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INTRODUCTION

All the early Mughal Rulers except Aurangzeb were great bui1ders. With the
coming of the Mughals, Indian architecture was greatly influenced by
Persian styles. The Mughals constructed excellent mausoleums, mosques,
forts, gardens and cities. The Mughal buildings show a uniform pattern both
in structure and character.
The main characteristic features of Mughal architecture are the bulbous
domes, the slender minarets with cupolas at the four corners, large halls,
massive vaulted gateways and delicate ornamentation.
BABUR
Babar travelled the country, taking in much of the land and its scenery, and
began building a series of structures which mixed the pre-existing Hindu
intricacies of carved detail with the traditional Muslim designs used by
Persians and Turks. He described with awe the buildings in Chanderi, a
village carved from rock, and the palace of RAJA MAN SINGH in
Gwalior...
Babur is popularly believed to have built Babri Masjid in Ayodhya.However
from the three inscriptions which once adorned the surface of the mosque it
becomes apparent that the mosque was constructed during his reign on the
orders of Mir Baqi, who was one of the generals of Babur's forces sent
towards this region.

babri masjid
The mosque was constructed in 1527 by order of Babur, the first Mughal
emperor of India.[5][6] Mir Baki, after seizing the Hindu structure from
priests, named it Babri Masjid. Babri was an important mosque of a distinct
style, preserved mainly in architecture, developed after the Delhi Sultanate
was established (1192). The Babri Mosque was a large imposing structure
with three domes, one central and two secondary. It is surrounded by two
high walls, running parallel to each other and enclosing a large central
courtyard with a deep well, which was known for its cold and sweet water.
This structure was built by one Mir Baqi on the orders of Babur. The walls
of the Babri Mosque are made of coarse-grained whitish sandstone blocks,
rectangular in shape, while the domes are made of thin and small burnt
bricks. Both these structural ingredients are plastered with thick chunam
paste mixed with coarse sand.

Babur did not live long to rule his Kingdom. Babur died at Agra on
December 26, 1530. Babur was buried at Kabul, in accordance with his own
wishes.
HUMAYUN
Babur's eldest son and successor, Humayun, was 22 years old when his
father passed away. Humayun lacked the experience and the tough fiber
necessary to consolidate a new dynasty. Thus, the first decade of his rule
brought a steady erosion of Mughal authority in northern India.

DINPANAH

The fortified capital city of Dinpanah was the dream project of the second
Mughal emperor, Humayun. Though Humayun started the construction of
this fort (now known as the Purana Quila or the Old Fort), he could not
enjoy the fruits of his labor for long. Sher Shah Suri, who displaced
Humayun, made it his capital and carried out new constructions within it.
Although Humayun regained control of the city he loved, he tragically died
by falling from one of the buildings within the fort.

humayun's tomb

Humayun died in 1556, and his widow Hamida Banu Begam, also known as
Haji Begam, commenced the construction of his tomb in 1569, fourteen
years after his death. It is the first distinct example of proper Mughal style,
which was inspired by Persian architecture. The tomb proper stands in the
centre of a square garden, divided into four main parterres by causeways
(charbagh), in the centre of which ran shallow water-channels. The high
rubble built enclosure is entered through two lofty double-storeyed gateways
on the west and south
AKBAR

The emperor Akbar (1556–1605) built largely, and the style developed
vigorously during his reign. As in the Gujarat and other styles, there is a
combination of Muslim and Hindu features in his works. Akbar constructed
the royal city of Fatehpur Sikri, located 26 miles (42 km) west of Agra, in
the late 16th century. The numerous structures at Fatehpur Sikri best
illustrate the style of his works, and the great mosque there is scarcely
matched in elegance and architectural effect; the south gateway which is
known as Buland Darwaza, from its size and structure excels any similar
entrance in India.

