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Component Modeling

• Nozzle/Vessel models in AutoPIPE

• Nozzle/Vessel Stresses Using WINNOZL

• Expansion Joints

• Jacketed Piping

• Valves

• Reducers

• Flanged elbows, miters and bends

• Tees

• Frame

Nonlinear Analysis

• Analysis assumptions (linear and non-linear)

• Support non-linearity’s

• Load sequencing

• Non-linear occasional loads

• Result interpretation

Dynamics

• Analysis assumptions

• Analysis algorithms

• Frequency and Mode Shapes

• Response spectrum analysis

• Spectrum Enveloping

• Static Correction

• Harmonic analysis

• Force spectrum analysis

• Seismic Anchor Movement Analysis

• Time history analysis

• Dynamic Load Factor

Fluid Transients

• Water hammer analysis

• Steam relief valve analysis

• Slug flow analysis

Miscellaneous

• Buried pipe analysis

• Submerged piping and wave loads

• Special Modeling Cases

• Open discussion

Bentley Confidential 1

Vessel and Nozzle Modeling Considerations

• Nozzles of equipment like pump and compressors are modeled as

Anchor

conservative values for forces on equipment nozzle

and nozzle junction

• Finite element modeling

• ASME III Class I - implemented in AutoPIPE

• API 650 - implemented in AutoPIPE

• Bijllard theory - implemented in AutoPIPE

• Welding Research Council Bulletin 297 - based on Steele’s

theory - implemented in AutoPIPE

• Other than finite element model, all methods are approximate and only

valid for a specified range of nozzles. Finite element method will take

longer time and is impractical for everyday design.

• Nozzle option only models the local effects of nozzle and vessel. The

vessel must be modeled separately.

connected to cylindrical vessel is more sensitive to diameter of the pipe.

WinNOZL WRC368 and applied radial load.

Bentley Confidential 2

Pressure Thrust on Vessel/Nozzle Junctions.

nozzle and interconnecting pipework.

Pressure Thrust

A

B

Anchor or Axial

Support

Figure 1

Where:

A = Inside pipe area of the nozzle.

outward radial direction from the vessel nozzle. The balancing force (P*A)

acts on the vessel wall opposite to the nozzle as shown in Figure 1. It is

assumed this P*A acting on the vessel is resisted by the vessel support and

not considered in this load evaluation. The load on the vessel-nozzle junction

will be a function of the stiffness between the vessel anchor and load

(including any nozzle flexibilities) (i.e. K1(x) , Spring 1), and the stiffness of

the system (acting in the X direction) upstream of the thrust load (i.e. K2(x),

Spring 2) as shown in figure 2 below.

Bentley Confidential 3

Pressure Thrust (P*A)

Figure 2

The force F is in equilibrium with the two spring forces F1 and F2:

F = F1 + F2 (1)

K1 = F1 / δ1

K2 = F2 / δ2

So:

F = δ1 * K1 + δ2 * K2

So:

F = δ * ( K1 + K2 )

δ = F / ( K1 + K2 )

F1 = F * K1 / ( K1 + K2 ) (2)

If the piping system on the other side of the applied load (Spring 2) is stiff, for

example due to an anchor, then pressure thrust will be absorbed by the

anchor. Thus, the nozzle will experience very little direct axial stress. This

can be seen from equation 2. Note that a greater K2 results in a lower thrust

force F1. Therefore, in this case including all of the pressure thrust into

analysis will be conservative. However if the pipe shown by spring 2 is

flexible (maybe an expansion loop or small diameter pipe with bends) then

the nozzle will see more of the force due to the pressure thrust. Therefore it

is appropriate to analyze the local vessel/nozzle stresses due to most of the

pressure thrust load.

Bentley Confidential 4

Pressure Thrust Guidelines

with the applied full (pressure thrust option under combinations Load TAB) or

partial (applied load with correct sign under LOADS TAB) thrust load then it is

suggested to check the membrane and combined (secondary ) stress levels

with WRC368 option enabled and thrust load (or option) removed.

WinNOZL WRC368 within its geometric limits provides a good design check

of pressure stress levels which includes the full thrust load otherwise use

FEA analysis to obtain more accurate combined stresses.

If the full pressure thrust is acting on the vessel/nozzle junction e.g. nozzle

with a blind flange then FEA would generally be the most accurate analysis

tool to evaluate.

Note: FEA programs have limitations due to the accuracy of the type of

elements used e.g. many programs use thin shell elements which do not

capture transverse shear effects of thick shell elements.

Bentley Confidential 5

Modeling Vessel

MODEL 1 (Sample Model: Vessel1.dat )

• Simple to model

anchor movements on the anchor form

• Hard to predict movements due to other loads like wind and earthquake

Displacements applied to anchors and supports

Bentley Confidential 6

MODEL 2 (Sample Model: Vessel2.dat )

• Requires more steps for the modeling but more accurate stiffness

model.

applied to the piping system

to capture true Nozzle+Vessel behavior

Vessel Center point to capture Vessel

movement. Note: More realistic to

build a rigid element to vessel wall

and then support to it.

Bentley Confidential 7

Nozzle Stresses Using WinNOZL

• Proper nozzle length to use in AutoPIPE

• Modeling pressure thrust and nozzle thermal/pressure movements.

WRC368 method recommended to check pressure thrust design.

• Estimating nozzle loads in AutoPIPE

• Exporting nozzle loads into WINNOZL

• Peak stress calculation

• API 650: Tanks (large diameter cylindrical shells)

• WRC 107 and PD5500: Cylindrical and Spherical shells

• WRC297: Addendum to WRC 107 for cylindrical shells. More

accurate and gives stresses in the nozzle in addition to nozzle-

shell and pad-shell junction stresses

• KHK level 1 and 2

• Peak stress evaluation using ASME Section VIII, Division 1 or Division

2 and PD5500.

Bentley Confidential 8

Expansion Joints

• Used to absorb thermal expansion to reduce movement of pipe at

equipment

• Bellows (tied and untied)

• Universal expansion joint

• Pressure balanced expansion joint

• Hinged expansion joint

• Gimbal

• Slip Joint

• Ball Joint

properly.

using external supports or tie rods.

• Tie rods can be modeled using tie link. This is a simplified model

and does not capture bending resistance due to locking of rods

comprehensive model of tie rod assembly using beams. The

modeling is complex and not always necessary for design.

Bentley Confidential 9

Jacketed Piping

• Carrier pipe and jacket modeled as two separate segments with

different pipe identifiers e.g. Jacket6 and carrier8

operating conditions

spacers and at flanged ends.

carrier segment point and a jacket segment point with same coords.

structural analysis, both models are same

• If both carrier and jacket are liquid filled then adjust jacket SG.

and insulation only to jacket.

like a valve. New segment at end of the valve is ok therefore need to

insert small run point before the valve to connect the jacket segment.

Bentley Confidential 10

MODEL 1 – Beam connected model

(Sample model: jacket1.dat)

• Flanged ends are modeled as rigid beams between a point on the

carrier segment and the jacket segment

STEPS

1. Open Jacket_1A

3. Select range C02 to C12, and also branch B16 to B04 so highlighted

red.

Bentley Confidential 11

5. Select / Clear

6. Click cursor on point C02 (so point name = RED) and Edit/Paste ,

uncheck the “connect to select points” then click Ok (This creates

jacket segments D and E)

10. Select / Clear

11. Select Segment E and Modify/Pipe properties over Range, and select

pipe identifier = Jacket8

12. Select / Clear

13. Select Segment D and Modify/Pipe properties over Range, and select

pipe identifier = Jacket6

Bentley Confidential 12

14. Click on point E07 (previously a reducer on carrier pipe) and

Modify/convert point to run

15. Delete the additional flanges at C02, D00 and E10, Select / Flanges,

Press Delete key

16. View/Show All components

17. Click on point E00 and Insert / Frame , enter J point = C02, Table name

= RIGID.

18. Click on point D00 and Insert / Frame , enter J point = B04, Table name

= RIGID.

19. Click on point E10 and Insert / Frame , enter J point = C12, Table name

= RIGID.

The Jacket is now connected to the carrier at C02, B04 and C12 using

rigid beams.

Bentley Confidential 13

Now add spacer supports between Jacket and Carrier

20. Click on E01, connected point = C03, Insert / Support > Guide, gaps =

0 and friction = 0.1

21. Repeat for E03 to C05, E05 to C06, E08 to C09

22. At E05 and E03 insert Vstops

Bentley Confidential 14

The model should now look like Jacket_1b below

(Sample model: jacket2.dat)

• Flanged ends are modeled as a common point between two segments

• The point name on the carrier segment is same as the point name on

the jacket segment (Similar to modeling a branch connection)

valves. Requires definition of extra points next to elbows and valves

where the carrier and the jacket segment can be connected.

like a valve. New segment at end of the valve is ok therefore need to

insert small run point before the valve to connect the jacket segment.

Bentley Confidential 15

STEPS

1. Open Jacket_2A

3. Note: Previously we had clicked on point C12 and Insert /Run before

C12 , length = 0.05’ (this is a small run C11 close to the valve since we

cannot insert a segment at start of a Valve)

4. Select range C02 to C11, and also branch B16 to B04 so highlighted

red. Hint: Select point C11 first, shift and click on C02

6. Select / Clear

7. Click cursor on point C02 (so point name = RED) and Edit/Paste ,

“connect to select points” = checked then click Ok (This creates jacket

segments D and E, connected at C02)

Bentley Confidential 16

9. Select / Clear

10. Select Segment E and Modify/Pipe properties over Range, and select

pipe identifier = Jacket8

11. Select / Clear

12. Select Segment D and Modify/Pipe properties over Range, and select

pipe identifier = Jacket6

Bentley Confidential 17

13. Click on point E07 (previously a reducer on carrier pipe) and

Modify/convert point to run

14. Delete the additional flanges at C02 and D00 Select / Flanges, Press

Delete key

15. View/Show All components

16. Click on point D00 and modify/ Point and rename to B04

Bentley Confidential 18

17. Similarly click on point E10 (or F5 goto point) and modify/ Point and

rename to C11

The Jacket is now connected to the carrier at C02, B04 and C11 using

tee segment connections

Now change all the Welding tees at C02, B04 and C11 to Tee type =

Other with SIF = 1.0.

