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Chem 3202 Unit 1 Review

Effect of Concentration Changes (examples)

1. Consider the following equilibrium:

CH4(g) + 2H2S(g) ↔CS2(g) + 4H2(g)

How will the equilibrium concentrations of each substance be affected by...

a) the addition of CH4(g) * first write which rate is changed


(forward or reverse)
* write where the shift is
*write which side is favored
* write which concentrations
increase and which decrease
b) the removal of CS2(g)

c) the addition of H2(g)

Effects of Pressure Changes

2. The following is at equilibrium:

2SO2(g) + O2(g) ↔ 2SO3(g)

How will the equilibrium be affected if there is an...

a) increase in pressure – * remember generalizations


* write where the shift is
* write conc. changes

b) decrease in pressure –
Effect of Temperature

3. Consider the following equilibrium:

2SO2(g) + O2(g) ↔ 2SO3(g) + 197 kJ

How will the equilibrium be affected if there is an....

a) increase in temperature – * remember generalizations


* determine whether forward or
reverse reaction is endo. or exo.
* write shift and where it's favored
b) decrease in temperature – * write conc. changes

4. N2(g) + O2(g) ↔ 2NO(g) ∆H = +43.2 kJ

a) increase in temperature –

b) decrease in temperature –

The Equilibrium Constant

Part A: Calculating Keq (or concentrations)

5. N2(g) + 3Cl2(g) ↔ 2NCl3(g)

This reaction takes place in a 5.0 L flask. At equilibrium the flask was found to contain 0.0070 mol N2(g)
and 0.0022 mol Cl2(g). If the Keq is 3.0 x 1011, what is the number of moles of NCl3(g) present at
equilibrium?
* remember to change moles to conc.
c
* n=
v
[ Prod.]
* also Keq=
[ React.]
* rearrange correctly and solve
Part B: ICE Problems

6. Initially the concentrations of N2 and O2 are both 1.8 mol/L. If at equilibrium the concentration of
NO is 1.8 mol/L find Keq for the reaction.

N2(g) + O2(g) ↔ 2NO(g) * set up ICE and write in the given


n
information (use c= if needed)
v
* deal with the “C” row
* write the Keq expression
* rearrange if necessary and solve

7. When 2.0 mol of PCl5(g) is headted in a 2.0 L container the following equilibrium is established. If
there is a 60% reaction what is the Keq for this reaction?

PCl5(g) ↔ PCl3(g) + Cl2(g) * follow same steps as #7


* the percent ONLY affects the
“C” row...
* change percent to decimal
* multiply percentage by conc.
* fill in “C” with this number

8. 1.00 mol/L sample of N2(g) and H2(g) are placed in a flask. If 25% of N2(g) reacts what is the Keq for
this equilibrium?

N2(g) + 3H2(g) ↔ 2NH3(g)


Part C: ICE Problems with Quadratic Formulas (not solving for Keq)

9. The following reaction has an equilibrium constant of 25.0.

2.00 mol of H2(g) and 3.00 mol of I2(g) are placed in a 1.00 L reaction. What is the equilibrium
concentration of each gas?

H2(g) + I2(g) ↔ 2HI(g) * Set up ICE


* Fill in the info you know, and use
“x” for anything you don't know
* note... “x” is never placed in the
“I” row
* Write the Keq expression
* Fill in info and solve for “x”

Part D: Interpreting the Equilibrium Constant

This section is all theory. Apply these concepts:

Remember that...
– if there is a shift to the products, that means the Keq will increase
– if there is a shift to the reactants, the Keq will decrease
– a reaction going to completion has a very high Keq
– a reaction that barely reacts has a very low Keq

Also:
– change in concentration has NO effect on Keq
– change in temperature will have an effect on Keq... You have to go through the generalizations
for temperature, and find where the shift is – then the Keq can be determined

p. 535: 3
p. 538: 8, 19, 30
Generalizations
Pressure:

1) If the pressure of a system is increased, there is a shift to the side with the lowest number of gas
phase molecules
Inc. pressure = shift to LESS gas molecules

2) If the pressure of a system is increased, there is a shift to the side with the lowest number of gas
phase molecules
Dec. pressure = shift to MORE gas molecules

Temperature:

1) If the temperature of a system is increased, the endothermic reaction is favored.


Inc. temp. = endo favored

2) If the temperature of a system is decreased, the exothermic is favored.


Dec. temp. = exo favored

Equilibrium constant:

1) High Keq = Large amount of products = Reaction going to completion

2) Low Keq = Large amount of reactants = Reaction barely takes place

Understanding Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions


An endothermic reaction is understood by either:

– a positive change in heat: ∆H = +ke


– “energy” term found in reactants eg. H20(g) + energy ↔ O2(g) + H2(g)

An exothermic reaction is understood by:

– a negative change in heat: ∆H = – ke


– “energy” term found in the products eg. H20(g) ↔ O2(g) + H2(g) + energy