2 x 100 m)

pm = 981000 Pa = 981 kPa

pm = 9,81 bars

One can see from the previous example that the delivery head of the pump is
obtained from the pump itself, and that the delivery head is independent from the
pump’s position or location. It is therefore natural that the centrifugal pump’s
capacity always is given as a function of the pump’s delivery head.

If you bend the discharge pipe from the previous example, like the illustration below,
the liquid will flow out of the pipe. Only a part of the added energy in the pump will
“lift” the liquid. The rest of the energy is still in the form of kinetic energy. From the
previous taught experiment, one can predict that the capacity of a centrifugal pump
will be highest at minimal delivery head. The capacity curve (Q-H curve) will, in
practice, follow this assumption, but the curve is not linear due to loss of energy in
the pump.

If you ignore the pipe resistance, the capacity Q in this situation is determined by the
delivery head (H). The delivery head here is the static height or the static
backpressure, which the liquid has to lift.

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In a real pipe system, bends and valves will create a resistance due to friction
against free liquid flow. This resistance varies with the velocity and viscosity of the
liquid, and is called the dynamic backpressure. The total pipe resistance, composed
by the static and the dynamic backpressure, is called a system characteristic curve.
The intersection point between the system characteristic curve and the capacity
curve is called the actual operation point.
It was previously mentioned that disturbances on the pump’s suction side would
have influence on the capacity.

The conditions on the inlet side are very important for the centrifugal pump’s
operation. A centrifugal pump has normally no self-priming qualities, meaning that
the pump is not able to suck liquid from a lower level. Additional vacuum equipment
connected to the pump will, however, improve the pump's self-priming qualities.
When the inlet pipe and impeller is filled with liquid, the pumping process will be able
to continue without this equipment. The liquid’s viscosity may ensure a continual flow
into the pump. Too high resistance in the inlet pipe will cause the same operational
disturbance. If the flow into the pump is less than the outlet flow, due to too high
pipe resistance and/or too high viscosity, these factors will have considerable
influence on the pump’s capacity.

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If you start a pump, submerged in water like the sketch indicates, the pump will
have a specific capacity at a specific delivery head. If you gradually lift the pump, the
pump will, at a specific height, have a perceptible reduction in the capacity. When
this occurs, the height of the pump above liquid level is called Net Positive Suction
Head or NPSH.

The explanation of this phenomena is that when the pump is lifted up out off the
water, the pipe length and the resistance at the inlet side increases. The increased
resistance creates constant negative pressure on the inlet side of the pump. The
liquid that accelerates from the centre of the impeller and out to the periphery
increases this negative pressure. When the negative pressure reaches the liquid’s
saturation pressure, the liquid starts boiling and a large quantity of vapour is created
in the pump. The output from the pump become irregular, and will stop at huge
vapour volumes. We say that the pump cavitates.

A centrifugal pump operates satisfactorily with approximately 2% gas in the liquid.

But cavitation will always cause damage to the pump. The gas bubbles created in the
liquid on the pump’s suction side will collapse when the pressure rises inside the

The consequences of cavitation are:

· Vibrations and noise

· Reduced efficiency

· Pitting or cavity erosion inside the pump house

As we have observed, the cavitation is destructive and must be avoided or

controlled. To ensure limited or non-generation of vapour one must make sure that
the liquid at the pump inlet has sufficient overpressure to avoid evaporation. The
resistance at the pump inlet side should be made as low as possible. This can be

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done by constructing the pipeline as short as possible, limiting the number of bends
and selecting a maximum diameter on the pipeline. The pump should be positioned
at the lowest possible level, and preferably below liquid level at the suction side.

A pump’s NPSH is variable and dependent on the flow. When the flow increases, the
negative pressure generated inside the pump increases. A reduction of the flow will
reduce the negative pressure. Reducing the pump’s capacity may therefore control
and reduce the cavitation.

A centrifugal pump’s capacity is adjusted by throttling the delivery valve. Throttling

increases the pumps discharge pressure (backpressure) which causes reduced

The capacity may also be adjusted by changing the revolution on the pump.
Adjustments of the pump’s revolution move the capacity curve up or down.
Reduction of the revolution moves the curve parallel downwards, an increase in
revolution, upwards. Note that these relations are valid only if the flow conditions are

10.3.3 The Pump performance diagram

All manufacturers supply a pump performance diagram with the pump delivery. The
curves in the diagram are results from practical tests in the manufacturers workshop
and specifies:

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· Type of liquid used in the test (generally water)

· Number of revolutions

· Type and size of impeller

· The optimal operation point

The operation point is normally set at the best possible efficiency, simultaneously
within the pump’s predicted capacity range.

It is important to be aware that the pump’s diagram is made for a special liquid with
specific properties. The capacity curve will be real for all liquids, provided the free
flow to the pump inlet is not restricted due to for example too high viscosity. The
power consumption curve will of course depend on the fluid’s density.

A pump’s condition is of course vital for the curve accuracy. There are a lot of
methods to check the centrifugal pump’s condition. Monitoring the pump’s delivery
head, capacity, power consumption and development of these is obvious. Detection
of many minor operational disturbances may be difficult and not necessarily
observed. Establishment of routines ensures continuous control of vibrations. Visual
inspection of the pump and regular maintenance is important to prevent break

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10.3.4 Example on pump diagram

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10.4 The deepwell pump

Cargo discharge pumps onboard gas carriers are generally deepwell pumps. The
deepwell pump’s main parts are the pump, shaft, and mechanical seal, coupling and
motor. The pump is located at the lowest level inside the cargo tank pump sump.
The shaft is located in the discharge pipe from the pump to the mechanical seal and
connected to the coupling. The coupling connects the shaft and motor together. On
top of the cargo dome the top unit with an electric or hydraulic motor are located.

Due to the length of the shaft, the pump has a limited rotation speed. This leads to a
reduced delivery head for a single stage pump. The pump is therefore built with
multiple stages. Shaft bearings are located between each stage in the pump unit and
with even intervals along the shaft. These bearings can be made of PTFE
preservative carbon that have self-lubricating qualities.

The top unit consists of an axial bearing, a double mechanical shaft seal, revision
ring and an upper ball bearing.

The axial bearing is a roller bearing that holds the entire weight of the shaft and
impellers. The bearing house is usually

provided with cooling ribs to maintain an acceptable oil temperature. The purpose of
the double mechanical shaft seal is to prevent leakage of cargo into the environment,
and leakage of air into the cargo. The oil in the seal lubricates the seal surfaces, and

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“quarantee” an operation without leak or other problems. If we got a leak in the seal
the oil must not came in contact with the cargo. The revision ring in the mechanical
seal functions normally as a deflector that will lead a leakage of seal oil into a special
chamber. This chamber can be drained.

A second function for the revision ring is to prevent leakage of cargo vapour along
the shaft when renewal of the mechanical seal. If the axial bearing nut is loose, the
shaft will drop down and the revision ring will land on a seat below.

The top carbon shaft bearing, must like the other shaft bearings, be lubricated by the
cargo itself. One can thereby not avoid contact between the cargo and the seal oil in
the top unit. Control of compatibility between the seal oil and actual cargo is
therefore important. The seal oil should not pollute the cargo or generate hazardous
reactions when mixed with the cargo.

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10.4.2 General tips for operation of a deepwell pump:

· Check pump unit guides clearances inside the cargo tank when possible.
· Check for lose bolts and nuts inside the cargo tank when possible.
· Always carefully check the cargo tank and sump for rags and other lose objects
before the hatch is closed.
· Always check the motor’s running direction before the coupling is fitted. Wrong
direction may result in shaft damage.
· Always regularly check the “anti rotation device”, if fitted.
· Always check lubrication oil level and seal oil level, pressurise before the pump is
· Regularly check seal oil and lubrication oil levels when the pump is running.
· Always turn the pump before start.
· Check and adjust the pump’s safety device.
· Running of deepwell pump without liquid is the most common reason for
breakdown. Stop the pump when the tank is liquid free, do not force operation of the
pump and do not run the pump against a closed delivery valve for too long a time.
· These pumps are operating without vibration and related noise. Stop the pump
immediately if this occurs.

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10.4.3 Design of the double mechanical seal

Example of pump parts

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10.5 Submerged pumps

Submerged pumps are multistage centrifugal pumps that are often used as discharge
pumps on large LNG and LPG tankers. The motor and pump are submerged down in
the tank sump or as close to the tank bottom as possible. The motor is connected
directly to the pump with a short shaft on this type of pump. The liquid that is
pumped lubricates and cools the pump’s bearings. It is therefore essential that the
pump is used only when there is liquid in the tank. The liquid is pumped up through
the tank’s discharge pipe and up to the liquid line.This type of pump is equipped with
electrical motor. The cables to the electric motor are either made of copper or
stainless steel. If copper is used in the cable, the cables must be sheathed with
stainless steel to prevent damage on the cable from corrosive cargoes. When
transporting Ammonia, the cable and engine must be sheathed with a thin layer of
stainless steel. It is important that the stainless steel sheathing is kept unbroken, and
we must avoid a sharp bend on the cable to protect the stainless steel sheath. One
must at all times check the resistance of the cable insulation before starting the
Submerged pumps are also installed as portable pumps. The discharge pipe is then
the steering pipe for the pump. At the bottom of the discharge pipe it is a non-return
valve that opens when pump is lowered and shut when the pump is taken up. Before
opening the discharge pipe it must be gas freed, this is done either with inert gas or

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10.6 The boster pump

If the backpressure during discharging is too high for the deepwell pump(s), a
booster pump is connected in serial with the deepwell pump(s) to increase the
system’s ability to pump against high backpressure. There are normally two booster
pumps installed on deck on gas carriers. The booster pump is normally a centrifugal
pump, installed horizontally or in vertical position. Horizontally installed pumps have
an axial inlet and radial outlet in the same centre line. Vertically installed booster
pumps have radial in and outlet “in-line”.

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The booster pumps onboard gas carriers have mainly an individual and compact
design. They are constructed with focus on reliability, simple maintenance and long
lifetime. The shaft seal, with double mechanical seal with sealing liquid, is similar to
the arrangement of the deepwell pump.
The bearing is lubricated by oil; the liquid lubricates the inner shaft bearings.

The following general regulations are existing for working a booster pump:

· Turn the pump shaft regularly when the pump is not used for long periods.

· Turn the shaft before starting the pump.

· Do never start the pump if the pump is not filled with liquid.

· Regularly check the seal oil level.

· Never run the pump against the closed delivery valve for more than approximately

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· Adjust the flow by throttling the delivery valve, the inlet valves should always be
fully open.

10.7 Parallel operation of centrigal pump

The capacity requirement is many times higher than the performance of one
centrifugal pump. All available pumps are then lined up and run in parallel operation.
The diagram below indicates two equal pumps in parallel operation. We assume a
symmetry pipeline for both pumps.

The pump’s capacity curve (1) indicates the relation between the delivery head and
the flow rate for one pump. As both pumps are equal, the pumps’ individual capacity
curves are represented by the curve marked “1”. When equal pumps are run in
parallel the delivery head for the system will be equal the delivery head for one
pump. The capacity will meanwhile increase in proportion to the number of pumps.
If, for example one pump has a capacity of 100 m3/hrs at a head of 100 meters, two
pumps in parallel will supply 200 m3/hrs and three pumps 300 m3 /hrs at the same
If the pumps are of different types or equal pumps are run at different speed, their
individual performance curves will be different. This is no problem provided the
operation point is outside the pumps’ individual operation point. If, for example the
operation point is altered by increasing the back pressure, this may lead to that one
of the pumps are run without output flow. If this situation occurs and is maintain, the
pump may be damaged.A deepwell pump is special vulnerable in this situation
because these pumps are dependent of a liquid flow through the pump. The only
indication on such condition is that the power consumption no longer is in agreement
with the operation.
If there are no check valves after the pump and the backpressure increases further,
you will have a back flow trough the pump into the cargo tank.
Even though the type of the pump is the same in a parallel operation, variation in
rotational speed, asymmetric piping, variance in opening if valves, cavitation and
variance of the pumps condition, may form the same condition.

10.7.2 Two equal pumps are run in parallel operation.

Two equal pumps are run in parallel operation. The resulting performance curve of

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the pumps (1+2) is constructed like previous described. We then see on this actual
pump situation, a pump alone will deliver 120 m3/hrs against a head of 120 meters.
When you start pump number 2, the capacity for the system increases to 140 m3/hrs
against a head of 150 meters. Starting pump number 2 will not double the capacity
because a higher volume flow creates higher dynamic resistance. The system’s
capacity will increase if other pumps are started up in parallel operation. The
increase in capacity will however be relatively less for each pump added.

10.8 Serial operation of centrifugal pumps

If the backpressure while discharging is too high and the capacity hence too low, a
booster pump in series with cargo pumps will improve the capacity.
The following illustration shows two cargo pumps run in parallel (1 and 2) in series
with a third booster pump (B). Some ship has a dedicated pump for this purpose,
also-called booster pump.

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The system’s maximum capacity is the number of pumps in parallel operation, times
maximum capacity for one pump. The maximum head is the maximum head for one
pump (1 or 2), plus maximum head for the booster pump (B).Notice that cargo
pumps no.1 and no.2 must ensure sufficient flow of liquid to the booster pump (B).
One must emphasise that there are made no special demands for a dedicated
booster pump’s NPSH-performance. If one of the pumps in parallel stops, there is a
risk that the supply of liquid to the booster pump became too low and will result in
cavitation. If so occur, cavitation can be reduced or stopped by throttling the delivery
valve on the booster pump.

10.8.2 Two equal pumps run in parallel operation.

Two equal pumps run in parallel operation. The capacity is 100 m3/hrs with a head
of 160 meters. The master and chief officer evaluate the operation and decide to line
up for a booster pump in serial with the cargo pumps.
The new capacity is calculated by constructing a new resulting performance curve for
all three pumps, as previous described. The new operation point will appear in the
intersection between the resulting performance curve, and the system characteristic
curve. The capacity will increase to 140 m3/hrs at a head of 340 meters. If the cargo
is propane at a temperature of 20oC, and with a density of 502 kg/m3, the
corresponding delivery pressure will be:
r x g x H = 502 kg/m3 x 9,81 m/s2 x 340 = 167.437 Pa » 16,7 bars

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10.9 Pressure surge and liquid pressure

When a valve on a liquid line is closed too quickly, the pressure inside the line very
quickly increases to a hazardous high level.

Quick changes to the liquid flow in a pipeline may lead to a pressure surge resulting
in a rupture in the pipeline system. This surge pressure can be recognised by a
“knock” in the pipeline. This type of pressure peak is generated very quickly in
pipelines, faster than a common safety valve is capable to relieve. The consequence
may be breakdown of the pipeline system and thereby high risk of pollution, fire and
personal injury.
Pressure surge may appear if:

The emergency shutdown valves are activated and closed too quickly.
(ESD/Emergency Shut Down)

Fast closing/opening of manual or remote operated valves.

Fast variation of the volume flow resulting that a non-return valve starts hammering.

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When a pump is started or stopped.

The pressure in a cargo transfer system has three components; the hydrostatic
pressure, the cargo tank pressure and the pressure generated by the pump. The
hydrostatic pressure and the cargo tank pressure will mainly be constant and we will
refer to these as “static pressure”.
If the flow suddenly is varying due to, i.e. too fast valve closure, the moving liquid
that have a specific velocity and mass will hit a “wall” inside the valve (the valve seat
or the valve flap). The kinetic energy of the moving liquid will immediately convert
into potential energy by compression of the liquid against the valve seat. How fast
the pressure peak is generated depends on the velocity and the density of the
A pipeline of 250 meters and 150 mm in diameter is used for water transfer at a
capacity of 400 m3/hrs. The total mass of the moving liquid inside the pipe is 4400
kg and moves with a velocity of 6,3 meters/second. If a valve is closed very fast, the
kinetic energy will convert almost immediately to potential energy. The pressure
surge may reach approximately 40 bars within 0,3 seconds.

If the liquid is a condensed gas or crude oil, vapour may be present. These vapour
bubbles will collapse when the pressure increases. The collapsed bubbles will
generate pressure waves that will also be transmitted through the pipeline system.
In an opposite case where the pressure is decreasing rapidly, a volatile liquid will
start boiling. The above mentioned cases illustrate why it is especially important that
the valves and pumps are cautiously operated so neither dangerous pressure peaks
nor pressure drops are generated.

The enclosed diagram on the next page is from ITC Tanker Safety Guide. It shows a
normal cargo operation and pressure in the pipeline. The maximum pressure is at the
pump outlet. This pressure is the sum of the hydrostatic pressure and the pressure
generated by the pump. Due to friction in the pipeline, the pressure will gradually
decrease toward the cargo manifold. If the ESD valve is activated and the valve is
closed too quickly, the liquid flow will stop quite quickly.

The liquid’s kinetic energy will convert into potential energy immediately when the
liquid hits the valve seat. A pressure peak is generated and will be transmitted at the
speed of sound (the only way possible) back towards the pump. When the wave of
pressure reaches the pump, some of the pressure will unload through the pump, but
the resistance here will also operate as a “wall”. The pressure is rebuilt and reflected
back towards the ESD valve again. A new pressure peak is generated with additional
increased pressure. A “knock” will occur each time a pressure top is generated
against a “wall”. All personnel that operate valves or pumps must be observant of
these phenomena and of the liquid pressure, which may occur consequently.
The progress and the length of the pressure surge depends on the system. If the
wave of pressure is allowed to move between two valves without pressure relief, a
maximum pressure surge will be generated.

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The most vulnerable parts in the system are the shore connections and
loading/discharging arms. The operative personnel normally work nearby the
manifold area. A rupture in this area may easily lead to personnel injury. (Please
note that control of cargo hoses is dealt with in this chapter).

Maintenance and testing of the ESD-valves’ closing time is the most important of the
above mentioned causes. Closing time of the ESD-valves, which is too short, may
lead to generation of a dangerous pressure surge. Always consult the terminal
representatives about the required pipe line period and ESD time.

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10.9.1 Development of pressure surge

The closing time of ESD valves should be as short as possible to prevent overflow
and spillage. But not so fast that a risky pressure surge occurs. Necessary time for a
safe closure of valves can be calculated based on the expected maximum pressure

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surge when the pressure wave has passed forward and backward through the
pipeline. The speed of the sound is set to 1320 m/s. If the pipeline is 2 km, the
calculated time for maximum pressure surge at closure of the ESD valve is:

T = (2 x L) / Speed of sound = (2 x 2000 m) / 1320 m/s = 3 s

The maximum pressure surge will occur 3 seconds from closure of the ESD valve.
This time is called a “pipeline period”. It is assumed that the safe closing time is five
times a pipeline period, so the closing time should at minimum be:
5 x 3s = 15 seconds

10.9.2 Cargo hoses

The cargo hoses are normally the weakest part in a pipeline system transferring
cargo. The responsibility for the cargo hose condition on board lays with the ship. It
is important to be aware of this fact, in case a cargo hose is lent out to a third party
or is used in transferring cargo between ships.
Hoses for cargo should be cleaned and dried before storing. The storage area should
be dry and out of the sun, if you want to take care of the hoses as long as possible.
Poor cleaning and storage is generally the cause of damage and consequently
replacement. A cargo hose prototype is tested with the products, pressure and
temperature for which the hose type is approved. The cargo hoses should be tested
yearly at a pressure that is 1,5 times the maximum working pressure.
The normal procedure for yearly testing is:
The hose is laid out on deck, blinded off and filled with water.
The hose is pressurised with 1,5 times the working pressure.
The hose is checked for leakage.
Electric bonding is checked.
Linear expansion for the hose is measured (measure for strength)
The test result is logged.
If there is no leakage, bonding is okay and the linear expansion is less than the
limitation set by the manufacturer, the hose is approved.

10.10 capacity calculation

All centrifugal pumps are delivered with pump performance diagrams. The diagram is
an important tool for insight in the factors that have influence on operation of
Enclosed is a pump curve with a drawn system curve for an actual unloading
situation. The operation point is in the intersection between the pump curve and the
system curve. The system curve is composed of a static- and a dynamic curve. The
static backpressure (H), is corresponding to a level distinction of 20 m between the
liquid in the shore tank and the cargo tank onboard.
The dynamic backpressure is calculated from a stated differential pressure in the
pipeline of 10 mlc at a flow rate of 500 m3/h.

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The pipeline resistance is dependent of the flow rate in the pipe, and the dynamic
backpressure (pipe resistance) can be expressed as:
H = c x Q2 (see “The Affinity Laws”)The constant c, is calculated from above
mentioned expression. The dynamic curve is a result of calculation of the dynamic
backpressure at different flow rates with the same c-value. The system curve is
constructed by adding the static- and the dynamic backpressure at the same flow
We then see from the diagram, that the pump delivers 80 m3/h at a head of 120
mlc. The pump’s delivery pressure is dependent of the density of the liquid pumped.
If the liquid is propylene at a temperature of –44oC, the pump’s delivery pressure (p)
will be:
= 607,4 kg/m3 x 9,81 m/s2 x 120 m
= 715.031 Pa
= 7,15 Mpa
= 7,15 bars
The cargo tank pressure is 0,2 bars at a temperature of –40oC. Observed delivery
pressure (manometer pressure) is thereby approximately 7 bars.If the backpressure
increases, by for example throttling of the manifold valve, the dynamic backpressure

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will increase. An increased dynamic backpressure is visualised by a more steep

system characteristic curve. The operational point will move up along the pump
curve. The pump’s delivery head increases and the capacity is reduced. The “new”
delivery head, and hence the capacity, can be calculated without construction of a
new system curve.If the backpressure increases to 8 bar, the new delivery head will

H = p / r x g = 800 000 Pa / 607,4 kg/m3 x 9,81 m/s2 = 134 m

A delivery head of 134 m corresponds to a capacity of approximately 50 m3/h.

10.10.1 An extended capacity calculation

The method of calculation above is a simplified procedure, but gives sufficient means
for most practical calculation. An extended calculation of capacity where one
considerate all factor influencing a pump’s working conditions, must necessarily be
more complex.When describing the centrifugal pump’s physical relations, it is natural
to focus on the whole system’s energies. The system’s energy balance is then:
Energy on the suction side + Energy added the pump = Energy after the pump.
In the following example we have a partly filled tank where a submission is working.
The pump is supplying liquid a stated energy, which is lifting the liquid into the tank
and gives is velocity, which creates a flow rate through the pump.

The energy level on the suction is decided by the height of the liquid, and the liquid
pressure. This is expressed as:

(m x g x X) + (m x po/r)

The energy supplied into the pump is expressed as:

where “H” is the lifting height of the pump.

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The liquid is lifted out of the cargo tank. The energy level after the pump is
compound of static energy (liquid are lifted a given value Y), kinetic energy (given
backpressure p2) and velocity energy (velocity of the liquid c2).

The balance of the energy is then:

(m x g x X) + (m x po/r) + m x g x H = (m x g x Y) + (m x p2/r) + 1/2 x m x c22

where the real pump head H is:

H = (p2 - p0)/(r x g) + (y - x)

One can see how the tank pressure and levels affect the simplified calculation of the
lifting height of the pump. When the liquid level in the tank is lowered toward the
end of the unloading, the lifting height increases with hence following reduction in
the capacity. A higher tank pressure gives lower lifting height, and with that larger

10.10.2 Affinity equation

The affinity equation is an expression that demonstrates the proportionally relation
between flow rate, lifting height, effect and number of revolutions for a centrifugal
pump. If one of these element changes, this will influence on the rest. The equation
can be used to calculate theoretic consequences of the changes on the existing
centrifugal pump.

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10.10.3 Equation 1
The velocity of the liquid from a pump, is an expression for flow rate through the
pump, and can be defined as:

c = Q/A where:

c = velocity of the liquid in m/s

Q = volume flow through the pump in m3/hrs
A = cross section of the pipe in m2

10.10.4 Equation 2
The velocity of the liquid from a pump is dependent from the impellers velocity, the
number of revolutions. Higher number of revolutions of an impeller gives larger
velocity of the liquid, which again gives larger capacity. This is defined as:

Q1/Q2 = c1/c2 = n1/n2 where:

Q1 = Capacity before changes

Q2 = Capacity after changes
c1 = velocity of the liquid before changes
c2 = velocity of the liquid after changes
n1 = revolution of impeller before changes
n2 = revolution of impeller after changes

10.10.5 Equation 3
Lifting head of a pump are given by the following expression:

H = c2/2g where:

H = pump lifting head in mlc

c = velocity of the liquid in m/s
g = gravitation in m/s2
We then se that the pump lifting head is proportional with c2 and equation 2 can be
changed to:
H1/H2 = c12/c22 = n12/n22

10.10.6 Equation 4
The theoretical need of power (P) for a pump is:

P = r x g x Q x H where:
= density of the liquid in kg/m3
Change of the operation of the pump gives the following connections:
P1/P2 = (c1/c2)3 = (n1/n2)3
Peripheral speed (v) for a pumps impeller is:

v = (p x d x n)/60 where:
d = impeller diameter

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When the impeller diameter and the peripheral speed is variable the following
equation can be used:

v1/v2 = d1/d2 = n1/n2

When the velocity of the liquid is proportional with impeller speed can we use the
following equation:

c1/c2 = v1/v2 = d1/d2 = n1/n2 = Q1/Q2

Q1/Q2 = (n1 x d1) / (n2 x d2)

10.10.7 Equation 5
Above mentioned expression can be summarised as:

H1/H2 = (c1/c2)2 = (n1 x d1)2 / (n2 x d2)2

where the condition in the alteration of the pump effect is:

P1/P2 = (d1/d2)5 x (n1/n2)3

One shall notice that the three last expression for flow rate, lifting height an effect,
only effect small changes of the rotor-blade wheels diameter.
This is due to that the loss of the pump is not directly proportional with the flow rate.
Large changing of the diameter will give bigger effect of the flow rate, lifting height
an effect.