18. This can easily be done in the Tee Input Grid using multiple Select of

“Type “ cell and use CTRL key to change to OTHER and then press

CTRL + Enter

19. Click on E01, connected point = C03, Insert / Support > Guide, gaps =

0 and friction = 0.1

20. Repeat for E03 to C05, E05 to C06, E08 to C09

21. At E05 and E03 insert Vstops

Bentley Confidential 19

The model should now look like Jacket_2b below

Bentley Confidential 20

Valves

• Construction of valves makes it stiffer than pipe. The stiffness of valve

cannot be estimated without a detailed finite element analysis of the

valve.

• AutoPIPE models a valve as 100 times stiffer than the pipe at starting

point of the valve. This is achieved by increasing the modulus of

elasticity of the pipe.

ANGLE VALVES

• Angle valves and Relief valve can be modeled using valve component

and specifying offsets of the far end from the valve point

• The valve is defined as a tilted valve. The exact form of the valve is not

important as long as end points are defined at correct location

VALVE OPERATORS

• Heavy operator far from valve center of gravity can induce significant

force into the piping system in seismic event.

Ignores off diagonal mass matrix terms. May not be exact if operator

weight is large compared to valve weight

• Exact model of the operator requires a rigid beam with weight at the

free end. Modeling is complex and may not be necessary

Bentley Confidential 21

Reducers

• Used at locations where pipe size changes

reducer component

• Cone angle of the reducer (for SIF) is calculated based on the full

length of the reducer.

diameter, thickness and weight per unit length.

• This model captures the exact axial behavior. The bending behavior is

approximate

Bentley Confidential 22

Bends and Elbows

• Elbows tend to become more flexible with increase in plane bending

due to ovaling – Von Karman effect

• Internal pressure also stiffens the elbow. The change is not significant

for most operating pressure ranges.

capture effects due to ovaling

• ASME codes require different flexibility factor for elbows flanged at one

and both ends

• Miters are modeled as bends with modified flexibility factors and SIF's

specified flexibility factor and SIF’s

Bentley Confidential 23

Tees

• Tee component is modeled as single point connecting, three pipes

• End points of a tee components are not modeled and the change in

thickness/diameter is ignored

connection per piping code.

and their affect on strength due to cyclic thermal loading.

• Some codes (B31.3) do not provide any guidelines for use of SIF's at

tees for sustained loading and occasional loading

• SIF's for tees are empirical based on fatigue test a series of simple full

size tees. SIF's for other types of tees (reduced) are derived from this

study.

• Piping codes do not specify SIF's for connections like laterals, Y's and

crosses. User must specify SIF's for code compliance. Bonney forge

does provide a published technical paper on calculating SIF’s for

lateralets.

Bentley Confidential 24

FRAMES

• To model racks and pipe supports

Options

• Add

• Delete

• Modify

Features

• Beta angle

• Rigid lengths

• End releases

Bentley Confidential 25

Analysis Assumptions

• Finite element Analysis (stiffness method)

• Elastic response - small deformation theory (1st order only). e.g. One

rule of thumb: Check that the maximum slope angle in radians of the deformed pipe

= approx. sin(slope angle) then the solution should be ok.

bending of pipe wall and stress concentration at tees and bends (SIF's

are used to capture this behavior). Use FE or WRC local stress

program like WinNOZL.

where,

U = response (displacement) matrix

R = applied load matrix

Bentley Confidential 26

Nonlinear Analysis

• Supports with Gaps

• Zero As Built gap is treated as Weightless in that direction

• Linear

• Non-Linear

• Secant

• Tangent

• Bearing force criterion

• Displacement criterion

• Friction force criterion

• Soil force criterion

• Soil displacement criterion

Bentley Confidential 27

Load Sequencing & Interpretation

of load, NOT a total load (except for gravity) for linear or non-linear

analysis.

obtain total load effects which is a commonly accepted principle for a

static linear analysis.

therefore the starting point for a load case is important.

e.g. The results for Thermal load case will depend on state of

supports (gaps) at the end of Gravity analysis. Some gaps may

be open, other may be closed.

• GR is analyzed with no initial state

• Thermal load cases are analyzed with GR as the initial load case

• Pressure load cases are analyzed with the corresponding thermal

(T?) load case as the initial load case

• Occasional load cases are analyzed with GR as the initial load case

• Operating condition is determined by combining Gravity load case and

thermal load case

• The end state of the piping system is always the same i.e. Operating

case GR + T1 + P1 results are the same if use load sequence Gr -> T1

-> P1 or Gr -> P1 -> T1

Bentley Confidential 28

Introduction to Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic loading tends to increase the response of the

structure beyond the response obtained if same load is applied

statically.

the applied force, but also on the frequency i.e. timing of load.

weights are approximated. However it is more accurate for

dynamic analysis to model offset weights applied to rigid frame

elements.

• Linear supports

• Gaps are ignored and supports are assumed linear

• Friction is ignored (frictionless)

• No yielding of soil

• Pipe material remains elastic

eigenvalues.

Bentley Confidential 29

Static correction can be used to capture effect of mass not

captured by eigenvalue analysis

• Missing Mass Correction

• Zero Period Acceleration (ZPA)

Recommend always set Tools / model options / Edit , “Mass

points per span” = A , to allow the program to capture the mass

in the piping system.

frame points which is an important criteria. E.g. valves in a

nuclear power plant, must be able to resist 4g & 5g for OBE &

SSE loadings, respectively.

modal mass

Harmonic, Force Spectrum, SAM and Time History.

or directly at the support, the support reaction may be near

zero or very much less than the actual reaction. The reason is

because the mode shapes involving the movement between

the applied load direction and the support point were not

computed as specified by the number of modes or cut-off

frequency. These missing mode shapes are usually very stiff

and hence associated with mode shapes in the high frequency

range. In such cases, an additional static earthquake analysis

should be performed and the maximum reaction from both

static and dynamic analyses should be used. This can be

easily done by using the ZPA option which envelops dynamic

results with equivalent static results.

Bentley Confidential 30

Use ZPA method to capture

correct support load

Static Dynamic

Load varies with time or frequency e.g.

earthquake, fluid transient like water hammer,

Steady State, slow applied loads not varying

relief valve discharging (jet effect), mechanical

with time e.g. deadweight, temperature, wind

or fluid induced vibration, slugging flow, blast

(generally with gust factor)

loads, vortex shedding due to wave or wind

loading etc

Piping system is in equilibrium i.e. sum of

Piping system is not in equilibrium

forces and moments = 0

Piping system remains at rest due to balanced Piping system has unbalanced forces and

forces system moves due mass x acceleration

Support and Anchor reactions may be higher or

Support and Anchor reactions are equal to the

lower than to the distribution of applied

distribution of applied static loads

dynamic loads

A static load is simply a dynamic load with a long duration so the piping

system can fully respond to it.

freedom (DOF) oscillator is shown below as represented by a mass attached

to the ground by a stiffness (K) and damper with damping value (C).

Bentley Confidential 31

Natural Frequency and Mode Shapes

(Sample model: apham1.dat)

Natural frequency and mode shapes are property of the

structure and depend on the mass and elasticity.

They describe the tendency of the structure to vibrate

when subjected to dynamic loading.

Number of frequencies and mode shapes with which a

structure can vibrate depends on the number of mass

degrees of freedom in the structure.

In a lumped mass modal used by AutoPIPE, each node

has three mass degrees of freedom. Nodes with eccentric

weight can have up to six mass degrees of freedom

Mode shapes describe relative displacement of the

structure (mass normalized)

Dynamic loads tend to excite frequencies closer to their

own frequency. Look for mode shape(s) similar to the

applied dynamic loading displacement shape.

Dynamic loading is usually a combination of several

frequencies and the response is therefore also a

combination of several modes of vibration.

Number of mode shapes and frequencies required

depends on the frequency of the applied load. All modes

that are important to the response should be extracted.

Bentley Confidential 32

Modal Period = 1 / natural frequency

Fundamental frequency or free vibration is based on the

1st natural frequency.

interest. The first mode usually has the largest contribution

to the structure's motion. The period of this mode is the

longest. Shortest natural frequency = first eigenvector.

neutral positions.

response unless high frequency loading e.g. impact is

applied to the piping system.

the piping system moves as ‘one’ with little relative

movements in a mode shape then these are called ‘Rigid-

Body’ modes.

Bentley Confidential 33

Response Spectrum Analysis

(Sample model: response1.dat)

earthquake loading.

usually modes with frequency up to 33 Hz. are considered.

High frequency modes do not contribute to the overall

response of the structure

on location where it is applied, because the ground motion will

be different.

0.5g

building is different from the

response spectrum at the bottom

of the building, because the 0.2g

motion of building top is different

Bentley Confidential 34

Maximum response for each oscillator

can occur at different times during the

earthquake.

horizontal directions to generate

corresponding different directional X, Y &

Z response spectrums. An accelerometer

is used to measure these horizontal and

vertical accelerations.

steady-state response (displacement, velocity or acceleration) of

a series of single degree of freedom (DOF) oscillators of different

natural frequencies, that are forced into motion by the same

base (e.g. ground) vibration.

If the input used in calculating a response spectrum is steady-

state periodic, then the steady-state result is recorded. Damping

must be present, or else the response will be infinite. For

transient input (such as seismic ground motion), the peak or

maximum response is reported. Some level of damping is

generally assumed, but a value will be obtained even with no

damping.

Response spectra can also be used in assessing the response

of linear systems with multiple modes of oscillation (multi-degree

of freedom systems), but only accurate for low levels of

damping.

The main limitation of response spectra is that they are only

applicable for linear systems.

Bentley Confidential 35

The amplitude with which a certain mode in the structure will

be excited by an earthquake is be determined by the response

of a single degree of freedom oscillator at that frequency

(response spectrum).

combining response in each global direction using SRSS

method.

determine the final response of the structure.

