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Business Process Analysis

and Design – Importance of


Having a Common Language
Between Business and IT

Alan McSweeney
Objectives

• Provide an introduction to process design/specification


and the potential benefits of using a visual process design
approach such as BPMN to enable business and IT users
understand how process should operate

March 25, 2011 2


Business Process Analysis/Design

• There is a continuum from business process analysis and design to


business process development and implementation to business
process operation and management
• Processes exist to implement requirements
• Processes define the functionality to be provided by systems
• Processes also link the functionality of the systems to external
manual operational components
• Processes govern the development and implementation work

Processes
Processes
Processes Define Govern Solution
Business Deliver on
How Systems Design,
Requirements Business
Should Operate Development.
Requirements
Implementation

March 25, 2011 3


Process

• A process describes a sequence or flow of activities within


an organisation with the objective of performing work
• Process best depicted graphically containing flow elements
- set of activities, events, gateways and sequence flows -
that define the execution of the process

March 25, 2011 4


Complete View of Systems and Processes

External External
Manual Extended Application Manual
Interaction Interaction

External Core External


Component Application Component

System System
Component Component

System
Component

External External External


Manual Component Manual
Interaction Interaction

March 25, 2011 5


Complete View of Systems and Processes

External External
Manual Manual
Interaction Interaction

External Automated External


Component Process Component
Manual Manual
Process Process
System System
Component Component

Automated Automated
Process System Process
Manual Manual
Process Component Process

External External External


Manual Component Manual
Interaction Interaction

March 25, 2011 6


Combination of Automated and Manual Processes

Extended Application
Automated
Process
Manual Manual
Process Process
Core
Application
Automated Automated
Process Process
Manual Manual
Process Process

March 25, 2011 7


Complete View of Systems and Processes

• Overall solution operates with a mix of automated and


manual processes in a structured or ad-hoc manner o
deliver the required results
• Understanding the overall set of processes and their
operation is crucial to successful results
• Need to see the entire picture to understand how a
solution should operate
− Systems/applications are just one part of this universe
• Unambiguous definition of processes is required
• Processes that are to be automated define the scope of
the development and implementation work
March 25, 2011 8
Solution Design and Implementation Sequence
Defines where the business
wants to go
Business Plan
Business need identifies
solutions that will allow
Business Need delivery of plan

Defines the benefits to be


Business Benefits achieved by the solution

Defines the detailed requirements


Requirements
of the solution
Definition

Process Design
Defines the processes that will be
implemented by the solution
Solution Architecture
and Design
Defines the solution design to
implement the processes
Technical and Detailed
Design
Creates a detailed technical design
for implementation
Implementation
Implements the detailed design
March 25, 2011 9
Solution Design and Implementation Sequence

Business Plan

Business Need Y
Thr ou Ca
Mu oug n It
l ti p h T e r a
h
Business Benefits Det le Tim ese S te
ail e t
Eac s, Re eps
h S fini
tag ng
Requirements e
Definition

Process Design

Solution Architecture
and Design

Technical and
Detailed Design

Implementation

March 25, 2011 10


Need a Single Language – Avoid the Tower of Babel
and Project Failure
Business

? !?
User
Business/
Process
Analyst

? ?
Architect
Solution

?
Architect/
Technical
Designer

?
Developer

?
Team

March 25, 2011 11


Weaknesses in Business Analysis Capabilities and
Competencies at the Root of Many Project Failures
Poor Size/Capacity/ Poor Strategic
Requirements Complexity Alignment
Poor Analysis Large Project, Inadequate Business
Practices Complex, Difficult Case, Undefined
Changes and Processes Problem/Need

Business Requirements Large Project Team and Business Benefits Business Needs
Not Captured Multiple Stakeholders Not Measured Not Met

Opportunities
Lost

Investment
Inadequate Resource Unproven Technology Inadequately Explored Wasted
Allocation and Solution Options
Prioritisation

Inadequate Business Dynamic, Changing Solution Design Not


Involvement Environment Aligned to Business Needs

Poor Focus on Uncertainly/ Poor Solution


Business Needs Ambiguity Design
March 25, 2011 12
Analysis-Related Causes of Failures

Poor Size/Capacity/ Poor Strategic


Requirements Complexity Alignment
Poor Analysis Large Project, Inadequate Business
Practices Complex, Difficult Case, Undefined
Changes and Processes Problem/Need