10.10.8 Equation 6
A combination of equation 4 and 5 can the relation between lifting head and volume
flow give the hydraulic operation of the pump as follows:

H1/H2 = (Q1/Q2)2 = constant or

H = k x Q2

10.11 Displacement pumps

Pumps are very old machines. The first types of pumps (screw pump and piston
pump) are more than two thousand years old.
A pump’s purpose in transport of liquids, usually are to pump from a low level to a
higher level. Its purpose can also be to pump a liquid into a tank, which contains
higher pressure than the surroundings. The pump increases the liquid’s energy. The
increased energy is potential energy; the liquid is transported from a low level to a
higher level. This is the kinetic energy, the liquid’s flow has increased or as pressure
energy, if the liquid is pumped into a tank with a higher pressure than its
surroundings. As an example, the feed water pump to a boiler is working using these
principles.In addition to the mentioned increase of energy, the pump also has to
maintain the energy, which is lost due to streaming in the system.
As mentioned, kinetic pumps constantly have liquid streaming through the pump
with pressure increasing simultaneously. In displacement pumps, a certain volume of
liquid is branched off and moved from the pump’s delivery side. Then a pressure
increase occurs. Screw pumps and piston pumps will be viewed further in this

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chapter. A wide range of displacement pumps is available, such as the lamella pump,
ring pump, propeller pump, etc.
10.11.1 Piston pump
The piston pump is used for relatively small amounts of liquid with large delivery
heads. When the piston is pulled upwards, a vacuum occurs inside the pump
housing. The suction valve will then open and liquid streams into the pump. When
the piston is pressed downward the pressure will increase, the suction valve will
close, the delivery valve is set open and the liquid sent out of the pump. The liquid
does not stream in a smooth flow as in a centrifugal pump, but accelerates and slows
alternately. This is of inconvenience with long pipelines. The valve is a weak point.
They are sensitive to liquid pollution and they also increase the resistance against
Usually, the piston pump is double acting. Because of the pump’s movements, the
pump must have a relatively slow piston speed. The piston pump may sustain almost
unlimited pressure. However, the limitation is the automotive power and the material
strength. The piston pump does not have to be filled with liquid before starting.
Make sure that all the valves on the delivery side are open before starting. The
efficiency of piston pumps is higher than, for instance, centrifugal pumps. The piston
pump is a well-known pump on board an oil tanker. This is the pump, which is used
to pump cargo deposits ashore at the end of the discharging operation. These oil
deposits from cargo tanks, lines and cargo pumps are pumped ashore through a
small diameter line.
10.11.2 Screw pump
The screw pump consists of two screws or more, where one of them is activated.
The screws are placed inside a pump house. A common and well-known screw pump
is the Swedish manufactured so-called IMO pump. This pump consists of one active
screw placed in the middle and two symmetrical side screws. The screws tighten to
each other and to the housing, but have no metallic contact. When the screw
rotates, the threads are filled with liquid. The liquid is displaced by axial through the
pump. In this pump, the side screw rotates in the opposite direction of the middle
screw. These screws are working like an endless piston which constantly moves
forward. The liquid is not exposed to rotation. The pump is self-priming, running
almost soundless and with little exposure for wear and tear when pumping clean
liquids. The screw pumps are used a lot as a lubricating pump, but are also used as a
stripping pump on oil tankers.

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11- Cargo Handling Routines

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Routines when cargo handling


All transportation of liquefied gas is controlled by international and national

legislation. The international legislation is set up by IMO, which is the UN’s maritime
division. All new laws and legislations are renewed and updated when the old rules
are no longer appropriate for it’s original intent. As we gain more experience and
knowledge about accidents, the laws and rules will be revised to fit what has been

The various cargoes that is allowed for transport on gas carriers and the types of gas
carriers that may carry the them is updated as we gain better knowledge about the
products. Over time we can observe the various types of cargoes to see if there are
any changes regarding health hazards or environmental pollution. Some cargoes
have changed TLV from 400 ppm to 1 ppm. The reason for this is the experience we
have got with the cargo, and it is very seldom that new products came into the
market with 100% guaranty that they are safe in all manners.

What kinds of cargoes we can carry and which types of gas carriers that may carry
the various cargoes depend on the toxicity of the cargo. The toxicity ratings of the
various cargoes will always change over time as we gain more information about
their potential health hazards. One example is VCM “Vinyl Chloride” that had a TLV of
50 ppm in the early 1980s, but in the 1990s the TLV had been changed to 2 ppm.

What types of cargoes a gas carrier may transport, depends on what precautions
have been taken in the vessel’s design and construction, to prevent cargoes from
pollute the environment.

In order to ratify IMO rules and legislation’s, a given number of the IMO member
states must to abide by them. All flag and port states may have there own set of
rules and legislation that differ from the IMO rules. The IMO has set up a minimum
of standards that all gas carriers must be constructed and classed according to.

11.1.1 International rules

There is three international conventions to protect the environment and those are
SOLAS (1974) with protocol of 1978 and appendixes to 1991, MARPOL 73/78, and
STCW 78/95.

SOLAS «Safety of Life at Sea» contain rules and legislation’s on safety certificates
such as: Safety Construction Certificate, Safety Radio Certificate, and Safety
Equipment Certificate. These three certificates cover the safety of crew, ship and
safety equipment. Over time when as we gain more knowledge, the rules and
regulations will be updated to avoid similar accidents from happening again in the

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11.1.2 Certificates and documents we are required to have onboard

according to SOLAS 74/92 appendix 3:

Intact Stability Booklet SOLAS 1974 Regulation II-1/22

Minimum safe Manning document SOLAS 1974/89 Regulation V/13b
Cargo Ship Safety Construction SOLAS 1974 Regulation I/2 as
Certificate amended by GMDSS amdts.
Cargo Ship Safety Equipment SOLAS 1974 Regulation I/2 as
Certificate amended by GMDSS amdts.
Cargo Ship Safety Radio SOLAS 1974 Regulation I/2 as
Certificate amended by GMDSS amdts.
Document of compliance with the SOLAS 1974 regulation II-2/54.3
special requirements for ships
carrying dangerous goods
Dangerous goods manifest or SOLAS 1974 regulation VII/5(3)
stowage plan

MARPOL «International Conference on Marine Pollution» contains rules and

regulations that are designed to protect the environment from pollution on a short
and long term basis. MARPOL specifies what we are allowed to pump or throw
overboard, and also what equipment we must have onboard to prevent pollution of
the environment.

MARPOL defines clean water as water with less than 15 ppm of contamination.

11.1.3 Certificates and documents related to MARPOL 73/78 required to

be onboard according to SOLAS 92 appendix 3:
International Oil Pollution MARPOL 73/78 annex 1
Prevention Certificate regulation 5
Oil Record Book MARPOL 73/78 annex 1
regulation 20
Dangerous goods manifest or MARPOL 73/78 annex III
stowage plan regulation 4

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STCW 78/95 «Seafarers’ Training, Certification and Watch keeping» contains rules
and regulations on qualification certificates of officers and rating onboard vessels.
STCW 78/95 was implemented 1st February 1997 and is based on two parts. Part A
contains the minimum standard requirements for qualification of all personal on
various types of ships. Part B contains the minimum requirements of what all
personal need to know in order to receive a certificate for their various ranks on all
types of ships.

11.1.4 Certificates and documents related to STCW 78/95, we are

required to have onboard according to SOLAS 92 appendix 3
Certificate for masters, officers or STCW 78/95 article VI

IMO «IMO Gas Code» contains rules and regulations that are meant to make the
transport of liquefied gases as safe as possible for persons onboard as well as the
environment. There are three gas codes issued by IMO.

· Code for existing ships carrying Liquefied gases in bulk.

· Code for construction and equipment of ships carrying liquefied gases in bulk.

· IGC code International code for construction and equipment of ships carrying
liquefied gases in bulk.

The gas codes contain requirements for the construction of gas carriers. This
includes requirements on stability, leakage after collision/ grounding and cargo
compartments. In the gas code we also find a list of products that are classified as
liquefied gases, as well as the requirements covering how those cargoes are to be
transported. The gas code also covers toxic cargo and what types of safety devices
are required to carry those cargoes.

The vessels Certificate of Fitness states which cargoes the vessel is permitted to

We are required to always have onboard the personal safety protection equipment
for the type cargo we are carrying, as specified for in the vessels Certificate of
Fitness. Especially important are instruments for atmospheric measurements and
personal safety equipment.

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11.1.5 Local rules

Some port states have local rules that are stricter than the IMO rules and are
designed to protect local waters. All countries try to protect own territorial waters
against pollution. Local rules may be stricter on clean water, shore line pressure,
navigation after sunset etc.

There are three countries that have especially strict rules and have a large amounts
of import and export of liquefied gases and those are: USA, Italy and Japan.

In the USA the US Coast Guard issue a Certificate of Compliance on all gas carriers
that are to load or discharge in US waters. According to US rules and regulations, all
gas carriers that visit US waters are to be inspected by the US Coast Guard in
accordance to the vessels Certificate of Compliance. Gas carriers that fail the US
Coast Guard inspection will not be permitted to birth before the vessel has fulfilled
the standards set by the Certificate of Compliance.

One main difference between IMO and USCG is that in US they have a higher
standard of security regarding strength on pressure vessels. That means that most of
the gas carriers have one safety relief valve setting according to IMO and a lower
one according to USCG.

Gas carriers that are built according to IMO gas code have no problem in attaining a
Certificate of Compliance. The owner of the vessel must send the USCG diagrams of
the mid ship section, GA plan, fire and safety plan. Those drawings and plans must
be sent to the USCG in long before the vessels first arrival US waters, if possible
when the vessel is new.

Italy issues all vessels that carry gas in Italian waters an Italian safety certificate
called “RINA”. The vessels Class Company can issue the RINA certificate if it is
approved by RINA. The RINA certificate is renewed and surveyed together with the
vessels IMO Certificate of Fitness.

Japan has their own rules and certificates on gas carriers. Those rules cover for the
most part measurements of vessels. That means there are other net and gross
weights on the vessel in Japan than on the IMO load line certificate. Japanese
authorities will survey all gas carriers that handle cargo in Japan. If the
documentation on the vessel is found unsatisfactory by the authorities, they can
require that the vessel must go in dock for new measurements.

In Norway it is the Norwegian Maritime Directorate that makes all the local rules,
those rules are applicable for all vessels in NOR or NIS. The Norwegian Maritime
Directorate uses the Class Companies to issue certificates and to conduct surveys on
those vessels.

Then we have some local rules around the world that does not allow gas carriers to
navigate after dark. Some ports have regulations concerning the wind speeds. The
ship/ shore checklist must state if there are any restrictions on wind speed or the

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height of waves. Information about the terminals is found in the “Guide to port
entry” or from the agents, terminals or your own company.

11.1.6 Publications

We required to always have onboard the latest edition of publications related to

cargo, cargo handling, SPM, ship to ship transfer etc.

The most important publications we must have onboard are: SOLAS 74/92 latest
edition, MARPOL 73/78 latest edition, STCW 78/95 latest edition, the latest IMO gas
code for the type of gas carrier we are on, ICS Tanker safety guide liquefied gas, and
ICS Ship to ship transfer guide for liquefied gases. Vessels that are registered in
either NOR or NIS must have the latest edition of the Norwegian Maritime
Directorate rules. In addition we must have the guidelines and publications from
SIGTTO, ICS, OCIMF and USCG. In the Exxon vessel inspection guide we can find
references to all publications they require us to have onboard.


Before we can commence loading we need a confirmed loading order from the
owner. In the loading order we will find the quantity to be loaded, at which
temperature we will receive the cargo, and what temperature we are to discharge
the cargo. Further we find information about the load port and discharge port. It
may also state what size there is on the terminal lines and flanges.

The quantity to be loaded is given in metric tons. There are three different ways to
state the quantity, either:

4000 mt +- 5% MOLOO Then we can load from 3800 mt to 4200

mt on owners option
4000 mt +- 5% MOLCO Then we can load from 3800 mt to 4200
mt on charterer option
4000 mt Then we have to load 4000 mt

MOLOO means that it is the owner, represented by the captain that states the
quantity to be loaded. MOLCO means that it is the charter that states the quantity.

The cargo loading temperature is given either fully refrigerated, ambient or on a

given temperature. Ambient means the temperature is equal to the air temperature if

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the shore tank is located on the surface. It also states what temperature the cargo is
to be discharged at.

The maximum allowed filling limit when loading is 98% and it is the safety relief
valve setting and the cargo temperature that give the filling limit. To find the filling
limit we can either use the operation manual for the vessel or the cargo density
table. When using the density table, we can calculate the temperature of the cargo
from the absolute pressure, in this case 4 bar.

When we have the basic information on the cargo, we must start planning the
loading. We then calculate the filling limit in each cargo tank and then plan the
loading rate. The loading rate is determined by three factors: cargo temperature, the
ambient temperature, and whether we do or do not have vapour return.

When we are loading and we need to run the cargo plant, there are various ways to
run the plant. It depends on the temperatures and the flexibility of the plant.

If we are set up to load two different cargoes e.g. ethylene and propane, then we
must separate the cargoes from each other. We call that segregation of cargo tanks,
cargo cooling plants and lines. Taking out small pipes on the cargo lines does
segregation, those pipe parts are called “spool pieces”. The spool pieces are taken
out of the lines and the main line is blanked of flange covers. We also have to
segregate the cargo cooling plant e.g. two plants are used for ethylene and one is
used for the propane. It is stated in the Certificate of Fitness how the lines and
compressors can be segregated. If we have 4 cargo tanks there could be a possible
segregation with cargo tank 1+2 and 3+4.

When we are loading a partial cargo we must try to use the manifold that is linked
directly to the tank that we are loading. If we are going to load on tanks 2,3 and 4,
then we use the manifold for tanks 3+4. All spool pieces are marked according to the
diagram. Many of the spool pieces have the same diameter but have a different
length, so try to keep your spool pieces orderly. Normally the spool pieces are
mounted on the cargo lines, so there should not be any problem keeping them

Before we can commence loading we have to cool down the tank shell as mush as
possible, the optimal is less than 10oC above cargo loading temperature. The
resulting temperature of the tank shell depends on how much time is used, the
amount of cargo remaining on board, and the arrangement of the lines to the cargo
tanks. We need thermometers on the outside of the tank shell in order to achieve the
proper temperature. If we are going to load fully refrigerated propane, we must try
to get the temperature on the outside on the cargo tank shell below –35oC before we
start loading. When the cargo tank shell is chilled down before arrival, the time used
for loading will be reduced.

Before we arrive port the cargo tank shell must be chilled down, and cargo lines and
spool pieces must be readied. Only then will we be able to reduce the time used in

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When loading, the liquid is either pumped or pressured onboard from the shore tank.
If we are loading by pressure, the vessel’s cargo tank pressure must be lower than
the shore tanks pressure. This way of loading is mostly used on fully pressurised
vessels. When we are loading by pumps we must follow the cargo tanks pressure to
hold it below the safety valve set point. After completion of the loading, we need to
free the loading hose/ arm of liquid by use of hot gas. The hot gas is produced by
the vessel’s cargo compressor or from the shore tank or terminal’s compressor. On
some terminals they use nitrogen to free the hose/ arm of liquid. When using this
method we must keep a close watch so we do not get so much nitrogen into the
cargo tanks.

Before we commence loading cargo it must be issued a checklist, load planning,

loading log, ship/ shore checklist and a time sheet. The vessel’s plans for loading
have to be discussed and agreed to by the terminal loading master and safety
officer. Read carefully the checklists and pay special attention to any notes about
maximum pressure or minimum temperatures on the loading hose/ arm. All
deviations from the planning have to be noted in the deck logbook and discussed
with the loading master/ safety officer.

It is very important that we are familiar with both the vessels and the terminals
emergency routines, so that we all know what to do if there is a cargo leak or
uncontrolled venting.

When we transfer cargo from other vessels, we must follow our company quality
manual and the ICS Ship to Ship Transfer Guide.

11.2.1 Loading without vapour return

When loading without vapour return, only the liquid line is connected to the terminal.
On some terminals we also have to connected a vapour line, but it is only for
emergency use, and goes directly to flare. The cargo liquid is pumped or pressured
to vessel’s cargo tanks through the liquid lines.

To avoid high pressure in the vessel’s cargo tanks we need to pressure control the
cargo in the tanks. To control the pressure we use the cargo cooling plant. During
the entire loading process we must check the tank pressure, and we must do our
utmost to avoid uncontrolled venting. Uncontrolled venting happen when the cargo
tanks pressures rise to the set point of the safety relief valves and they open. The
cargo tank vapour will then be led to the vessels vent mast. To avoid uncontrolled
venting we have to reduce the loading rate or stop loading if we can not increase the
cooling capacity.

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11.2.2 Loading without vapour return but use of cargo cooling plant

When commencing loading, we always start with a slow rate to check that there is
not any leakage on the terminal lines/ arms/ hoses or the vessel lines/ valves. When
we are sure that there is no leakage’s and the cargo tank shell is close to the same
temperature as the cargo, we can then increase the loading rate slowly to the agreed
maximum rate. While we are increasing the loading rate we must watch the cargo
tank pressure carefully.

In order to avoid having too much pressure in the cargo tanks when loading, we can
either reduce the loading rate or stop loading, if the cargo cooling plant is on
maximum capacity. If we can increase the cooling plant capacity, we have to do it
before reducing the loading rate. It is important for the vessel to load at the rate that
is stated in the charter party or is agreed to by the loading master. If we have to
reduce the loading rate due to foul gas, we will then have to clarify it with the
loading master and it must be noted in the deck logbook. When we reduce the
loading rate the cargo temperature from shore will increase.

On all types of gas carriers, it is important to check the cargo tank pressure all the
time while loading. We have to do our outmost to avoid uncontrolled venting.

11.2.3 Loading with vapour return

The safest and fastest way to load is when we have vapour return, and that can be
done on all types of gas carriers. When we are loading with vapour return the liquid
hose/ arm is connected to the vessel’s liquid manifold and the vapour hose/ arm
connected to the vessel’s vapour manifold. The cargo liquid is pumped or pressured
onboard through the vessel’s liquid lines and to the cargo tanks that are to be
loaded. The cargo tanks excess pressure is evacuated through the vessel’s vapour
lines to shore.

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Before we commence evacuating any vapour from the vessel we must be sure that
the vapour is returned to the shore tank and not to flare. If the vapour is evacuated
to flare, the vessel will be charged for the amount of vapour that is burned. We must
be aware that if we evacuate more vapour than is agreed to, the terminal can
develop problems with the shore tank pressure.

11.2.4 Loading with cargo cooling plant and vapour return

In addition to the vapour return, we use the vessel’s cargo cooling plant. If we have
an indirect cargo cooling plant, we cool down the cargo tank shell or the vapour
phase in the cargo tank. If we have a direct cargo cooling plant we condense the
vapour in the cargo condenser and the condensate is pressured to the cargo tank.

While we are loading we must try to keep the cargo tank pressure as low as possible,
in doing so the vapour return will help us great deal. When vapour return exists, we
can increase or reduce the amount of vapour to shore by throttling the vapour
manifold valve. How mush vapour we can send to shore must be agreed upon with
the loading master before commencement of loading. It is the terminal’s capacity to
receive vapour that determines the rate of vapour the vessel can send to shore while

Before we open the vapour manifold valve to send vapour to shore we must be sure
that the vapour goes back to the shore tank and not to flare. If the vapour is sent to
flare, the vessel will be charged for the amount that is burned in the flare.

On fully pressurised gas carriers we must not send to shore so much vapour that the
cargo is chilled down to less than –10oC. As an example, if we load propane and the
cargo tank pressure is taken down to near 0 bar, the cargo temperature will be about

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After the loading is completed the terminal loading hose/ arm has to be freed of
liquid. To evacuate the liquid from the loading hose/ arm we either use the vessel
cargo compressors and blow hot vapour, or the terminal uses nitrogen and blows
onboard. If the terminal is using nitrogen, we must minimise the amount of nitrogen
to the cargo tanks. Try to blow the line into one cargo tank only. If we get to much
nitrogen in the cargo tanks, we will develop too high condenser pressure and our
cargo compressors may stop, and in the worst case we may have an uncontrolled

When loading fully refrigerated or semi-refrigerated gas carriers we must try to

evacuate as much vapour to shore as possible in order to get the lowest possible
cargo tank pressure. When loading with a high rate, the shore tank liquid level and
the cargo temperature will be reduced and the vapour phase increased. When the
liquid level and the cargo temperature is reduced, the terminal can take more vapour
from the vessel. The maximum loading rate depends on the cargo temperature,
temperature of the cargo tank

shell before commence loading, cargo cooling plant capacity, size of the loading lines
and the ambient temperature.


Cargo procedures while the vessel is at sea depend on what has been stated in the
charter party. Some cargoes are to be discharged fully refrigerated, while others at a
given temperature. In addition to the charter party, the vessels cargo handling
equipment performance is important, especially the capacity of the cargo cooling
plant, capacity of the cargo heater, insulation on the cargo tanks and the length of
the sea voyage.

11.3.1 Cooling of the cargo while at sea

On fully refrigerated gas carriers we do not have any choice, we must maintain a low
pressure and temperature of the cargo. How to run the cargo cooling plants at sea
depends on the plant itself, type of cargo, cargo tank insulation, the ambient
temperature and the length of the sea voyage. The fewer cargo plants and hours we
are running the plants, the lower fuel consumption do we have, and maintenance
cost will be reduced.

As long as the cargo plants are running, we have to watch that we don’t get vacuum
in the cargo tanks. We must try to maintain a positive cargo tank pressure e.g. 0,01
bar or higher, this is to avoid air leaks into the cargo tank. Some cargoes like
ethylene and butadiene, will be contaminated if the content of oxygen is to high. To
avoid a vacuum in the cargo tank there may be a pressure switch on the suction side
of the cargo compressor or on the cargo tank connected to the cargo compressor,
that stops the compressor when there is to low suction pressure.

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On semi-refrigerated gas carriers we have a few more options how we may handle
cargo at sea, than with a fully refrigerated gas carrier. We may either maintain the
cargo temperature or cool down the cargo, depending on the charter party.

The number of cargo cooling plants we have to use depends on the cargo, the
ambient temperature, capacity of the cooling plants, length of the sea voyage and
the insulation of the cargo tanks. We must try to cool down the cargo to the
discharge temperature as soon as possible and then maintain the temperature the
rest of the voyage. We will then be able to discharge the cargo earlier if we are sent
to another port of call. As long as the cargo is onboard it may be sold to another
customer, so we must be prepared to discharge the cargo earlier than planned. We
must always keep in mind that cooling down the cargo demands a lot of energy.
Read the charter party/ loading order carefully and run the cargo cooling plants as
economically as possible.

Always check the weather forecast and air temperatures for your voyage. The
seawater temperature has a major influence on your cooling capacity. Higher
seawater temperature results in reduced cooling capacity. Pressure is defined as the
movement of molecules, and when a vessel is pitching or rolling the molecules will
move faster and the result is higher cargo tank pressure. Try to cool down the cargo
as mush as possible before you enter into bad weather.

When the cargo cooling plants is running we must fill out the cargo-cooling log. In
the cargo-cooling log we must record the various pressures, temperatures and
ampere for each of the cargo cooling plants. We must also record when we have
changed condensate and to which tank we have pumped the condensate. This to
avoid overfilling of cargo tanks and interrupt the cargo cooling process.

On fully pressurised gas carriers we can only control the cargo tank pressure if there
is cargo compressor onboard, if not, we have to vent the vapour to the atmosphere.
The cargo tank steel of fully pressurised gas carriers are normally designed for
minimum temperature of –10C°. That means we normally control the cargo
temperature and pressure and do not lower it.

11.3.2 Heating of cargo on the voyage

The charter party or loading order must state if we have to heat the cargo on the sea
voyage before discharging. Depending of the vessel’s cargo equipment, there are
normally three different ways to heat the cargo. We can pump the cargo through the
cargo heater to another cargo tank. We may use the cargo compressor to blow hot
vapour down into the liquid in the cargo tank. We can also use indirect cargo plant
and pump e.g. ethanol in coils either outside of the cargo tank shell or in the vapour
phase inside the tank.

On fully refrigerated gas carriers there are no options for heating the cargo at sea. If
the vessel is equipped with cargo heater we may heat the cargo when discharging.

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On semi-pressurised gas carriers we may heat the cargo during the sea voyage if we
have the cargo equipment for it. The most effective way to heat the cargo is to use
the cargo pumps and the cargo heater. Then we pump the cargo from one tank
through the cargo heater and then to another cargo tank. If we have submerged
pumps this is normally not a problem. If we use deep well pumps, we must keep in
mind of the shaft bearings and the shaft itself when the vessel is pitching or rolling.
As we pump liquid from one cargo tank to another we must check the sounding on
the cargo tank we are pumping to. Check the sounding in the other cargo tanks also,
and record the cargo heating log temperatures and soundings on all tanks. When we
check all the tanks while we are heating the cargo we can avoid overfilling any of the
cargo tanks.


Before we may commence discharging any cargo, the captain must get a written
permission from the owner to discharge the cargo.

Certain information is needed before arriving at discharge port, such as the discharge
temperature given in charter party, backpressure on the terminal, and size of the
terminal lines and flanges. The captain can receive this information either from the
agents or directly from the terminal.

When all the information is received we must make a discharging plan. The
discharging plan must contain which cargo tanks are to be discharged, and the
sequence and rate of the discharging. If the cargo has to be heated and we need to
use a booster pump, and agreement must be made with the terminal as to the
minimum/ maximum cargo temperature and maximum backpressure. We must also
prepare the correct reducer to fit the terminal flanges.

The cargo pumps we plan to use have to be checked according to the manufacturer’s
specification ref. operation manual. Check closely the oil and mechanical seals.

The vessels discharge plan must be discussed with the terminal before commence
discharging. When the discharge plan is agreed to, fill out the ship/ shore safety
checklist. The discharge plan and all checklists must be signed and followed by the
vessel and the terminal. All deviations from the discharge plan or checklist must be
noted in the deck logbook and cleared with the terminal.

There are different methods for discharging a gas carrier, and they depend on the
cargo equipment onboard and the facilities at the terminal. There are two main
methods used in discharging a gas carrier, either by pumps or by pressure. If shore
backpressure is very high we must use a booster pump in addition to the ordinary
cargo pumps or cargo tank pressure.

When we use cargo pumps to discharge the cargo we must first check that the pump
is free by turning the pump shaft by hand. When we can turn the shaft by hand we
may then start the pump.