• Square Root of the Sum of the Squares (SRSS)

• Ten Percent Method

• Grouping Method

• Absolute Double Sum Method

• Signed Double Sum Method

• Absolute CQC

• Signed CQC

Sum is that they combine double modes with identical

frequencies more accurately and the response using these

modes will be consistent with applied load direction.

Absolute and signed double sum methods are best for

combining closely spaced modes.

Signed double sum summation has the advantage of capturing

the proper response when the system is symmetrical with double

modes (i.e repeated frequencies).

Bentley Confidential 36

RESPONSE SPECTRUM PLOT

Maximum Response for each single DOF oscillator

for different damping ratios

has a nominal level of

damping assumed (5% of

critical damping)

Bentley Confidential 37

Nuclear Regulatory guide 1.60 (published in Dec 1973) describes the

requirements for generating a design seismic response spectra for nuclear

power plants.

Since response spectrum is based on SDOF system, the response can be

approximately represented by a sine function.

Displacement= A sin(wt+phase)

Velocity = Aw.cos(wt+phase)

Acceleration = -Aw2.sin(wt+phase)

acceleration Aw2 are related using the SDOF angular frequency w=2* π

*Frequency

Due to this fact, the displacement, acceleration and velocity spectra can be

plotted on a single log-log plot also called tripartite plot. The plot provided in

AutoPIPE notes corresponds to NRC displacement spectra included in the

AutoPIPE directory. All these spectra are normalized to a maximum ground

acceleration of 1g.

seen on the NRC tripartite plot. Notice that for a 0.5% damped system an

amplification factor of 6.0 is expected (6g). This can be more for lower

damping. A maximum DLF of 2.0 is not appropriate for long duration loads

such as earthquake. It is only applicable for short transient loads, like relief

valve or water hammer loads. Damping is small when piping does not move

at support points generating friction. For example for vertical vibrations on a

long span pipeline, a damping ratio of 0.2 may be used. When pipe is

expected to move at support points, damping ratios of 2%-5% are reasonable.

For submerged piping a damping of 10% or more commonly used.

Although the response appears to be a smooth line, this is not actually the

case. As you discretize the SDOF frequency (more points on x-axis), the

curve will have an erratic shape with several peaks and ‘valleys’.

Unfortunately using such spectrum at a valley location will be un-

conservative. This is due to the fact that the structural frequency will change

during an earthquake. This change is caused by material yield or support

failure. A design response spectrum like NRC ones provided in AutoPIPE

are the result of averaging multiple earthquake spectra and enveloping the

resulting spectrum. NRC has a procedure to generate a design spectrum

from a single earthquake record. The procedure involves ignoring the valley

points.

Bentley Confidential 38

Response spectrum is more suited for design than time history analysis for

the reason mentioned above. The only disadvantage of response spectrum is

that it is limited to a linear system. For very important structure, nonlinear

time history analysis is sometimes performed. For such cases, 15 or 20 such

time history cases are performed and the time histories themselves are

generated from a design response spectrum. These are called response

spectrum compatible earthquakes. Each response spectrum can correspond

to infinite number of time histories as the phase information is lost in a

response spectrum.

The UBC and more recently the IBC has a procedure to generate a design

response spectrum based earthquake geographic zone, soil conditions and

other factors. The procedure does not involve any actual earthquake time

records.

spectra may not be appropriate for such piping. A special spectrum called

floor response spectrum is typically used. The higher the floor the more

response is expected. AutoPIPE provides a way to scale parts of your piping

for such effects using point and member EQ scale factors.

Bentley Confidential 39

NRC Guide 1.60 RESPONSE SPECTRUM PLOT

Maximum accelerations, velocities and displacements

ZPA & mode independent, no relative displacement between mass &

their supports)

D and below – Flexible low frequency cutoff (System forces due to

mass acceleration = 0)

60

33Hz

displacement = ground displacement

Acceleration = Ai

Ai = -ωi^2 * displacement = ωi*velocity

ωi = 2*π*(frequency)

Example: 5 Hz (2. π .5 = 31.416 rad/s) , read response

displacement = 2”, Read velocity = 60 in/s (2 * 31.416 =

62.83 in/s), read acceleration = 5g = 5*386.16 = 1930.61

in^2 (2 * 31.416^2 = 1973.9 in^2/s)

Bentley Confidential 40

Typical Response Spectrum Plots

North-OBE Response

X-Dir

Period (s)

0.0100 0.1000 1.0000 10.0000

1.0000

Accel (g)

0.1000

South-OBE Response

Y-Dir

Period (s)

0.0100 0.1000 1.0000 10.0000

1.0000 Accel (g)

0.1000

Bentley Confidential 41

East-OBE Response Z-Dir

Period (s)

0.0100 0.1000 1.0000 10.0000

1.0000

Accel (g)

0.1000

Bentley Confidential 42

Spectrum Enveloping

¾ Different points in the system may be subjected to different response

spectra. For example, supports attached to different floors of a building

will have different excitation.

response spectrum analysis is either not available or is hard to

implement when available.

¾ The logical approach is to use the worst spectrum for all points in the

model and apply a single envelope spectrum to all supported points.

Movement Analysis to account for out of phase movement at the

different support points.

Bentley Confidential 43

Static Correction

To capture total dynamic response of a structure all possible

modes should be captured.

For a large system this is impractical due to large number of

modes.

High frequency modes that do not contribute significantly to

the final response can be approximated using static

correction methods.

Static correction is approximate and may not predict local

response

Zero Period Acceleration (ZPA)

The structure is subjected to the peak ground acceleration.

Entire mass of the structure is considered.

Static response is obtained for the structure.

Larger of the static and dynamic response is used.

Available all Dynamic Analyses

Missing Mass Correction

The amount of mass captured by all extracted modes is

subtracted from the total mass.

The structure is subjected to acceleration equal to the cut-off

frequency. Only the uncaptured mass is considered.

Static response is obtained for the structure.

The static response is combined with the dynamic response

using the specified combination method.

Available for harmonic, response & force spectrum only.

Bentley Confidential 44

Harmonic Analysis

(Sample model : hrmexp.dat)

loads - Unbalanced pumps, acoustics, pulsation flow etc.

The force oscillates from a maximum value in one direction to

the same value in the opposite direction.

The frequency of vibration remains same and low frequency

event resulting in fatigue failure.

Several forces may act on the system. Forces may be out of

phase with each other.

The forcing frequency is usually very high. All modes up to

the forcing frequency should be extracted. Also axial modes

may be important.

harmonics which are out of phase.

Response of each harmonic is obtained separately

The total response is calculated by combining response of

individual harmonics

It is important to consider at least first 3-4 harmonics for

reciprocating equipment.

Bentley Confidential 45

Mechanical Vibration

Bentley Confidential 46

Force Spectrum Analysis

Used to analyze response of a system due to short duration,

impulsive loads

• Water hammer

• Relief valve blow down, etc.

Magnitude of force is plotted against time.

History analysis is required. However, this procedure is very

complex and time consuming. Can take hours on a personal

computer. Force spectrum is an alternate.

Duhemal's integration method.

acting.

systems due to such loads. For water-hammer type

analysis, axial modes (usually high frequency) are important.

Bentley Confidential 47

Seismic Anchor Movement Analysis

Predicts stresses on piping system due to differential

movement of buildings or floors during a seismic event.

be in phase. e.g. all points on a floor are in phase

Sum to assess worse case response.

PROCEDURE

1. Piping system is solved for SAM in global X direction

for Phase 1

2. Piping system is solved for SAM in global X direction

for each remaining phase

3. Maximum response in X direction is calculated using

absolute sum.

4. Step 1, 2 and 3 are repeated for global Y and Z

directions

global X, Y and Z directions using the SRSS combination

method.

Bentley Confidential 48

Time History

(Sample model : apham1.dat)

due to short and long duration dynamic loads such as

Earthquake, Water Hammer, Steam Relief blowout, etc.

the system response than response spectrum analysis.

the modal superposition method.

systems due to such loads. For water-hammer type

analysis, axial modes (usually high frequency) are important.

response of the structure subjected to any dynamic load is

given by: [m].[u&&(t )] + [c].[u&(t )] + [k ].[u (t )] = [r (t )]

where,

m= Mass matrix of the structure

u (t ) = Structural response (displacement) matrix

(function of time)

u&(t ) = Structural response (velocity) matrix (function of

time)

u&&(t ) = Structural response (acceleration) matrix

(function of time)

c = Structural damping matrix

k = Structural stiffness matrix

r (t ) = is a vector of arbitrary time-varying loads or of

effective loads which result from ground motion.

Bentley Confidential 49

Assumptions and Limitations:

¾ A single damping ratio is assumed for all modes.

¾ The same time step will be used for all modes.

¾ Time history files do not support displacement or velocity

input only accelerations or force.

¾ All supports are considered linear for this analysis i.e.

nonlinear behavior of supports is not considered. This is

consistent with assumption made for other dynamic

analyses.

¾ Acceleration inputs will be applied to all free degrees of

freedom with mass. The user cannot input accelerations

for specific points. The user will not be able to prescribe

displacement, acceleration, or velocity of supported

points. However support displacements can be modeled

by entering forces equal to the displacement times

support stiffness.

¾ Plotting of time history response at individual points is not

available.

Bentley Confidential 50

Dynamic Load Factor (DLF)

• The maximum dynamic response to an impact load is 2 x the static

load response. The ratio of dynamic to static response is termed the

dynamic load factor or DLF.

• Common impact loads on piping systems include :

• Relief Valve Discharge

• Water or Steam Hammer

• Slug Flow

frequencies of the piping system. DLF = 1 is a rigid response and DLF

> 1 is a resonant response and DLF < 1 is a flexible response.

• Static Equivalent Load Method = Static Load X DLF

• A typical force response spectrum starts at a DLF = zero (very low

frequency), rises to a maximum of DLF = 2 and then down to a DLF = 1

at high frequencies. (see spectrum below)

Time

10

Bentley Confidential 51

B31.1-2004 Relief Valve DLF curve having only single DOF on a rigidly

supported pipeline.

period

to = Valve opening time

• The low frequency (flexible) response is generally ignored, but the drop

from a DLF of 2 to a conservative 1.1 is set by the opening time of the

valve.