Business Requirements Large Project Team and Business Benefits Business Needs
Not Captured Multiple Stakeholders Not Measured Not Met

Opportunities
Lost

Investment
Inadequate Resource Unproven Technology Inadequately Explored Wasted
Allocation and Solution Options
Prioritisation

Inadequate Business Dynamic, Changing Solution Design Not


Involvement Environment Aligned to Business Needs

Poor Focus on Uncertainly/ Poor Solution


Business Needs Ambiguity Design
March 25, 2011 13
Smooth Flow From Requirements to Processes to
Design and Implementation
Business

This is What I I Understand The


User

Want The The Processes Solution is


System to Do You Have What I
Described Want
Business/

I Understand. These The Solution Being


Process
Analyst

Are The Processes Developed Delivers


Needed to Meet the the Required
Requirements Processes
Architect
Solution

This is The
Design of The
Overall
System
Architect/
Technical
Designer

This is The
Detail of The
Implementation
of The Solution
Developer

This is The
Team

Solution Being
Developed

March 25, 2011 14


Who Designs Processes?

• There can be multiple inconsistent approaches to


designing processes, done by
− End users
− Business unit managers
− Business analysts
− Process analysts
− System analysts
− Technical team leads
− Developers

March 25, 2011 15


What Can Go Wrong With Process Design?

• Inconsistent or ambiguous process design notation/


language
• Uncertainty/lack of specificity
• Branching/decision points not identified
• Complexity missing/not captured
• Too much inappropriate detail
• Using tool or approach that does not work
• Lack of understanding by business users

March 25, 2011 16


Ensuring Process Design/Specification Works

• Convince skeptical business and IT users that it can deliver


real benefits
• Adopt an integrated approach to using process
design/specification including a set of internal organisation
standards
• Training and mentoring
• Active involvement, monitoring, management

March 25, 2011 17


Need to Balance Process Design/Specification
Complexity

Complexity –
Simplicity – Easy for
Unambiguous Detail for
Business Users to
Implementation and
Understand
Operation

• Consider maintaining two levels of process design/ specification


− High-level for business users
− Detailed low-level for development/implementation
• Graphics are better than pure text
March 25, 2011 18
Problems with Process Design/Specification

• Absence of recognition of the importance of process


design/specification within solution design lifecycle
• Focus on just information technology aspects of process
design and operation rather than the entire process
landscape
• Focus on just IT doing the process design
• Absence of structured consistent approach to process
design
• Absence of process representation graphical approach
• Absence of skills, experience or training
• Absence of partnership between business and IT function

March 25, 2011 19


Business Process Analysis/Design

Business needs to
understand what
processes it is
Need to have a
agreeing to, how IT needs to
process definition
these processes will understand what is to
and representation
deliver requirements, be developed,
approach and
how the processes delivered and
language that fulfils
will operate, who will implemented
both requirements
be responsible and unambiguously
at the same time
what resources will be
required

March 25, 2011 20


Business Processes

• Business process design defines what is to be done and


who is to do it
− IT can translate this into system details, the “how”
• Delivery of an overall process can be a mix of automated,
system lead and manual activities and tasks
• Process design is a key element of overall solution design
and implementation
• Processes turn the requirements into operational facts

March 25, 2011 21


Process Design

• Need to have a process design language and approach that fulfils the
requirements of both IT and the business at the same time
• Need a process design language and approach that can be
understood by the business and provides the rigour required of the
IT
• Process design can be as simple as a narrative, flowchart or some
other graphical representation
• Need to balance the requirements of the business and IT
− Simplicity and ease of use promotes ease of understanding
− Ambiguity/lack of detail leads to misunderstanding
• Too much complexity - takes time, alienates the business, loses
momentum, costs a lot, delays decisions, induces analysis paralysis
• To little complexity - causes doubt, can lead to a disconnect between
what the business thinks it is getting and what IT delivers
March 25, 2011 22
Business Process Landscape

• Business process design is one element of the business process


landscape
− Design
− Implementation and operation
− Management
• Continuum from business process analysis and design to business
process development and implementation to business process
operation and management
− Can look for a solution that crosses entire continuum
− However, it is very, very difficult to go to fully automated BPM in one step
− Substantial investment with diminishing returns
• Need to select an approach that delivers most benefits and need to
approach delivery incrementally