FATEHPUR SIKRI

The historical city was constructed by Mughal emperor Akbar beginning in


1570 and served as the empire's capital from 1571 until 1585. Though the
court took 15 years to build, it was abandoned after only 14 years because
the water supply was unable to sustain the growing population.\l

Some of the important buildings in this city, both religious and secular are:
• Anup Talao: A tank with a central platform and four bridges leading
up to it.
• Buland Darwaza: One of the gateways to the Jama Masjid, a
stupendous piece of architecture from the outside, gradually making a
transition to a human scale in the inside.
• Diwan-i-Am : A building typology found in many cities where the
ruler meets the general public. In this case, it is a pavilion-like multi-
bayed rectangular structure fronting a large open space.
• Diwan-i-Khas: Famous for its central pillar with thirty-six volutes
supporting a circular platform for Akbar. It is here that Akbar had
representatives of different religions discuss their faiths.
• Hujra-i-Anup Talao: Said to be the residence of Akbar's Muslim wife,
although this is disputed due to its small size.
• Jama Masjid: The mosque, built in the manner of Indian mosques,
with liwans around a central courtyard. A distinguishing feature is the
row of chhatri over the sanctuary.
• Mariam-uz-Zamani's Palace: The building of Akbar's wife shows
Gujarati influence and is built around a courtyard, with special care
being taken to ensure privacy.
• Naubat Khana: Near the entry, where important arrivals are
announced.
• Pachisi Court: A square marked out as a large board game, the
precursor to modern day Ludo game where people served as the
playing pieces.
• Panch Mahal: A five-storied palatial structure. The bottom floor has
176 intricately carved columns.
• Birbal's House: The house of Akbar's favorite minister, who was a
Hindu. Notable features of the building are the horizontal sloping
sunshades or chajjas and the brackets which support them.
• Tomb of Salim Chisti: A white marble encased tomb within the Jama
Masjid's courtyard
AKBAR'S TOMB
The third Mughal Emperor Akbar the Great (1542 – 1605), himself
commenced its construction in around 1600, according to Tartary tradition to
commence the construction of one's tomb during one's lifetime. Akbar
himself planned his own tomb and selected a suitable site for it, after his
death, Akbar's son Jahangir completed the construction in 1605-1613
The grounds are a precise 690 m square, aligned with the points of the
compass, surrounded by walls, and laid out as a classic charbagh garden
style. A gatehouse stands at the center of each wall, and broad paved
avenues, laid out in Mughal style with central running water channels
representing the four rivers of Paradise, lead from these to the tomb at the
center of the square
The buildings are constructed mainly from a deep red sandstone, enriched
with features in white marble. Decorated inlaid panels of these materials and
a black slate adorn the tomb and the main gatehouse. Panel designs are
geometric, floral and calligraphic, and prefigure the more complex and
subtle designs later incorporated in Itmad-ud-Daulah's Tomb.
SHAHJAHAN
Shah Jahan has left behind a grand legacy of structures constructed during
his reign. He was a patron of architecture. His most famous building was the
Taj Mahal, now a wonder of the world, which he built out of love for
Mumtaz Mahal. Its structure was drawn with great care and architects from
all over the world were called for this purpose. The building took twenty
years to complete and was constructed entirely from the white marble. Upon
his death, his son Aurangazeb had him interred in it next to Mumtaz Mahal.
Among his other constructions are Delhi Fort also called the Red Fort or Lal
Qila (Urdu) in Delhi, large sections of Agra Fort, the Jama Masjid (Grand
Mosque), Delhi, the Wazir Khan Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan, the Moti Masjid
(Pearl Mosque), Lahore, the Shalimar Gardens in Lahore, sections of the
Lahore Fort, Lahore
RED FORT
RedFort showcases the very high level of art form and ornamental work. The
art work in the Fort is a synthesis of Persian, European and Indian art which
resulted in the development of unique Shahjahani style which is very rich in
form, expression and colour. Red Fort, Delhi is one of the important
building complexes of India which encapsulates a long period of Indian
history and its arts. Its significance has transcended time and space. It is
relevant as a symbol of architectural brilliance and power.
JAMA MASJID
Jama Masjid is the largest mosque in India. Located in Old Delhi, the
mosque has the capacity to accommodate 25000 devotees. Jama Masjid was
completed in 1656 AD and it was again the great Mughal Emperor Shah
Jahan behind this architectural masterpiece.Jama Masjid has three gates, two
minarets - 40 meters in height and four towers. The minarets are made up of
red sand stone and white marbles bearing stripes of black color.The mosque
stands on the hill of Bho Jhala, in the old Mughal capital called
Shahjahanabad. Prayer hall on the west is adorned by high cusped arches
and marble domes.
The mosque contains several remnants of the Muslim Religion like a replica
of the Quran written on a deer skin, a red beard-hair of the prophet, sandals
of the prophet and his footprint. It is believed that the total cost of Rs.10
lakhs was incurred for the construction of the mosque.One of the specialties
of Jama Masjid is the high ground construction that makes the appearance
even more beautiful. Broad and high steps lead to the main gateways.
WAZIR KHAN MOSQUE
F H Andrews, former Principal of the Mayo School of Arts, describes the
mosque thus: 'The material used in the construction of the Mosque is a small
tile-like brick universally used by the Mughals when stone was unusable or
too costly. The only stone used in the building is used for brackets and some
of the fretwork (pinjra). The walls were coated with plaster (chunam) and
faced with a finely-soft quality of the same material tooled to a marble-like
surface and coloured. All the external plasterwork was richly coloured a rich
Indian red, in true fresco, and the surface afterwards picked out with white
lines in the similitude of the small bricks beneath.
'Right and left of the sanctuary are two stately octagonal minars 100 feet in
height.Within the inner courtyard of the mosque lies the subterranean tomb
of Syed Muhammad Ishaq, known as Miran Badshah, a divine from Iran
who settled in Lahore during the time of the Tughluq dynasty. The tomb,
therefore, predates the mosque