• The valve manufacturer can provide valve opening time then a more

realistic force response spectrum can be generated as shown below.

frequencies i.e. very long duration gives a steeper initial curve.

Bentley Confidential 52

Determine the DLF Factor.

Define time history load TEST.TIH starting at time 0 and load = 89000N

[Load/Convert to Force Spectrum]

Notice at 20.4 to 510 Hz, the force is about 176000N giving a DLF of about 2.

Bentley Confidential 53

At very high frequency, >2000 Hz, it is 105480 with DLF= 105480 / 89000 = 1.1

The rise time of 0.0004 sec appears unrealistic. If changed to 0.01 sec the force spectrum

becomes:

Time (s)

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05

100000

90000

80000

70000

60000

Force (N)

50000

40000

30000

20000

10000

Bentley Confidential 54

Test Response

Frequency (Hz)

-100 400 900 1400 1900

160000

opening/closing i.e. faster

opening/closing = higher response 120000

100000

Force (N)

80000

60000

40000

Slope determined by overall Duration i.e.

Longer duration = steeper initial curve 20000

Bentley Confidential 55

Question: What are the Participation Factors and the Captured Modal Mass in

the frequency report?

earthquake type load. The captured modal mass is another way of quantifying the

importance of the mode and the two are related. The captured modal mass percentage

shows how much of the response is attributed to a particular mode and also shows the

mode orientation (X, Y or Z). The sum of modal masses should be 100% if all modes

are counted. But since many modes are not counted, the sum is less than 100 and

hence the importance of the ZPA and missing mass options for dynamic analysis.

Please refer to the topic "Missing Mass and ZPA Correction" in the online help for more

information.

The participation factors are calculated from the product of the mode shape, the mass

matrix and a vector of ones. For mode i the participation factor is calculated as:

The mode shape is mass normalized. The above equation is used three times for X, Y

and Z directions.

The mass participation report illustrates how sensitive each of the piping system’s

modes are to the dynamic loading. High modal participation factors indicate that

the mode is easily excited by the applied dynamic forces. If subsequent

displacement reports indicate high dynamic responses then the modes having high

participation factors must be dampened or eliminated. Once a particular mode is

targeted as being a problem, it may be viewed in the mode shape report, or graphically

via the animated mode shape plots.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

APHAM1A_SI_1

09/08/2005 SAMPLE MODEL OF WATER HAMMER BENTLEY

10:58 AM AutoPIPE+8.60 RESULT PAGE 3

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

F R E Q U E N C I E S

Number (Hertz) (Sec) X Y Z X Y Z Average

------ ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- -------

Bentley Confidential 56

Note: Participation factors and captured modal mass apply

only to Response Spectrum and Earthquake Time History

load cases. Captured modal mass for other load

types can be found in the analysis summary sub-report.

A common rule of thumb is to capture at least 75% of the modal mass but the

missing mass correction will capture the remaining modal mass for an accurate

dynamic analysis.

Question: How do we enter response spectra for a given floor, with different

Frequency-Acceleration data for each direction X,Y,Z (The program requests

for scaler multiples for other directions)?

Answer: It is not possible to perform a dynamically independent response spectra

analysis i.e. different response spectra to different parts of the model scheduled for

Q2/2006.

a) This data can be input using AutoPIPE time history dynamic analysis which allows

different loadings at different parts of the piping model at different times.

b) Use static earthquake and graphically select ranges within your model and apply a point

static earthquake scale factor to account for different accelerations at different floors.

Question: What is the maximum DLF expected on an in-line rigid axial support

under time history analysis?

Answer: If it is really rigid, and the pipe is rigid axially, then it is assumed no dynamic

amplification, i.e. DLF=1.0

Question: How can I Estimate the cutoff frequency for my dynamic water

hammer analysis?

Answer: The maximum frequency cutoff can be estimated from SQRT (E/p )/L

where: E = Pipe material modulus of elasticity, p = Pipe material density, L = Length

of a single pipe element in the primary run that is to have accurate stresses computed

due to the passing of the water hammer originated acoustic stress wave. Calculation of

the maximum cutoff frequency for the 45-75 elbow-elbow pair for the 20 ft pipe

lengths is given as follows:

= SQRT ((30E6)(32.2)(12)/(0.283))/20

= (202388 in./sec) / (20 ft. 12 in/ft)

= (843.3 rad./sec) / (2 pi rad./cycles)

Bentley Confidential 57

= 134.2 Hz.

Answer: The following span guidelines to avoid resonance from compressor accoustic

vibration. Typically for low speed motors e.g. 300rpm use multiplier 2.4 up to 4.0, i.e. 5hz

x 2.4 = 12hz. High speed compressors e.g. 1800rpm use multiplier 1.4, i.e. 30hz x 1.4 =

42hz.

Then calculate pipe span based on this fundamental frequency (1st mode) for both fixed

and simply supported ends. A typical pipe behaves somewhere between these two

boundary conditions. Ref Roark Table 36 case 1b, 2b

where :

W = weight /unit length (kg/mm)

I = moment of inertia (mm4)

f1 = frequency (Hz)

E = Youngs Modulus (Mpa)

kn = 3.55 (Fixed Ends), 1.57 (simply supported)

code allowable?

Answer: The response can usually be changed by increasing or decreasing the

frequency of the mode shape causing the dynamic response. Using the animation of the

dynamic response spectrum analysis, and find the mode shape which closely matches this

response. The solution is usually adding a restraint at a point of large modal displacement

which typically increases the modal frequency.

Since the dynamic load factor (DLF) drops with increasing frequency, the best solution is

to increase the 1st modal frequency. This is done by increasing the stiffness of the system

e.g. adding supports or increasing support stiffness or reducing its mass e.g. thinner pipe

or move valves closer to support locations.

http://selectservices.bentley.com/en-

US/Support/Support+Tools/TechNotes+and+FAQs/Bentley+AutoPIPE/Index.htm

in particular technote

8274 - Compressor Vibration Method

Bentley Confidential 58

Fluid Transient

(Sample model : apham1.dat)

¾ Used to determine the force-time histories along a single pipeline due to fluid

transient events such as valve closures, pump shutdowns, flow demand changes,

pump startups, air venting from lines, failure of flow or pressure regulators, or pipe

rupture.

¾ For a piping system with branches, the user must select a single main pipeline in

which to generate the force-time history. The effect of branches on the surge

pressure will be ignored.

¾ The shock wave travels back upstream from the valve but the forces are acting

downstream. Consider free body diagram below - the +ve pressure rise at the

Valve results in higher pressure acting at valve end compared to 1st bend end

hence the net force is acting towards the valve (in the direction of the flow). Thus

the shock wave (and pressure rise) propagates back up the pipe resulting in leg

forces acting in the same direction as the flow.

Bentley Confidential 59

Typical pressure wave from a quick acting Valve Closure

Typically two shock waves are generated. A +ve wave on upstream side and

a –ve pressure wave on the downstream side

Pressure (psi)

1000

800

600

P_up

400

P_dow n

200

Time (sec)

0

0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0

-200

Actual rise

Upstream: 5.83 0.5 465.9 928.2 462.3

Bentley Confidential 60

A Force vs. Time history is generated at each elbow node (Near or Far) and also at

the origin point of the shock wave. The profile looks like:

Force vs Time

Force

Time

where,

= ts from previous elbow node + Lp / a

Lp = Tangent distance between current

and previous elbow

Ln = Tangent distance between current

and next elbow

tr = rise/fall time

td = dwell time.

tr + td = lag time between bends= Ln/a Start time important for

upstream branch connections

Non-Standard Fluid

L or S, S is preferred

wave on upstream side

Bentley Confidential 61

Calculated force in

each pipe leg

time at branch point

then perform Transient

Analysis

loads and select from drop

down list below

Automatic gives a warning

message

Damping typically 2% use for rigid axial supports

Bentley Confidential 62

• The reduction in the magnitude of the hammer loads is best achieved by a slow

valve closure or gradual pump shutdown. The maximum closure time can be

estimated from tmax = 2. L / a

where,

a = Speed of sound of the fluid

If the pump or valve closure time is less than tmax, then a hammer analysis should

be performed.

• When performing a modal analysis on the piping system, impulse loading such as

water hammer may have high excitation frequencies even as high as 200-300Hz.

For large piping systems it may be impractical and time consuming to extract all

natural frequency modes hence static correction methods ZPA and missing mass

are available in AutoPIPE. Generally the missing mass method is more accurate.

For small piping systems the extraction of high frequency modes is relatively fast

and will more accurately predict local dynamic responses than the static correction

methods.

Assumptions

• The maximum surge pressure is based on instantaneous valve closure. Longer

closure times which can significantly reduce surge forces, will not change the

maximum surge pressure.

• The maximum fluid transient loading will pass through the piping system once only

and no reflections will be considered.

• When a pump is shutdown, there are two shock waves generated. A positive

pressure wave on the suction end and a negative pressure wave on the discharge

end are generated. AutoPIPE will not check for pump cavitation i.e. the discharge

pressure < the liquid vapor pressure. The sudden pressure drop on the discharge

end may also cause a backflow, which will create its own water hammer effect

when it slams against the idle pump. AutoPIPE will ignore this effect also.

The magnitude of the pressure wave is estimated from the Joukowski formula:

∆P = ρa∆v

The items in the equation include the fluid density, speed of sound and change in fluid

velocity.

Bentley Confidential 63

Question: I am performing a steam hammer analysis but when should I use

ZPA correction method under Time History analysis?

Answer: We recommend to perform two analyses, one with ZPA and one without. For

flexible legs (legs with flexible or no axial supports) use no ZPA correction. If the system

has pipe legs with rigid axial supports, use ZPA correction to determine realistic loads on

these axial supports. Note: ZPA can be very conservative for flexible legs.

Define the flow rate with correct sign. Flow rate is positive for negative pressure rise.