March 25, 2011 23


Spectrum of Process Design, Implementation and
Operation Options
Execution, Measurement,
Consistent Use of a Monitoring and Control of Both
Standardised Approach Automated and Non-automated
and Language to Business Processes to Achieve
Unambiguously Describe Consistent, Targeted Results
and Define Business Aligned With The Organisation’s
Processes Strategic Goals

Consistent
Complete
Approach to
Automated
Business Process
Business Process
Analysis and
Management
Description

Incremental Set of Steps To Achieve:

•Maintenance of Reusable Process Library


•Linkage from Process design to Publication and Implementation
•Process Management
•Operational Process Measurement
March 25, 2011
•Process Reporting and Optimisation 24
Process Design/Specification Options

• Spectrum of options from simple to complex


− Paper/whiteboards/flip-charts/Post-It notes
− PowerPoint/Word/Excel/other tool
− Visio (flow charting)
− Visio Using BPMN Add-on
− BPA tool
− BPMS tool

March 25, 2011 25


Process Design, Implementation and Operation
Journey Before You Can
End Here

Complete
Automated
You Have to Business Process
Start Here Management

Consistent
Approach to
Business Process
Analysis and
Description

Implementation Time, Cost, Resource Requirements, Complexity, Difficulty, Risks


Low High
March 25, 2011 26
Process Design, Implementation and Operation
Journey
• Moving to a state of Complete Automated Business
Process Management is very, very hard
• You need to start with a structured approach to describing
processes that works and that is accepted and used by all
participants and stakeholders
− Essential building block and foundation for success
− Start small to deliver benefits in a short period of time and build
on success
− Focus on creating understanding and approach

March 25, 2011 27


Elements of a Process Design/Documentation

• Process Triggers – what initiates the • Reporting


process Requirements/Performance
• Process Outcomes – what are the Measures – how the process should
expected outcomes of the process be measured and what measures
should be generated
• Pre-Conditions – what must have • Roles and Responsibilities – who is
happened before the process can involved in the process
start
• Pre-Requisites – what must be in • Skills and Capabilities – what skills are
place before the process can start required of the process participants
• Inputs – what the process needs to • Requirements Being Delivered
operate (Traceability) – what business
requirements are being fulfilled by the
• Processing – what the process does process
• Dependencies – what the process is • Issues Identified/Outstanding – any
dependent on issues not clarified
• Outputs – what the process generates • Assumptions – any assumptions made
in the process design
• Timelines – what are the expected
process times

March 25, 2011 28


Business Process Management, Governance,
Implementation and Operational Framework – Landscape
Process Strategy Process KPI
Design and Definition Operational
Development Process Library Process Usage
Data

Business
Process 1

Process
Templates Process
Publication Business
Business Process
Process 2
Design and
Development

Business
Process 3

Process
Business Process Usage
Modification Analysis
March 25, 2011 29
Business Process Management, Governance,
Implementation and Operational Framework – Landscape
Process Strategy Process KPI
Design and Definition Operational
Development Process Library Process Usage
Data

Business
Process 1

Process
Templates Process
Publication Business
Business Process
Process 2
Design and
Development

Business
Process 3

Process
Business Process Usage
Modification Analysis
March 25, 2011 30
Business Process Management, Governance,
Implementation and Operational Framework – Logical
Components
Optimisation
Strategy,
Management
and Operation and
Governance Measurement

Design and
Implementation

Technology
Infrastructure
March 25, 2011 31
Business Process Management, Governance,
Implementation and Operational Framework
Optimisation
Strategy,
Management
and Operation and
Governance Measurement

Start With
Realistically
Achievable Design and
Implementation
Objectives …
Technology
Infrastructure

Complete
Automated
Business Process
Management
… Before Trying to
Move to an All-
encompassing
Solution

Consistent
Approach to
Business Process
Analysis and
Description

Implementation Time, Cost, Resource Requirements, Complexity, Risks


Low High
March 25, 2011 32
Focus on the Objective …

• … Which is to develop an approach to process design and


specification that meets both business and technology
stakeholder requirements

March 25, 2011 33


Process Representation Diagrams, Maps and Models

• Diagrams
− Process diagram often depicts simple notation of the basic workflow of a
process
− Depicts the major elements of a process flow, but omits the minor details
which are not necessary for understanding the overall flow of work
• Maps
− More precision than a diagram
− More detail about process and important relationships to other elements such
as performers (actors), events, results
− Provide a comprehensive view of all of the major components of the process
• Models
− Represents the performance of what is being modelled
− Needs greater precision, data about the process and about the factors that
affect its performance
− Often done using tools that provide simulation and reporting capability to
analyse and understand the process
March 25, 2011 34
Process Attributes and Characteristics