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When the terminal and the vessel are ready to commence discharging, we start the
process by using only one pump. The delivery valve on the pump is only slightly
open as well as the one back to the cargo tank. When the line is chilled down we
then close the valve down to the cargo tank and open the pressure valve a little bit
more. Check that there is no leakage on the vessel’s lines and valves and as well as
the terminal lines.

When both the vessel and terminal lines are chilled down we can increase the
discharge rate according to the discharge plan and on the terminal advice. Do not
increase the discharge rate more than what the terminal has asked for, in the worst
case the terminal will stop discharging and the vessel is charged for the delay.

While discharging, it is always the terminal that sets the rate and required the cargo
temperature. If the terminal asks the vessel to reduce the rate then we must comply.
To reduce the rate we either throttle the pressure valve on a pump or stop a pump.
If we throttle the pressure valve, we then generate pressure in that cargo tank. To
avoid increased cargo tank pressure it is best to stop the pump. If the vessel refuses
to reduce the rate the terminal can stop the discharging and then hold the vessel
responsible for the delay or damage caused by the high discharge rate.

If the shore tank pressure is to high the terminal must flare the excess pressure, or
they can arrange a vapour return to the vessel. Reasons for the high shore tank
pressure may be either a discharge rate that is high, to high temperature of the
cargo, or the cargo compressors on shore may have to small capacity.

If the vessel must use the cargo cooling plant while discharging, permission to do so
must be stated in the charter party or agreed to by the receiver so that the vessel
will be compensated for the extra fuel consumption. Always while discharging we
must record in the deck logbook if there have been any deviations from the
discharge plan. Onboard we must do the utmost to avoid any claims from the

11.4.1 Discharging by cargo tank over pressure

When we must discharge the cargo tank by pressure, the tank that receives our
cargo must have a lower pressure than our own. This way of discharging is the
simplest, but when the liquid level decreases, the cargo tank pressure also decrease.
That means we have to compensate for the lost pressure, and that is done either by
hot gas from the vessel or shore, or by nitrogen from shore. This way of discharging
can be done by semi and fully pressurised gas carriers.

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11.4.2 Discharging with centrifugal pumps

The most common pumps on gas carriers are centrifugal pumps, either of deep well
or submerged type. Most gas carriers have one pump in each cargo tank and they
are also normally equipped with one or more booster pumps on deck. When
discharging fully refrigerated and semi-pressurised gas carriers we normally only use
the pumps in the cargo tanks. If we have to discharge against high backpressure
then we also need to use the booster pump either onboard or at the terminal.

While we are running the cargo pumps we have to check that the pump is running
the correct direction and the liquid level is reduced in the cargo tank. Record in the
discharge log pump pressure and ampere and discharge volume every hour. On new
cargo pumps there is an anti rotating device to protect the pump from running the
wrong way. Most of the pumps also have a non-return valve on the pressure side to
avoid leaks if the pump has or are stopped. Check the oil level and the mechanical
seal when the pump is running.

The booster pumps must be used if the backpressure is higher than maximum
pressure for the pumps in the cargo tank. Booster pumps can be set up either in a
series or parallel, depending on backpressure and the rate agreed upon. We must
never increase the pump pressure higher than the pressure limit on the terminal
discharging hose/ arm.

When transferring cargo from one vessel to another we must follow the company
quality manual and the ICS Ship to Ship Transfer Guide. While transferring cargo
either ship to ship or ship to shore there must be a good communication between
the two parties. All changes from the discharge plan or checklists must be reported
in the deck logbook.

11.4.3 Discharging through the cargo heater

Sometimes we may have to discharge the cargo with a higher temperature than we
have in our cargo tanks. In those cases we use our cargo heater while discharging.
When using the cargo heater we must first check that the heating medium is
circulating. Seawater or oil is used as a heating medium, however some terminals do
not accept water as heating medium. When we have checked that the heating
medium is circulating we may then pump cargo through the heater. Normally we can
by-pass the heater with some cargo, but watch the temperature of the liquid
manifold. Never pump cargo to shore with lower temperature than the minimum
temperature given in the checklist. In the worst case the shoreline may be damaged.

If we are using water as heating medium we must keep the seawater temperature
from dropping below 5oC as it goes out of the heater. If the water is freezing, the
cargo heater may be damaged and start leaking.

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The cargo temperature on the vessel’s liquid manifold depends on the amount of
cargo that is pumped through the cargo heater. The manifold temperature is
adjusted by bypassing the cargo heater. Less cargo through the heater will result in
lower temperatures and higher flow “discharge rate”. If the water temperature is 5oC
or less we must not use the cargo heater unless we have facilities to heat the water
before we pump it to the cargo heater.

Some terminals do not allow the use of cargo heaters that utilise water as heating
medium; they require oil as medium. If we must discharge at a terminal that does
not accept our heater type, we then must try to heat the cargo at sea.


All gas freeing operations requires a statement in the charter party or direct orders
from the company operation. Gas freeing is very expensive whether we gas free a
single tank or the whole vessel, and we must try to avoid those unnecessary costs.

Normally we have to gas free all the cargo tanks when we are changing cargo and
there must be visual inspection made of the cargo tanks. Other reasons for gas
freeing cargo tanks are for example times when we have to repair anything in the
tank or when we have to go in dry-dock. The tanks are gas free when they are free
of flammable, toxic or neutral gases and the tank atmosphere is pure air.

When we have to gas free cargo tanks, we must discharge as much liquid as possible
so that we can reduce the time used to liquid free the tank. To gas free cargo tanks
we use the vessel’s cargo compressors, inert gas generator and the cargo fan.

When we have received a confirmation from the charterer or owner that we are to
change cargo, we must set up a plan for the cargo change. The time we need to gas
free the vessel depends on the cargo ROB and what type the next cargo is.

Some products we may carry, such as propane and butane can be loaded on each
vapour phase, we only need to be liquid free. Other products such as ethylene and
butadiene require that we are gas free before gassing up with the cargo to be

There is two temperatures we have to keep in mind when gas freeing. Those are the
temperature of the cargo tanks when start the gas freeing process, and the expected
air temperature when we commence blowing air. The reason that those two
temperatures are important is that we have to heat the tank shell the same amount
of degrees as the difference between the two temperatures. As an example if we
start with –99oC in the cargo tank and the ambient temperature is 19oC, we must
heat the cargo tank shell 118oC. It is always the heating process that takes the
longest time when gas freeing.

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11.5.1 Gas freeing

The first we have to do when gas freeing is to liquid free the cargo tanks. To liquid
free the tanks we can either blow hot gas down in the pump sump or pressurise the
tank and empty the tank through the empty blow line. It depends on the type of gas
carrier we are on and the pipes in the cargo tanks. When we blow hot gas, we blow
it either through the condensate line, empty blow line or the pump. If we blow
through the pump we must check that the pump does not start to rotate. When the
hot gas is blown down in the pump sump the liquid will be boiled off. As long as we
have liquid the cargo tank pressure will increase as we blow hot gas. When there is
no more liquid left in the cargo tank, pressure will be stabilised and only the tank
shell temperature will increase. We must try to have as high pressure in the tank as
possible when we liquid free the tank. On fully refrigerated gas carriers we must
watch the cargo tank pressure at all times to avoid an uncontrolled venting.

Continue to blow hot gas down in the cargo tank until we have about 5oC above the
seawater temperature. Read the temperature on both sides of the cargo tank shell.
Keep in mind that the cargo tank shell can have a thickness of 20 mm or more.

We then stop the cargo compressors when we have reached the planned cargo tank
temperature. Then we have to vent off the cargo tanks pressure, either through the
vapour manifold into the water or to the vessels vent mast. If the vessel is equipped
with purge tanks or we have a gas recovery plant we can use the cargo compressors
and condensate the overpressure to the purge tank. The purge tank is a small tank
“pressure vessel” located either on deck or in a hold space. When we have reached
atmospheric pressure in the cargo tank we can commence to inert or purge the
cargo tanks with nitrogen.

If we are using inert gas the oxygen content by volume has to be less than 5%, that
is an IMO requirement. The inert gases have to be as dry and warm as possible
before we send it to the cargo tank. If the vessel is equipped with a heater on the
inert gas line we must use it to make use of the density difference between the inert
gas and the cargo vapour. When we have difference’s in the density it is easier to
achieve a good displacement purging. The differences in density tell us if we must
blow the inert gas through the cargo tank vapour or liquid line.

We must try to hold as low cargo tank pressure as possible while we are inerting to
avoid turbulence in the cargo tank. Start the inerting with as low rate as possible,
that way we will get the most effective purging. Displacements purging means the
cargo atmosphere is pressed out by the inert gas. Just after we have commenced the
inerting we have to measure the cargo tank atmosphere for HC vapour in the part of
the cargo tank we have blown inn the inert gas. During the whole inert operation we
have to measure the cargo tank atmosphere for HC vapour content until we reach
the planned content less or equal to LEL or the limit stated in the company QA

While we are inerting, the oxygen content will not be higher than the oxygen content
we have set on the inert gas generator e.g. 2% by volume. The HC content will be

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reduced as long as we are inerting and we do not stop the inerting before we have
reached the LEL for the actual cargo. As an example the LEL on propane is 2% by
volume, so we have to inert until we reach 1,5% by volume. When we have less HC
content than LEL on the actual cargo we can commence ventilating the cargo tank
with air.

11.5.2 Example on displacement purging

In the IMO regulations we must use a safety factor of 2 as the margin for error on
measurement and instruments. That means that when we draw flammability
diagram, the line for critical mixture with 2% oxygen by volume gives 4% HC content
by volume. We then have to inert until we read 2% HC by volume before we
commence ventilating with air. It is important that we also inert all liquid lines,
condensers and cargo compressors before we stop the inerting, to have a neutral
atmosphere in them.

Equipment we can use when venting cargo tanks with air are cargo compressors,
cargo fan, inert gas blower, booster compressor or portable cargo fans. The kinds of
equipment we use depend on the vessel’s cargo equipment. If the vessel is equipped
with a vent heater we must use it to get as warm and dry air as possible. While we
are venting with air we have to measure the oxygen content and also check that the
HC content is reduced to 0% by volume. Before we stop the air ventilation we have
to measure the cargo tank atmosphere for 0% by volume of CO - CO2 (Carbon
monoxide - Carbon dioxide) and the oxygen content must be 21% by volume.

CO Carbon monoxide

CO is a very toxic gas and extreme caution should be taken prior to entering a tank
that has been previously inerted and ventilated.

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The HC content in the cargo tanks can not be higher then when we started venting
with air, unless we have forgotten to purge any lines or other cargo equipment’s.

The humidity and temperature of the air we use for venting gives us the necessary
temperature of the cargo tank shell. If the cargo tank shell has a temperature that is
much lower than the air, the air will condense on the steel and we will get water in
the tank.

Temp. Water
4oC 6.30
5oC 6.75
6oC 7.22
24oC 22.20
25oC 23.50
26oC 24.80

For example at an ambient temperature on 25oC and 75% relative humidity and an
average cargo tank shell temperature of 5oC, will produce 10,75 g/m3 of water

Temp Water

At 25oC the maximum content of water is 23,5 g/m3 and 75% humidity gives us then
17,625 g/m3. At 5oC the maximum water content can be 6,75 g/m3 that give 17,625
g/m3 – 6,75 g/m3 = 10,87 g/m3 water. If we are venting with 10000 m3/h, 108,7 kg

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of water will be released an hour. We then understand how important it is to heat

the cargo tank shell to same temperature as the ambient temperature and that we
have to use dry and heated inert gas and air. If we get water into the tank while
venting we have to use either an ejector or rags to dry up the water.

If we had heated the cargo tank shell to 30oC before venting with air at 25oC the
relative humidity in the tank atmosphere will be approximately 57%. At 30oC the
maximum content of water is 31 g/m3 and we had 17,625 g/m3 that gives us 17,625
g/m3 divided by 31 g/m3 = 56,8% and we do not develop any problems with water.

While we have a visual inspection of cargo tanks we must use that time to sweep
and clean up dust and check that there is not any foreign substances on the tank
top. Check that all bolts and nuts on the pump and cargo tank lines are tight. Also
check that the pump is in the correct position, if a pump is damaged it is very costly
to repair and gas free the tank.

11.5.3 Gassing up cargo tanks

To gas up a cargo tank means that we change the cargo tank atmosphere from air to
either a neutral, toxic or cargo atmosphere. There are different methods and ways to
gas up cargo tanks and they are dependent on the specifications from the charterer
and what type of cargo to be loaded. If the vessel is set up to load a cargo that
requires low dew-point and a low content of oxygen, we must then use nitrogen to
purge out the humidity and oxygen from the cargo tank. If there isn’t any required
limit to the humidity and oxygen content can be more than 1% by volume, we can
then use inert gas to purge out the humidity and oxygen from the cargo tank. Before
loading ammonia we can gas up the cargo tanks directly with ammonia vapour if the
terminal and charterer agree on that, otherwise we have to use nitrogen.

Normally we purge with nitrogen alongside a terminal or jetty, it can also be done at
anchorage with a barge. Some new gas carriers have their own nitrogen plant
onboard and can purge while they are at sea. Before the nitrogen is blown down into
the cargo tank we must try to heat it as much as possible, up to 60oC or more.

Nitrogen vapour expands when it is heated and the warmer we have the nitrogen,
the lower the consumption and time used is. To heat nitrogen onboard we can use
either the superheater feed by steam or an electrical heater.

While we are purging with nitrogen we must have as low tank pressure as possible,
less than 0,02 bar. When we start purging we must start with a low rate to avoid
turbulence in the tank. Normal method is displacement purging and uses the
different density to push out the old atmosphere from the cargo tank. Just after we
have commenced purging we must measure the oxygen content in the part of the
tank we blow in the nitrogen to see the reduced content of oxygen. Also check the
oxygen content in the middle of the tank just after commence purging to be sure
that it isn’t turbulence in the atmosphere.

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The purging rate must be discussed and cleared with the loading master before we
commence purging. Always start with a low rate and increase to maximum when we
are sure that there is no turbulence in the atmosphere. We have to calculate for each
purging what is the most economical, either the lay time or the use of nitrogen.
There is a big differences in harbour fees and nitrogen prices around the world, so
what was the cheapest in one port could be the most expensive in other ports.
Before we have completed purging we have to purge through all lines and all cargo
equipment to be sure that we do not have any air left in the cargo systems.

When the surveyor has, according to the specifications given from the shipper or
charterer approved the cargo tanks and cargo equipment, we can then commence
purging with cargo vapour. Some gases as ethylene and butadiene require less than
0,1% oxygen by volume.

For liquefied gases as methane, ethylene and ethane most shippers require a dew
point of less than –45oC. The charter party always specifies the maximum content of
oxygen and the maximum dew point.

11.5.4 Examples on parallel purging

Purging with cargo vapour is mainly done at a terminal or at anchorage, it depends

on where we are in the world and what type of cargo we are purging with. The
method that is most friendly to the environment is to conduct the operation in a
place where it is possible to condensate the cargo and nitrogen vapour. The most
common method is to load some cargo from shore and then do the operation out on
the road. At some terminals we are allowed to do the operation alongside and send
the cargo vapour to the terminal flare.

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We must always use the difference in density while we are purging; the lightest
vapour to be purged must go into the top of the cargo tank. Then we take the
vapour to be purged out through the bottom liquid line in the cargo tank.

11.5.5 Example on nitrogen serial purging

Which method we should use, either serial or parallel depends on the experience and
the lines onboard. On one vessel it can be easiest to purge parallel, another vessel
get the best results from using serial purging. When we are gassing up we have to
avoid opening any lines after the cargo tanks are completed gassed up. That means
on most vessels we must gas up using the parallel method.

The more flexible the vessel is built, the easier it is to purge and gas up the vessel.

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11.6 Formulas to be used when changing atmosphere in an tank

There are some formulas that we can use to calculate the consumption of nitrogen
or inert for changing atmosphere in tanks and the time to be used for the same
purpose. The formula is a bit different, if we use inert versus nitrogen.

11.6.1 Using nitrogen

When we use nitrogen, the oxygen content is 0%. That means we should purge 21%
oxygen from the air to a given maximum content of oxygen in the tank e.g. 0,2%.

11.6.2 Numbers of volume changed is ln (original O2 content/ desired O2

ln Natural logarithm
Original O2 content The original content of O2 in the
tank that we should purge
Desired O2 content The specified O2 content given in
the charter party
Numbers of volume changed The number of times the
specified tank capacity needs to
be completely purged of nitrogen

If we have one tank at 1000 m3 capacity and the O2 content, according to the
charter party,

should be less than 0,2%, we start with air in the tank. The calculation will be as

Number of volume changed = ln ( 20,8% / 0,18%)

ln ( 115,56)
Number of volume changed = 4,75

The desired O2 content has been set to 0,18%, to be less than 0,2%.

The nitrogen consumption will then be 1000m3 * 4,75 which equals 4750m3 nitrogen.
This is the minimum required nitrogen. When ordering nitrogen add 10% to the
minimum needed (5225m3) nitrogen.

11.6.3 Using inert

When using inert we also use the formula with ln “natural logarithm” but we must
calculate the O2 content in the inert gas also.

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11.6.4 Numbers of volume changed is ln (original O2 content/ desired O2

ln Natural logarithm
Original O2 content The original content of O2 in the
tank that we should purge
Desired O2 content The specified O2 content given in
the charter party
O2 content in the inert The O2 content that we set the
inert gas generator to give,
never above 5%
Numbers of volume changed The number of times the
specified tank capacity needs to
be completely purged of nitrogen

Take an example with the same tank at 1000m3. The charter party states maximum
2% O2 and the O2 content on the inert is set to 0,5%. We start with air in the tank.

Number of volume changed = ln ( 20,8% - 0,5% / 2% - 0,5%)

ln ( 13,53)
Number of volume changed = 2,61

We have to subtract the inert gas O2 content from the original and desired O2

The total consumption of inert will be 1000m3 * 2,61 = 2610m3.

11.6.5 Use with allowed vacuum

On vessels that have facility to have some vacuum on their tanks they can use their
compressors to create the minimum allowed pressure in their tanks. If your vessel
can have 30% vacuum in the tanks, it means a 0,7 bar absolute pressure.

When you have 30% vacuum you have already quit 30% of the oxygen, which
means you have 20,8/100*70 = 14,56% oxygen left. When we come alongside we
pressurise the tanks with nitrogen to 1 bar absolute. Then we can continue the purge

To pressurise the tanks to 1 bar absolute we need 30% of the total capacity of our
tanks. If we should purge one tank on 1000m3, we need 300m3 of nitrogen.

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In this part, we will take a look at the different methods in calculating cargo
onboard. The quantities of cargo we will load are specified in the charter party and
this information is given directly from the charter or from the operation in the
owner’s office. When we load and transport liquefied gases there are some variables
that we have to have in mind, the setting of the safety valve’s “relief valve”, the
cargo temperature when loading and at which temperature we should discharge the
cargo. The type of gas carrier and the equipment we have onboard is also important
in the flexibility of our transport.

12.4.1 Maximum filling limit

Maximum filling limit is the maximum volume liquid we are allowed to load in the
cargo tank. In chapter 15 of the IMO gas code, we find that the maximum filling can
be 98% of full tank volume. Filling limit depends on the set point of relief valve and
the density of the actual cargo.
Formula for maximum volume liquid is as follows:

Filling limit = ρR / ρL * 98%

ρR Density of reference temperature on the relief valve setting

ρL Density for actual cargo temperature

This means that if the relief valve setting is low, we can load more than if the setting
is high. If there is a possibility to take off one or more of the pilot valves, we can
increase the liquid volume loaded. We then have to calculate the difference between
the pilot settings. The time used for loading will also increase if we have a lower set
point on the cargo tank’s relief valves. What we always have to avoid is an
uncontrolled venting.

Uncontrolled venting is when we get such a high pressure in the cargo

tank that the relief valve opens.

If we look at some examples e.g. propane and the first example relief valve setting is
4,5 bar and the other example relief valve setting is 0,5 bar. Cargo temperature is –

Relief valve setting 4,5 4,5 bar + 1 bar = 5,5 bar ≅ 5oC = 523,3
bar kg/m3
Relief valve setting 0,5 0,5 bar + 1 bar = 1,5 bar ≅ - = 570,2
bar 32oC kg/m3
Cargo temperature – = 573,7
35oC kg/m3

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In our example with 1000 m3 tank, we can see that the difference is about 45mt.
With 4,5 bar setting we can load 513,259mt and with 0,5 bar setting we can load
558,900mt. If the freight rate is 80 USD/mt we then miss USD 3651. If we are on a
gas carrier on 10 000 m3 the loss of income will then be USD 36 510.
When we reduce the set point on cargo tank relief valves, the time used for loading
and discharging will increase. What we have to avoid is letting the cargo tank fill
100% with liquid.

On semi-refrigerated gas carriers, normally the lowest relief valve setting is 0,5 bar.
There are two or more pilot valves e.g. 3,6 bar and 5,2 bar. If we change the relief
valve setting, we have to mark that on the cargo tank and also note it in the deck-
log book.
On fully refrigerated gas carriers the relief valve setting is about 0,25 bar and there
are often facilities for putting one extra weight on the pilot, normally 0,2 to 0,3 bar.
That means we have a relief valve setting of 0,45 bar. The extra setter is allowed to
be used only while loading or gas freeing.

In all cargo calculations in this compendium, we use T0 = 273oC and atmospheric

pressure to 1,013 bar if nothing else is stated. In all calculations we have to use
pressure in kilo Pascal (kPA) that gives 1,013 bar ⇒ 101,3 kPa. For the cargo
calculations, we use densities from thermodynamic properties edited by Ocean Gas

When the vessel is at sea and we get a telex that we are to set up to load propane
at –30oC in Fawly. Our cargo tank relief valve set point is 4,5 bar. To find out how
mush we can load, we then have to take a rough calculation. We can then use
density for propane at –30oC and for 6oC, this only to get an overview of how mush
we can load.

At 6oC ρ is 522,0 kg/m3 and at –30oC ρ is 567,9 kg/m3

Then we get 98% * ρR/ρL ⇒ 98% * 522,0/567,9 = 90,07%

To calculate the accurate filling limit, we have to know the actual cargo temperature
and we must use density table. However, as long as we do not know the exact cargo
temperature, we use the nearest values in the table. When we know the exact
temperature of the cargo, we can calculate more accurately. Relief valve setting is
4,5 bar and atmospheric pressure 1,013 bar gives absolute pressure 5,513 bar.

In the thermodynamic table we find:

5,45 bar ⇒ 5oC

5,61 bar ⇒ 6oC

We have to interpolate between 5,45 bar and 5,61 bar to find the correct reference
temperature and the correct density. The reference temperature is 5,39oC and
reference density is 522,79 kg/m3.

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Then we use -30oC and we find density to 567,9 kg/m3.

Filling limit = ρR / ρL * 98%

= 522,79 kg/m3 / 567,9 kg/m3 x 98% = 90,22%

In this example the filling limit will be 90,17% when we load propane at a
temperature on -30oC. If the loading temperature is colder than -30oC the filling limit
will be less than 90,17% and higher if the temperature is above -30oC.

12.4.2 Example 1

Cargo Propane
Temp in oC -30 o
C 567,9 kg/m3
Temp. reference rel. valve R 5,39 C 522,79 kg/m3
Tank #1, 100% Volume 1182,18 m3
Relieve valve set point 4,5 bar
Atmospheric pressure 1,013 bar
Absolute pressure relieve 5,513 bar
Filling limit = rR / rL x 98 %
Filling limit 522,793 / 567,900 x 98,00 % 90,22 %

When we have loaded propane on –30oC to the limit 90,17% we are then sure that if the
pressure in the cargo tank increases to 4,5 bar and the temperature in the liquid
increases to 5,39oC the liquid volume will be 98%.

When we have calculated the filling limit we can find the maximum volume of liquid that
we can load.

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VL = 0,98 * V * ρR/ ρL
VL Volume liquid
V 100% Volume of the cargo tank
ρR Density of reference temperature on the relief valve setting
ρL Density for actual cargo temperature

When we have found the correct filling limit, we can find the maximum volume to be
loaded. We have to find the cargo tank at 100% volume and multiply with the actual
filling limit.
If we have a cargo tank on 1182,18 m3 volume at 100%, we find the maximum
volume to be loaded by multiplying with 90,17% filling limit.

Cargo tank 100% volume Filling limit in Volume to be loaded

in m3 % in m3

1182,18 90,17 1065,943

When we do this calculation we use the formula: VL = 0,98 x V x rR / rL.

12.4.3 Example 2

Filling limit 522,793 / 98 % 90,216 %

Filling volume = Filling limit * Cargo
tank 100% vol.
Filling volume 90,22 % x m3 = 1065,972
1182,18 m3

Or Filling Volume VL= 0,98 x 1182,18 x 522,793 / 1066,517

567,9 = m3

After we have found the filling volume, we find the ullage or sounding in the vessels
ullage/sounding table.

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Sounding is the level from tank bottom to the liquid surface. Ullage is the level from
liquid surface to deck level. In the following examples, we use sounding.

In this example, we
find the correct sounding to be 8,1662 meters. We have to do this calculation on
each cargo tank before we start loading.

In this example, the filling volume is 1065,943 m3 and that is in between 8,16
meters and 8,17 meters, so we have to interpolate to find the correct sounding.

12.4.4 Example 3

Filling volume = Filling limit * Cargo tank 100% vol.

Filling limit 90,17 % 1182,180 m3 = 1065,943 m3

sounding in m volume in
8,16 1065,25 m3
8,17 1066,36 m3
8,1662 1065,94 m3

When we have found the correct sounding/ullage we have to find which corrections
we must use to get the actual sounding/ullage. The corrections can be found in the
sounding/ullage table for each vessel.

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12.4.5 Corrections
There are normally four corrections to be used: the correction on the float, correction
on the sounding tape, list and trim correction. The float correction depends on the
liquid density; with a higher density the float becomes lighter in the liquid. The tape
correction depends on the temperature in the vapour phase. List and trim correction
depend on how the vessel is in the water. We have to study the corrections carefully
so we use the correct sign character. Spherical floats have the highest corrections on
float. All corrections we do, we find in the sounding/ullage table for each cargo tank.
On the next page, we found an example of a spherical float.