Note: When a pump is shutdown, there are two shock waves generated. A positive

pressure wave on the suction end and a negative pressure wave on the discharge end are

generated. The maximum possible negative pressure wave is equal in magnitude to the

pump discharge pressure(Ps) less the liquid vapor pressure (Pv). The pressure wave

amplitude is calculated in AutoPIPE using the Joukowski formula. Be sure to check your

vapor pressure is not below Static - maximum pressure drop (i.e. Ps-Pv) otherwise

cavitation will occur

• This pressure wave = dP should be less than Ps-Pv to avoid cavitation. This

condition should be avoided since the AutoPIPE results will be invalid. Similarly the

pressure rise will be positive upstream of a closed valve and negative downstream

of an open valve.

• Define time history duration as 1st period (1/first modal frequency, hz) + transient

duration (as shown in the THL file i.e. TOTAL WAVE TRAVEL TIME (L/a))

• When click ok to the fluid transient check the red highlighted sections of piping are

correct.

• Run the modal analysis with cut-off frequency at least 100 to 150hz.

Recommended to perform modal followed by time history analysis at both cut-off

frequencies to confirm the solution has converge i.e. time history results are similar.

• Run time history with and without ZPA correction. See FAQ Q31.

Note: Recommend to set under tools/model options/Edit "Mass points per span" = A to

allow the program to automatically perform mass discretization on your model for

improved accuracy for the dynamic analysis.

Bentley Confidential 64

Support solution

Flexible is better. The restraint should only be stiff enough to sufficiently attenuate the low

frequency gross deformation.

Question : The AutoPIPE help states “When the rise time several times larger than

the 2L/a time, the calculated pressure rise in AutoPIPE might be conservative. For

this special case, the use of a fluid simulation software is recommended if P2 case

is critical.” What does this mean?

Answer: Check for maximum surge pressure (static (362)+ rise (228) =590 psi). This

should be added as a second pressure case (P2). Use Tools/Model Options/General and

set number of operating cases to 2. Use Select/All Points and follow by Modify/Pressure &

Temperature and set design pressure for P2 to 590 psi. When the rise time several times

larger than the 2L/a time, the calculated pressure rise in AutoPIPE might be conservative.

For this special case, the use of a fluid simulation software is recommended if P2 case is

critical and causes an overstress condition in the pipework

If P2=590 psi governs the design, that is critical, the use of fluid simulation software is

recommended since AutoPIPE value would be too conservative.

Bentley Confidential 65

Steam Relief

(Sample model : ap50SR1.dat)

• Used to calculate the thrust loads at the valve exit piping due to discharge of the

relief valve and automatically generate the time history files to perform a dynamic

time history analysis.

• Only the thrust loads at the valve exit piping will be calculated in accordance with

Appendix II of ASME B31.1 code. Since these thrust loads are dynamic in nature,

they can be analyzed more accurately using the AutoPIPE time-history solution

than using ASME 31.1 Appendix II section 3.5.1.

• The steam relief event is dependent on the type of vent piping either discharging to

atmosphere or a closed manifold. Using AutoPIPE, the configuration of relief and

vent piping is modeled as either:

• Open discharge to atmosphere- with non-integral relief and vent piping

• Open discharge to atmosphere- with integral relief and vent piping

• Closed discharge to manifold - with integral relief and vent piping

• A Force vs. Time history is generated at either the pipe/vent interface point or the

vent exit point depending on the type of vent. The profile looks like:

F1

where,

tr = Time it takes for the relief valve to go from closed

position to fully open position

to = Duration for which the valve remains open

tc = Time it takes the relief valve to go from fully open

position to the closed position

• AutoPIPE automatically calculates the value of f ∑(L/D) from the relief valve exit to

the pipe/vent interface point or vent exit depending on the type of vent.

• For non-integral open vent systems, AutoPIPE checks the blow-back condition. If

steam blowback does occur, AutoPIPE can re-size the vent pipe so that the

blowback condition is satisfied.

Bentley Confidential 66

Enter Valve exit point name,

each name = separate report

Point 1

Point 3

Point 2

closed discharge, >= atmos

saturated , 3 = supeheated

each defined Valve exit point

Bentley Confidential 67

Thrust Loads on a Safety Valve

or

Safety valve thrust loads for an open/ non-integral discharge system (see Figure (a)) but the calculations are

similar for the other integral vent and relief piping configurations except the thrust time history is calculated only

at the vent exit (point 3) and no steam blowback condition occurs. For the integral systems (open or closed) the

vent thrust is calculated at point 3.

1. For a open, non-integral system, the thrust forces F2 and F3 acting on the vent pipe are not applied in

the program. The user may create a resultant static load equal to (F3 - F2) and apply it to the vent exit.

Or create a force-time history file with this same applied force as a profile shown in Figure G-6.

2. For a open, integral discharge system, the thrust force F1 is acting at the vent exit in the vent

discharge direction.

3. For a closed discharge, the vent discharge direction boxes are closed and the thrust force F1 is acting

at the vent exit in the direction of the pipe.

Bentley Confidential 68

Typical Safety Valve Installations

Integral

Non-Integral

Non-Integral

Integral

Non-Integral

1. Open discharge to atmosphere- with non-integral relief and vent piping (see Figure (a)).

2. Open discharge to atmosphere- with integral relief and vent piping (see Figure (b)).

3. Closed discharge to manifold - with integral relief and vent piping (see Figure (d)).

Cases in Figures c and e. can also be modeled with the appropriate inlet and exit points as defined in Case 1. Non-

Integral system is modeled as a separate segment for the vent pipe and positioned above the relief exit piping.

Case 2. is normally modeled by building the vent pipe on the same segment as the relief exit piping. Then using the

steam relief utility, the user will enter the same point for the vent inlet as the pipe/vent interface point. AutoPIPE will

now assume the system is a integral discharge system.

Bentley Confidential 69

Steam Relief Non-integral Example Design Conditions

Piping Code = ASME B31.1

Saturated Design temperature = 201.4 ºC

Steam Line Design Pressure = 1.5 N/mm2

Saturated steam line = 8” std weight

Fluid = Saturated Steam

Vent Pipe (Enthalpy = 2790.5 KJ/kg)

(Specific heat ratio =1.1)

S.V start time to open = 0 sec

S.V rise time to fully open = 0.1 sec

S.V open time = 1.0 sec

S.V close time to fully close = 0.1sec

Steam

Drum

Vent Pipe

Segment C is

disconnected

Discharge from Seg D

Vessel OD = 3500mm Pipe

thickness = 50mm

insul =100mm

Relief Valve

Bentley Confidential 70

Slug Flow

(Sample model : slug.dat)

phase gas-liquid flow. It is the most serious scenario in two phase flow as it

involves a moving liquid mass pushed by gases in between.

• Slugs can also form due to inadvertent collection of liquid in relief lines and low

quality steam flow in well collection.

• Slug flow is not very uniform as the process of formation of slugs is random.

This makes it hard to predict slug forces accurately.

• Slugs characteristics are:

• Slug speed v : usually 0.5 to 1.0 times the gas velocity

• Slug length L : The longer, the more conservative

• Slug fluid density ρ

πD 2

• Slug cylinder area A=

4

•

• Distance or time phase between successive slugs

• Slug forces are generated when changes in flow direction occurs as at elbows.

The change in momentum causes these forces. The amplitude of the slug force

for 90-deg elbow is:

Bentley Confidential 71

• Typical forcing functions on 90-deg and 45-deg elbows are shown below

Rθ

• It takes the slug head seconds to exit the bend and to attain the maximum

V

slug force ρAV 2 , where Rθ is the length of the bend. The peak slug force is

L − Rθ Rθ

sustained for seconds. It then drops in seconds.

V V

history can be different. In this case, the rise time can be assumed zero and the

slug impact duration is 2L/V.

• The slug load is ideally suited for time history analysis in AutoPIPE. You can

model the phase between successive impacts on different elbows. Only one TIH

Bentley Confidential 72

file and one THL file need to be entered for each slug. The TIH file profile is

shown above. The THL file defines points of application of the TIH file and the

direction of load application. It also specifies the time the load will act at each

point. A force will be applied at each elbow Near and Far points as shown in the

sketch.

• The TIH file depends on slug length, but the THL does not. THL vary with slug

speed.

• Most of the response to slug flow is primarily caused by low frequency modes

that have large modal displacements in the direction of slug loading.

Bentley Confidential 73

Sample Slug Problem:

ASME B31.4

Pressure: 1.034 N/mm2

Temperature: 93.3 deg.C

Slug Length = 3.05 m

Fluid density = 800.92 kg/m3

Fluid velocity = 15.24 m/sec

Fluid diameter = 304.8mm (12 inches i.e.12”STD), Fluid area = 0.072966 m2

45-deg bends:

Rθ

Tr= = 1.5*1.57/50/2 = 0.024 seconds

V

L − Rθ

Td = = 0.176 sec

V

Tr+Td = 0.2 sec

2Tr+Td = 0.224 sec

90-deg bends:

Rθ

Tr= = 1.5*1.57/50 = 0.047 seconds

V

L − Rθ

Td = = 0.153 sec

V

Tr+Td = 0.2 sec

2Tr+Td = 0.247 sec

Bentley Confidential 74

Bentley Confidential 75

45-deg slug definition

Bentley Confidential 76

90-deg slug definition

Bentley Confidential 77

Submerged Piping and Wave Loads

(Sample model : RISER_SEABED_SOIL_1.dat and RISER_SEABED_VSTOPS_1.dat)

• Submerged piping is subjected to upward buoyant force reducing its

effective weight

submerged members are considered loaded with effective force

WAVE

particles due to wave action

on piping system using the Morrison equation

DYNAMICS

• Natural frequencies of submerged piping system are lower than

frequencies of unsubmerged piping

Bentley Confidential 78

Modeling Riser & Sea bed piping

A) Model : Riser_Seabed_soil_2

This model uses soil properties to simulate the pipeline laying on seabed as

a semi-embedded pipe which means soil stiffnesses with all reasonable

calculated values for horizontal pipe (including submerged effect on soil)

except vertical up resistance K1, P1 and K2 = 0.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

RISER_SEABED_SOIL_2

06/09/2005 SAMPLE RISER/SEABED BENTLEY

09:43 AM SEABED = SOIL AutoPIPE+8.60 MODEL PAGE 3

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

SOIL PROPERTIES

ID Dirn (Kg/m/mm ) (Kg/m ) (Kg/m/mm ) (mm )

------ ------- ---------- --------- ---------- ----------

A Horiz. 500.000 4000.000 0.100 8.0000

Long 20.000 250.000 0.100 12.5000

Vert Up 0.000 0.000 0.000

Vert Dn 600.000 29999.998 0.100 49.9999

defined e.g. every 3-5m (10-15’) so hydrodynamic data can be

more accurately defined.