• Attributes and characteristics that describe the properties, behaviour, purpose


and other elements of the process
• Process attributes are captured in a tool in order to organise, analyse and manage
an organisation’s portfolio of processes

• Inputs/Outputs • Arrival Patterns/Distributions


• Events/Results) • Costs (indirect and direct
• Value Add • Entry Rules
• Roles/Organisations • Exit Rules
• Data/Information • Branching Rules
• Probabilities • Join Rules
• Queuing • Work/Handling Time
• Transmission Time • Batching
• Wait Time • Servers (number of people available
to perform tasks)

March 25, 2011 35


Purpose of Process Modelling

• A model is rarely a complete and full representation of the actual


process
− Focus on representing those attributes of the process that support continued
analysis from one or more perspectives
• Objective is to create a representation of the process that describes
it accurately and sufficiently for the task at hand
− Understanding the business process through the creation of the model
− Creating a visible representation and establishing a commonly shared
perspective
− Analysing process performance and defining and validating changes
• “To Be” model is an expression of the target process state and
specifies the requirements for the supporting resources that enable
effective business operations

March 25, 2011 36


Purpose of Process Representation Models

• Models are simplified representations that facilitate


understanding of that which is being studied and making
decisions about it
• Mechanism for understanding, documenting, analysing,
designing, automating and measuring business activity as
well as measuring the resources that support the activity
and the interactions between the business activity and its
environment
• For process managed business, process models are the
primary means for
− Measuring performance against standards
− Determining opportunities for change
− Expressing the desired end state preceding a change effort
March 25, 2011 37
Reasons for Process Design and Modelling

• To document an existing process clearly


• To use as a training aide
• To use as an assessment against standards and compliance
requirements
• To understand how a process will perform under varying loads or in
response to some anticipated change
• As the basis for analysis in identifying opportunities for improvement
• To design a new process or new approach for an existing process
• To provide a basis for communication and discussion
• To describe requirements for a new business operation

March 25, 2011 38


Benefits of Process Design and Modelling

• Models are relatively fast, easy and inexpensive to


complete
• Models are easy to understand (when compared to other
forms of documentation)
• Models provide a baseline for measurement
• Models facilitate process simulation and impact analysis
• Models leverage various standards and a common set of
techniques

March 25, 2011 39


Process Design and Modelling Standards and
Notations
• Range of number of process design, modelling and
notational standards and techniques
• Models provide a language for describing and
communicating as-is and to-be process information
− Like all new languages must be learned
• Benefits of using a standards based approach
− A common symbology, language and technique which facilitate
communication and understanding
− Standards-based models provide common and consistently
defined processes definitions which eases the process of design,
analysis and measurement and facilitates model reuse
− An ability to leverage modelling tools based on common
standards and notations
March 25, 2011 40

− An ability to import and export models created in various tools for


Process Representation Standards and Notations

• Some commonly or less commonly used approaches


− Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN)
− Flow Charting
− Swim Lanes
− Event Process Chain (EPC)
− Value Chain
− Unified Modelling Language (UML)
− IDEF-0
− LOVEM-E
− SIPOC
− Systems Dynamics
− Value Stream Mapping
March 25, 2011 41
Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN)

• Widely used and supported standard for business process


modelling
• Provides a graphical notation for specifying business
processes in a Business Process Diagram (BPD)
• Uses a flowcharting technique similar to activity diagrams
from Unified Modelling Language (UML)
• Can output BPMN to Business Process Execution Language
(BPEL - BPEL4WS)
− Standard executable language for specifying interactions with
Web Services
• Emerging standard
March 25, 2011 42
Flow Charting

• Simple type of diagram that represents a process, showing


the steps as boxes of various kinds and their order by
connecting these with arrows
• Widely used

March 25, 2011 43


Swim Lanes

• Swim lanes are an addition to the boxes and arrows


process flow view of flow-charting that show how the
work flows across organisational units or is handed-off
from one role to another
• Overall process is divided into lanes, with one lane for
each person, group or subprocess
• Processes and decisions are grouped by placing them in
lanes
• Arranged horizontally or vertically and are used for
grouping the sub-processes according to the
responsibilities of those swim lanes
March 25, 2011 44
Event Process Chain (EPC)