Example of a spherical float

The table for float correction is calculated against different densities and when we
have a cargo with density in between the table values, we have to interpolate to find
the correct correction.
Out of the table above we can see that lighter liquid will give a higher correction.

The Float correction table

Specific gravity (kg/dm3) Corrections in meter

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If we have cargo density 0,55 kg/dm3, we have to interpolate between 0,50 and 0,60
the correction will then be 0,160 meter. Small floats will give the lowest corrections.
A tank equipped with spherical float will have higher corrections than tanks equipped
with a flat float.
A correction on the sounding tape depends on the temperature in the vapour phase
in the tank. High temperature and a small vapour volume give a small correction, low
temperature and big vapour volume gives a higher correction.

Correction on trim is either a correction to be added or multiplied to the measured

sounding/ullage or the volume table is calculated with the trim directly. The trim
correction is higher on long tanks than on short tanks. This means that small
transverse tanks have a trim correction near to zero and long tank has higher

Correction on list is either correction to be added or multiplied to the measured

sounding/ullage or the volume table is calculated with the list directly. The list
corrections are highest on wide transverse tanks and small on narrow longitudinal
How we should use the corrections are explained in each sounding/ullage table.
Earlier in this chapter, we found the corrected sounding to be 8,1662 meter. We will
now continue using this example to find the sounding that we will read on the
sounding tape. Normally the corrections are used directly on the sounding
measurement, but when we calculate the other way we have to use the correction’s
signs the opposite way.

12.4.6 Example 4

Corrected sounding 8,1662

Trim correction from table -0,021
List correction from table 0
Sounding w. 20oC 8,1872
Correction for vapour temperature -0,001
Float correction from table 0,1564
Read sounding 8,0318

To find the correct corrections we have to know the density of the cargo, in this
case, propane at –30oC and density 567,9 kg/m3 = 0,5679kg/dm3, aft trim on 0,5
meter zero list and –15oC in the vapour phase. When we are completely loaded on
this tank, we will have a sounding of 8,0318 meter.
The 98% maximum filling is to prevent liquid getting in the relief valve, if the tank
pressure reaches the relief valve setting.
On vessels with relief valve setting of 0,5 bar we do not have any possibilities to heat
the cargo at sea. On semi-refrigerated or fully pressurised vessels, we have
opportunity to heat the cargo while the vessel is at sea. When we are heating the
cargo, we have to follow the tank pressure carefully to avoid uncontrolled venting.

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Vessels with a low relief valve setting can have a higher filling limit than vessels with
a high relieve valve setting.

The sketch below shows how the filling limit changes with the cargo temperature, as
long as the relief valve’s set point is the same.


In this chapter we will look at the tables and corrections we use when calculating
weight of cargo onboard gas carriers. We then start to look at how we calculate
weight in air at 15oC by using the correct tables.

The tables we are using are the ASTM-IP-API tables for light hydrocarbons. Density
is mass divided by volume. The mass has either kilo (kg) or metric ton (mt) as unit.
Volume has either cubic meter (m3) or litre (lt) as unit. Unit for density is either
kg/m3 ⇒ tonn/m3 or kg/dm3 ⇒ kg/lt. Density and specific gravity is often given in
vacuum, then we need tables or calculations to convert to weight in air at 15oC.

12.4.7 Liquid calculation

We start calculation of the liquid in air and then we look at the vapour calculation.
For LPG cargoes and some chemical cargoes it is normally accepted to calculate the
weight in air at 15oC, as we do in the crude oil trade. We then get either specific
gravity 60/60oF or density at 15oC from shore and we have to use the ASTM-IP-API
In table ASTM-IP no. 21, we find density at 15oC when the gravity 60/60oF is given.
In table ASTM-IP no. 54, we find the reduction factor to the actual cargo
temperature compared with density at 15oC. In table ASTM-IP no 56, we find the
factor to be used to find weight in vacuum from weight in air. If we take an example
with propane, liquid temperature is -25oC and specific gravity 0,5075, we will
calculate the weight in air at 15oC.

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We then start with table ASTM-IP-API no. 21 to find density at 15oC from specific
gravity 60/60oF 0,5075.

We look in the column for Specific gravity 60/60oF 0,5073 kg/lt

0,507 and find density at 15oC to

We then look in the column for specific gravity 0,5083 kg/lt

60/60oF 0,508 an find density at 15oC to

The density has now increased with 0,0010 kg/lt

Our Specific gravity is 0,5075, we then have to 0,5078 kg/lt

interpolate as follows 0,5073 + (0,0010 / 0,001 x
0,0005) that give

12.4.8 Example on table ASTM IP-API 21

Specific API

Gravity Gravity Density

60/60oF 60oF 15oC

0,506 - 0,5063

0,507 - 0,5073

0,508 - 0,5083

Specific gravity 60/60oF 0,5075 that gives 0,5078 kg/lt

We have now find the density at 15oC to 0,5078 kg/lt which is equal to 507,8 kg/m3,
which we use in table ASTM IP no.54 to find the reduction factor to –25oC. In table
ASTM IP no.54, we look in the column for actual liquid temperature –25oC. The table
is divided in three columns and we have to interpolate between the 0,505 and 0,510

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12.4.9 Example from table 54

Table 54C

Observed Density 15 oC

0,500 0,505 0,510

C Factor to reduce volume to 15 oC

When we do the interpolation, we find the reduction factor to 1,10432. When we

have different temperatures on the different cargo tanks, we have to do this
calculation on each tank. Below, we have an example on table ASTM IP no. 54

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12.4.10 Example on table ASTM IP-API 54

Table 54C

Observed Density 15 oC

temperature, 0,500 0,505 0,510

C Factor to reduce volume to 15 oC

-26 1,111 3 1,108 3 1,105

-25,5 1,109 2 1,107 3 1,104

-25 1,108 2 1,106 3 1,103

-24,5 1,107 2 1,105 3 1,102

-24 1,106 3 1,103 2 1,101

-25 0,5078 1,10432

The next correction is the shrinkage factor, which is a thermal factor on the tank
steel. Shrinkage factor is normally 1 at 20oC and is less than one when the steel is
colder than 20oC.
The shrinkage factor is the correction for the thermal expansion on the cargo tank
steel. It is the correction between 20oC and the actual steel temperature. With
different steel, we have different shrinkage factors, but on one vessel the shrinkage
factor is similar on all cargo tanks if they are made of equal steel. Aluminium and
invar steel have a shrinkage factor near 0 and mild steel has higher factor. Shrink
factor for a vessel depends on the material of the cargo tank. There is a shrinkage
table on each vessel. Only vessels with equal quality of steel and tank thickness have
equal shrinkage factors. When we calculate cargo, we use shrinkage factor both on
the liquid and the vapour.

12.4.11 Example on shrinkage factor at different temperatures

Temp. Sh.fact. Temp. Sh.fact. Temp. Sh.fact.

20 1 -21 0,99879 -62 0,99759

19 0,99997 -22 0,99876 -63 0,99756

18 0,99994 -23 0,99873 -64 0,99753

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17 0,99991 -24 0,99870 -65 0,99750

16 0,99988 -25 0,99868 -66 0,99747

The last table ASTM-IP no 56 is used to find mass of liquid and vapour in air from
mass in vacuum or vice versa. We have to use the liquid density at 15oC, which in
this example is 0,5078 kg/ltr, and find the factor for propane to 0,99775. We have to
multiply this factor with the mass in vacuum to get mass in air. If we have the mass
in air we must divide with the factor. When the cargo calculations are completed, on
the bill of lading and the other cargo papers we have to note if the loaded mass is in
vacuum or air. We must always use liquid density at 15oC on the actual cargo to find
the correct factor.

12.4.12 Example on table ASTM IP-API 56

Factor for
mass in
Density at 15oC vacuum to
kg/ltr mass in air

0,5000 to 0,5191 0,99775

0,5192 to 0,5421 0,99785
0,5422 to 0,5673 0,99795
0,5674 to 0,5950 0,99805
Factor is 0,99775

We can look at one example where we have loaded 1089,556m3 propane with
specific gravity 60/60F 0,5075 and liquid temperature is –25oC.
From table ASTM-IP-API no. 21 we find the cargo density at 15oC to 0,5078 kg/ltr.
⇒ 507,8 kg/m3
From table ASTM IP no. 54, we find reduction factor from 15oC to –25oC to 1,10432.
From table ASTM IP no. 56, we find factor from mass in vacuum to mass in air to
From the cargo tank shrinkage table, we find shrinkage factor to 0,99868 at –25oC.
The calculation gives us 610 994 kg in vacuum at 15oC that gives us 609 619 kg in
air. We have to note on all cargo documents that the mass is in air and also note the
specific gravity 60/60F.

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12.4.13 Calculation of the liquid’s mass

Volume loaded 1089,556 m3

Shrinkage factor for -25oC 0,99868

Corrected volume at -25oC 1088,118 m3

Reduction factor to 15oC 1,10432

Volume at 15oC 1201,630 m3

Density at 15oC 507,8 kg/m3

Mass in vacuum at 15oC 610188 kg

Factor from table 56 0,99775

Mass in air at 15oC 608815 kg

12.4.14 Calculation of vapour

We will now calculate mass of the vapour in air at 15oC. We always have to calculate
the density of the vapour as the density change with the pressure. When we are
calculating the mass in air on the vapour we need the following values, 288 K which
is equal to 15oC, 101,325 kPa which is equal to 1,013 bar. Molar volume of ideal gas
at 288 K is 23,6382 m3/kmol. We also need molar weight of the actual cargo and for
propane it is 44,1 kg/kmol. Then we use the actual cargo temperature and pressure.
We can take an example with Propane with vapour temperature at –18oC and cargo
tank pressure at 1,5 bar.

• · Ts is standard temperature 288 K

• · Tv is average temperature on vapour in K
• · Pv is absolute pressure of vapour in kPa
• · Ps is standard pressure 101.325 kPa ⇒ 1,013 bar
• · Mm is molecular mass of the product in kg/kmol
• · I is molar gas volume at 288 K and standard pressure 1,013bar ⇒ 23,6382
ρv = (Ts x Pv x Mm) / (Tv x Ps x I) kg/m3

When we insert the values in the formula we find the following vapour density.
• · Ts = 288 K
• · Tv = 273 + (-18) = 255 K
• · Pv = (Ps + PT ) x 100 = (1,013 + 1,5) x 100 = 251.3 kPa
• · Ps = 101.3 kPa
• · Mm = 44,1 kg/kmol for propane
• · I = 23,6382 m3/kmol

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12.4.15 Density calculation of vapour

Ts 288 288 K

Ps 1,013 101,3 kPa

Pv 1,013 1,5 251,3 kPa

Mm 44,1 44,1 kg/kmol

I 23,6382 23,6382 m3/kmol

288 x 251,3 x 44,1

rv = 255 101,3 23,6382 = 5,227 kg/m3

When we have calculated the vapour density, we have to calculate the mass of the
vapour. We continue with the calculation of propane loading. The cargo tank 100%
volume is 1182,18m3 and we have loaded 1089,556m3 liquid. The vapour volume is
then 100% cargo tank volume minus liquid volume. That gives us 1182,18m3 –
1089,556m3 = 92,624m3.
We have a vapour temperature on –18oC, which gives us a shrinkage factor (cargo
tank expansion factor) on 0,99888 taken from the vessel’s shrinkage table. The
vapour density is in kg/m3 and the mass will then be in kilos.
When we calculate the mass of liquid in kilos, we also calculate the mass of vapour
in kilos. If we use mass of liquid in metric ton, we have to calculate the vapour in
metric ton also. In this example, the vapour density is 5,227 kg/m3, which is equal to
0,005227 mt/m3. In this example, the mass of vapour is 484 kilos.

12.4.16 Calculation of vapour mass at 15oC in kilo

Cargo tank 100% volume 1182,180 m3

Liquid volume 1089,556 m3

Gas volume 92,624 m3

Shrinkage for - 18oC 0,99888

Corrected Gas volume 92,520 m3

Density of gas at 15oC 5,227 kg/m3

Mass of gas in vacuum at 15oC 484 kg

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To find the total mass of liquid and vapour in the cargo tank, we have to add mass
of liquid 610 994 kg + 484 kg = 611 478 kg. Then we use ASTM-IP table 56 and find
the conversion factor to mass in air. Cargo density at 15oC is 507,8 kg/m3 with a
factor of 0,99775. Then we multiply total mass in vacuum 611 478 kg with 0,99775
which gives us 610 102 kg in air.

12.4.17 Calculation of total mass in air at 15oC

Mass of liquid in vacuum at 15oC 610 994 kg

Mass of gas in vacuum at 15oC 484 kg

Total mass in vacuum at 15oC 611 478 kg

Factor from ASTM-IP 56 table 0,99775

Total mass in air at 15oC 610 102 kg

We will take an example on a full calculation and find the total mass in air, the cargo
is propane and we have the following information:

Molecular mass 44,1 kg/kmol

Liquid temperature -24 C
Vapour temperature -20 C

Atmospheric pressure 1,017 bar

Relief valve setting 4,5 bar

Cargo tank pressure 1,550 bar

Spes.Grav.60/60F 0,5072

Liquid density at -24oC 560,6 kg/m3

Density at Relief valve setting 522,756 kg/m3

Trim by stern 1 meter

Sounding 8,152 meter

100 % Volume of cargo tank 1468,180 m3

ROB before loading 3114 kg

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With a set point on the relief valve at 4,5 bar we can load maximum 91,38% with
liquid temperature –24oC.

Maximum filling volume is, as follows:

Maximum filling volume = 0,98 x VT x ρR / ρL

Maximum filling volume = 0,98 x 1468,18 x 522,7 / 560,6 = 1341,69 m3

We always have to start with the calculation of maximum filling volume. This
calculation is based on figures we got before we start loading. If the temperature
and pressure changes, while we are loading, we have to recalculate the maximum
filling volume. Warmer cargo gives a higher filling volume; colder cargo gives a lower
filling volume. When the loading is completed, we do the final calculation. We have
to find the maximum filling limit on all tanks.

12.4.18 Example on a full calculation on mass at 15oC

PROPAN Tank # 2

1 100 %Volume cargo tank 1468,180 m3

2 Liquid temperature -24,0 oC

3 Sounding 8,152 m

4 Float correction 0,158 m

5 Correction for vapour temperature -0,001 m

6 List correction 0,000 m

7 Trim correction -0,059 m

8 Sounding at 20oC 8,250 m

9 Liquid volume at 20oC 1341,373 m3

10 Shrinkage factor tank steel at –24oC 0,99871

11 Corrected liquid volume 1339,643 m3

12 Reductions factor from table 54C 1,102

13 Liquid volume at 15oC 1476,287 m3

14 Liquid density at 15oC table 21 507,5 kg/m3

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15 Mass of liquid in vacuum at 15oC 749 215 kg

16 Uncorrected vapour volume 126,807 m3

17 Shrinkage factor vapour phase –20oC 0,99882

18 Corrected vapour volume 126,657 m3

19 Tank pressure 1,550 bar

20 Atmospheric pressure 1,017 bar

21 Molecular mass Propane 44,1 kg/mol

22 Vapour temperature -20,0 oC

23 Vapour density at 15oC 5,382 kg/m3

24 Mass of vapour in vacuum at 15oC 682 kg

25 Total mass of cargo in the tank in vacuum 749 897 kg

Mass in air 749 897 kg x 0,99775 748 210 kg

ROB in air 3 114 kg

Total loaded in air at 15oC 745 096 kg

After we complete the cargo calculation, we have a ships figure which is the one the
chief officer must calculate and one shore figures, which is the one that the surveyor
has calculated. Those two figures will be nearly equal or equal. The one we use in
the Bill of Lading is the surveyor’s figure. In our example, we have loaded 745 096
kg in air at 15oC in the actual cargo tank. It must be specified on the Bill of Lading
that the mass is in air at 15oC.
When we discharge the cargo, we will have 311,4 kg vapour left in the tank. At a
minimum, we are allowed to discharge is 99,5% of Bill of Lading, in this example 741
370 kg. It is important for the vessel to calculate which temperature and cargo tank
pressures will remain when we finish discharging. In this example, we must have
maximum 0,16 bar pressure and vapour temperature –27oC.
When we load on an atmosphere from a previous cargo, we call that ROB
(Remaining on Board) or heel. That means when we have calculated the total mass
of cargo in a tank we have to subtract the ROB. When the discharging is completed,
that means we are finished pumping liquid. We have blown hot vapour to shore and
tank pressure, and vapour temperature is equal to what we estimated before

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It is important to remember that the tank pressure has a big influence on the vapour
density. If we transport an ambient cargo, we have to remove the tank pressure
before we commence the calculation of the ROB. Tank pressure is removed with the
vessel’s compressors and the condensate is sent directly to the discharge line.
We can look at two examples on density calculation of a cargo with equal
temperature but different tank pressures. We use propylene as example and vapour
temperature is –25oC molecular mass 42,08 kg/kmol.
The first example tank pressure is 0,3 bar and the other example tank pressure 1,5
bar. The atmospheric pressure is 1,020 bar vessels total volume is 12000m3.

12.4.19 Example of calculations on vapour density with different tank


r v 0,3bar 288 x 134 x 42,08


243 101,3 23,6382 = 2,791 kg/m3

Volume 12000 x 2,791 kg/m3 33 490 kg

r v 1,5bar 288 x 252 x 42,08


243 101,3 23,6382 = 5,249 kg/m3

Volume 12000 x 5,249 kg/m3 62 982 kg

Difference in mass 29 kg Difference in r 2,458 kg/m3


With a difference of tank pressure at 1,3 bar on a 12 000 m3 vessel, we get 29 492
kg in mass difference. It is a good routine to always calculate the maximum mass of
vapour, which we can have as ROB to reach 99,5% of Bill of Lading before we start

If we are onboard a fully refrigerated gas carrier, we do not have any problem with
high tank pressure when we have completed discharging.

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When transport of chemical gases and also sometimes LPG cargoes, we use density
tables for the actual cargo. We get the density tables from the surveyor, the shipper
of the cargo or thermodynamic properties of gases. The weight of cargo is calculated
by use of the actual cargo temperature and the density tables are either in vacuum
or in air. On clean cargoes, such as, ethylene, propylene, butadiene and VCM, we
can use the density tables composed by SGS or thermodynamic properties of gases.
We have to be sure that the density tables we are using are either in vacuum or in
air and it has to be noted on the Bill of Lading. The density table we are using in the
load port has to be used also in the discharge port. The only ASTM table we are
using is ASTM-IP table no.56 for converting weight in air to weight in vacuum or vice

When the calculation is completed, we have to note that the weight is in vacuum or
in air. We always have to calculate the vapour density because the vapour
temperature does not match the cargo tank pressure. We should use the actual
vapour temperature and actual tank pressure in the calculation of vapour density.
First we take a look at how we are calculating the weight of liquid.

First of all we have to find out the maximum filling volume on the actual cargo tanks
that we have to load.

Maximum filling volume is as follows:

Maximum filling volume = 0,98 x VT x ρR / ρL

The cargo tank 100% volume is 1182,18 m3, safety valve set point is 4,5 bar ⇒ 5,5
bar ata, liquid temperature is –24oC. Liquid density at 5,5 bar is 523,3 kg/m3 and
density at –24oC is 560,6 kg/m3.

98% Vt m3 r SV kg/m3 r c kg/m3

Maximum filling volume = 0.98 1182.18 523.3 560.6
Maximum filling volume = 1081.452 m

We should calculate the weight of liquid propane, cargo tank pressure is 1,1 bar. We
have loaded 1089,556m3 liquid propane, density from density table and –24oC is
560,6 kg/m3. Cargo tank expansion factor at -24oC is 0,99870. Weight in vacuum
will then be 605 477 kg, weight in air 604 115 kg.

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12.3.1 Example on calculation of weight in air

Loaded volume 1081.452 m3
Correction factor for -24oC 0.99870
Corrected volume 1080.052 m3
Density at -24oC from table 560.6 kg/m3
Weight in vacuum at -24oC 605 477 kg
Factor from table 56 0.99775
Weight in air at -24oC 604 115 kg

12.3.2 Calculation of vapour density and weight

To calculate the weight of vapour, we first have to calculate density of the vapour on
the actual temperature. The actual vapour temperature has to be in K (Kelvin) and
pressures in kPa (kilo Pascal). Another factor we should use is molar gas constant
which is 8,31441 J/(mol x K). To find the pressure in kPa “kilo Pascal” we multiply
the pressure in bar with 100, that means 1 bar is equal to 100 kPa.
In all calculations in this manual, we use 273K as 0oC. When we do the calculations
onboard we use 273,15K as 0oC.
We should now look at one example to find vapour density on propane with vapour
temperature on –25oC, tank pressure is 1,4 bar and the atmospheric pressure is
1.013 bar. Molecular mass on propane is 44,1 kg/kmol.

Vapour density at actual temperature formula:

(Tank pressure in kPa + Atmospheric pressure in kPa) x Molecular mass
molar gas constant x (T0 K + Gas temperature in oC)

Tank pressure 1,4 bar is equal to 140 kPa and the atmospheric pressure 1,013 bar is
equal to 101,3 kPa. Vapour temperature ∆T in K = 273 + - 25 = 248K Tank
pressure plus atmospheric pressure ∆P is equal to 241,3 kPa.

D P x Molecular mass
Molar gas const. x D
( 140,0 + 101,30) x 44,1
8,31441 x ( 273,00 + -25,00) 5,16075 kg/m3

We can take another example with ethylene and calculate the vapour density,
molecular mass is 28,05 kg/kmol, vapour temperature is –99oC ⇒ 174K and tank
pressure is 0,35 bar ⇒ 35 kPa. Atmospheric pressure is 1,012 bar ⇒ 101,2 kPa.

D P x Molecular mass
Molar gas const. x D

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( 35,0 + 101,20) x 28,05

8,31441 x ( 273,15 -99,00) 2,638 kg/m3

Now when we have found the vapour density at the actual vapour temperature, we
can calculate the weight of vapour at the actual temperature. We have loaded one
tank with ethylene, tank 100% volume is 1182,15 m3 and liquid volume is 1088,6 m3.
Liquid temperature is –100oC and vapour temperature is –99,5oC shrinkage factor at
–99,5oC are 0,99648. Tank pressure is 0,15 bar and the atmospheric pressure is
1.014 bar.

Vapour volume 93.55 m3 = (1182.15 1088.60) m3

Vapour density 2.263367 kg/m3 = (D P x 28,05) / (8,31441 x D T)
Vapour weight at – 210.99 kg = 103,55 x 0,99648 x
99,5oC 2,26337

We have now seen how to calculate weight of liquid and weight of vapour and we
should now calculate both liquid and vapour. We should calculate one tank loaded
with ethylene, relief valve set point is 4,5 bar and atmospheric pressure is 1,020 bar.
After loading the vessel we have 1 meter by stern trim with the following values:

Vapour -95oC and tank pressure 0,345 bar.

Liquid -100,5oC, density 563,63 kg/m3, liquid volume 1313,348

Maximum filling limit is 89,45%, which is equal to 1313,348 m3 with relief valve
setting on 4,5 bar. Total weight of cargo in the tank is 738 009 kg in vacuum.

12.3.3 Calculation of Ethylene set point 4,5 bar

Liquid volume 1313.35 m3
Shrinkage factor at -100,5oC 0.99645
Corrected liquid volume 1308.69 m3
Liquid density at -100,5oC 563.625 kg/m3
Weight of liquid in vacuum at -100,5oC 737610 kg
Cargo tank 100% volume 1468.18 m3
Vapour volume 154.832 m3
Shrinkage factor at -95oC 0.99661
Corrected vapour volume 154.308 m3
Vapour density at -95oC 2.583 kg/m3
Weight of vapour in vacuum at -95 C 399 kg


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When we change the relief valve set point to 0,5 bar the maximum allowable filling
limit then increase to 97,0% that is equal to 1424,127m3. We then get a total weight
of cargo in the tank on 799 940 kg, which is 61 931 kg more than with set point on
4,5 bar. First, we have to calculate maximum allowed filling limit.

Set point is 0.5 bar Absolute 1.520 bar

Ref. temp. -96.53 oC
Ref. dens. 557.87 kg/m3
Filling limit
rR/rL x 98% 97.00 %

12.3.4 Calculation of Ethylene set point 0,5 bar

Liquid volume 1 424,13 m3
Shrinkage factor at -100,5oC 0,99645
Corrected liquid volume 1 419,08 m3
Liquid density from table at -100,5oC 563,625 kg/m3
Weight of liquid in vacuum at -100,5oC 799 827 kg
Cargo tank 100% volume 1 468,18 m3
Vapour volume 44,053 m3
Shrinkage factor at -95oC 0,99661
Corrected vapour volume 43,904 m3
Vapour density at -95oC 2,581 kg/m3
Weight of vapour in vacuum at -95oC 113,326 kg


When we are loading on ROB from previous cargo, the total loaded cargo is total
weight of liquid and vapour in the tank minus ROB. If we, in this example, had ROB
before loading and we surveyed the tank atmosphere at –87oC and tank pressure
0,02 bar, atmospheric pressure 1,019 bar, the ROB will then be 2758 kg in vacuum.
Total loaded will then be 799 940 kg – 2 758 kg = 797 182 kg in vacuum.

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12.3.4 Weight of ROB before loading at temperature -87oC and tank

pressure 0,02 bar
Vapour density 1,885 kg/m3
Tank volume 100% 1468,18 m3 D T = 186 K
Weight of vapour 2 758 kg D P = 104 kPa
Shrinkage factor 0,99685
To find the weight in air we can either use table ASTM-IP-API 56 if we know the
density at 15oC or we have to calculate a factor. The factor is, as follows:

(1 – (ρ air/ ρ cargo liquid)) / (1 – ( ρ air/ ρ Brass)

(1 – (1,2 kg/m3 /ρ cargo liquid)) / ( 1 – (1,2 kg/m3 / 8100kg/m3))

In our example we will get a factor, as follows:

(1 - (1,2 kg/m3 /563,625 kg/m3)) / ( 1 – (1,2 kg/m3 / 8100kg/m3)) = 0,997985

Then we have to multiply mass in vacuum with the factor:

797 182 kg x 0,997985 = 795 575 kg in air

On a full-loaded tank, we can use the following formula:

Mass in vacuum loaded - (Mass in vacuum loaded x r air / r liquid) When we use the
values from our last example it will be, as follows

Weight in air = Mass in vacuum - (Mass in vacuum x 1,2/ r liquid)

Weight in air = 797 182 - (797 182 * 1,2/ 563,625) = 795 kg

Before we commence with cargo calculations, we have to be sure that the density
given is in air or in vacuum. With most chemical gases, we get the density on the
actual liquid temperature in vacuum. Always note on the Bill of Lading that the
quantity is either in vacuum or air. On the calculation forms, we calculate both in
vacuum and in air.
We should now do a full cargo calculation. We start to calculate ROB before loading.
Then we do calculations after we have completed loading.
The vessel has three twin tanks numbered as follows 1P, 1S, 2P, 2S, 3P and 3S.
Cargo tanks 2 and 3 are equal and tank 1 is a bit smaller.