Also soil spacing should be every 3m (10’) possibly less around

bends to capture accurate results.

Refer to PIPESoil example system for guidelines on soil spacing

Bentley Confidential 79

Soil shown in blue

using view/show /soil

e.g. typical hydrodynamic data defined for the seabed piping including

non-zero lift coefficient.

Typical Hydrodynamic data defined for the riser, zero lift coefficient

Bentley Confidential 80

To model weight of concrete

mattresses:

Either

a) Add additional weight using

insulation thickness and density

b) Uniform distributed load

approaches are:

A. Insert soil over this area with equivalent stiffness to match rigidity of

mattresses

B. Insert V-stops with high friction e.g. much greater than 1.0

this case pipe) to the riser then

Recommended point disconnect by renaming the frame

spacing along riser is point name (same for both frames).

every 8 to 10 feet (2.5 to Connect guide from the riser point to

3m) to provide adequate the common frame point with gaps and

mass discretization so friction e.g. 0.3. Anchor the ends of the

the program can capture frame and apply displacements in each

the distributed wave of the wave cases [simulates riser

loading accurately across clamp attachment is connected and

the riser pipe. moves with the platform].

supports on the riser will be normal to the pipe axis and the reaction

loads normal to the pipe can be seen in the a support forces report

which shows Local and global81

Bentley Confidential displacement's and reactions.

Model : RISER_SEABED_VSTOPS_1.dat

This model uses V-stops with high friction factor to simulate the pipeline

laying on seabed

guides with gaps e.g. 3 to

5mm and friction = 0.3.

Platform wave displacements

applied at each guide for each

wave case.

Hydrodynamic data (same as

seabed piping above) at each point

factor e.g. 0.8 to 1.5

Note: Convergence may be a problem with

too closely spaced supports hence may

have to remove a few.

Bentley Confidential 82

Key Modeling Points:

Yes if you define the 2 loadings below this is normally sufficient to provide reasonable

static results for riser modeling.

b) buoyancy loading

Note: AutoPIPE does not automatically include the effect of buoyancy with the wave

loading. Buoyancy parameters must be specified using the Analyze/Buoyancy command.

The loads due to buoyancy are automatically placed in the gravity load case (GR) by

AutoPIPE. Therefore, a combination should be defined which includes GR and the load

case which holds the wave loading to see the total effect on a submerged piping system.

a) You do not need to model so many points from bend e.g B16 since the section of piping

is buried or has soil properties, autopipe automatically calculates soil springs based on the

soil spacing specified.

b) Is your water elevation = 0 correct? This means the water surface is at a global y-coord

= 0 i.e 28.23ft below anchor A00.

d) Coeff of drag is typically 1.0 and coeff of inertia = 2.0

e) Your wave direction is required to be defined e.g 1,0,0 is in the global X direction

f) You need to input all 5 data pairs for the current loading otherwise the program may get

confused with 2 different current velocities at depth = 0.

Note: It is important to understand the non-linear load sequencing. The default load

sequence which has the wave/current loading following the gravity cold condition but you

may wish to change the sequence to consider Gr -> T1 -> U1, U2 i.e. wave cases U1, U2

etc are applied in the hot operating condition. See Q17 & Q18 in attached AutoPIPE

FAQ's

Answer: It is important to add many points along the riser section of pipe e.g. at

approximately every 8 to 10 feet to provide adequate mass discretization so the program

can capture the distributed wave loading accurately across the riser pipe. Riser pipes are

typically sloped at 10 to 15 deg and guide supports on the riser will be normal to the pipe

axis and the reaction loads normal to the pipe can be seen in the a support forces report

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which shows Local and global displacement's and reactions. Note: Platform wave

displacements should be applied at the platform anchor and riser guides.

Answer. When the pipeline does not experience the wave or current effects then under

xtra/hydro data set Cm=0, Cd =0 and CL = 0 across the range of pipe selected e.g the

pipe is in a J-tube, seabed pipe is buried or when concrete mattresses are applied to the

seabed piping. These Hydrodynamic coefficients will over-ride the ones defined under

Load/Wave.

Answer. Cm under buoyancy is only used to compute added mass effects during a modal

analysis.

Answer: Either a) calculate "equivalent" soil properties for the concrete mattresses then

insert these soil properties over this range b) Model Vstops over this section of seabed

piping and use high value of friction e.g 1.5 to 2.0 plus additional distributed weight loading

from the concrete mass.

Answer: No Autopipe does not consider marine growth thickness (under load/wave) in the

calculation of buoyancy loads but it does consider insulation around the pipe in the

buoyancy load which can be used to simulate marine growth over a section of pipe and

also capture additional weight of the marine growth.

Answer: Marine growth thickness usually varies with depth therefore it is recommended to

add a distributed load down the riser which can be triangular profile to simulate the varying

thickness vs depth.

Note: There is no marine growth above mean water level, i.e., marine growth is assumed

zero above water level for drag and inertia wave calculations.

and what value of Cm should I use on the buoyancy screen?

Answer: Referring to the On-line Help a "value of Cm (coefficient of inertia) for cylindrical

bodies in a incompressible, frictionless fluid is 2.0".

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Also refer to DNV 1981 A.3.2 and fig A.7 which shows added mass coefficient as a

function of M/D where M is distance from a fixed boundary. If no influence from a fixed

boundary then use Cm = 1.0 otherwise Cm = 2.29 to 1.0. Most of offshore users use

default value = 2.0

Question 62: How do I define the coefficient of lift for wave loading?

Answer: The lift coefficient (CL) is typically applied only to the seabed piping and is only

defined under Insert/xtra data/hydrodynamic data. By default CL = 0.

mass coefficient, Cm for a circular cylinder according to DNV Rules for

Submarine Pipeline Systems - 1981 - Fig. A.7

Answer: Sorry for the confusion Cm and Ci are inter-changeable in Autopipe i.e mass

(inertia) coefficient in Buoyancy, Wave Load Hydrodynamic Data dialogs.

So Autopipe (Cm)is inertia coefficient but DNV 81 (Cm) is the added mass coefficient.

Where Autopipe Mass coefficient (Cm) is the inertia coefficient(i.e. 1 + added mass coeff)

[where added mass coeff = Range 2.29 to 1.0 (no fixed boundary) as per DNV'81 Figure

A.7), hence Autopipe Cm(Ci) = 3.29 to 2.0]

We will be updating the program and help in v7.0 to clarify the definition of

these coefficients.

The only Cm (inertia) used in the modal analysis is the Cm value in the buoyancy loading

dialog.

Answer: In accordance with DNV 2000, AutoPIPE currently can output the following Local

Forces and Moments results:

-ve = tension

+ve = compression

calculated and automatically included in the GR case.

1. GR = N + PeAe

2. P1 = internal pressure forces in pipe wall not including PiAi (capped pressure term).

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3. GR + P1- PiAi = S = N + PeAe - PiAi

Since the sign conventions for S (Effective axial force) , N (True axial force in the pipe

wall) , PeAe is consistent with respect to tension or compression i.e signs are

automatically calculated by the program and included in the GR and P1 load cases.

displacement. Can you please explain.

Answer: When the 2nd soil stiffness (K2) is set to zero, the pipe displacement can be

large or can cause instability as the soil yields. Most soils especially sand have a parabolic

force-displacement shape and a larger K2 value is justified but it is conservative to

assume a small K2 value. It is advisable with a model so sensitive to changing the K2

value, to examine the soil displacements and forces for more detailed evaluation of

yielding e.g. as seen in the soil forces report the horizontal soil force is about 176 kg/m at

A78 compared to the P1 value is only 145.8 kg/m hence the soil does not have enough

lateral resistance to support this pipe.

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Buried Pipe Analysis

(Sample model : pipesoil.dat)

B31.8, do not have any provisions for longitudinally restrained piping

These supports and points they are supporting are automatically

generated by AutoPIPE during SOLVE based on specified spacing.

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• Soil Stiffness are defined in the local coordinate system which correctly

captures soil interaction for sloped pipe.

whereas the Caesar approach is to set the pipe density =0 which can

cause problems e.g. sloped pipe.

Vertical

Horizontal

Axial or Longitudinal

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Each supported point has stiffness in longitudinal, transverse and vertical

directions

• Stiffness of soil is calculated based on soil properties provided by

geotechnical engineer

associated with data sampling and disturbance. Soil is not homogenius

and properties can also vary from winter to summer with a range

variation up to 200 to 300%.

significant change in soil stiffness.

pipe bending due to weight is a problem, the weight may be taken out

of the uplift spring and put as distributed load.

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• Unified Soil Classification System can be used to determine soil certain

properties.

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• Several theories exist to determine stiffness of soil from physical soil

data

for piping systems and pipelines who also help write ASCE “Guidelines

for the design of buried steel pipe”.

included in the soil stiffnesses.

• Soil springs only provides bi-linear elastic behaviour i.e. soil ‘friction’ is

not path dependant unlike AutoPIPE supports i.e. unloads along same

path, no residual displacements upon unloading or hysteresis.

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Close soil spacing around

bends Ground

Level

Vertical soil properties.

Horizontal soil properties.

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Some Key Design Points:

A) Ensure AutoPIPE soil spacing guidelines in the Reference online Help are

followed:

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Question : My buried piping system is showing large Displacement's in the

gravity case?

ANSWER. Soil supports are specified for most models with a final stiffness K2 = 0,

although AutoPIPE can still solve this problem the results may be invalid if the nonlinear

system gives a large deformation. P1 becomes the ultimate soil restraint force for any

displacement that is greater than the corresponding yield displacement.