• An EPC is an ordered graph of events and functions


• Provides various connectors that allow alternative and parallel execution of processes
• Tasks (activities) are followed by outcomes (events) of the task, developing a process model
• EPC method was developed within the framework of ARIS (BPM toolset)
• EPC elements
− Event - describe under what circumstances a function or a process works or which state a function
or a process results in
− Function - model the tasks or activities
− Organisation Unit - determine which person or organisation within the structure of an enterprise is
responsible for a specific function
− Information, Material or Resource Object - portray objects in the real world
− Logical Connector - logical relationships between elements in the control flow
− Logical Relationships - Branch/Merge, Fork/Join and OR
− Control Flow - connects events with functions, process paths or logical connectors creating
chronological sequence and logical interdependencies between them
− Information Flow - show the connection between functions and input or output data
− Organisation Unit Assignment - show the connection between an organisation unit and the
function it is responsible for
− Process Path - show the connection from or to other processes

March 25, 2011 45


Value Chain

• Value chain notation is used to demonstrate a single


continuous flow from left to right of the sub-processes
that directly contribute to producing value for the
organisation’s customers (clients/constituents)
• Value chain is a chain of activities for a firm operating in a
specific industry
• Chain of activities gives the products more added value
than the sum of added values of all activities

March 25, 2011 46


Unified Modelling Language (UML)

• UML provides a standard set of diagramming techniques


and notations primarily for describing information systems
requirements
• Primarily used for systems analysis and design
• Can use UML activity diagrams for business process
modelling
• UML can be very verbose
• Very development and system oriented and not aimed at
business users or overall set of processes needed to
operate a system

March 25, 2011 47


IDEF-0 (Integration Definition for Function
Modelling)
• Function modelling methodology for describing
manufacturing functions
• Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) that was
developed by the US Air Force for documenting
manufacturing processes
• Part of the IDEF family of modelling languages in software
engineering
− IDEF0 produces a function model that is structured
representation of the functions, activities or processes
− IDEF1 produces an information model that represents structure
and semantics of information
− IDEF2 produces a dynamics model that represents time-varying
behavioural characteristics

March 25, 2011 48


LOVEM-E (Line of Visibility Engineering Method -
Enhanced)
• Notation set and a modelling technique that was
developed as part of IBM’s Business Process Reengineering
Methodology
• Based on the process path management concept
• Introduces concepts of the customer encounter and the
collaborative nature of work between external and
internal parties and the supporting information systems
• Not widely used

March 25, 2011 49


SIPOC (Supplier, Input, Process, Output and
Customer)
• Style of process documentation used in Six Sigma

March 25, 2011 50


Systems Dynamics

• Approach to understanding the behaviour of complex


systems over time
• Deals with internal feedback loops and time delays that
affect the behaviour of the entire system
• Systems Dynamics models are “activity on arrow”
diagrams rather than “activity on node” diagrams
• Useful in developing dynamic lifecycle type models that
focus on the overall business system’s performance and
the impact of changing the key variables that affect overall
performance

March 25, 2011 51


Value Stream Mapping

• Technique used in Lean Manufacturing


• Expresses the physical environment and flow of materials
and products in a manufacturing environment
• Used to analyse the flow of materials and information
currently required to bring a product or service

March 25, 2011 52


Process Modelling Quality

• Most process analysis and design efforts require the use of models
to describe what is happening during the process
• Useful to have some standards and measures of quality as it relates
to process modelling
• Quality of model defined by its accuracy, amount of detail and
completeness
• Can have multiple versions or iterations of models are created over
time to capture more detail and improve the quality of the model
• During the modelling of a process, several disconnections,
restrictions and/or barriers may become apparent
• Items should also be noted on the model as well as any other
information discovered that will help create a common
understanding of the current state

March 25, 2011 53


Requirements of a Process Design Model

• The business environment including the customers, suppliers,


external events or market pressures that effect or interact with the
process
• The organisational structure which includes the hierarchical or
functional view of the organisation and how the people work
together (this information helps understand who the key decision
makers are within the process)
• The functional or departmental structure of the organisation which
explains how the functions or departments work together in the
process
• The business rules which control the decisions that are made during
the process and workflow
• The activities or actions that take place within the process and who
does those actions