MOTI MASJID
Moti in Urdu language means pearl, which designates a perceived
preciousness to the religious structure.The structure, located in the
northwestern corner of Dewan-e-Aam quadrangle, is typical of Mughal
architecture of Shah Jahan's times.[5] It is completely built of white marble
that was brought from Makrana[3] The façade is composed of cusped arches
and engaged baluster columns with smooth and fine contours.[6] The
mosque has three superimposed domes, two aisles of five bays, and a
slightly raised central pishtaq, or portal with a rectangular frame.[7] This
five-arched facade distinguishes it from other mosques of the similar class
with three-arched facades. The interior is simple and plain with the
exception of ceilings that are decorated and designed in four different orders,
two arcuate, and two trabeated
After the demise of the Mughal Empire, the mosque was converted into a
Sikh temple and renamed Moti Mandir during the period of the Sikh
Confederacy .
SHAHLIMAR GARDENS

The Shalimar Gardens are laid out in the form of an oblong parallelogram,
surrounded by a high brick wall, which is famous for its intricate fretwork.
This garden was made on the concept of Char Bhagh. The gardens measure
658 meters north to south and 258 meters east to west.
The three level terraces of the Gardens
The upper terrace named Farah Baksh meaning Bestower of Pleasure
. The middle terrace named Faiz Baksh meaning Bestower of Goodness
. The lower terrace named Hayat Baksh meaning Bestower of life

The upper level terrace has 105 fountains. The middle level terrace has 152
fountains. The lower level terrace has 153 fountains. All combined, the
Gardens therefore have 410 fountains.
The buildings of the Gardens include:
• Sawan
Bhadum
pavilions • Aramgah or Resting place
• Naqar Khana • Khawabgah of Begum Sahib or Dream place of the
and its emperor's wife
buildings • Baradaries or summer pavilions to enjoy the coolness
• Khwabgah or created by the Gardens' fountains
Sleeping • Diwan-e-Khas-o-Aam or Hall of special & ordinary
chambers audience with the emperor
• Hammam or • Two gateways and minarets in the corners of the
Royal bath Gardens
• The Aiwan or
Grand hall
Taj Mahal