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12.3.5 Calculation of ROB before loading

Loading report
Cargo Propylene Port Al Jubail
Molecular 42,08 Date 17.05. 1994
mass 1,015 Vessel LPG Seagull

Tank # Sounding Volume Temp. Pressure r liquid Shrinkage Mass of
in meter from in oC in bar in factor liquid in
tab. in kg/m kg
1P 0,02 0
1S 0,02 0
2P 0,02 0
2S 0,02 0
3P 0,02 0
3S 0,02 0
Total mass of 0

Tank # !00% Vapour Temp. in oC r Shrinkage Mass of
vol. in volume vapour factor vapour in
m3 in m3 in kg
1P 1182,18 1182,18 -27 2,129 0,99862 2 514
1S 1182,18 1182,18 -27 2,129 0,99862 2 514
2P 1468,18 1468,18 -27 2,129 0,99862 3 122
2S 1468,18 1468,18 -27 2,129 0,99862 3 122
3P 1468,18 1468,18 -25 2,112 0,99868 3 097
3S 1468,18 1468,18 -25 2,112 0,99868 3 097
Total mass of vapour 17 465
Total mass in vacuum 17 465
Total loaded in vacuum
Total loaded in air

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12.3.6 Calculation of mass after loading

Loading report
Cargo Propylene Port Al Jubail
Molecular 42,08 Date 18.05. 1994
mass 1,020 Skip LPG Seagull

Tank # Sounding Volume Temp. Press r liquid Shrinkage Mass of
in meter from in oC in bar in kg/m3 factor liquid in
tab. in kg
1P 8,74 1123,83 -39 0,6 601,2 0,99826 674 471
1S 8,76 1125,55 -39 0,6 601,2 0,99826 675 503
2P 8,72 1400,11 -39 0,6 601,2 0,99826 840 281
2S 8,73 1401,20 -39 0,6 601,2 0,99826 840 936
3P 8,76 1404,41 -38 0,6 600,0 0,99829 841 205
3S 8,75 1403,35 -38 0,6 600,0 0,99829 840 570
Total mass of 4 712
Liquid 967

Tank # 100% Vapour Temp. in oC r vapour Shrinkage Masse of
vol. in volume in kg/m3 factor vapour in
m3 in m3 kg
1P 1182,18 58,35 -35 3,445 0,99838 201
1S 1182,18 56,63 -35 3,445 0,99838 195
2P 1468,18 68,07 -36 3,459 0,99835 235
2S 1468,18 66,98 -36 3,459 0,99835 231
3P 1468,18 63,77 -34 3,431 0,99841 218
3S 1468,18 64,83 -34 3,431 0,99841 222
Total mass of vapour 1 302
Total mass in vacuum 4 714
ROB 17 465
Total Loaded in vacuum 4 696
Total loaded in air 4 687

Gas Tankers Advance Course


There are some parameters we have to have in mind to find out how much liquid we
need to take onboard for gassing up our cargo tanks. The first is the temperature of
the liquid we will take onboard then the temperature of the cargo tank steel and
what volume we should gas up.
To change cargo and gas up costs lot money, to minimise the cost we have to use all
the available cargo equipment onboard in the most efficient way. We have to be sure
that the amount of liquid we order for gassing up is enough to gas up and to
commence cooling down the cargo tanks. If we have some ROB in one tank, we can
begin gassing up at sea if the tanks are surveyed and approved by a surveyor. If we
don’t have any ROB or not enough, we have to order liquid to gas up the rest of the
volume to be gassed up. To minimise the consumption of cargo for gassing up, we
need to heat the cargo, as mush as possible. The amount of cargo lost when gassing
up depends on the people onboard, cargo equipment and the time we use for
gassing up. For cargoes with a heavy vapour, such as VCM, propane butane and
propylene, the loss of cargo is near to 0 when gassing up correctly. The only way to
reduce the loss of cargo is to control tank pressure when loading coolant, measure
and check when commence heating the coolant for gassing up.

12.4.1 Volume of liquid to be used for gassing up

We have a cargo tank with volume 1182,18 m3 that we have to gas up. Our
experience is that we need two times the tank volume for gassing up and commence
cooling the tank. We then have to order the following amount cargo, 1182,18 m3 x 2
= 2364,36 m3. We will take onboard propylene liquid for gassing up and it is two
vital temperatures we must recognise, tank steel temperature and liquid temperature
on the coolant. Liquid temperature on shore tank is –40oC and our cargo tank steel
20oC. The formula is mass = ρ vapour x total volume. From the table thermodynamic
properties for propylene superheated vapour, we find the vapour ρ to 1,812 kg/m3
on 20oC and P=1 bar. Then we take the total volume 2364,36 m3 and multiply with
vapour ρ 1,812 kg/m3 = 4 283 kg, which is the minimum we need for gassing up and
commence cooling the tank. The loss of cargo and number of changes is individual
for each vessel and it is our duty to reduce the loss of cargo down to a minimum.

12.4.2 Calculation of volume liquid we have to order

Cargo Propylene
100% Tank volume 1182,18 m3
r vapour at atmospheric pressure from 20 C 1,812 kg/m3
r liquid from table -40 C 602,4 kg/m3
Number of changes 2
Total volume to be changed 2364,36 m3
Mass volume = Volume x r for vapour
Mass total volume = 4283,26 kg
Volume liquid to be loaded = Mass volume / r liquid

Gas Tankers Advance Course

Volume to be loaded = 7,110 m3

We have to load 7,11 m3 propylene at –40oC from shore tank to change the vapour
atmosphere at 20oC two times. This was a calculation for one tank, if we gas up all
tanks, the calculation has to be on the total volume of the vessel’s cargo tanks.
After completion of the loading two Bill of Lading will be made, one for what we have
used for gassing up and one for the quantity we have loaded.

12.4.3 Number of changes with a given amount of liquid

To find the number of vapour changes with a given amount of liquid in either a deck
tank or a cargo tank, we then have to know the liquid temperature and the
temperature of the cargo tanks we have to gas up. Then we have to calculate the
mass of the liquid we have. When we know the mass of liquid and the volume to be
gassed up, we know if we then need to order more liquid or if we can complete to
gas up and commence cooling tanks with the amount of liquid we have onboard. A
cargo tank is completely gassed up when we have more than 97% hydrocarbons in
the vapour atmosphere.
We must remember that the tank we use for gassing up will have a given amount of
mass vapour left ROB, which we are unable to get out. First, we have to calculate
the mass of vapour we will have ROB in our deck tank/cargo tank after we have
gassed up the other tanks. When we have calculated the mass of vapour we have
left, we must subtract it from the amount of liquid we have. How many changes we
need depends on the cargo, the cargo handling equipment we have onboard,
temperature of the liquid and temperature of the atmosphere that we should gas up.
If we are able to heat the vapour, we should have it as hot as possible to use as less
liquid as possible.
We can use an example on the calculation of vapour after gassing up. Average
temperature on the vapour is –10oC, total tank volume is 2564,36 m3 and tank
pressure is 0 bar. We then find the density of the vapour, either calculate the density
or use the thermal property table to find it. When we have found the vapour density,
we have to multiply it with the tank shrinkage factor and the tank volume.

12.4.4 Mass of vapour after gassing up

Cargo Propylene
Tank volume #1 P/S 2364,36 m3
r for vapour at atmospheric -10 C 1,953 kg/m3
Mass of vapour in the tank 4 618 kg

We have now calculated that we should have 4 618 kg vapour left in tank #1 P and
S when we are not able to get out any more from the tanks. Before we order any
liquid, we have to subtract 4 618 kg from the amount of liquid we need to gas up the
whole vessel.
We can continue with the example and have 15 m3 liquid propylene at –10oC, vapour
temperature 0oC and the pressure 3,3 bar in tank #1 P/S. Total volume of the vessel
is 8237 m3 and atmospheric pressure is 1,015 bar. That means we have to gas up
vessel’s total volume – volume of tank #1 P/S, which is equal to 8237 m3 – 2364,36

Gas Tankers Advance Course

m3 = 5872,64 m3 with an average temperature of 25oC. Our experience is that we

need 2,5 volume changes to reach 97% hydrocarbons in the vapour atmosphere, 2,5
changes is 5872,64 m3 x 2,5 = 14681,6 m3. It is always stated in the charter party
how clean the atmosphere has to be before loading and it depends on which cargo
we have to load.

12.4.5 Mass we can use for gassing up

Cargo Propylene
Tank volume #1 P/S 2364,36 m3
Volume liquid in tank #1 P/S 15,00 m3
Mass of liquid in tank #1 P/S 8 420 kg
Volume of vapour in tank #1 P/S 2349,36 m3
Mass of vapour in tank #1 P/S 18 783 kg
Total mass in tank #1 P/S 27 202 kg
Mass of vapour in tank #1 P/S after gassing 4 618 kg
Usable mass in tank #1 P/S 22 584 kg

We have 27202 kg available in tank #1 P/S, but when we are completed gassing up,
we have 4618 kg vapour left, that means we have 22584 kg available for gassing up.
Total volume to be gassed up is vessel’s total volume minus volume of tank #1 P/S
multiplied with 2,5. That gives ⇒ 8237 m3 - 2349,36 m3 ⇒ 5872,64 m3 x 2,5 =
14682 m3. We have to find the vapour density equal to tank steel temperature 25oC,
which is 1,724 kg/m3.

12.4.6 Calculation of volume needed

Volume vapour at 25oC of available 13 101 m3
r for vapour with atmospheric pressure 25 C 1,724 kg/m3
Total volume vapour 2,5 times tank 14 682 m3
Volume to be ordered 1 581 m3

In this example, we do not have enough liquid to reach 2,5 times for gassing up.
There was 1581 m3 vapour short, so we have to order that 1581 m3 x 1,724 kg/m3 =
2726 kg.

12.4.7 Calculation of mass vapour at a given temperature

Cargo Propylene
Vessel’s total volume 8237 m3
Tank #1 P/S volume 2364,36 m3
Volume to be gassed up 5872,64 m3
Amount changes 2,5

Gas Tankers Advance Course

Tank steel temperature 25 C
Atmospheric pressure 1,015 bar
Vapour r at 25oC 1,724 kg/m3
Total volume to gas up 5872,64 x 2,5 14 682 m3
Mass of total volume to gas up 25 309 kg
Available mass 22 584 kg
Mass in kg to load to complete gassing 2 725 kg

To hold the temperature of the vapour we use for gassing up, we have to use either
the compressors or heaters. If we are able to increase the temperature on the
vapour from 25oC to 60oC, we do not need to supply any extra from shore.
12.4.8 Calculation of vapour at 60oC

Vapour r at 60oC 1,543 kg/m3

Total volume to gas up 5872,64 x 2,5 14 682 m3
Mass total volume to gas up 22 649 kg
Available mass 22 584 kg
Mass in kg difference 65 kg

It is important that we continue to heat the tank we are taking the vapour from to
hold a positive pressure.

Gas Tankers Advance Course

12.5 12.4 ENCLOSES

12.5.1 12.4.1 Enclose 1

Table 21
0,500 - 0,510
Specific API
Gravity Gravity Density
60/60oF 60oF 15oC

0,500 - 0,5004
0,501 - 0,5014
0,502 - 0,5023
0,503 - 0,5033
0,504 - 0,5043
0,505 - 0,5053
0,506 - 0,5063
0,507 - 0,5073
0,508 - 0,5083
0,509 - 0,5093
0,510 - 0,5103

12.4.2 Enclose 2
Table 54C

Observed Density 15 oC
temperature, 0,500 0,505 0,510
C Factor for reduction of volume to 15 oC
-43 1,153 4 1,149 3 1,146
-42,5 1,152 4 1,148 3 1,145
-42 1,15 3 1,147 4 1,143
-41,5 1,149 3 1,146 4 1,142
-41 1,148 3 1,145 4 1,141
-40,5 1,147 3 1,144 4 1,14
-40 1,146 3 1,143 4 1,139
-39,5 1,145 3 1,142 4 1,138
-39 1,143 3 1,14 3 1,137
-38,5 1,142 3 1,139 3 1,136
-38 1,141 3 1,138 4 1,134
-37,5 1,14 3 1,137 4 1,133
-37 1,139 3 1,136 4 1,132

Gas Tankers Advance Course

-36,5 1,138 3 1,135 4 1,131

-36 1,136 3 1,133 3 1,13
-35,5 1,135 3 1,132 3 1,129
-35 1,134 3 1,131 3 1,128
-34,5 1,133 3 1,13 3 1,127
-34 1,131 3 1,128 3 1,125
-33,5 1,13 3 1,127 3 1,124
-33 1,129 3 1,126 3 1,123
-32,5 1,128 3 1,125 3 1,122
-32 1,126 3 1,123 3 1,12
-31,5 1,125 3 1,122 3 1,119
-31 1,124 3 1,121 3 1,118
-30,5 1,123 3 1,12 3 1,117
-30 1,121 3 1,118 3 1,115
-29,5 1,12 3 1,117 3 1,114
-29 1,119 3 1,116 3 1,113
-28,5 1,117 2 1,115 3 1,112
-28 1,116 3 1,113 3 1,11
-27,5 1,115 3 1,112 3 1,109
-27 1,113 2 1,111 3 1,108
-26,5 1,112 2 1,11 3 1,107
-26 1,111 3 1,108 3 1,105
-25,5 1,109 2 1,107 3 1,104
-25 1,108 2 1,106 3 1,103
-24,5 1,107 2 1,105 3 1,102
-24 1,106 3 1,103 2 1,101
-23,5 1,104 2 1,102 3 1,099
-23 1,103 2 1,101 3 1,098
-22,5 1,102 2 1,1 3 1,097
-22 1,101 3 1,098 2 1,096
-21,5 1,100 3 1,097 2 1,095
-21 1,098 2 1,096 2 1,094
-20,5 1,097 3 1,094 1 1,093
-20 1,096 3 1,093 1 1,092
-19,5 1,095 3 1,092 2 1,09
-19 1,093 2 1,091 2 1,089
-18,5 1,092 2 1,09 2 1,088
-18 1,091 3 1,088 1 1,087
-17,5 1,090 3 1,087 1 1,086
-17 1,089 3 1,086 2 1,084
-16,5 1,087 2 1,085 2 1,083
-16 1,086 2 1,084 2 1,082
-15,5 1,085 3 1,082 1 1,081
-15 1,084 3 1,081 1 1,08

Gas Tankers Advance Course

-14,5 1,082 2 1,08 2 1,078

-14 1,081 2 1,079 2 1,077
-13,5 1,080 2 1,078 2 1,076
-13 1,079 2 1,077 2 1,075
-12,5 1,077 2 1,075 1 1,074
-12 1,076 2 1,074 2 1,072
-11,5 1,075 2 1,073 2 1,071
-11 1,074 2 1,072 2 1,07
-10,5 1,072 1 1,071 2 1,069
-10 1,071 1 1,07 2 1,068
-9,5 1,070 2 1,068 2 1,066
-9 1,068 1 1,067 2 1,065
-8,5 1,067 1 1,066 2 1,064
-8 1,066 1 1,065 2 1,063
-7,5 1,065 2 1,063 2 1,061
-7 1,063 1 1,062 2 1,06
-6,5 1,062 1 1,061 2 1,059
-6 1,061 1 1,06 2 1,058
-5,5 1,059 1 1,058 2 1,056
-5 1,058 1 1,057 2 1,055
-4,5 1,057 1 1,056 2 1,054
-4 1,055 1 1,054 2 1,052

Gas Tankers Advance Course

12.4.3 Enclose 3

Shrinkage factor for exercise Seagull 04

Temp. Sh.fakt. Temp. Sh.fakt. Temp. Sh.fakt.
20 1 -21 0,99879 -62 0,99759
19 0,99997 -22 0,99876 -63 0,99756
18 0,99994 -23 0,99873 -64 0,99753
17 0,99991 -24 0,99870 -65 0,99750
16 0,99988 -25 0,99868 -66 0,99747
15 0,99985 -26 0,99865 -67 0,99744
14 0,99982 -27 0,99862 -68 0,99741
13 0,99979 -28 0,99859 -69 0,99738
12 0,99976 -29 0,99856 -70 0,99735
11 0,99974 -30 0,99853 -71 0,99732
10 0,99971 -31 0,99850 -72 0,99729
9 0,99968 -32 0,99847 -73 0,99726
8 0,99965 -33 0,99844 -74 0,99723
7 0,99962 -34 0,99841 -75 0,99720
6 0,99959 -35 0,99838 -76 0,99717
5 0,99956 -36 0,99835 -77 0,99714
4 0,99953 -37 0,99832 -78 0,99712
3 0,99950 -38 0,99829 -79 0,99709
2 0,99947 -39 0,99826 -80 0,99706
1 0,99944 -40 0,99823 -81 0,99703
0 0,99941 -41 0,99820 -82 0,99700
-1 0,99938 -42 0,99817 -83 0,99697
-2 0,99935 -43 0,99815 -84 0,99694
-3 0,99932 -44 0,99812 -85 0,99691
-4 0,99929 -45 0,99809 -86 0,99688
-5 0,99926 -46 0,99806 -87 0,99685
-6 0,99923 -47 0,99803 -88 0,99682
-7 0,99921 -48 0,99800 -89 0,99679
-8 0,99918 -49 0,99797 -90 0,99676
-9 0,99915 -50 0,99794 -91 0,99673
-10 0,99912 -51 0,99791 -92 0,99670
-11 0,99909 -52 0,99788 -93 0,99667
-12 0,99906 -53 0,99785 -94 0,99664
-13 0,99903 -54 0,99782 -95 0,99661
-14 0,99900 -55 0,99779 -96 0,99659
-15 0,99897 -56 0,99776 -97 0,99656
-16 0,99894 -57 0,99773 -98 0,99653
-17 0,99891 -58 0,99770 -99 0,99650
-18 0,99888 -59 0,99767 -100 0,99647
-19 0,99885 -60 0,99765 -101 0,99644
-20 0,99882 -61 0,99762 -102 0,99641
-21 0,99879 -62 0,99759 -103 0,99638

Gas Tankers Advance Course

12.4.4 Enclose 4
Correction for expansion of sounding tape tank #1
Temp. Read Sounding in meter
C 6 7 8 9 10 11
-104 -0,004 -0,003 -0,003 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001
-103 -0,004 -0,003 -0,003 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001
-102 -0,004 -0,003 -0,003 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001
-101 -0,004 -0,003 -0,003 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001
-100 -0,004 -0,003 -0,003 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001
-99 -0,004 -0,003 -0,003 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001
-98 -0,004 -0,003 -0,003 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001
-97 -0,004 -0,003 -0,003 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001
-96 -0,004 -0,003 -0,003 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001
± -0,003 -0,003 -0,002 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001
-48 -0,002 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-47 -0,002 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-46 -0,002 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-45 -0,002 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-44 -0,002 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-43 -0,002 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-42 -0,002 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-41 -0,002 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-40 -0,002 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-39 -0,002 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-38 -0,002 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-37 -0,002 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-36 -0,002 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-35 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-34 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-33 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-32 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-31 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-30 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-29 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-28 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-27 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-26 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-25 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-24 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000 0,000
-23 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000 0,000
-22 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000 0,000

Gas Tankers Advance Course

12.4.5 Enclose 5
Trim table tank #1, tank 100% volume 1182,18
Sounding and trim meter
Sounding Stern trim Sounding Stern trim Sounding Stern trim
0,5 1 0,5 1 0,5 1
8,04 -0,021 -0,043 8,41 -0,021 -0,043 8,78 -0,022 -0,045
8,05 -0,021 -0,043 8,42 -0,021 -0,043 8,79 -0,022 -0,045
8,06 -0,021 -0,043 8,43 -0,021 -0,043 8,80 -0,022 -0,045
8,07 -0,021 -0,043 8,44 -0,021 -0,043 8,81 -0,022 -0,045
8,08 -0,021 -0,043 8,45 -0,021 -0,043 8,82 -0,022 -0,045
8,09 -0,021 -0,043 8,46 -0,021 -0,043 8,83 -0,022 -0,045
8,10 -0,021 -0,042 8,47 -0,021 -0,043 8,84 -0,022 -0,045
8,11 -0,021 -0,042 8,48 -0,021 -0,043 8,85 -0,022 -0,045
8,12 -0,021 -0,042 8,49 -0,022 -0,043 8,86 -0,022 -0,045
8,13 -0,021 -0,042 8,50 -0,022 -0,043 8,87 -0,022 -0,045
8,14 -0,021 -0,042 8,51 -0,022 -0,043 8,88 -0,022 -0,045
8,15 -0,021 -0,042 8,52 -0,022 -0,043 8,89 -0,022 -0,045
8,16 -0,021 -0,042 8,53 -0,022 -0,043 8,90 -0,022 -0,045
8,17 -0,021 -0,042 8,54 -0,022 -0,043 8,91 -0,022 -0,045
8,18 -0,021 -0,042 8,55 -0,022 -0,043 8,92 -0,022 -0,045
8,19 -0,021 -0,042 8,56 -0,022 -0,043 8,93 -0,022 -0,045
8,20 -0,021 -0,042 8,57 -0,022 -0,043 8,94 -0,022 -0,045
8,21 -0,021 -0,042 8,58 -0,022 -0,043 8,95 -0,022 -0,045
8,22 -0,021 -0,042 8,59 -0,022 -0,043 8,96 -0,022 -0,045
8,23 -0,021 -0,042 8,60 -0,022 -0,043 8,97 -0,022 -0,045
8,24 -0,021 -0,042 8,61 -0,022 -0,044 8,98 -0,022 -0,045
8,25 -0,021 -0,043 8,62 -0,022 -0,044 8,99 -0,022 -0,045
8,26 -0,021 -0,043 8,63 -0,022 -0,044 9,00 -0,023 -0,045
8,27 -0,021 -0,043 8,64 -0,022 -0,044 9,01 -0,023 -0,045
8,28 -0,021 -0,043 8,65 -0,022 -0,044 9,02 -0,023 -0,045
8,29 -0,021 -0,043 8,66 -0,022 -0,044 9,03 -0,023 -0,046
8,30 -0,021 -0,043 8,67 -0,022 -0,044 9,04 -0,023 -0,046
8,31 -0,021 -0,043 8,68 -0,022 -0,044 9,05 -0,023 -0,046
8,32 -0,021 -0,043 8,69 -0,022 -0,044 9,06 -0,023 -0,046
8,33 -0,021 -0,043 8,70 -0,022 -0,044 9,07 -0,023 -0,046
8,34 -0,021 -0,043 8,71 -0,022 -0,044 9,08 -0,023 -0,046
8,35 -0,021 -0,043 8,72 -0,022 -0,044 9,09 -0,023 -0,046
8,36 -0,021 -0,043 8,73 -0,022 -0,044 9,10 -0,023 -0,046
8,37 -0,021 -0,043 8,74 -0,022 -0,044 9,11 -0,023 -0,046
8,38 -0,021 -0,043 8,75 -0,022 -0,044 9,12 -0,023 -0,046
8,39 -0,021 -0,043 8,76 -0,022 -0,045 9,13 -0,023 -0,047
8,40 -0,021 -0,043 8,77 -0,022 -0,045 9,14 -0,023 -0,047

Gas Tankers Advance Course

12.4.6 Enclose 6
Sounding table tank #1, tank 100% volume
1182,18 m3
Sounding Volume Sounding Volume Sounding Volume
m m3 m m3 m m3
8,04 1051,77 8,41 1092,05 8,78 1127,33
8,05 1052,91 8,42 1093,08 8,79 1128,20
8,06 1054,04 8,43 1094,10 8,80 1129,05
8,07 1055,17 8,44 1095,12 8,81 1129,90
8,08 1056,30 8,45 1096,14 8,82 1130,74
8,09 1057,33 8,46 1097,15 8,83 1131,58
8,10 1058,55 8,47 1098,16 8,84 1132,41
8,11 1059,67 8,48 1099,17 8,85 1133,23
8,12 1060,79 8,49 1100,17 8,86 1134,05
8,13 1061,91 8,50 1101,17 8,87 1134,85
8,14 1063,03 8,51 1102,16 8,88 1135,65
8,15 1064,14 8,52 1103,15 8,89 1136,44
8,16 1065,25 8,53 1104,14 8,90 1137,23
8,17 1066,36 8,54 1105,12 8,91 1138,01
8,18 1067,46 8,55 1106,10 8,92 1138,78
8,19 1068,56 8,56 1107,07 8,93 1139,54
8,20 1069,66 8,57 1108,04 8,94 1140,30
8,21 1070,76 8,58 1109,00 8,95 1141,06
8,22 1071,86 8,59 1109,96 8,96 1141,80
8,23 1072,95 8,60 1110,92 8,97 1142,54
8,24 1074,03 8,61 1111,87 8,98 1143,27
8,25 1075,12 8,62 1112,82 8,99 1144,00
8,26 1076,20 8,63 1113,76 9,00 1144,71
8,27 1077,28 8,64 1114,70 9,01 1145,43
8,28 1078,36 8,65 1115,63 9,02 1146,13
8,29 1079,43 8,66 1116,56 9,03 1146,83
8,30 1080,50 8,67 1117,48 9,04 1147,53
8,31 1081,57 8,68 1118,40 9,05 1148,21
8,32 1082,63 8,69 1119,32 9,06 1148,89
8,33 1083,69 8,70 1120,23 9,07 1149,56
8,34 1084,75 8,71 1121,14 9,08 1150,23
8,35 1085,80 8,72 1122,04 9,09 1150,89
8,36 1086,85 8,73 1122,94 9,10 1151,54
8,37 1087,90 8,74 1123,83 9,11 1152,19
8,38 1088,94 8,75 1124,71 9,12 1152,82
8,39 1089,98 8,76 1125,59 9,13 1153,46
8,40 1091,01 8,77 1126,47 9,14 1154,08