March 25, 2011 54


Process Design and Definition Language

• BPMN offers the most effective approach to process


analysis, design and definition

March 25, 2011 55


BPMN as a Common Process Language

• Two layers of complexity for business process design


− Core set of BPMN process representation diagram elements
− Extended set of BPMN process representation diagram elements
• What BPMN is not:
− Organisation structure design language
− Data model and data flow design language – does contain some data modelling
elements
− System functional flow design language
• BPMN diagrams can be complex
− BPMN V2.0 (latest version) has a lot of elements
− Keep it simple and easy to understand
− Add appropriate complexity through refinement and drill-down
− Focus on getting the process description right
− Complexity and rigour of BPMN is related to the ability to create Business
Process Execution Language (BPEL - BPEL4WS) – you probably do not intend to
use this feature

March 25, 2011 56


Types of Process

• Standard Process (Orchestration Process) defines the flow


of activities between participants
• Choreography - exchange of information (Messages)
between participants

March 25, 2011 57


BPMN Language Structure
BPMN

Flow Objects Connectors Artifacts Swimlanes Data

Activities Sequence Flows Text Annotation Pool Data Objects

Events Message Flows Group Lane Data Inputs

Gateways Associations Data Outputs

Data
Data Stores
Associations

March 25, 2011 58


Swimlanes and Pools

• Swim lanes are a visual means for organising and


categorising process activities
• Used to demonstrate hand-offs between
functions/roles/business units
• Show process sequence
• Show cross-functional process flow
− Pool – represents major participants in a process with separate
pools for different organisations or major business units
− Lane – contained within pools
• Organise and categorise process activities within a pool according to
function or role
− All other BPMN diagram elements are placed within swimlanes
and pools
March 25, 2011 59
Swimlanes and Pools

• Good at showing who does what, when and in response to what


• Adds a dimension not available in standard flow-charting
• Shows responsibilities
• Allows identification and elimination of duplicate tasks
March 25, 2011 60
Flow Objects
Flow Objects

Activities Events Gateways

Task Start Exclusive

Sub-Process End Inclusive

Transaction Intermediate Parallel

Complex

March 25, 2011 61


Flow Objects

• Define the flow of the process


− Activities - work performed within a business process
• Task – unit of work
• Sub-Process – a set of self-contained activities collapsed within process
representation for ease of understanding
• Transaction – a sub-process that must be completed or undone if not completed
− Events - something that happens
• Start – acts as a trigger for a process/sub-process and takes an input only
• End – represents the result of a process/sub-process and generates an output only
• Intermediate - represents something that happens between the start and end
events
− Gateways - determine splitting and merging of paths within process depending
on the conditions
• Exclusive – where the sequence slow can take only one of two or more alternative
paths
• Inclusive – where the sequence slow can take one, more than one or all of two or
more alternative paths and results from paths must be subsequently merged
• Parallel – multiple parallel paths are defined
• Complex – complex behaviours can be defined

March 25, 2011 62


Flow Objects - Graphics
Task

Sub-Process

Transaction

Start

End

Intermediate

Exclusive

Inclusive

Parallel

Complex

March 25, 2011 63


Activities – Detailed Specification

• Classified by
− Task Type
• Service – automated application
• Send – send a message to an external participant
• Receive – wait for a Message to arrive from an external Participant
• User – human performs the task with the assistance of an application and scheduled through a
task manager
• Script – executed by a business process engine
• Manual – not managed by any business process engine.
• Business Rule – provide input to a Business Rules Engine and get the output of calculations
− Process or Sub-Process
• Embedded – sub-process embedded within a process
• Event – triggered by an event
• Called – pre-defined process that can be called
− Looping
• Simple
• Multiple in Parallel
• Multiple in Sequence
− Calling – External Sub-Process
− Transaction Backout (“Compensation”)

March 25, 2011 64


Activities

Top Left Symbol


Identifies Task
Type Task Border
Shows if
Called/Sub-
Process

Looping Symbol

Rewind Symbol Used


to Indicate
Transaction Backout
(“Compensation”)

March 25, 2011 65


Activities – Graphics for Combinations of Task Type
and Loop Type
No Loop Simple Loop Multiple in Multiple in
Parallel Sequence

