Anda di halaman 1dari 62

Sejarah Arsitektur Komputer

Eri Prasetyo
http://staffsite.gunadarma.ac.id/eri
Mechanical devices

Abakus,
3000 BC (?) 1822
Charles
Babbage

1642, add & sub, Blaise Pascal


Electromechanical Machines

• Based on Relays
– Konrad Zuse (1910-1995)
The Zuse Z3 & Z4

Z1 / 1938,
Z3 / 1941:
mesin
pemrograman
Pertama di dunia

Z3 dan Z4 dapat
dilihat di musium
jerman ,
Padeborn
Electronic Computers
• First Generation
– No mechanical components anymore
– Vacuum Tubes
• Principle
– Basic: Triode
– Controllable flow within
diode by a fence
– On / Off
• 1946: ENIAC machine
– Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer
Elektronika Tabung
1906 Lee de Forest menemukan tabung elektronik

gate anoda
katoda

Filamen pemanas

Penguatan
signal

6,3v

Polarisasi gate menarik elektron

Filamen memanaskan katoda yang


Lee de Forest menyebarkan electrons : termo
emission
Elektronika tabung

Masalah Utama :
Tegangan besar
Mudah panas ≈300 V
Ukuran komponen Plaque

6,3v Grille
≈50 V
Cathode
Aplikasi Pertama

Radio penerima
Audio Amplifier

Radio Pemancar
Mesin Hitung tabung Pertama
1945 Mesin hitung tabung I bernama (ENIAC) Electronic
Numerical Integrator And Computer

30 tonnes

Luas 1500 m2

Jumlah 17000 tabung

Daya 140 KW

5000 penambahan setiap detik

Makan tempat
Semi konduktor ????
1874 Braun peletak dasar semi-conducteur

besi

selenium

K. F. Braun
Dioda Pertama
1940 Schottky menemukan contact
métal/semi-conducteur.

Pointe métallique

Ge Masih digunakan sampai


sekarang untuk HF

W. Schottky

1942 Produksi pertama dioda dengan bahan germanium


berhasil untuk teknologi micromave dan radar
Transistor bipolar
1947 Group dari Shockley mempunyai ide membuat dua dioda
dari bahan yang sama (germanium).

Emetor Collector

Base

W. Schockley
Transistor bipolar (2)

Fenomena nama baru


transistor = transfer + resistor
Transistor bipolar (3)
Base
Sebuah awal fabrikasi (sangat
Ge berjasa )

In In
Kesulitan utama :
Emetteur Collecteur Reproduksi,
ketebalan.
Type n Type p

Temuan hasil penelitian lebih lanjut untuk bahan


(Silikon atau Germanium).
Transistor bipolar silikon
1952 Bell Labs memperkenalkan metode untuk merealisasiakn
printing Silikon monocristallin dengan kemurnian 99,7%.

Purification Tirage

Si amorphe Si polycristallin Si monocristallin

1954 Pemakaian pertama Silikon sebagai pengganti germanium


Komputer transistor pertama
1957 Seymour Cray menciptakan CDC 1604, komputer
pertama secara komersial

processeur 4-8 bits,


cycle mémoire : 5 micro detik.
Penemuan rangkaian terpadu ( IC)
1958 Jack Kilby dari Texas Instruments menciptakan
rangkaian terpadu pertama dengan 5 komponen pasif.
Kemajuan Transistor
1960 Lab. Fairchild semiconductor menyempurnakan dengan
teknik planar

Rangkaian terpadu pertama


R.N. Noyce dengan teknik planar
Daya tarik transistors planar
Di dalam transistor Planar, semua koneksi ada di permukaan dan
pada sisi yang sama.

Base
Emetteur Collecteur

N
P

N
Penemuan Transistor MOS
1960 Atalla dan Kahng dari Fairchild semiconductor peletak
dasar transistor pertama MOS

Source gate Drain

1963 Hofstein & Heiman dari RCA membuat

1.5 mm
pertama IC dengan transistors MOS (8
paires de NMOS)
Structure MOS

Le MOS est parfaitement symétrique et on appelle


SOURCE (d'électrons) le coté le plus négatif

Au début (1962) la grille était en Aluminium d'où le nom MOS:


Métal/Oxyde/Semiconducteur
Grille
Source Drain

Isolant

Substrat à la
masse (à Vdd N+ N+
pour les PMos) P
Fonctionnement d’un NMOS

Conditions normales de fonctionnement : Vgs > 0 et Vds > 0

Vgs > 0 Grille Vds > 0


Drain
Source
Isolant

N+ N+
P
Fonctionnement d’un NMOS

Accumulation de charges positives sur la grille

Vgs > 0 Grille Vds > 0


Drain
Source
Isolant

N+ N+
P
Fonctionnement d’un NMOS

Création d’un champ électrique E sur la capacité MOS

Vgs > 0 Grille Vds > 0


Drain
Source
Isolant
E
N+ N+
P
Fonctionnement d’un NMOS

Trous majoritaires du substrat repoussés

Vgs > 0 Grille Vds > 0


Drain
Source
Isolant
E
N+ N+
P
Fonctionnement d’un NMOS

Electrons minoritaires du substrat attirés vers la grille

Vgs > 0 Grille Vds > 0


Drain
Source
Isolant
E
N+ N+
P
Fonctionnement d’un NMOS

Création d’un canal de type N sous l’isolant (couche


d’inversion)

Vgs > 0 Grille Vds > 0


Drain
Source
Isolant Id
E
N+ N+
P
Caractéristiques

Caractéristiques similaires à celle d’un transistor JFET

Id (mA)
Vgs = 8 V La valeur de Vgs > 0 influence
directement la densité de porteurs
Vgs = 6 V
minoritaires attirés sous la capacité
MOS
Vgs = 2 V

La valeur de Vds > 0 influence


Vds (V) directement la valeur du champ E
et donc de la saturation de Id
Cas du MOS à appauvrissement

Pour Vgs = 0, existence du canal N entre la source et le


drain

Id (mA)
Vgs = 4 V

Vgs = 2 V L’existence du canal garantit une


Vgs = 0 V conduction du transistor pour des
Vgs = -2 V valeurs négatives et positives
Vgs = -4 V
de Vgs

Vds (V)
Caractéristiques

Caractéristiques similaires à celle d’un transistor JFET

Id (mA)
Vgs = 8 V
3 zones de fonctionnement :
Vgs = 6 V  Zone ohmique,
 Pincement,
Vgs = 2 V  Saturation.

Vds (V)
Mengapa terpadu ?
kelebihan :

électronique
Système
Tempat ringkas

Hemat energi

modular

Lebih Aman
Circuit Composant:
électronique Circuit intégré
ORGANIZATION

• Pertanyaan :
• Bagimana bentuk mesin komputasinya ?
• Bagaimana mengontrolnya ?

• Original Work ( 1946 )


• Burks, Goldstine, von Neumann:
Mulai diskusi untuk merancang logika
instrumen komputasi elektronik

• Hasil :
• von Neumann Architecture
• Arsitektur yang sangat dominan – bahkan
sampai sekarang
The IAS machine

• Dikembangkan 1952 oleh von Neumann


– Mesin pertama berbasiskan prinsip
rancangannya
– Institute for Advanced Studies computer
The von Neumann architecture

• General purpose machine


– Independent of applications
– Flexible & Programmable
• 4 main units
– Control unit (Instruction counter)
– Arithmetic unit (Accumulator)
– Input/Output unit (Connection to the outside)
– Main memory
• Interconnected by simple buses
Von Neumann – Overview
Instructions / Program

Main Arithmetic Control


Memory Unit Unit
PC
AC IR
SR

Addresses

Input/Output
Unit

E.g. Storage
Von Neumann – Details (1)

• System structure is application independent


– Fully programmable
• Programs and Data are stored in the same
memory
– Main Memory
– Can be manipulated by the machine
• Main memory is divided into cells
– Equal size
– Consecutively numbered (addresses)
Von Neumann – Details (2)

• Program is composed of a sequence of


instructions
– Read one after the other from main memory
• Program execution can be altered
– Conditional or unconditional jumps
– Change the current execution
– Done by loading new value into PC register
Von Neumann – Details (3)

• Usage of binary numbers


– Just two values allowed per digit: 0/1
– Easy to implement: voltage yes or no
Von Neumann – Today

• Still the dominant architecture in current


systems
– Used in all popular systems / chips
• Only minor modifications
– Control und Arithmetic unit combined
Result: CPU (Central Processing Unit)
– New memory paths between memory and I/O
Direct Memory Access (DMA)
• Additions to the concept
– Multiple arithmetic units / Multiple CPUs
– Parallel processing
Technology Development

• Vacuum tubes replaced


– Transistors
– Smaller, more power efficient
– DEC PDP-1, IBM 7094
– Still large machines
• Next step: Integrated Circuits
– Many transistors packed on one die
– High density & reliability, low power
– IBM 360 family & first Intel chips
• Many subsequent improvements
Manufacturing

• Layered design
– Base: Silicon
– Light sensitive layers
– Projection of masks
– Erase parts using acid

 Clean room fabrication


 Any particle can cause
errors
 Special fabs required
 Rising costs
IBM
Comparison of Technologies
Gen. Dates Technology Speed Time/Ops
1 1946-1957 Vacuum tube 40 KHz 25 µs
2 1958-1964 Transistor 200 KHz 5 µs
3 1965-1971 Small and medium 1 MHz 1 µs
integrated circuits
4 1972-1977 Large scale 10 MHz 100 ns
integration
5 1978- Very large scale 100 MHz 10 ns
integration