Gas Tankers Advance Course

12.4.7 Enclose 7

Correction for expansion of sounding tape tank #2 / #3

Temp. Read sounding in meter
C 6 7 8 9 10 11
-104 -0,004 -0,003 -0,003 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001
-103 -0,004 -0,003 -0,003 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001
-102 -0,004 -0,003 -0,003 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001
-101 -0,004 -0,003 -0,003 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001
-100 -0,004 -0,003 -0,003 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001
-99 -0,004 -0,003 -0,003 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001
-98 -0,004 -0,003 -0,003 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001
-97 -0,004 -0,003 -0,003 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001
-96 -0,004 -0,003 -0,003 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001
± -0,003 -0,003 -0,002 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001
-48 -0,002 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-47 -0,002 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-46 -0,002 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-45 -0,002 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-44 -0,002 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-43 -0,002 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-42 -0,002 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-41 -0,002 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-40 -0,002 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-39 -0,002 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-38 -0,002 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-37 -0,002 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-36 -0,002 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-35 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-34 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-33 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-32 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-31 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-30 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-29 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-28 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-27 -0,002 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-26 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-25 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 0,000
-24 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,000 0,000
-23 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,000 0,000
-22 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,001 -0,000 0,000

Gas Tankers Advance Course

12.4.8 Enclose 8
Trim table tank #2 and #3, tank 100% volume 1468,18 m3
Sounding and trim in
Sounding Stern trim Sounding Stern trim Sounding Stern trim
0,5 1 0,5 1 0,5 1
8,04 -0,029 -0,059 8,41 -0,029 -0,059 8,78 -0,028 -0,057
8,05 -0,029 -0,059 8,42 -0,029 -0,059 8,79 -0,028 -0,057
8,06 -0,029 -0,059 8,43 -0,029 -0,059 8,80 -0,028 -0,057
8,07 -0,029 -0,059 8,44 -0,029 -0,059 8,81 -0,028 -0,057
8,08 -0,029 -0,059 8,45 -0,029 -0,059 8,82 -0,028 -0,057
8,09 -0,029 -0,059 8,46 -0,029 -0,059 8,83 -0,028 -0,057
8,10 -0,029 -0,059 8,47 -0,029 -0,059 8,84 -0,028 -0,057
8,11 -0,029 -0,059 8,48 -0,029 -0,059 8,85 -0,028 -0,057
8,12 -0,029 -0,059 8,49 -0,029 -0,059 8,86 -0,028 -0,057
8,13 -0,029 -0,059 8,50 -0,029 -0,059 8,87 -0,028 -0,057
8,14 -0,029 -0,059 8,51 -0,029 -0,059 8,88 -0,028 -0,057
8,15 -0,029 -0,059 8,52 -0,029 -0,059 8,89 -0,028 -0,057
8,16 -0,029 -0,059 8,53 -0,029 -0,059 8,90 -0,029 -0,057
8,17 -0,029 -0,059 8,54 -0,029 -0,059 8,91 -0,029 -0,058
8,18 -0,029 -0,059 8,55 -0,029 -0,059 8,92 -0,029 -0,058
8,19 -0,029 -0,059 8,56 -0,029 -0,059 8,93 -0,029 -0,058
8,20 -0,029 -0,059 8,57 -0,029 -0,059 8,94 -0,029 -0,058
8,21 -0,029 -0,059 8,58 -0,029 -0,059 8,95 -0,029 -0,058
8,22 -0,029 -0,059 8,59 -0,029 -0,059 8,96 -0,029 -0,058
8,23 -0,029 -0,059 8,60 -0,029 -0,059 8,97 -0,029 -0,058
8,24 -0,029 -0,059 8,61 -0,029 -0,059 8,98 -0,029 -0,058
8,25 -0,029 -0,059 8,62 -0,029 -0,058 8,99 -0,029 -0,058
8,26 -0,029 -0,059 8,63 -0,029 -0,058 9,00 -0,029 -0,058
8,27 -0,029 -0,059 8,64 -0,029 -0,058 9,01 -0,029 -0,058
8,28 -0,029 -0,059 8,65 -0,029 -0,058 9,02 -0,029 -0,058
8,29 -0,029 -0,059 8,66 -0,029 -0,058 9,03 -0,029 -0,058
8,30 -0,029 -0,059 8,67 -0,029 -0,058 9,04 -0,029 -0,058
8,31 -0,029 -0,059 8,68 -0,028 -0,058 9,05 -0,029 -0,058
8,32 -0,029 -0,059 8,69 -0,028 -0,058 9,06 -0,029 -0,058
8,33 -0,029 -0,059 8,70 -0,028 -0,058 9,07 -0,029 -0,058
8,34 -0,029 -0,059 8,71 -0,028 -0,058 9,08 -0,029 -0,058
8,35 -0,029 -0,059 8,72 -0,028 -0,058 9,09 -0,029 -0,058
8,36 -0,029 -0,059 8,73 -0,028 -0,057 9,10 -0,029 -0,058
8,37 -0,029 -0,059 8,74 -0,028 -0,057 9,11 -0,029 -0,058
8,38 -0,029 -0,059 8,75 -0,028 -0,057 9,12 -0,029 -0,058
8,39 -0,029 -0,059 8,76 -0,028 -0,057 9,13 -0,029 -0,058
8,40 -0,029 -0,059 8,77 -0,028 -0,057 9,14 -0,028 -0,058

Gas Tankers Advance Course

12.4.9 Enclose 9
Sounding table tank #2 and #3, tank 100% volume 1468,18 m3
Sounding m Volume m3 Sounding m Volume m3 Sounding m Volume
8,04 1311,35 8,41 1362,91 8,78 1406,51
8,05 1312,81 8,42 1364,21 8,79 1407,56
8,06 1314,27 8,43 1365,50 8,80 1408,59
8,07 1315,72 8,44 1366,79 8,81 1409,61
8,08 1317,18 8,45 1368,07 8,82 1410,63
8,09 1318,63 8,46 1369,35 8,83 1411,64
8,10 1320,08 8,47 1370,62 8,84 1412,64
8,11 1321,52 8,48 1371,88 8,85 1413,64
8,12 1322,96 8,49 1373,14 8,86 1414,62
8,13 1324,40 8,50 1374,39 8,87 1415,60
8,14 1325,84 8,51 1375,64 8,88 1416,57
8,15 1327,27 8,52 1376,87 8,89 1417,52
8,16 1328,70 8,53 1378,11 8,90 1418,47
8,17 1330,13 8,54 1379,33 8,91 1419,42
8,18 1331,55 8,55 1380,55 8,92 1420,35
8,19 1332,97 8,56 1381,76 8,93 1421,27
8,20 1334,38 8,57 1382,97 8,94 1422,18
8,21 1335,80 8,58 1384,17 8,95 1423,09
8,22 1337,20 8,59 1385,36 8,96 1423,98
8,23 1338,60 8,60 1386,54 8,97 1424,86
8,24 1340,00 8,61 1387,71 8,98 1425,74
8,25 1341,29 8,62 1388,88 8,99 1426,60
8,26 1342,77 8,63 1390,04 9,00 1427,46
8,27 1344,15 8,64 1391,19 9,01 1428,31
8,28 1345,53 8,65 1392,33 9,02 1429,14
8,29 1346,89 8,66 1393,46 9,03 1429,97
8,30 1348,26 8,67 1394,59 9,04 1430,79
8,31 1349,62 8,68 1395,70 9,05 1431,59
8,32 1350,97 8,69 1396,82 9,06 1432,39
8,33 1352,32 8,70 1397,92 9,07 1433,18
8,34 1353,66 8,71 1399,02 9,08 1433,95
8,35 1355,00 8,72 1400,11 9,09 1434,72
8,36 1356,33 8,73 1401,20 9,10 1435,47
8,37 1357,66 8,74 1402,28 9,11 1436,22
8,38 1358,98 8,75 1403,35 9,12 1436,95
8,39 1360,29 8,76 1404,41 9,13 1437,67
8,40 1361,60 8,77 1405,47 9,14 1438,38

Gas Tankers Advance Course

12.4.10Enclose 10
Correction on the float

Specific gravity (kg/dm3) Correction in

0,40 + 0,220
0,45 + 0,187
0,50 + 0,170
0,60 + 0,150
0,70 + 0,136
0,80 + 0,127
0,90 + 0,121
1,00 + 0,114
1,10 + 0,110

Cargo calculation ASTM

table LPG Seagull
Port: Date:
Last: Skip:

Tank no. # 1P 1S 2P 2S 3P 3S

1 Volume of tank 100 % 1182.18 1182.18 1468.18 1468.18 1468.18 1468.18 m3

2 Liquid temp. C
3 Sounding read m
4 Float correction m
5 Correction for vapour m
6 List correction m
7 Trim correction m
8 Sounding at 20 C m
9 Volume at 20 C m3
10 Shrink. factor tank steel
11 Corrected liquid volume m3
12 Reduction factor from table
13 Volume 15 oC m3
14 Density on liquid at 15oC Mt/m3

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tab. 21
15 Mass of liquid in vacuum at Mt
16 Uncorrected vapour volume m3
17 Shrinkage factor vapour
18 Corrected Vapour volume m3
19 Tank pressure bar
20 Atmosphere pressure bar
21 Molecular weight
22 Temperature on vapour C
23 Density on vapour kg/m3
24 Mass of vapour in vacuum Mt
25 Total mass in vacuum Mt

Total weight in air Mt

ROB in air Mt
Total loaded in air Mt

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Gas Tankers Advance Course

13- Cooling Processes and


Gas Tankers Advance Course



The Mollier diagram is an invaluable in helping to understand refrigeration calculations.

In a cooling plant, the cooling media will constantly change its state. Vapour is
compressed and gets a higher pressure and temperature, vapour condenses and
liquid vaporises. In the cooling process, the aggregate state, pressure and
temperature change continuously.

To perform calculations of the cooling process, one must know the enthalpy changes
taking place. If one is to make enthalpy-tables for a cooling media in all possible
states, you will find a large and unpractical table. Diagrams for simply cooling media
where the cooling media’s enthalpy under the actual aggregate states, are therefore
developed. Such a diagram contains infinitely much more information than a table
can have, and gives, in addition, possibility to make a “heat-technical picture” of
the cooling process.

Before making use of the Mollier diagram one has to learn how the diagram is built,
and how the different lines lie in the diagram. This will make it easier to find
information in the diagram.

Log p-h diagram or called the Mollier diagram, has a vertical logarithmic scale for
pressure (p) and a horizontal scale for enthalpy (h). In the Mollier diagram, one will
often think of the two different units for the different qualities. We will consistently
make use of the SI-units and refer to these scales only.

Gas Tankers Advance Course

The pressure of the Mollier diagram is, as in all heat technical tables, given as
absolute pressure. If nothing else is given, we have chosen to set the atmospheric
pressure to equal 1 bar, which corresponds to 0,1 MPa.

In cooling technical calculations one is only interested in enthalpy changes and not
the absolute enthalpy values. The values for enthalpy are therefore chosen from a
random reference state. One must take note of this, if one wants to compare
enthalpy values from the different tables or diagrams.

In the Mollier diagram, the “sack” is the most bearing curve. The bent line that goes
from the lower left corner and upwards the KP (the kinetic point) is called the liquid
line. If this line is lengthways, the liquid is always in its boiling point. The line bends
from KP and is almost vertically down the middle of the diagram. This line is called
the saturation curve. On this line, the state will be saturated gas. At the right of the
saturation curve, the gas is super-heated. To the left of the liquid line the liquid is
The area between the liquid and the saturation line specifies a mixture of boiling
liquid and saturated gas. The dashed line indicates the proportion of mixture
between liquid and gas. Halfway between the liquid line and the saturation line there
will be equal parts of gas as liquid. In the sketch above, one line is marked “0,1”.
Along this line there is 90% liquid and 10% saturated gas.
The distance between the liquid and the saturation line indicates how large the
vaporisation is. Notice that the vaporisation varies with the pressure and is lessened,
the higher the pressure is. In the critical point, liquid can not appear.
The Mollier diagram also has lines that indicate density (or specific volume),
temperature and entropy.
The lines for entropy indicate how pressure, temperature and heat content change in
an adiabatic state of proportion. An adiabatic state of proportion is an alteration
without heat exchanging with the surroundings. The real compression progress in a
compressor will of course deviate some from these lines because of loss in the
compressor and heat exchange with the environment.

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The lines for density (kg/m3) or specific volume (m3/kg) indicate density with varying
pressure and temperature.
The line for constant temperature is vertical from the top of the diagram down to the
liquid line. The temperature goes from the liquid line horizontal to the saturation line,
thereby to bend vertically towards the enthalpy from the saturation line.
To maintain necessary training in using the Mollier diagram, we will see in some
examples how to obtain useful information from the diagram. This course provides a
Mollier diagram for propane utilises the diagram in the following advice.
Take note that there are often two scales for pressure and enthalpy. Note which
units to utilise for temperature, density and entropy. We will only utilise SI-units in
our calculations. In the course enclosure, tables for conversion between the most
common units are enclosed.
When you plot and draw in the diagram it is recommended to always utilise a soft
pencil. The diagram can be used several times.

13.1.1 Example 1
The ship is loaded with propane and the tank manometer pressure is 2 bar. Find the
physical state for the liquid in the loading tank.

Any state of proportion can settle in the diagram if we can identify two actual
crossing lines. As the cargo in the loading tank always lies in its boiling point, the
state of proportion must lie somewhere among the liquid line. It is also known that
the pressure in the tank and above the liquid is read off at 2 bar on the manometer.
This pressure is equivalent 3 bar absolute (if we assume the atmospheric pressure to
1 bar) or 0.3 MPa. The state of proportion here is the point of intersection between
the liquid line and the pressure line of 0,3 MPa.

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13.1.2 Example 2
The ship is loaded with propane and the tank pressure is read off on the manometer
at 2 bar. Plot the state of proportion for the gas above the liquid in the cargo tank.
As the gas above the liquid in the loading tank is, at all times, saturated, the state of
proportion must lie somewhere on the saturation line. The pressure in the tank and
above the liquid is read off to 2 bar on the manometer. This pressure is equivalent to
3 bar absolute (if we assume the atmospheric pressure to 1 bar) or 0,3 MPa. The
state of proportion here will be the state of intersection between the saturation line
and the pressure line of 0,3 MPa.

Gas Tankers Advance Course

13.1.3 Example 3
The ship is loaded with propane and the tank pressure is read off on the manometer
to 2 bar. Utilise the Mollier diagram to find how much heat one must supply the tank
to evaporate (boil off) 1 kg propane.
In example 1 and 2, the state of proportions for the liquid and the gas in the loading
tank is stated at a tank pressure of 2 bar. The difference between the liquid enthalpy
h1 and the saturated gas enthalpy h2 is the heat quantity that is needed to evaporate
1kg propane at 2 bar pressure.

Calculation of evaporation heat

Gas : Propane
Pressure (abs.) = 3 bar
Enthalpy for saturated gas, h2 = 880 kJ/kg
- Enthalpy for saturated liquid, h1 = 490 kJ/kg
Latent heat of evaporation = 390 kJ/kg

The latent heat of evaporation for propane can also be found in a heat thermal
property table for propane. Find this table in the course enclosure, and check that
the latent heat of evaporation is the same.

Gas Tankers Advance Course

13.1.4 Example 4
The gas carrier is loaded with propane and the tank pressure is read of on the
manometer of 2 bar. On a cargo compressor in operation the suction pressure is
read off to 1,5 bar, and the suction temperature to –10 oC (14oF). Plot the state of
proportion for the gas on the compressor.

As the pressure in the gas in to the compressor is 1,5 bar, the state of proportion
must lie on a pressure line equal 0,25 MPA (1,2 bar + 1 bar) in the diagram. The
exact state of proportion is plotted where the temperature line of –10oC crosses the
pressure line of 0,14 MPa.
When the point is plotted, the density of the gas into the compressor can be defined
from the density lines that run sideways out to the right in the diagram.
A cooling plant’s net cold capacity is expressed as:
Qnett = m x Dh where
m =the mass of gas that streams through the cooling plant per hour (kg/s)
Dh = the difference between enthalpy on the gas that abandons the tank and
enthalpy on the condensate that returns back to the tank (kJ/kg)
Notice that the density of the gas increases at higher gas pressure and lower
temperature. Larger density gives more mass per hour that will flow through the
plant. More mass involves larger cold capacity for the plant.

Gas Tankers Advance Course

13.1.5 Example 5
A gas cylinder is filled with floating propane. Temperature of the air and propane
liquid and gas is 15 oC. We say that the gas over the liquid is saturated.
The valve opens and floating propane flows over in an open container. Plot the state
of proportion for the liquid in the bottle, before the valve was opened, and for the
liquid in the opened container later.

The liquid lies on the liquid line in the diagram. The point (1) is defined either from
the temperature line of 15oC (59oF) or equivalent pressure line 0,73 Mpa (7,3 bar).
When the liquid is let out of the bottle, the pressure of the liquid to the atmospheric
pressure (1 bar) lowers. The fast reduction of the pressure involves a powerful
boiling of the liquid because of an “unbalance” between the liquid’s temperature and
gas pressure of the liquid. The heat of the boiling is taken from the liquid itself and
the surroundings and the liquid gets colder. An enthalpy change during the process
will not take place. We can draw the process line (from point 1 to point 2) for any
change to the liquid, as a vertical line from the cross-point through the liquid line to
the pressure line.
Notice that the new state of proportion (2) is inside the “sack” and that a precise
share of the liquid has evaporated because of pressure reduction.

Gas Tankers Advance Course


A good processor should have a construction that secures from gas

leakage, be applicable for the different media qualities, have large
regulation opportunity, obtain least space and give as little noise and
vibrations as possible.

We separate between four types of compressors in the cooling plant: oil lubricated
pistons, oil free pistons, oil lubricated screw compressors and oil free screw
Both types of pistons and oil free screw compressors are used on the cargo side in
the cooling plant. On the Freon side, oil lubricated piston and screw compressors are

13.2.1 Pistons
An oil-lubricated piston has piston rings made of cast-iron. It is therefore necessary
to lubricate the cylinder walls. A part of this oil will be lead out of the compressor. An
oil separator in the pressure pipeline separates most of the oil. But some of the oil is
lead further out in the system in form of oil vapour. The consequence is that one can
not have too large demands for defilement of cargo on ships with such cargo
The state of the piston rings and the cylinder liner is conclusive for how much oil
leads out of the compressor. In time, mud will extend from the oil settler. This
reduces the settler’s capacity. Cleaning of this is therefore one of the assumptions to
maintain the oil consumption and the pollution at a fair level.
The working valves are usually a plate type valve and are placed inside the
compressor. The working valves have work-over intervals from 2000 to 5000 hours.
The capacity regulation by the suction valve plates is gradually lifted from the seats
and only the gas is pumped in and out of the cylinder. The lifting arrangement is
normally performed hydraulically by oil taken from the pressure side of the oil pump.
The lubricate oil pump is normally the gear type and normally placed in the extension
of the crankshaft. The oil lubricates the bearing, shaft and the cylinder walls.
One supplies the crankcase with a coil for heating and cooling.
The lubricated piston compressors are normally built as V or W machines. This
construction is less space demanding, but also less friendly working-wise. The
compressor case is sterling in cast-iron and the valves normally of aluminium. The
casings are loose and cast-iron.
The principal for oil free piston compressors is that no parts, which are in contact
with the gas, are lubricated. The piston runs dry in the cylinder. These construction
problems are solved, as follows:
The sealing device between piston and cylinder liner is performed by piston rings
with self-lubricated qualities. Piston rings of teflon material are often used in these
A labyrinth gland performs the sealing device between piston and cylinder walls.
Piston/cylinder is made by a small groove. The clearance is as small as possible. As
the piston is in touch with the cylinder walls, there is minimal wear on compressors
with this construction. Loss of energy, which is due to friction in a normal

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compressor, is about the same as the leakage loss for a compressor with labyrinth

Oil free piston compressors are at all times built as double acting. That involves that
they are supplied with a cross-head, and the working valves are placed outside the
cylinders. The compressor is also built as two and three stage compressors. This
means that one cylinder is used as 1st stage, the next to 2nd stage and the third as
3rd stage. The individual stages here will have different cylinder diameters where the
first is the largest and the others gradually smaller. The first stage is also referring to
as a low-pressure (LT) cylinder and the highest as high-pressure (HT) cylinder.

13.2.2 Piston compressors and lubricate oil

The oil will, at all times, be led out with the gas, from the compressor in plants, by
oil lubricated piston compressors. Oil that departs from the oil remover is lead back
to the crank room or to an exhaust tank. Where is decided by what cargo we have.
One can lead ammonia back to the crank room because this is not soluble in the oil.
LPG gas is soluble in oil and should therefore first boil out in an exhaust tank.

The lubricant free piston compressors have, under normal situations, no draft of oil.
Some gas will however leak down in the crankcase on the piston compressors and
there mix with the oil. High pressure in the crankcase is an indication of inferior
sealing. This indicates that the viscosity of the oil is less. If sealing and oil is in bad
shape, oil will also go up in to the cylinder liner and go with the vapour out of the
compressor. Pollution of cargo and reduced compressor capacity are the
consequences of this.

One recommends using a mineral oil for the butadiene, while synthetic oil is used for
the rest of the cargo. Many of the synthetic oils are hygroscopic and will therefore
accumulate dampness if they are exposed to damp air. When changing oil types, one

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must be sure not to mix the oil types. To be sure that all remnants of the “old” oil
are removed, washing the crank room with the “new” oil before refilling is

13.2.3 Linde compressor

Linde is a type of oil free piston compressor with Teflon sealing rings that is used as
a cargo compressor in the cooling plant. These are built as V or W machines with a
number of revolutions of about 1200 rpm. The piston is kept central in the cylinder
by the help of steering on the topside of the piston. A packing seal and oil blocks the
connection between cylinder and crank room. Cylinder, cylinder cover and crank
house are cooled and heated by glycol. The working valves are plate type and are
capacity regulated at 50% and 100%. They are generally performed with a
hydraulic lifting of the suction valves.
It is important to consider that the length of lifetime of the Teflon material depends
upon at which working temperature the compressor is operating.

Too high operating temperature will lead to higher wear and thereby higher leakage
loss in the compressor.

13.2.4 Sulzer Compressor

Sulzer produces oil free piston compressors with labyrinth sealing for use as cargo
compressors in the cooling plant. The cylinders are arranged in series and can be
used as one to three stage compressors with the number of revolutions from 600 to
1000 rpm. The pistons are kept central in the cylinder by the help of a piston
steering and oil lubricated drawback. Labyrinth sealing and an arrangement of oil
scraper rings fence the compound between cylinder and crank room. Gas that flows
through the labyrinth sealing is lead back to the suction side.
The working valves are made of the ring flapper type. The capacity can be regulated
to 50% and 100% and is performed with a hydraulic lifting of the suction valve

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flapper. Cylinder, labyrinth sealing, crank room and piston rod steering is cooled and
heated by glycol.

13.2.5 Delivery rate

A compressor delivery rate is the difference between the suction volume and the
stroke volume. A high delivery rate is thereby an important factor for the cooling
plant capacity. If we compare the piston compressors, the delivery rate to an oil-
lubricated compressor will be clearly better than an oil free compressor.
The volume difference is lowest at low working pressure. The pressure ratio over the
compressor or a cylinder in the compressor is the ratio between delivery pressure
and suction pressure. The placing of the working valves externally and oil free
compressor makes the “damaging room” larger and is the cause for a different
delivery rate.

If the diagram above is actually for an oil free compressor with a read off suction
pressure of 0,5 bar and a delivery pressure of 5 bar, the pressure ratio is:

6 / 1,5 = 4

A pressure ratio of 4 gives a delivery rate of about 0,60. If the compressor has a
gross capacity of 400 m 3/h, net capacity is:

400 m3/h x 0,60 = 240 m3/h

240 m3/h gas flow through the compressor in this working situation.
Comparison between oil free piston compressors with labyrinth sealing and Teflon
sealing indicates that the delivery volume is a bit larger for a compressor with Teflon
sealing. However, the power consumption rises at a higher delivery pressure
percentage, more than occurs with delivery volume.

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13.2.6 Screw compressors

The screw compressor is divided into two groups: oil lubricated and oil free. The
difference is the same as for the piston compressors. In the oil free screw compressors,
the parts that are in contact with the gas are not lubricated with oil.

This type of compressor works by the displacement principal. The working parts of the
compressor are two rotating screws, parallel placed in a compressor case. The screws, or
the rotors, are shaped with male and female profiles that mesh into on another.

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The impetus is transferred to the male rotor. The most common combination is four
and six lobes for the male and the female rotor. Four lobes on the male rotor mesh
into 6 lobes on the female rotor. If the male rotor has a number of revolutions of
3600 rpm, the female rotor number of revolutions is:

4 / 6 x 3600 rpm = 2400 rpm

The compressors working progress is, as follows:

1. 1. The lobe on the female rotor reveals the die orifice. When the rotors turn,
the chamber gets longer and gas sucks into the compressor.
2. 2. The chamber passes the inlet opening. The gas is now closed between the
end casing.
3. 3. Gradually as the rotor twists additionally, the volume is less and the gas
compress against the outlet wall.
4. 4. An additional twist of the rotor uncovers the outlet wall and the gas is
pressed out of the compressor.
In the most common screw compressors on board, the confined gas will compress to
a precise volume before blowing down to the pressure side. One says that the
compressor has a constant embedded volume proportion. The embedded volume
proportion is determined from the proportion:

V1 / V2 where

V1 is the maximum induction volume per rotor per rotation.

V2 is the volume of reticent gas after compression, but before blow down to pressure

The pressure proportion is not constant, but dependent from ploy for the employed
gas and rate of cooling. The connection between the volume proportion and the
pressure proportion can therefore be expressed, as:

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(V1 / V2)k = Designed compression proportion = Delivery pressure/suction pressure

Practically, this means that when the drift parameters change, the screw
compressors with a built-in volume proportion will compress the gas needlessly too
much or too little. Too low compression increases back flow of gas and hence
reduced efficiency.