The soil should still have some stiffness after yield to restrain the pipe, this is

accomplished by specifying a non-zero K2 value (e.g. K2= 0.01) or to include more

restraints in the system or reduce the soil span in the soil identifier. Note that may also be

possible that the K1 values for the soil are not providing enough stiffness to the system.

The value of 0.01 for k2 is arbitrary. It is meant to denote elastic-plastic case. The use of

zero could cause instability or unreasonably large displacements.

Conversely, if k2 is not zero, large displacements could cause less accurate calculations

for the soil restraint force (since there is no cutoff point for the upper end of the k2 region).

Answer: Assuming the bend has supports along it then model the bend as series of

straight pipe run sections with offsets calculated as a segmented miter bend. Alternatively

enter the bend with radius = 50x12 = 600 inches (for ENGLISH units, by overriding the

word Long or Short in the radius field. Radius units is displayed in the lower right of the

main AutoPIPE window) and insert soil over the large bend with large value of downward

soil stiffness, vertical up and lateral stiffness = 0, longitudinal stiffness = 0 (or some

nominal value to include some frictional resistance).

Answer: If the piping system is above ground then at the v-stop and guide supports we

recommend to apply settlement displacement in a user case e.g. U1. This will allow the

soil settlement to be observed as a unique loading. Then edit the sustained code case

combination SUS + Gr to include U1 i.e. the settlement is added to the sustained stresses.

If the piping system is buried then the imposed displacement at defined node points (with

soil) would give the soil settlement profile. In other words, the base of each soil spring is

subject to a displacement interpolated from adjacent nodes with imposed displacements.

Hence select the range of points and Insert/xtra data / imposed support displacement =

settlement value in the U1 case.

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1. Using model A, add the settlement in the T1 case and run the hanger selection to size

the spring.

2. Copy model A to Model B.

3. Using model B, change the settlement from case T1 to case U1 and create user non-

code combinations using U1 and add U1 into the sustained stress case GR+MaxP as

above.

4. Using a non-code combination e.g. GR+T1+U1 the combined movement and load on

the supports including any spring hangers can be evaluated.

please explain.

Answer: When the 2nd soil stiffness (K2) is set to zero, the pipe displacement

can be large or can cause instability as the soil yields. A perfectly plastic soil K2 = 0 is not

typical unless it is called plastic clay. Most soils especially sand have a parabolic force-

displacement shape and a larger K2 value is justified but it is conservative to assume a

small K2 value. It is advisable with a model so sensitive to changing the K2 value, to

examine the soil displacements and forces for more detailed evaluation of yielding e.g. as

seen in the soil forces report the horizontal soil force is about 176 kg/m at A78 compared

to the P1 value is only 145.8 kg/m hence the soil does not have enough lateral resistance

to support this pipe.

Answer: The primary reason for the large displacements is the ultimate soil strength (P1).

As seen in the soil forces report the vertical soil force is about 290-A295 lb/ft at A23 to

A19 compared to the P1 is only 193.7 lb/ft hence the

soil does not have enough resistance to carry this 28" pipe.

Answer: The Buried pipe option can be used to model semi-embedded or non-embedded

piping. The difficulty is calculating a transverse horizontal(lateral) and longitudinal soil

stiffness.

b) The transverse horizontal K1 and P1 is usually taken as low values.

c) Transverse vertical down K1 and p1 can be calculated as non-zero with H=0 e.g. eqn

D-15 in the appendices under PIPEsoil.

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d) The longitudinal K1 and P1 would go to zero with Z=0 but there may be an alternative

equation in some textbook which would calculate a non-zero

longitudinal K1 and P1 although suspect it would be a low value since only assumed line

contact of soil with the pipe.

You may wish to enter some non-zero K1 and P1 values to evaluate the longitudinal

frictional stiffness effect back on the pipe system.

It sounds like you want to model the seabed piping as semi embedded i.e.

all soil stiffnesses with all reasonable calculated values for horizontal pipe

(including submerged effect on soil) except vertical up resistance K1, P1 and K2 = 0

Refer to Workbook / Pipe soil transition model for calculating values of soil stiffness.

Answer: One method to simulate subsidence of known amount e.g. 25mm. Set the yield

P1 = 25 as shown below and K1 (initial) value = 0.001 and calculated soil stiffness = K2

(final).

SOIL PROPERTIES

ID Dirn (N/mm/mm ) (N/m ) (N/mm/mm ) (mm )

------ ------- ---------- --------- ---------- ----------

SOIL1 Horiz. 6.540 699861.00 0.000 107.0118

Long 17.540 43859.000 0.000 2.5005

Vert Up 2.790 139303.00 0.000 49.9291

Vert Dn 0.001 25.000 23.030 24.9999

If the maximum settlement is unknown, then model the soft waterlogged soil over the

known span and known firmer soil at ends. Apply the over-burden sand weight as UDL

load or vertical wind load (to simulate the pressure of the 4m sand) on the pipe and

observe the deformation and check the resulting maximum slope.

All beam theory piping analysis programs such as AutoPIPE, Caesar, pipeplus are based

on small deformation theory and large displacements can give an ill-conditioned solution

and erroneous results.

As a check that AutoPIPE can handle these large deformations use the following rule of

thumb. Check that the maximum slope angle in radians of the deformed pipe = approx.

sin(slope angle) then the solution should be ok.

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Question : How do I model soil friction for my buried pipe?

Answer: There is no concept of friction for buried pipe. What you enter are stiffness and

not friction. You may be able to simulate friction, but that is left to the user ingenuity. The

axial soil force of T1=19900 N is correct when the pipe displaces more than 1 mm

(y1=P1/K1). As you see that value is the P1 value which the user can set manually.

Question : Can you please provide some references for soil properties.

Answer: Guidelines for Design of Buried Steel Pipe. July 2001 published by ASCE

references the AutoPIPE program.

http://www.americanlifelinesalliance.org/pdf/buried_pipe.pdf

Ko = Coeff of earth pressure at rest i.e. ko = 0.4 to 0.5 for Sand

ks = Average earth pressure coefficient = (1+ko)/2=(0.7-0.8) [Used by AutoPIPE]

where ks = (1+ko)/2

¾ Essence of Soil Mechanics and Foundations : Basic Geotechnics by David F

McCarthy . Publisher : Prentice Hall.

¾ Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice by Karl Terzaghi, Publisher : John Wiley &

Sons

Answer: Technically you need a support where your imposed displacement is. The

support should have a component in the direction of imposed displacement. The imposed

displacement is actually applied to the base of the spring away from the pipe and that is

the reason for the difference. When your support is rigid, the pipe displacement would be

the same as the imposed displacement.

In case of soil supported piping, the imposed displacement at the nodes would be the soil

settlement profile. In other words, the base of each soil spring is subject to a displacement

interpolated from adjacent nodes with imposed displacements. You might need to apply

imposed displacements at all soil supported node, especially the near and far bend points,

if any.

Answer: To resolve a total force (lb) at a straight run point - add a dummy concentrated

force = 0 at the pipe point. Perform a static analysis and look at the local forces and

moments report as seen below and will see a - and + point, the

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difference between the two is the load taken by the A10 soil spring. E.g. Z in T1 case =

4860 - -22519 = 27379 lb

L O C A L F O R C E S & M O M E N T S

name combination X Y Z Result X Y Z Result

------ ----------- ------ ------ ------ ------ ------- ------- ------- -------

T1 26895 -3202 4860 27518 3859 156405 -21620 157939

T1 29111 -3936 -22519 37014 3859 156405 -21620 157939

Question : Why are the soil forces and deformations not reported on the same

row as the point name?

Answer: Soil forces and displacements are reported at middle of the element, not at the

node. See report below:

D I S P L A C E M E N T S

name combination X Y Z X Y Z

------ ----------- ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------

A00 GR 0.000-143.392 0.000 31.472 0.000 105.798

S O I L F O R C E S & D E F O R M A T I O N S

name combination Long Vert Horiz Long Vert Horiz

------ ----------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- -------

A00

GR 0.00 1013.13 0.00 0.00 132.31 0.00

+ 1

Which is the average nodal displacement at A00 and A00+1.

Note: Soil forces are always in lb per linear foot of pipe, Hence the actual force (LB) at a

soil spring in a longitudinal (axial) or Horizontal (lateral) or vertical direction can be

calculated by the average length between the upstream and downstream points

of the current point.

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Question : Why is my buried model unstable?

Answer: It appears the horizontal soil yield displacement is very small 0.0012 to 0.004in

which would appear to cause local yielding in so many areas for T1 and P1 cases that was

unstable.

I changed K2 value = 0.1 for all soil identifiers but the model still did not converge

in pressure case P1 so I investigated the LOG file and discovered a soil error = 532lb. I

searched the log file for 5.32 and found this error at B43 in the P1 vertical case. I removed

the soil from B42 to B44 and the P1 case also converged. You could try to tweek the soil

properties of 24H78 to also achieve convergence.

Note: The log file must be in English units (set input/output units = English).

P= SoilDensity * CoverDepth. This is typically ignored under operating load as it is

negligible. Effect of surface loads can be estimated and checked independent of other

loads since overburden pressure load peaks at the neutral axis of the pipe. Note: Any

internal pressure typically reduce the effect of overburden load as it stiffens the pipe.

Depending on the requirements of the design specification, the live-load effect may be

based on AASHTO HS-20 truck loads, Cooper E-80 railroad loads or a 180 kip airplane

gear assembly load.

The modified Iowa deflection formula may be used to calculate the pipe ovality under earth

and live loads.

In steel pipelines, buckling typically occurs when the ovality reaches about 20%. Other

construction and code requirements typically limit the amount of permissible cross section

ovality for new steel pipelines to much smaller values (e.g., 3% in API RP-1102).

Purpose of Piping Codes

B31 Codes

• Legal document

Piping codes

ASME Code for Pressure Piping, B31

Industrial Piping

Standards and Specification organizations

API American Petroleum Institute

Fitting Industry

SPECIAL MODELING CASES

1. Hydrotest With Gaps And Friction

2. Exporting Nozzle Loads into WinNOZL

3. Steam Relief Model #2

4. Steam Hammer Model (E.C Goodling)

Hydrotest With Gaps And Friction

change Specific Gravity to 1.0 and set insulation thickness to zero

allowable for GR+MaxP to 90% of Yield stress (Yield is defined in

PipeID dialog).