• Main trend: smaller and faster


– Trend still continues today
– Processor speeds now over 3 GHz, but problems
arise…
Microprocessor History
• 2001: 30th Anniversary!
• 4-Bit, 8-Bit Processors
– Intel 4004 (~1971)
– Intel 8008
• 16-Bit Processors
– Texas Instruments TMS 9900 (~1977)
– Intel 8086
– Zilog Z8000
(~1978-1980)
– Motorola MC68000
– National Semiconductor NS16016
- 2300 Transistors, 108 Khz

http://www.intel4004.com
Intel 4004
INTEL 4004 – First Microcomputer
Intel 4004 – First Microcomputer
INTEL 4004 – First Microcomputer
Microprocessor History

•16/32-bit Processors
(external 16-bit Bus, internal 32 Bit Structure)
• Motorola MC68010
• National Semiconductor NS16032
• Additional Functionality on the Chip
•Direct Memory Access (DMA) (Intel 80186)
• Virtual memory management
(MC68010, Intel 80286)
• Optional Coprocessor (Intel 8086/80286,
NS16032)
• Extended Address Space
Microprocessor History

• 32-bit Processors
– CISC Processors
• Motorola MC680x0
• Intel i386 / i486 / Pentium
• National Semiconductor NS32x32
• Concept of a Processor Family
• Binary Compatibility
• Compatible with 16 Bit Processors
– RISC Processors
• Advanced Micro Devices Am29000 (~1987)
• Sun Microsystems SPARC
• MIPS technologies MIPS R2000 / MIPS R3000
Pentium 4 ( 55 Juta transistors )
Microprocessor History

• 64/32-bit Processors
– SUN Microsystems SuperSPARC
– Motorola 88110
– IBM, Motorola PowerPC 601 (MPC601)
• “Modern” Processors
– 64-bit Structure
– Internal Parallelism
• Instruction pipelining
• Arithmetic Pipelining
– Instruction and Data Caches
– Advanced Memory and Peripheral Connections
ITANIUM ( 25.4 JUTA TRANSISTORS )
AMD Opteron (100 Million Transistors)
ITANIUM 2 ( 221 JUTA TRANSISTOR )
First Implementation of Key Features:
Montecito Core Core
Core 1 Core 2
L3 Cache L3 Cache

 Key Processor Features


 Intel’s first dual-core System Bus

processor 1MB L2I 2 Way


Multi-threading
 Intel’s first processor 90nm
with >1 billion transistors
 24 MB L3 cache Power
Management/
 Multi-threading Frequency
Dual- Boost
 Compatible with existing core (Foxton)
Itanium 2-based systems

 Targeting H2’2005 1.7 Billion 2x12MB L3


caches
Arbiter
Transistors with
Pellston

Multiple cores, Multiple threads


and L3 Cache on ONE die
Trends in transistor count

42 M transistors

Number of transistors doubles every 2.3 years


(acceleration over the last 4 years: 1.5 years)

Increase: ~20K

2.25 K
transistors

(From: http://www.intel.com)
Technological Development

Model Year # of transistors


4004 1971 2250
8008 1972 2500
8080 1974 5000
8086 1978 29000
80286 1982 120000
80386 1985 275000
80486 1989 1180000
Pentium 1993 3100000
Pentium-II 1997 7500000
Pentium-III 1999 24000000
Pentium 4 2000 42000000
Moore‘s Law (2)

• Published in „Electronics“ in 1965


– Revised in 1975
• Why does this work? (Dr. R. Isaac, IBM)
– 50 % Lithography
– 25 % Device and Circuit Innovation
– 25 % Chip size reduction
• How long does this continue?
– Problem 1: Power density
– Problem 2: The Lithography Wall
Breaking Moore‘s law

• Can we compensate for loss or gain more


– Architectural improvements
– Massively Parallel Systems
• Example 1: ASCI Program in USA
– Fastest machines in the world
– Both military and research use
– Capabilities grow faster than Moore‘s law
• Example 2: Hitachi RS 8000 @ LRZ/TUM
– Innovative node design
– Large number of individual processors
Massively Parallel Systems

IBM Blue Gene / L, LLNL, 128k processors


High Performance Clusters
Applications: Grand Challenges
• What applications can • Climate Modeling
take use of this? • Fluid Turbulences
– Long running
• Pollution Disturbation
• Very often:
Numerical simulations • Ocean Circulation
– High computational • Combustion Systems
demands
– Often solving of special • Semiconductor
physical equations Modeling
(PDEs)
• Vision and Cognition
• Some other codes
from imaging/business