The oil free screw compressors are used on board as cargo compressors. A
synchronising gear is used to keep the rotors from wearing one another. The axial
strength recovers when placed on the outlet side. Bearings and gear lubricate by a
self-pressure oil system.

To prevent oil from forcing into the compressor room, axial sealing is installed
between the bearings and the gas area inside the compressor.
The compressor case is cooled and heated by glycol. The number of revolutions is
kept relatively high, 5000 to 15000 rpm, to keep the leakage loss as low as possible.
This means that if electric motors are used as; the gear must be used.

Oil lubricated screw compressors are used on board on the Freon side in cascade
plants. The female rotor is driven directly by the male rotor in this type of
compressor. Ample oil must therefore be supplied to the rotors.

The oil has the following purpose:

• · Lubricate the bearings

• · Lubricate, cool and seal between rotors and cases
• · Lubricate, cool and seal between the rotors
• · Cool and lubricate the axial sealing
• · Give hydraulic energy to the capacity regulation
• · Cool the gas

The screw compressors power consumption is unfavourable compared with the two-
stage piston compressor. Installation of a “superfeed” arrangement compensates
some in this condition.

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The condensate is super-cooled in a coil placed in a combined evaporator and inter-

cooler. The boil off in the inter-cooler is led back to the compressor (S). The plants
cooling capacity will rise (∆Q). The power consumption will also rise, but less than
the increased cooling capacity.

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The capacity regulation on oil lubricated screw compressors takes place by help of a
hydraulic operated drawback that opens a gate to the inlet side. The capacity if often
infinitely variable between 10 % and 100 %.

The advantages with screw compressors are:

• · no suction or pressure valves

• · few mobile parts
• · lower cost at purchase, installation and maintenance
• · little vibrations and simple foundation
• · even gas flow, no pulsating
• · no sensitiveness for liquid in the gas flow
• · high volumetric efficiency of the actual working area
• · possibilities for infinitely variable capacity regulation
• · low pressure pipe temperature for oil lubricated screw compressors

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13.2.7 Lubricating oil system

The sketch below indicates a normal oil system for cooling plants with soil lubricated
screw compressors.

Despite the fact that the oil separator is installed after the compressor, a larger share
of oil is constantly in the freon consequently this leads to poor plant cooling capacity.
It is not possible to drain off pure oil on the liquid side and a system is therefore
installed as an oil-restoring device in these plants.
The oil-restoring device system is often used in these systems. Some of the cold and
the oil-rich freon liquid is taken from the pressure side and delivered to the lower
inlet of the heat exchanger. A relatively warm freon liquid from the liquid collector
meets it here. The oil-rich freon liquid evaporates inside the pipes. Because of the
large velocity of the gas out of the heat exchanger, the oil particles are carried with
it, as well.

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An independent regulation valve provides that a suitable amount of freon is let into
the heat exchanger when the liquid is taken from the pressure side. A constant
overflow pipe provides that the level in the heat exchanger is constant.

13.2.8 Thermostatic expansion valve

Thermostatic expansion valves are used in the cooling plant to regulate the liquid
injection in the heat exchangers. The evaporation pressure and the overheating in
the heat exchanger control the valve. For the valve to function satisfactorily the valve
must be installed as recommended by the supplier and the valve is dimensioned to
the plant. In choosing a valve, one must consider the operation terms and the
capacity need for the plant.

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Cooling plants with 1-stage direct operation are the simplest cooling plants with the
least number of components. The description “1-stage” refers to the compression
that occurs in only one step. “Direct operation” means that the cargo vapour is
sucked from the cargo tank and compressed directly either against seawater or
Freon in an cascade plant.

In this chapter we have chosen to use one-sage direct cooling for our examples,
which is used on board many semi-pressurised gas carrier. Propylene is chosen as
cargo and cooling media.

The simplified sketch of the plant indicates the main components in a cooling plant
with possibility for motoring both with 1 stage and 2 stage direct operation. With 1
stage direct operation cargo tank(s), liquid separator, compressor, condenser, liquid
collector and regulation valves are utilised. Notice that the compressor has two or
more cylinders with different diameters. This is normal when the plant is also
designed for 2 stage operation. Following, there is also an intermediate cooler with
coil. This is not in use in 1 stage operation and supply lines are therefore drawn as a
broken dashed line.
On the following log sheet, an actual operation situation for this plat is registered.
The cooling process itself is drawn in a sketch of a Mollier diagram for propylene.

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Cargo Sea
Pressure Temp. Temp
Air Power Tank 1.suct 1.deliv. 1.suct. 1.deliv. In Out
o o o o
Date: Time: C Amp. % bar bar bar C C C oC
21/3 12:00 28 180 100 3,0 2,8 10,5 -5 80 23 27

The loading tank is filled with propylene. The temperature of the liquid in the tank is –
12oC, this gives a tank pressure of 3 bars. Heat will be transferred to the tank and the
cargo because of the difference in temperature between cargo and the surroundings.
The condition of the liquid in the tank is in the boiling point line at a pressure of 3 bars.
When liquid boils, the gas over the liquid is regarded as saturated. The condition of the
gas at this point is, therefore, in the Mollier diagram on the saturation line at an absolute
pressure of 4 bar. The point is marked as A.

The piston compressor sucks the gas from the tank via a liquid separator. Because of
heat leakage, the gas is heated between the tank and compressor. In addition, the
pressure in the gas will reduce some because of friction in the pipeline. When gas
sucks into the compressor, both temperature and pressure will be changed. If the
compressor’s suction temperature is –5oC and read-off suction pressure is 2,8 bars,
the condition of the gas (when it sucks into the compressor) can be plotted into the
diagram. The condition is in an overheated area where the temperature line of –5oC
and the pressure line of 3.8 bars (2,8 bars + 1 bars) crosses. The point is marked
as B.

The gas is compressed parallel over both cylinders and delivered to the seawater-
cooled condenser. The compressor performs a job on the gas and the gas is supplied
with energy. Pressure, temperature and enthalpy increases. The compressing
process is traced into the diagram as the line from B to C.

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The heat is transferred from the gas to the seawater in the condenser. The gas into
the condenser now has a temperature of 80oC. The temperature of the seawater into
the condenser is read-off as 23oC. The gas cools and condenses against the relative
cold seawater under constant pressure. The pressure is maintained by the
compressor, which continuously compresses new vapour. The process line in the
Mollier diagram is traced from point C to D. Notice that the gas’s overheating at first
is removed, and then the gas is saturated. Then the evaporation heat is removed
and the gas condenses. When all gas is condensed in the condenser, the state is on
the boiling point line. The relative cold gas of about –12oC that was sucked out from
the tank has, through the compression, increased the temperature to a relative
warmer state than the seawater. This renders a possibility of heat transmission from
an originally colder to a warmer medium. One can see that the gas’s enthalpy
reduces in the process.
A heat quantity is transferred to the seawater that is corresponding to the difference
in enthalpy of the gas that sucks from the tank and the condensate enthalpy after
the condenser.
It is the temperature of the seawater that circulates through the condenser that
determines the condensation pressure. The heat exchanger is normally designed so
that the temperature difference between seawater and condensate is between 3oC
and 8oC. In our example, the read-off condensation pressure is 10,5 bars. In the
heat technical table for propylene, one can see that this corresponds to a
condensation temperature of 25o C, which is within the normal area. A change in the
temperature of seawater and gas over the condenser indicates something is wrong.
If for example, the seawater side becomes dirty, the temperature increase of the
seawater over the condenser is smaller and the condensation pressure higher. One
should notice that such changes of the cooling plant mainly occur over time,
something that makes it difficult to intercept the signals. The only useful method to
reveal such a development is to log the drift parameter regularly. This routine is of
great importance.

The suction of the gas is now condensed and the condensate collected in a liquid
collector. A regulation valve between the liquid collector and the cargo tank regulates
the level in the liquid collector. One can see the process line between point D and E
in the Mollier diagram. Notice that there is no enthalpy change. Temperature and
pressure is what changes over the valve. When the pressure over the condensate is
reduced from condensation pressure of 10,5 bars to tank pressure of 3 bars, the
liquid will boil energetically. Boiling requires heat. This heat is mainly taken from the
liquid itself. The liquid cools and some of the gas evaporates. A mixture of liquid and
gas with the same temperature as the liquid and the gas in the tank is what returns
into the cargo tank. The temperature must be the same for the mixture, because the
pressure is the same. One can locate the shares of liquid and saturated gas in the
Mollier diagram as point E.

The regulation valve’s job is to let the condensate back to the cargo tank in a
constant and controlled process. The valve should simultaneously keep the liquid
locked to secure the compressor’s maintenance of the compression pressure. It is of
great importance that the regulation valve has satisfactory activity. If the liquid level
and thereby the liquid lock disappears, uncondensed gas will blow through the

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condenser and reduce the capability of the plant. If the liquid level rises, so the
condenser refills this result in an inferior heat exchange of the condenser and a
higher condensation pressure.

If the compressor has a capability of 350 m3/h, the net cooling capacity of the plant,
Qnet is:

Qnet = m x (h2 - h1)

The capacity of the compressor (V) and the density (p) of the gas into the
compressor determines the mass (m), which flows through the plant. The gas’s
specific volume (v) is point B in the Mollier diagram to 0,12 m3/kg. This corresponds
to a density of (l/0,12 m3 /kg) or 8,33 kg/m3.

Qnet = {V /3600 s} x r x (h1 - h2)

= {(350 m3/h) / 3600 s} x 8,33 kg/m3 x (240 kJ7kg - -60 kJ/kg)
= 243 kW

Notice the factor, which expresses the cooling plant’s capability to influence and to
control, thereby, the cooling capacity of the plant. Its construction and condition
determine the capacity of the compressor. Good control and maintenance influence
the capability of the cooling plant.
Pressure drops determine the density of the gas into the compressor and
temperature increases between tank and compressor. Needless throttling of valves
on the suction side or tightened filters, gives a needless low pressure and thereby, a
lower density. Inferior isolation of suction pipe or tank gives a larger heat leakage,
higher temperature and thereby lower density. Lower density gives less mass
through the compressor hence with reduced capability.
The enthalpy difference of the plant is determined by the cooling media and other
outer conditions like the seawater temperature. These factors are therefore less
influential than the others are. By studying the process of the Mollier diagram, one
can see that the condition for the temperature of the liquid in the tank and h2
determines the gas at the top of the tank. The other enthalpy point, h1, is
determined by the condensation pressure. Notice that a higher condensation
pressure removes this point to the right and will give less enthalpy difference than
with a low condensation pressure. A lowest possible condensation pressure gives
therefore the best capacity in addition to the best operating condition for the

If the capability of the cooling plant is larger than the total heat leakage, the
temperature of the cargo will be lower over time. When the temperature sinks, the
tank pressure sinks. If the seawater temperature and other operating conditions are
unaltered, the process lines EAB are displaced parallel downward with the tank
pressure against the process lines E1A1B1.

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One can see that a lower tank pressure results in a lower cooling capacity. The mass
through the compressor sinks because the density of the vapour is lower with a
lower pressure. In addition, the point h2 is displacing gently against the left; this
results in some lower enthalpy difference. One must notice that the saturation line of
the different material has different inclines. Therefore the influence of this change

If the condensation pressure is kept unaltered, the process will be longer for the
compression and the outlet temperature from the compressor will be higher. The
condition for the gas after compression is removed from C to C1. This has in itself
no direct influence on the capacity, as long as the condenser can transfer the
necessary heat amount from the gas to the seawater.
Previously, we have seen how the piston compressor delivery extent depends on the
pressure condition of the compressor. The pressure condition in our example is, as

Pressure condition = Delivery pressure/suction pressure = 11,5 / 3,8 = 3

According to the fall of the tank pressure, the pressure condition will rise and result
in a constant decreasing delivery extent. A reduction of the suction pressure with 2
bars and the same condensation pressure gives a pressure condition of:

11,5 / 1,8 = 6,4

This increased pressure condition gives an essential reduction in delivery extent and
thereby cooling capacity. The influence of reduced delivery extent of the cooling
capacity is often larger than the summary of the other factors.

The explanation of why the cooling capacity is at the lowest by low tank pressure is
some complex. In addition to above-mentioned condition, the heat leakage will, of
course, be largest at a low tank pressure.

Gas Tankers Advance Course Example 1
The cooling capacity of the vessel is at the moment 234 kW. We want to find the
time to cool down the cargo of 1000 MT propylene, from –12o to –30o.

At first we set an expression for the heat balance:

Net heat abducted in the cooling plant = heat-leakage + heat abducted from the
In the vessel’s operation manual, we find that the heat leakage to the cargo tanks at
presence air and seawater temperature is 36 kW.

The necessary heat amount removed from the cargo to cool the cargo is located in
the Mollier diagram or in a heat technical table:

Enthalpy for propylene at-12 oC = 61,5 kcal/kg = 257,1 kJ/kg

- Enthalpy for propylene at -30 oC = 52,1 kcal/kg = 217,8 kJ/kg
=Enthalpy difference = 39,3 kJ/kg

Here one must eliminate 39,3 kJ from one kilo propylene to lower the heat
temperature from -12 oC to -30 oC. As we have 1000 MT propylene, the heat amount
that must be abducted is:
(1000 x 103) kg x 39,3 kJ/kg = 39,3 x 106 kJ

We insert above-mentioned values of the heat balance and get:

(234 kW x T) = (36 kW x T) + 39,3 x 106 kJ

where T = cooling time in seconds

T = (39,3 x 106 / 198)s = 198484 s

T = (198484 / 3600) hrs. = 55 hrs.

The calculated cooling time here at unaltered heat leakage and cooling capacity is
about 55 hours. In practice, the cooling time will be a bit longer because the cooling
capacity and the heat leakage is not constant in the period. Example 2
The vessel is loaded with propane and the cargo tank pressure is read to 2 bars. The
suction pressure of a cargo compressor is read to 1,5 bars and the suction
temperature is –10oC (14oF). Plot the state-point for the gas into the compressor.

As the pressure of the gas into the compressor is 1,5 bars, the state-point must lie in
a pressure line equal 0,25 MPa (1,5 bars + 1 bars) in the diagram. The exact state-
point is plotted where the temperature line of –10oC crosses the pressure line of 0,25

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When the point is plotted, the density of the gas into the compressor is determined
from the density lines aslant towards right in the diagram.

Qnet = m x h


m = the mass of gas flowing through the cooling plant per time (kg/s)
h = the difference between enthalpy of the gas that leaves the tank and enthalpy on
the condensate that is returned back to the tank (kJ/kg)

Notice that the density of the gas increases at higher gas pressure and lower
temperature. Larger density gives more mass per hour that flows through the plant.
More mass involves larger cold capacity for the plant.

13.3.3 Example 3
A gas bottle is filled with liquid propane. The temperature of the air and propane
liquid and gas is 15oC. The gas above the liquid is regarded as saturated.

The valve opens and liquid propane runs into an open container. Plot the state-
points for the liquid in the bottle before the valve was opened and for the liquid in
the open container afterwards.

The liquid lies on the liquid line and the point (1) is determined either from the
temperature line of 15o C (59oF) or corresponding pressure line of 0,73 MPa (7,3
When the liquid is discharged from the bottle, the pressure lowers above the liquid to
the atmosphere pressure (1 bars). The quick reduction of the pressure involves
powerful boiling in the liquid because of an “unbalance” between the liquid
temperature and the gas pressure above the liquid. The heat from boiling is taken
from the liquid itself and the surroundings and the liquid gets colder. No enthalpy
change will take place during the process. One can trace the process line (from
point 1 to point 2) for the alteration that occurs with the liquid, as a vertical line from
the point of the liquid line to the atmosphere pressure line.
Notice that the new state-point (2) lies inside the “sack” and that a precise share of
the liquid has vaporised because of the pressure reduction.


One can see how the cooling plant’s capacity was reduced at larger pressure
conditions in the chapter concerning 1 stage direct operation. At 2 stage operation,
stated pressure conditions will improve the capacity of the plant.

This plant is the same as used in the one-stage lesson. The difference is that the
plant now is altered to 2 stage operation with intermediate cooling. Notice how the
volume flow now compares to 1stage operation and which valves that regulates this.

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The compressor is the same, but only one of the cylinders is used to suck from the

The compressor is traced with different diameters of the cylinders. Most of the piston
compressors that are used on the cargo-side have this construction. The largest
cylinder is used as 1st stage in the compression and is called the low-pressure
cylinder. The smallest cylinder is used in 2nd stage compression and is called the
high-pressure cylinder.
There is also installed an intermediate pressure container with a coil for sub-cooling
of the condensate in this plant.
The following table indicates a summary from the cooling plant’s log sheet in an
actual stage situation.

Cargo Sea
Pressure Temp. Temp.
Air Tank 1.suct 1.deliv 2.deliv 1.suct 1.deliv 2.suct 2.deliv In Out
o o o o o o
C bar bar bar bar C C C C C oC
27 0,7 0,5 3,5 10,5 -25 50 -7 74 23 27

The compressor’s low pressure cylinder or 1st stage suck vapour from the cargo tank.
The vapour leaves the tank with state A and are sucked into the compressor’s 1st
stage with state B. The vapour compresses in the compressor’s 1st stage and is
delivered to the intermediate cooler (MT) with state C. The intermediate cooler is

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partly filled with cargo liquid. The superheated gas is normally led down in the liquid
where it is cooled by the relatively cold liquid.
The compressor’s 2nd stage suck in saturated vapour from the top of the MT cooler
and compresses this vapour and delivers it to the cargo condenser. The process line
is marked DE.

The heat is transferred from the vapour to the seawater in the cargo condenser, the
vapour condensate and is collected in the liquid collector. The process line is marked
The condensate is led via a coil in the MT cooler through the regulation valve and
back to the cargo tank. The process line is marked FG. Notice that the state-point is
below the sub-cooled area.
The pressure in the intermediate cooler determines the temperature of the liquid in
it. A pressure of 3,5 bars for propylene corresponds to a temperature of –8oC. The
vapour that is sucked inn to the 2nd stage has a temperature of –7oC in the log. The
small difference of temperature may be caused by heat leakage in the suction line or
reading error. The state-point G is therefore determined from the temperature line
corresponding to a pressure of 0,45 MPa (3,5 bars + 1 bars).

A to low liquid level in the MT cooler results in a sub-cooling of the condensate and
thereby reduces cooling capacity. The heat supplied to the liquid in the MT cooler
from the warm vapour from the 1st stage and the relatively warm condensate leads
to a lot of liquid evaporation. An independent regulation valve regulates the liquid
level in the MT cooler.
The vapour is led from 1st stage and down in the liquid of the MT cooler in our 2-
stage plant. Many plants that also have the possibility for “flash cooling” where the
vapour is lead into the top of the MT cooler and give operational advantages.

After the coil in the MT cooler the condensate is released back to the cargo tank
through the regulation valve. Notice that there is a larger share of liquid now than at
1-stage operation. The state-point for the condensate that returns back to the tank is
further to the left in the diagram.

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The cooling plants net cold capacity is calculated, as previously, by the expression:

Qnet = m x (h2 - h1)

The enthalpy difference is larger at 2-stage operation and sub-cooling, which is

something that increases the result. But the mass of gas flowing through the plant is
also altered when the plant is reorganised from 1-stage to 2-stage operation. A lower
pressure condition gives a better delivery extent and thereby larger mass. With 2-
stage operation, vapour from the cargo tank is sucked with one cylinder only
compared with 1-stage where all cylinders is used to suck in the vapour. This has a
negative guided influence so that the total increase of the cooling capacity is thereby

13.3.1 Example 1
To better visualise the difference between 1-stage operation and 2-stage operation,
we can look at an example where the vessel has loaded warm propylene and
delivered the cargo fully cooled. The plant is started with 1-stage operation because
of a very high tank pressure. Subsequent to the cargo cooling, the cargo tank
pressure is reduced. The result is increased differential pressure between 1st and 2nd
stage and reduced delivery extent. When the temperature of the cargo is at –30oC,
one decides to reorganise the operation to a 2-stage operation with intermediate

The following working parameters are registered before and after the re-adjustment:

Cargo Sea
Pressure Temp. Temp
Tank 1.suct 1.deliv. 2.deliv. 1.suct 1.deliv. 2.suct. 2.deliv. In Out
o o o o o
bar bar bar bar C C C C C oC
1,1 1,0 3,7 10,5 -20 54 -7 74 23 27
1,1 0,9 10,5 -22 80 23 27

The compressors capacity at 1-stage operation and a pressure condition of 6

(11,5/1,9) are calculated to 275 m3/h. At 2-stage operation and a pressure condition
of 2,4 (4,7/2), this is calculated to 240 m3/h.
The cooling capacity at 1-stage operation is calculated from the following values
located in the Mollies diagram and technical table:

Density on gas at -22oC and 0,9 bar: 4,17 kg/m3

Enthalpy of gas in a cargo tank: 230 kJ/kg

Enthalpy of the condensate after condenser: -60 kJ/kg

Qnett = {V /3600 s} x r x (h1 - h2)

= {(275 m3/h) / 3600 s} x 4,17 kg/m3 x (230 kJ7kg - -60 kJ/kg)

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= 92 kW

The cooling capacity at 2-stage operation and intermediate cooling are calculated
from the following values located in the Mollier diagram and technical table:

Density of gas at -20oC and 1 bar: 4,17 kg/m3

Enthalpy of gas in a cargo tank: 230 kJ/kg

Enthalpy of the condensate after condenser: -140 kJ/kg

Qnett = {V /3600 s} x r x (h1 - h2)
= {(240 m3/h) / 3600 s} x 4,17 kg/m3 x (230 kJ7kg - -140 kJ/kg)
= 103 kW

The two calculated cooling capacities in the example must be evaluated from the
accuracy in our measures. With normal measure divergence, one can conclude that
the cooling capacities are about equal for this plant at –30oC for propylene and a
condensation pressure of 10,5 bars. The decision of reorganising the plant to 2-stage
operation at this moment looks correct, if one only evaluates the cooling capacities.
One must however notice that normally it refers, in the operating manuals, only to
maximum delivery-pressure/maximum differential-pressure over the compressor and
not pressure condition. These parameters are simple practical expressions for the
compressor’s constructional limitations, which influence the operation.
If it is specified, in the operating manual, that maximum delivery pressure at 1-stage
is 12 bars and maximum differential pressure is 8 bars, alteration from 1-stage to 2-
stage operation is determined, as follows:
At unchanged seawater temperature, the condensation pressure is 10,5 bars.
Limitation of maximum delivery pressure is thereby kept regardless of operations
The differential pressure at 1-stage will rise at falling tank pressure. If the
condensation pressure is a constant 10,5 bar, 1-stage will have a differential
pressure of 8 bars when the suction pressure p0 is:
po = (10,5 - 8) bar = 2,5 bar
If the pressure drop of the suction line is constant at 0,1 bars, the plant must alter to
2-stage operation at a tank pressure of 2,6 bars, which corresponds to a cargo
temperature of –15oC.
From constructional limitations one can see that the cooling plant should be altered
to 2-stage operation at –15oC and not at –30oC.

13.3.4 Example 2
When we are loading cargo that is warmer than compared with the safety valve’s set
point, the loading time is determined by the capacity of the cooling plant. To
maintain the tank pressure during the opening pressure for the valves, the cargo that
is loaded must be cooled down. Bad plant condition and poor plant operation reduces
the cooling capacity and results in longer loading time.
The same gas tanker, as in the example above is to load 4000 MT hot propylene of
+15oC. The loading tank’s safety valves have an opening pressure of 4,5 bars. It is
determined to maintain the tank pressure of 4 bars during the loading.

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In the following log two different operational parameters are registered from the
cargo cooling plant. In the first alternative, the compressor’s suction valves are
throttled to a suction pressure of 1,5 bars. In the second alternative, the suction
valve is less throttled and the suction pressure is 2,5 bars.

The following operational parameters is registered before and after the alteration:

Pressure Temp.
Tank 1.suct 1.deliv. 1.suct. 1.deliv.
o o
Alt. bar bar bar C C
1 4,0 1,5 8,0 5 81
2 4,0 2,5 8,0 0 77

The two cooling processes are plotted into a Mollier’s diagram for propylene.

Notice that the enthalpy difference is the same regardless of suction pressure. In the
Mollier diagram, we find specific volume and density for the gas into the compressors
at the two suction pressures:

Specific volume for propylene:

v/2,5 bar and 0oC: 0,14 m3/kg = 7,143 kg/m3

Specific volume for propylene

v/1,5 bar and 5 oC: 0,22 m3/kg = 4,546 kg/m3

As the cooling capacity expresses:

Qnet = m x (h2 - h1)

One can see that the difference in the cooling capacity will be proportional with the
change in the mass flowing through the plant. The percentage difference in the
cooling capacity thereby is expressed, as follows:

{(7,143 - 4,546) x 100 / 7,143}% = 36 %

The cooling capacity is reduced by about 36% if the suction pressure is reduced from
2,5 bars to 1,5 bars for this re-condensation plant during the above-mentioned
conditions. This also means that loading time will increase with 36%.

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To visualise this influence better, we calculate the loading time for the vessel. We
assume that the cargo tanks with ROB, steal and isolation are cooled down to -5oC
before commence loading. The heat leakage to the cargo tanks (QTr) is stated in the
vessel’s operational manuals to 144 kW and three identical cargo cooling units drive
in the re-condensation plant, where the compressor’s capacity in each cooling unit is
set to 400 m3/h.