Exporting Nozzle Loads into WinNOZL

1. Edit the anchor form and click on “Report Shell Stress” at the end of the

anchor form

2. Analyze the system

3. Use Tools/Local Shell Stress to start WinNOZL

4. Select the Nozzle location and Press OK

5. Select Shell orientation

6. Fill in Shell OD, thickness, Material

7. Select System Form and enter design Pressure/Temp

8. Select also design code and material library. For Cylindrical shells use

WRC297 and for others use WRC107.

9. On the Factors Tab, Select ASME VII, DivII, Kp factor if you are using

DivII code.

10. Fill in the fillet radius and notice update of Kn and kb

11. On the Loads Tab, Click on Combination/Load Cases Tab and Check

the box for “Include Pressure Thrust”. Also select all load cases

12. On the “Auto Combinations” Tab select “Auto” to generate

combinations

13. Use Analyze/Stresses.

14. Review Stresses at edge of nozzle

15. Click on Result/WRC297 Nozzle stresses if WRC297 is used

16. If over stressed, Add a reinforcing pad of similar thickness as shell

17. Reanalyze and check Results/Pad-Nozzle and also WRC297 nozzle

stresses if applicable

Note: The option "Include Pressure Thrust in GR, HY Case" in the Load

Combination - Load Cases tab is generally an over-conservative option which

applies pressure thrust in the radial load of the gravity case GR and

hydrotest case HY.

with the applied full (pressure thrust option under combinations Load TAB) or

partial (applied load with correct sign under LOADS TAB) thrust load then it is

suggested to check the membrane and combined (secondary ) stress levels

with WRC368 option enabled and thrust load (or option) removed.

WRC368 within its geometric limits provides a good design check of pressure

stress levels which includes the full thrust load otherwise use FE analysis to

obtain more accurate combined stresses.

#2

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Addendum

Avoiding Low Frequency Vibration

completely supported by spring or constant load hangers to provide a lot of

thermal expansion flexibility and avoid overstressing the connections to the

boiler and turbine. This may also be true for other hot piping process steam

or chemical systems connected to other equipment like pumps, heat

exchangers or vessels. See steam hammer example above.

horizontal stiffness and as a result have low natural frequencies. Note:

Springs add very little vertical stiffness to the piping system.

It is good practice to design these types of piping systems with all natural

frequencies 10Hz or above to avoid large displacements due to seismic,

wind, impact loads or flow induced vibration.

10 to 15 Hz to determine the natural frequencies and then add vertical and/or

lateral restraints or change the pipe span to avoid these modes.

A configuration below can be used to to add vertical restraint (e.g. rod hanger)

on spring supported system. It will add some torsional affects but may

provide enough vertical thermal movement and vertical restraint to avoid low

frequency modes. Other support types like guides and dampers are common

also.

The example calculation below shows how to calculate a pipe span for a

given frequency of 10Hz assuming either fixed or simply supported ends.

• One rule of thumb is to keep mode shapes above 6Hz for reciprocating

pump or compressor systems which create pulsation flow (acoustic

vibration) of liquid and gases.

• Low horizontal or axial modes “may” be ignored if the piping system is

supported on sliding frictional supports like pipe shoes since dynamic

analysis does capture non-linear effects like friction and gaps. To

simulate these effects, a stiffness or rigid restraint e.g. guide could be

provided in these directions.

• Include all weight components including valve operators, dummy

support legs with baseplates or any other inline or offset weight loading.

• Consider both mechanical and flow induced vibration effects.

• Driving frequency of the applied harmonic load should be equal to

source pressure pulsation frequency or motor speed.

• The analyzed harmonic load displacement can be verified against the

actual measured displacement to capture a realistic harmonic loading.

• Add vertical and lateral supports to attenuate the harmonic loading but

ensure static load stresses e.g. sustained and thermal are satisfied.

Compressor Vibration using Harmonic Analysis Modeling

the attached piping system. This causes concern with the forces, which are

produced at the compressor nozzle, and pipe deflections near the

compressor. Therefore, it is desired to model the harmonic loads in order to

quantify the impact of the vibration on the system. Typically, the

pipe/compressor connection point is instrumented, resulting in

measurements of the amplitude of motion (Am) and frequency of vibration

(fm). In order to accurately solve for piping displacements and the forces

exerted on the compressor, it is necessary to determine the harmonic forces,

which are induced at the compressor. Then, a harmonic analysis can be

performed which produces the desired displacement and pipe force results.

NOTE: If there is more than one harmonic vibration source, at other points in

the piping system, Steps 1-8 must be applied at each source independently

in order to calculate all harmonic forces to be defined in a harmonic load

case (HI - H3). However, once the stiffness values have been adjusted at an

anchor they do not need to be temporarily set to "rigid" while the other

sources are evaluated,

• Step 1: At the anchor, which has been defined to represent the compressor, modify

the translational stiffnesses by replacing "rigid" with "0" (zero) for each global

coordinate direction, which is a component of . For example, if is observed to

act along global X only, then only the "X" DOF is set to zero. However, if is

observed to act in a skewed, 3D direction the "X", "Y", and "Z" DOF's should be

zeroed.

Measured vibration =

6mm in X-dir

0 stiffness in X dir

• Step 2: Apply a unit "concentrated force" (fA) at the anchored point for each

released DOF. For example, if only the "X" DOF was set to zero, apply the force in

the global X direction (fAX). If all three DOF's were zeroed, apply forces in each

global direction (fAX, fAY, and fAZ). The applied forces should be placed into separate,

isolated load cases (such as fAX -> U1, fAY -> U2, and fAZ -> U3; where no other load

effects are considered in Ul - U3).

NOTE: Any applied force value can be used for the unit force since its magnitude

scales the corresponding displacement calculated by AutoPIPE. However, care

should be taken when considering the magnitude of the resulting displacement

value because of the significant figures limitations in AutoPIPE reports.

case U1

• Step 3: Perform a static linear analysis in order to determine the translational

displacements at the anchored point.

NOTE: The applied force magnitude (fA ) can influence a nonlinear analysis result

set (lift-off and gap closure), and AutoPIPE is only capable of linear supports in a

dynamic analysis.

• Step 4: Calculate the stiffnesses (k) of the anchor for each released DOF as

follows:

fA

K= × 10 3

∆A

this will result in a corresponding kX, kY, and kZ value. The value "10E3" is

somewhat arbitrary, but it is a reasonable assumption based on the stiffness of a

"rigid" anchor DOF. Then change the anchor stiffnesses, which were set to zero in

Step 1, to the values calculated in this step.

• Step 5: Calculate the (piping system) mass of the anchor point (manc). This is

done by summing the weights of any components defined at the anchor point (i.e.

flange, or weight) and the weight of the pipe (and contents) based on the half

length to the next point (piping, soil, or mass). If the length of pipe between the

anchored point and the next adjacent piping point is buried or if "automatic mass

discretization" has been employed, the MODEL "list" report must be consulted to

determine the number of "transparent" points added by AutoPIPE in order to

calculate the correct half length. Once this total weight has been summed, divide by

"g" (using appropriate units) to obtain the mass.

• Step 6: Calculate the cut-off frequency (fc) to be specified for the modal analysis

from the following equation:

• Step 7: Perform a modal analysis and specify the cut-off frequency calculated in

Step 6. Make sure that the last mode calculated by AutoPIPE reaches the cut-off

frequency. If it does not, rerun the modal analysis with a greater number of modes

specified (along with the calculated fc). Iterate until the last mode reaches fc.

NOTE: This requirement can result in a large number of modes being captured.

Missing mass and ZPA corrections do not impact the requirement of capturing the

appropriate number of modes.

• Step 8: The harmonic force (FH) loads are calculated from the following equation:

where "k" corresponds to the appropriate global direction, (kx, kv, and kz). Thus,

there may be FHX, FHY, and FHZ (these are the values entered in the HARMONIC

LOAD form). The frequency value associated with these forces is the measured

frequency (fm).

• Step 9: Now, move on to the next (vibration source) anchor and repeat Steps 1 - 8

in order to calculate the harmonic forces (FH) to be applied at this location.

Note: Step 9 can be ignored for a single vibration source and 0 phase angle used.

Where multiple vibration sources exist in a piping system, each set of harmonic

forces can be applied as an individual load case (one-to-one correspondence of

source and load case), or they may be grouped into a single load case. If the latter

scenario is desired, the phase angle relationship can be evaluated.

• Step 10: Once all harmonic forces are modeled and defined as desired, perform a

final Modal analysis where the cut-off frequency is the maximum calculated for all

vibration sources. Then, perform the harmonic analysis. The desired results can be

obtained from the "Displacement" and "Restraint" reports, created using the Result

/ Output report, for the appropriate load cases (Hi - H3) or combinations of load

cases.

If all relevant modes have been captured, the resultant anchor displacements

should be within 2% of the measured amplitude ( ). Piping forces and

displacements for the remainder of the system will also be correct.

However, if fewer modes are extracted, the anchor displacements reported

by AutoPIPE will be near zero and the corresponding forces will be incorrect.

Piping forces and displacements for the remainder of the system will be close

to the correct values.

Note in Step 4, a sensitivity study should be made on the model with a

stiffness factor between 1000 and 1.0E8. The cut off frequency is not as

important as capturing the modal frequencies near the harmonic frequency.

model and check the resulting displacements are < 20mm.

Pipe span guidelines from industry practice to avoid resonance from gas

compressor accoustic vibration.

1. Typically for low speed motors e.g. 300rpm use multiplier 2.4 up to 4.0

times the 1st harmonic frequency, i.e. 5hz x 2.4 = 12hz

2. High speed compressors e.g. 1800rpm use multiplier 1.4, i.e. 30hz x

1.4 = 42hz

Below are pipe span guidelines from API 618 for flow induced vibration from

pulsating gas flow from reciprocating compressors.

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