Simple/Not Specified

Service

Send

Receive

User

Script

Manual

Business Rule

March 25, 2011 66


Activities – Graphics for Sub-Processes
Embedded Sub- Embedded Embedded Sub- Embedded Called
Process Transaction Sub- Process Triggered Sub-Process
Process by Event

No Event Specified

Message

Error

Escalation

Compensation
(Backout of
Transaction)

Conditional

Signal

Multiple
March 25, 2011 67
Events

• Simple • Triggers (Not All Apply to All


− Start Events)
− Intermediate − Message
− End − Timer
• Triggered − Conditional
− Signal
− Start
− Multiple
− Intermediate
• Inward Direction “Catching”
− Multiple in Parallel
• Outward Direction “Throwing” − Error
− End − Escalation
− Compensation (Backout of
Transaction)
− Link
− Cancel
− Terminate

March 25, 2011 68


Events

Symbol Indicates
Trigger Type
Single Light
Border Indicates
Start Event
Double Light Border and
Hollow Symbol Indicates
Intermediate Inwardly
Directed Event

Double Light Border and


Filled Symbol Indicates
Single Dark Intermediate Outwardly
Border Indicates Directed Event
End Event

March 25, 2011 69


Events - Graphics for Combinations of Type,
Direction and Trigger
Start Intermediate Intermediate End
(Inward Direction (Outward
“Catching”) Direction
“Throwing”)

No Trigger

Message

Timer

Conditional

Signal

Multiple

Multiple in Parallel

Error

Escalation

Compensation
(Backout of
Transaction)

Link

Cancel

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Gateways

• Control the execution of the process


• Do not represent work being done
• Gateways represent decisions/branching (exclusive,
inclusive, and complex), merging, forking and joining
• Parallel gateways synchronise/combine and create parallel
flows
• Event-based gateways represents a branching point in the
process where the alternative paths that follow the
gateway are based on events that occur

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Gateways - Graphics for Types

Inclusive (AND)

Exclusive (OR)
or

Complex

Parallel

Exclusive Event

Start Exclusive Event

Start Parallel Event

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Sample Parallel Gateway

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Artifacts

• Used to add information into the process model/diagram


• Make the process model/diagram more readable
− Data Object – shows which data is required by or produced in an
activity
− Group – used to group different activities to highlight sections
− Annotation – adds text to a diagram

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Artifacts

Grouping of
Process Elements

Annotation
Comment

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Data

• One requirement of process design/modelling is to be able


to model the items (physical or information items) that are
created, manipulated, and used during the execution of a
process
− Data inputs
− Data outputs
− Data stores – persistent
− Collections – set of data, input or outputs

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Data

Data

Data Collection

Data Input

Data Collection Input

Data Output

Data Collection Output

Data Store

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Extended BPMN Attributes

• BPMN diagram elements have many extended attributes that are


not part of the core process definition
• These are used when creating a process repository
• Used when exporting BPMN process to XML
• Activity attributes
− isForCompensation
− loopCharacteristics
− Resources
− SequenceFlow
− InputOutputSpecification
− Properties
− BoundaryEventRefs
− DataInputAssociations
− DataOutputAssociations
− StartQuantity
− CompletionQuantity
− …

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BPMN Usage Options BPMN Can
Grow to Enable
This

Complete
Automated
Basic BPMN Business Process
Processing Management
Diagramming
Allows You to
Start Here

Consistent
Approach to
Business Process
Analysis and
Description

Implementation Time, Cost, Resource Requirements, Complexity, Difficulty, Risks


Low High
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Sample Order Processing and Payment
Authorisation Process Definition

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Sample Mortgage Approval Process Definition

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Sample Incident Management Process Definition

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Sample Credit Review and Approval Process
Definition

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Sample Customer Quotation Request Process
Definition

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Sample Order Fulfilment Process Definition

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Sample Bank Account Opening Process Definition

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Summary

• Process design/specification is a key element of solution design


• Processes consist of both automated and manual components
working together
• A graphical process design/specification language is useful to
represent processes and to assist in a common understanding by
both business and IT
• BPMN is the emerging process design/specification language
• BPMN offers the rigour to create detailed process
designs/specifications
• BPMN can be just a process design/specification language or a can
be part of a complete automated Business Process Management
initiative

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More Information

Alan McSweeney
alan@alanmcsweeney.com

March 25, 2011 88