We locate how much heat has to be removed from each kilo propylene liquid to cool
this down to +15oC to –5oC in the heat technical table:

Enthalpy for propylene v/15oC: 76,8 kcal/kg = 321,5 kJ/kg

- Enthalpy for propylene v/-5oC: 65,7 kcal/kg = 275,0 kJ/kg

= Necessary abducted heat, ∆h = 46,5 kJ/kg

Necessary heat that must be removed from the cargo (QL) is:
QL = m x Dh
= (4000 x 103)kg x 46,5 kJ/kg = 186 x 106 kJ
We find the enthalpy values of the gas out of the tank (h2) and the enthalpy of the
mixture that is returned to the tank (h1), in the Mollier diagram:

h2 = 240 kJ/kg
h1 = -80 kJ/kg

The cooling capacity for the entire re-condensation plant at a suction pressure of 2,5
bars and 0oC is:

Qnetto = m x (h2 - h1)

= {V /3600 s} x r x (h1 - h2)
= {3 x 400 m3/h / 3600} x 7,143 kg/m3 x (240 –80)kJ/kg
= 762 kW

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The loading time T1, at this operation situation is then:

T1 = QL / (Qnetto - QTr)

= 186 x 106 kJ / (762 - 144) kW

= 300971 s

= 83.6 hours

The cooling capacity for the entire re-condensation plant at a suction pressure of 1,5
bar and 5oC is:

Qnetto = m x (h2 - h1)

= {V /3600 s} x r x (h1 - h2)

= {3 x 400 m3/h / 3600} x 4,546 kg/m3 x (240 –80)kJ/kg

= 485 kW

The loading time, T2, at this operation situation is then:

T2 = QL / (Qnetto - QTr)
= 186 x 106 kJ / (485 - 144) kW
= 545455 s
= 152 hours

We can see that the influence of unnecessary throttling on the suction side of the
compressor gives large deflection of the cooling capacity and thereby loading time.
The tank pressure during the loading period also has influence on the total loading
time. If a high tank pressure is kept close up to the safety valve’s opening pressure,
less heat will be abducted from the loaded cargo and loading time will be shorter.


A cascade plant onboard a gas tanker is a cooling plant composed by two coolant
circuits working in serial with each other. Both circuits are complete cooling plants
that are built in many different configurations. Both 1-stage and 2-stage operations
are used depending on the cargo that should be cooled and choice of components in
the cooling systems. One of the cooling circuits consist in a closed cooling process
where the cargo directly condenses contra freon or other cooling media. The other
cooling circuit consists in a closed cooling process where the freon or another cooling
medium condenses contra seawater.

The cargo side of the cascade plant is the same as in the 2-stage plant example,
with exception for the condenser. The seawater-cooled condenser is now replaced
with a freon-cooled condenser. On most cascade plants we have both a freon
condenser and seawater cooled condensers in the cargo cooling plant. This gives

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flexibility and good operation economy. The freon side of this plant is a simple 1-
stage plant with screw compressor.

Freon compressors are of oil-lubricated type. Large amounts of oil will follow the
compression gas out of the compressor. If this is not separated and returned to the
oil receiver, the share of oil in the freon circuit will be too high. The oil will reduce
heat transfer in the heat exchangers and create operation interruptions. The oil
separator has two functions where it separates oil from the gas and at the same time
is a system tank for the oil system.

The following summary from a cooling plant’s log indicates an actual operation
situation for this plant. The cargo that is cooled is ethylene.

Ethylene cycle
Pressure Temp.
Tank 1.suct 1.deliv. 2.deliv. 1.suct. 1.deliv. 2.suct. 2.deliv.
o o o o
bar bar bar bar C C C C
0,6 0,5 5,3 17,3 -42 70 -60 50

Freon cycle Sea water

Pressure Temp. Temp
1.suct 1.deliv. 1.suct. 1.deliv. In Out
o o o o
bar bar C C C C
0,2 12,5 -36 60 28 30

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The cooling process of the cargo side is plotted into a Mollier diagram for ethylene
and is, as follows:

The cooling process on the freon side of the cascade plants is plotted equal.

The condensation pressure of the loading side depends on the temperature of the
freon liquid circulating through the loading condenser. The pressure in the liquid
separator again depends on the suction pressure of the freon compressor and
determines the freon temperature. (We assume that the freon side has the right
filling). Notice that the condensation pressure for ethylene lies at 17,3 bars, which
corresponds to a temperature of –27oC. The pressure in the liquid separator is 0,2
bars, which corresponds to a temperature of –37oC. This gives a temperature
difference of 10oC in the cargo condenser, usually too high for this type of heat
exchanger. If the freon pump don’t deliver sufficient liquid to the cargo condenser,
the cause is probably one or a combination of the following:

• · reduced heat transmission caused by incrustation in the loading condenser

• · reduced heat transmission caused by too large share of oil in the Freon liquid
• · too high condenser pressure caused by unknown gas on the loading side

Cascade plants are used both for LPG and ethylene. The plant exists both on
atmosphere gas carrier LPG and for semi pressured gas carriers LPG/ ethylene. This

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plant is an example of a usual cascade plant that can also be used to re-condense
ethylene. Normally screw compressors are used both on the loading side and on the
freon side in the cooling plant onboard big atmosphere pressure gas carrier LPG.
There are many different configurations of cascade plants. The freon side is
frequently equipped with super-feed or intermediate pressure container with sub-
cooling. Some plants have freon pumps, which pump freon through the cargo
condenser, where others use thermal expansion valves. Freon compressors can be
piston compressors or screw compressors. Screw compressors can be built with one
or two stages.
Plants with and without MT-containers, with and without flash cooling, with and
without de-super-heaters, 2-stage compression with and without sub-cooling, exist
on the loading side. The compressors on the cargo side have to be oil free piston or
screw compressors. The configuration possibilities are many and the variation in
plants from vessel to vessel is what one faces onboard. The understanding of the
cooling process and knowledge to your vessel’s “special” plant is a basic assumption
for safe and economic operation of the plant.

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14- Insulation and Heat Transfer

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There are three different methods in transporting heat: thermal conductance,

convection and radiation. The insulation material’s’ main task is to reduce heat
transmission from thermal conductance.

Most insulation material’s insulating qualities emerge from stationary gases, bad
thermal conductance capability and thereby good insulation capability.
The thermal conductance capability is expressed by a material’s thermal
conductance number (thermal conductivity) and states the heat quantity
measured by Watt, which is transported through to surface of 1 meter thickness
when the temperature difference is 1K.

Thermal conductivity

Natural pure metals From 8 to 400 W/m K

Iron 80 W/m K

Ice at -20 oC 2,4 W/m K

Natural liquids From 0,10 to 0,60 W/m K

Wood From 0,1 to 0,3 W/m K

Glass 1 W/m K
Polypropylene 0,12 W/m K
Sand 0,35 W/m K

Natural gases From 0,008 to 0,048 W/m K

Stationary air 0,024 W/m K
Freon 22 0,012 W/m K

One can see that the best heat conductor or worst insulation materials are pure
metals. The worst heat conductors or best insulation materials are stationary gases.
It is of most importance that the gases are kept as stationary as possible, because
the total thermal transmission is higher if convection also arises. This is in practice
solved by trying to catch the gas inside the smallest possible cavity, or by keeping
the gas inside a net of thin fibres. The thermal conductance figure will mainly
increase at higher temperature because of larger convection. The best insulation
material regarding thermal transmission is a composition of a firm material and a gas
with the separately lowest thermal conductance figures.

First of all, it is the thermal conductance figure that is of interest when looking at the
important qualities for an insulation material. Lower thermal conductance figures
render possible thinner insulation and thereby place saved.

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The upper temperature limit for the material’s relevance normally has no importance
for an insulation material that should be used for cool insulation, but one prefers that
the material tolerate highest possible temperature considering fire.
The insulation material’s lower temperature is of major importance. In the plastic
insulation condensation can occur at a lower temperature and thereby increase the
thermal inductance figure for the material.
Thermal expansion and elasticity are two qualities of great importance for plastic
insulation materials, for example cargo tanks on gas tankers. Changing temperature
for tank shells and insulation can lead to periodical expansions and compressions. As
the thermal expansion co-efficiency for the insulation material can be 4 to 5
times larger than the steel, cracks may easily arise if the insulation material don’t
have good elasticity. A plastic insulation material like polyurethane has good
adhesion firmness to the steel priming and good elasticity and is thereby resistant
to cracks. An insulating problem area is around the loose tank cradle of cylinder
cargo tanks. All of the expansion and compression movement of longitudinal
direction of the tank takes place here. Large demands are made both to material and
for the insulation to be good and long performance. A special developed insulation
with especially good elasticity is suitable for such areas.
All insulation materials that are used onboard must be fire resistant. Insulation
materials made of plastic are added or built up in such a way that in case of fire, fire-
extinguishing vapour are released, and they are self-quenching. The insulation
material will only burn as long as a foreign fire source is present. One must not
underestimate the risk of fire in the plastic insulation and the consequences by such
a fire. Fire can easily arise in such materials in connection with weld work. Ignition of
the insulation on the cargo tanks has occurred with fatal consequences. The large
amount of thick, black and poisonous smoke that is formed by such a fire has
prevented escape from hold space and serious poisoned injures.
Where the material is exposed to strains the material’s compressive-strength is
important. The strain points will, for example, be large in the support points for an
insulated pipeline. To evade lasting compression or crumbling of the insulation
material, special compressive-strengthen materials are used in these areas.
Of the chemical qualities for insulation materials, it is the corrosive qualities that
often are underestimated. When the insulation material of glass or mineral wool got
a high humidity, it will have a strong corroding effect on metals. It is difficult over
time to avoid this onboard. Even stainless steel pipes corrode in such an environment
and if this is allowed to proceed, an expensive replacement is soon the result.
The capability to resist humidity or diffusion resistance is an important quality that
must be evaluated in choosing insulation material, as well as, in planning
maintenance. When insulating between a warm and cold side, for example, a cargo
tank, the cold side will be tight (tank shell) and the warm side will be surrounded by
air with high humidity. Because of a higher saturation pressure on the warm side in
proportion to the cold side, moist air will be forced through and will condense against
the cold side. The thermal conductance figure will, because of the humidity, increase
and the water will freeze and destroy the insulation. The damage extent will
accelerate if such a process is continuously unchanged.
If the diffusion resistance for stationary air is set to 1, the proportional diffusion
resistance for mineral wool will be about 1,5 and for polyurethane it will be about 60.

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This indicates that insulation of polyurethane is about 40 times more resistant

against moist air to leak through than an insulation of mineral wool.
Regardless of which insulation material that is used, moist air will penetrate into the
material and destroy it.

A diffusion-tight damp-latch on the warm side is, at all times, imperative on a chill
insulation. The most commonly used materials and methods are:

• Thin aluminium foil glued on the insulation. This method is suitable for
insulation non-exposed for mechanical wear and tear, for example, some
loading tank constructions.
• Galvanised and stainless steel sheet that is fastened by pop cones and the
joint seals with jointing compound. This method is expensive, but strong
against mechanical wear and tear and necessary for “foaming”.
• Glass-fibre armed polyester. This method is more moderate, but gets easily
fragile. Most suitable for repair
• One or more layers with asphalt emulsion armoured with multiple layers of
glass fibre fabric. Moderate method and easy to maintain, but weak for
mechanical wear and tear.
• Sprayed mastic with or without armouring. Moderate method, but week
against mechanical war and tear and requires more maintenance on exposed
places. Most suitable for repair and sprinkling on insulation not exposed to
rough weather.
• The insulation material on gas ships may be divided into the following three
different groups based on structure and material:
• Cellular plastic, which is expanded plastic raw material, built up in a cellular
• Wallboard, which is built up of a net with thin fibres.
• Expanded volcanic perlite, which is built up on a cellular structure.

14.1.1 Polyurethane
There are a number of insulation materials, which are built up of raw plastic
materials. The most used is polyurethane. Mixing isocynate and polyole, normally in
the proportion 1:1 makes polyurethane. Isocyanate has a resemblance to thick oil
and polyole has a resemblance to clear liquid. A chemical reaction that is
exothermic is actuated when mixing the liquids. If one adds some water, carbon
dioxide is formed, which because of the reaction-heat evaporates and “blows” up the
material. Foam with about 90% closed cells and a very low thermal conductance
number appear. Polyurethane-foam based on CO2 has a relatively long time of

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The qualities of the polyurethane-foam can be improved by using different freon

materials as a blowing agent. Because of the freon material’s lower boiling point, the
expansion is quicker. R11 was used earlier as a blowing agent. The thermal
conductance capability for R11 is only half of CO2.

If applying polyurethane foam with a sprayer, or frothing, freon is used as the

blowing agent. Freon evaporates with speed in normal surrounding temperature and
one obtains pre-expansion, when the mixture leave the spray.

One can mix polyurethane foam for smaller repairs in a bucket before pouring into a
mould. As there are different suppliers on the market, it is recommended to check
with the supplier about the composition and if water has to be used when mixing.
There are also a number of machines for spraying on the market, also disposable
spray equipment with smaller containers for iciyanat and polyol. Disposal-spray
equipment of this type or a simple modifying of the paint sprayer onboard, is suitable
for smaller repairs to the insulation.
Polyurethane is also available as half-cups for insulation of pipes. It is important that
the dimension of the cup fit to the outer diameter of the pipe so that air leak is
avoided. The polyurethane cups can easily be cut for matching the pipe bend, bend
and valves. It is recommended to lay two layers with half cups on larger pipes, so
that the connections are displaced in proportion to each other. The half cups and the
connections are glued, and secure the density and strength and a water barrier is
laid either with thin metal plates or mastic.

14.1.2 Polystyrene
Polystyrene is produced in two stages. At the first stage polystyrene is pre-expanded
with vapour where blisters from 1 to 6 mm are formed. The pre-expanded material is
sent up into large silos for de-aeration. After 2 to 4 day in the silo, the pre-expanded
material is filled in forms for further expansion and compression of the grains, to
shape blocks. Heat from steam or electrical elements are used in this last expansion.
The finished blocks are cut up into plates and pipe cups.

14.1.3 Isolation of LNG ships with spherical tanks

Cellular plastic is used as insulation material for Moss Rosenberg's spherical cargo
tanks. Dow Chemicals in USA and Technical Isolation in Norway developed a new
method of mounting insulation, because the insulation materials contraction is 2,5
times more than aluminium and 5 times more than steel at -163oC.
Poles of “Styrofoam” of about 3 meters long are welded together and set
continuously around the spherical tank, from equator against the bottom and on top
of the tank. An external aluminium foil of 0,25 mm is laid on also. The room around
the loading tank is filled with nitrogen with a dew point down to –40oC. The purpose
is partly to protect the tanks from corrosion and to reduce the “pressure” of humidity
against the insulation.

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14.1.4 Mineral wool

Mineral wool is a collective term of different fibre rich insulation materials. Rock wool
and glass wool are two types of insulation material that are used. The production
method and user area is equal.
A mixture of several types of stones is used to produce rock wool. The stones are
melted in a temperature up to 1600oC and are dispatched over a wheel with very
high rotation. The melted mixture of stones is hurled out and chilled in long thin
fibres. Cementing agent based on plastic is added and hardened with hot air. The
amount of cementing agent varies and is determined by the material’s purpose of
use. Rock wool plates are elastic and a normal density of about 45 kg/m3. The plates
are also delivered with larger density and firmness.
Glass wool is produced like rock wool by hurling and chilled melted glass to very fine
fibres, only about 0,0025 mm diameter.

14.1.5 Expanded Perlite

Perlite is made of a volcanic rock species with perlite structure. The main component
is about 71% SiO2 and about 16% Al2O3. The raw material has some water content,
which by heating to about 1200oC evaporates and “blows” up the material. One
obtains a 10 to 20 times expansion with numerous closed airtight cells.
Simultaneously the individual corns loosen form each other, the material “explodes”
and forms sharp-edged corns with sizes from 0 to 3 mm with very large mechanical
strength. The density is about 60 kg/m3.
One can easily fill the whole room around a loading tank with perlite. It is first of all
used on atmosphere pressure gas carriers.
Maintenance of insulation
The cooling plant on a gas carrier is constructed and calculated for thermal leakage
from cargo tanks and system when the ship is new. Insulation is exposed for ageing,
wear and tear and will in time be reduce if maintenance of the insulation is not kept.
If the insulation on cargo tanks and pipelines reduces, increased thermal leakage will
occur. Increased thermal leakage involves removal of more heat from the cargo.
Load time and time used to cool the cargo increase.
Preserving the insulation is good economy. Regular control and systematic
maintenance of this from day one will save large future expenses. Protection of
water and humidity is of high importance and that’s why we purge hold spaces with
dry inert/ nitrogen. With exception of mechanical wear and tear, there is nothing
more destroying for the insulation then the humidity.
The only way to protect the insulation from humidity is to assure that the water
barrier is intact.
Re-insulation of the insulation on cargo tanks is especially expensive. The best and
cheapest way to preserve this is to be sure that the atmosphere around the loading
tanks is dry.
It is important to consider the different material’s capability to absorb the heat of
radiation when working with external insulation materials. A light water barrier
absorbs less heat than dark. In practice, this means that white pipe insulation
absorbs less heat than one with red or orange colour on the pipe insulation. One
must also notice that pipe insulation faced with stainless steel plates radiates less

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heat and thereby is warmer than a galvanised plate. The thermal conductance is
thereby larger.

Five good advice for maintaining the cargo tank insulation:

1. Held the atmosphere in hold spaces dry by drying the atmosphere regularly,
use dry inert gas or nitrogen, if possible.
2. Control the cargo tank insulation regularly. Areas with ice or humidity indicate
thermal loss. Note these areas with spray paint to easier locate the areas
when these need repairing.
3. Control external insulation regularly and repair wrecked water barrier plates
immediately. Areas with ice or humidity indicate thermal loss. Note the areas
with spray painting in order to easily locate these when need of repairing.
4. At all times, have necessary materials to repair wrecked insulation onboard,
minimum materials to repair damage on water barrier. As some of the
insulation materials have limited operating time, the stock onboard must be
adjusted to the expected consumption the next month.
5. Before adding new insulation in place, corrosion and pitting must be
controlled. The steel must be protected from corrosion before new insulation
is put to place.

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14.1.6 The qualities of the insulation material compared with other


Thermal Density Pressure Heat Fire Diffusion

conductance firmness capacity qualities resistance
W/m K kg/m3 kg/cm2 J/kg K
Stationary air 0,024 1,3 1 000 1
CO2 0,015 2,0 840
Freon 22 0,012 4,7 1 090

Polyurethane 0,023 40,0 2,00 1 260 Self- 50

foam, R11 quenching
Polystyrene 0,033 25,0 0,30 1 340 Self- 70
foam quenching
Carbamide 0,035 10,0 1 260 2
Phenol foam 0,041 32,0 1,10 1 340 2
Glass wool 0,035 20,0 840 Flammable 1,4
plates above
Rock wool 0,035 45,0 840 flammable 1,4
plates above
Expanded 0,035 50,0 840 Non 1,2
perlite flammable

Iron 80 7 860 452 ¥

Steel (12 Cr) 25 7 612 460 ¥
Stainless 17,3 8 020 510 ¥
steel (19
Water of/ 20 0,56 998 4 180 ¥
Ice of/ -20 oC 2,4 920 1 950 ¥

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The cooling plant on a gas carrier is dimensioned by calculated heat

transfer to cargo tanks and systems when the ship is new The insulation is
exposed for wear and tear and is on many gas carriers partly strong

When the insulation on cargo tanks gets inferior, it will have influence on the
capacity of the vessel. Its construction and choice of components give the cooling
plant’s capacity. Systematic maintenance will hold this capacity. The amount of heat
transferred to cargo tanks and cargo pipes dependent on the insulation’s state,
surrounding temperature, heat radiation and movements. Before taking a closer look
at the condition around heat transfer on gas carrier, it is useful to form a picture of
the heat balance.

It is indicated easily by following illustration:

Heat is transferred from the surroundings to the cargo and systems for cargo
because of the temperature difference. The transmission heat to the cargo tanks,
Qtr.tank is the total transferred heat to the cargo tanks with cargo, steel and
insulation. Transmission heat to cargo pipelines QTr.pipe is the total transferred heat to
cargo in the pipes, pipe and insulation around the pipes. The heat of compression,
QTr.Compr is the heat supplied to the gas in the compressor and the heat of
condensation QCond is the heat transferred to the seawater in the loading condenser.
When the cooling plant is driven to keep the temperature of the cargo constant, the
heat balance is expressed as:

QTr.tank + QTr.pipe + QTr.Compr = Qcond

or as:

Qtr.tank = Qfrom cargo tank- Qreturn to cargo tank

The actual amount of heat transferred from the surroundings to a cargo tank or a
system can be quantified in several methods. At first we will look on how this can be

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done onboard, how to evaluate the result and what results the eventual effectuated
effort will have.
Most gas carriers are equipped with a graphic description of the calculated heat
transfer to the cargo tanks.
This is a theoretical calculated description that does not necessarily give the right
image of the heat transfer. The older the ship is the larger probability that the
calculated heat transfer DOES NOT coincide with reality.

Control of the reel heat transfer can be executed onboard. If a loaded cargo tank is
closed and isolated from the cooling plant over a period of time, the transferred heat
from the surroundings can be measured. The heat transfer is thereby quantified and
is comparable with what it was or should be. Before looking on a concrete example,
it is of importance to emphasise that when accomplish such measuring, one must
evaluate the results from the accuracy of the instruments. As the measuring
instruments onboard has normally no more accuracy than + 10%, the period of
measure should be as long as possible. Further it is important that if comparing
repeated actual measurements, the measures has to be made at the best possible
equal condition.

We will now take a look at different examples and what we can do.

14.2.1 Example 1
A 12 year old smaller intermediate pressure gas carrier with 6 cargo tanks is loaded
with ethylene and has just moved the sailing area from Europe to SEA. The captain
rapport that the ship capability to cool down ethylene is perceptible inferior. The
cooling rate is now at the lower edge of 0,3oC per day when the temperature of the
cargo gets lower than minus 102oC. Inspection of the loading tanks indicate ice more
than usual round all of the tank foundation and tank no.2 and 4 has many “ice
spots”. Several “ice spots” than before are also observed on suction lines and
condensate lines on deck. The cooling plant is checked and driven at optimum, but
the cooling rate is more than halved at the same pressure in proportion to when the
ship sailed in European waters.
As the cooling plants condition is verified good and the plant is verified optimum
driven, the bad cooling rate must be the result of the insulation has been worse
during the years. The heat transfer has probably increased gradually through the
years, but the influence has not been operational visual before the ship altered
sailing area. It is obvious that the insulation on tank no. 2 and 4 plus the insulation
on the lines on deck are mostly reduced.
Repair of the insulation is necessary, but the question is which areas have most
influence on the cooling capacity. Clarification of this is of importance when planning
and priority of the insulation repair. The amount of heat transfer to the cargo tanks
and pipelines must be concretised and compare with the repair costs before making
the right decision.
Cargo tank no. 2, 3 and 4 are the same type and size. To find out how much heat
that is transferred to the “bad” loading tanks in proportion to one of one of the
“good”, the tanks are shut for 24 hours.

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The measuring instruments that are utilised during the experiment is calibrated and
the following sketch for heat transfer is utilised and filled in:

Heat transfer for Cargo tank


Date/time 30.07.94 / 31.07.94 /

10:30 10:30

Cargo tank filling ratio 97,0 %

Mass cargo in MT 592,837

Ambient temperature in oC 24 34
Sea water temperature in C 28 29
Average Hold space temperature in C 23 27
Ship's movement Calm sea Calm sea
Weather condition Cloudy Cloudy

Average liquid temperature in oC -103,1 -102,2

Cargo tank pressure in mBar 80 165

Enthalpy liquid in kJ/kg 27,0 29,3

As the weight of gas is relative much less than the liquid weight, only the enthalpy
change of the liquid is measured. The enthalpy values exist in heat technical table
and the heat transfer to the cargo in tank no. 2 is calculated to:

[(mass cargo x enthalpy-change) / (time in seconds)]

[(592,837 x 103 x (29,3 - 27,0)) / (24 x 60 x 60)] kW = 15,8 kW

Corresponding, the heat transfer is measured and calculated to the cargo in tank no.
3 and 4 to respectively 13,9 kW and 22,2 kW.
In the technical description of the ship the calculated heat transfer when the ship
was built to 13,1 kW for each tank at the same surrounding temperature and
seawater temperature is located.

A comparable table can be made and indicates as follows:

Calculated Calculated Percentage

transfer transfer now: change:

Cargo tank 13,1 kW 15,8 kW 20 %


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Cargo tank 13,1 kW 13,9 kW 6%


Cargo tank 13,1 kW 22,2 kW 70%


The calculations confirm the observations and presumptions made before in

connection with the inspection of the tank insulation. It is rather no doubt that the
insulation on tank no. 4 is essential much more deteriorated than the remaining two
tanks. The priority at en eventual re-insulation of cargo-tanks can thereby well
By comparing present operational parameters for the cooling plant with earlier
registered operational data, the temperature increase on the vapour from the cargo
tank to compressor has increased essential. Six years ago, during almost the same
condition, the vapour temperature rise from –100oC to –60oC from the cargo tank to
compressor. Present observed temperature increase is from –100oC to –40oC. The
vapour is essential now more over heated than earlier.

A compressor’s cold capacity is expressed as:

Qnetto = m x Dh
Higher temperature on the vapour into the compressor involves lower density and
thereby reduced amount of vapour through the compressor per time. The influence
of inferior insulation on the suction lines to the cooling plant will have direct influence
on the cooling capacity.

A comparable table indicates as follows:

Density on gas v/1 bars and -60 oC 1,7699 kg/m3

Density on gas v/1 bar and -40 oC 1,6181 kg/m3
Percentage reduction in density 9%

The reduction of the suction line's insulation involves a direct reduction of the cooling
rate of about 10% in this temperature area.
The size of the heat loss through condensate lines and liquid lines cannot be
measured directly because there will at all times be and unknown and varying
mixture of liquid and gas in the pipes. Judgement must at all times be adjusted and
from the rapport from this ship, one must assume that the insulation here has the
same condition as the suction lines. If this is the case, the influence of bad insulation
on the condensate lines will have maximum consequence. The liquid lines are only
utilised in a short period (during loading and discharging), while the condensate lines
are utilised during all of the cooling period.
The increase of the relative heat loss through the insulation on loading tank no. 2
and 4 is now indicated. Likewise is the reduction of cooling capacity because of
increased heat transfer to the suction gas established. There is no doubt that both
conditions have influence on the operational situation on the ship. But it is difficult to
compare these two directly, for thereby to establish which one of them that has the

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strongest effect on the ship’s possibility to execute the transport commission. To

make the data’s comparable the alteration in the heat transfer to the suction line is

The ship’s three loading compressors have stated a capacity of 680 m3/h at the same
operational condition. T