The Taj Mahal is one of the most recognizable structures in the world. It
was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife,
Mumtaz Mahal. It is widely considered as one of the most beautiful
buildings in the world and stands as a symbol of eternal love.
Taj Mahal is the finest example of Mughal architecture, a style that
combines elements from Persian, Islamic and Indian architectural styles.
[3][4]
. The construction began around 1632 and was completed around 1653,
employing thousands of artisans and craftsmen.[5] The construction of the
Taj Mahal was entrusted to a board of architects under imperial supervision,
including Abd ul-Karim Ma'mur Khan, Makramat Khan, and Ustad Ahmad
Lahauri.[6][7] Lahauri[8] is generally considered to be the principal designer

Architecture
The tomb
Shah Jahan, grandson of Akbar, established his own "Shahjahani"
architectural style, using his grandfather's style as a model and a foundation
The central focus of the complex is the tomb. This large, white marble
structure stands on a square plinth and consists of a symmetrical building
with an iwan (an arch-shaped doorway) topped by a large dome and finial.
Like most Mughal tombs, the basic elements are Persian in origin.
The Taj Mahal seen from the banks of river Yamuna
The base structure is essentially a large, multi-chambered cube with
chamfered corners, forming an unequal octagon that is approximately 55
metres (180 ft) on each of the four long sides. On each of these sides, a huge
pishtaq, or vaulted archway, frames the iwan with two similarly shaped,
arched balconies stacked on either side. This motif of stacked pishtaqs is
replicated on the chamfered corner areas, making the design completely
symmetrical on all sides of the building. Four minarets frame the tomb, one
at each corner of the plinth facing the chamfered corners. The main chamber
houses the false sarcophagi of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan; the actual
graves are at a lower level.

The minarets, which are each more than 40 metres (130 ft) tall, display the
designer's penchant for symmetry. They were designed as working minarets
— a traditional element of mosques, used by the muezzin to call the Islamic
faithful to prayer. Each minaret is effectively divided into three equal parts
by two working balconies that ring the tower. At the top of the tower is a
final balcony surmounted by a chattri that mirrors the design of those on the
tomb. The chattris all share the same decorative elements of a lotus design
topped by a gilded finial. The minarets were constructed slightly outside of
the plinth so that, in the event of collapse, (a typical occurrence with many
tall constructions of the period) the material from the towers would tend to
fall away from the tomb.
AURANGAZEB
In Aurangzeb's reign (1658–1707) squared stone and marble gave way to
brick or rubble with stucco ornament. Srirangapatna and Lucknow have
examples of later Indo-Muslim architecture. He also added his mark to the
Lahore Fort. He also built one of the thirteen gates, and it was later named
after him, Alamgir. The most impressive building of Aurangzeb's reign, is
the Badshahi Mosque which was constructed in 1674 under the supervision
of Fida'i Koka. This mosque is adjacent to the Lahore Fort. Badshahi
Mosque is the last in the series of great congregational mosques in red
sandstone and is closely modeled on the one Shah Jahan built at
Shahjahanabad. The red sandstone of the walls contrasts with the white
marble of the domes and the subtle intarsia decoration.

BADSHASHI MOSQUE
Construction of the Badshahi Mosque was ordered in May 1671 by the sixth
Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb, who assumed the title Alamgir (meaning
"Conqueror of the World"). Construction took about two years and was
completed in April 1673.[2]
The Badshahi Mosque was built opposite the Lahore Fort, emphasizing its
stature in the Mughal Empire. It was constructed on a raised platform to
avoid inundation from the nearby Ravi River during flooding. The Mosque's
foundation and structure was constructed using bricks and compacted clay.
The structure was then cladded with red sandstone tiles brought from a stone
quarry near Jaipur in Rajasthan.
The construction work was carried out under the supervision of Aurangzeb's
foster brother Muzaffar Hussain (also known as Fidai Khan Koka) who was
appointed Governor of Lahore by Aurangzeb in May 1671 to specifically
oversee the construction of the Mosque and held that post until 1675. He
was also Master of Ordnance to Aurangzeb. In conjunction with the building
of the Badshahi Mosque, a new gate was built at the Lahore Fort opening
into the Hazuri Bagh and facing the main entrance of the Badshahi Mosque,
which was named Alamgiri Gate after Aurangzeb.
Aurangazeb didnot contribute much to the architecture and art of India.since
most of his lifetime was spent in the warfield.