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Understanding DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter)

Regeneration

2007-2009MY
Isuzu Diesel Engines
Equipped with DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter)
Benefits of understanding of the DPF system

3. Easier to explain the system to your customer


4. Help your customer avoid the “Limp home mode”
5. Save your customer time and money
6. Able to quickly and knowledgeably answer questions
7. Helping your customer have a worry free ownership
8. Repeat sales
PM
(g/kw-h)
The variable nozzle turbocharger
0.133 with charge air cooler and the
common rail fuel system reduced
nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate
04 EPA
matter (PM) emissions. In addition,
the EGR system helps to reduce
NOx dramatically. However, it is not
possible to meet the new emission
regulations with only these devices.
Therefore, 2007i / 2008 model diesel
0.013
07 EPA engines have a newly adapted
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
1.62 2.66 NOx
(g/kw-h) system which will reduce PM
dramatically.
07 EPA PM: 0.133 → 0.013 g/kw-h
BACKGROUND OF THE DIESEL
NOx: 2.66 → 1.62 g/kw
PARTICULATE FILTER (DPF)
DPF assembly cut-away

Exhaust Flow (inlet)


Oxidization
Catalyst

Diesel Particulate
Filter
DPF / Muffler / Diffuser Assembly
DPF and Oxidization Catalyst
Diesel Particulate Filter
Particulate Filter Basics
• The Filter is a Series of Dead End
Channels Porous Cell Wall
• Exhaust is Forced Through the
Wall to an Exit Channel, Which
Traps the Soot.

Trapped
Diesel
Particulate
Matter

Alternate cell
plugging pattern
Particulate Filter Basics
Particulate Filter Operation
• Particulate Matter is Trapped in the Exhaust “Filter”
• Filter Will Become Restricted and Will Need to be
Cleaned or “Regenerated”
• Regeneration is the Process of Raising Exhaust
Temperature to Burn Off Accumulated PM
• Particulate Matter Begins to Burn at 600º F (300º C)
• Highway Driving and High Engine Load Results in Lower
Accumulations and High Exhaust Temperatures
• Idling and Low Speed / Low Engine Load Creates More
PM
How Does the DPF Work ???
• Fuel injector operation during DPF regeneration:
• Previous models employed Pilot and Main
Injection
• 07i and 08 vehicles use any combination of :
Pre Injection
Pilot Injection
Main Injection
After Injection
Post Injection
DPF Ash Removal
Initial Ash Removal is Recommended @ 100,000
Miles or 3,000 Hrs Whichever Occurs First.

Exhaust Differential Pressure Check and Re-Learn


Procedure .

Thereafter Inspect Every 75,000 Miles or 2000 Hrs


Whichever Occurs First
Ash Cleaning

Ash Cleaner (Ash Remover)


ASH Cleaning
DPF Lamp and Switch Identification

2007-2009MY
Isuzu Diesel Engines
Equipped with DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter)
DPF Regeneration Switch
Regeneration Button in F / T Series
DPF Regeneration Lamps

Whenever the
DPF is
Regenerating,
A Lamp Will
Illuminate !!!!
Automatic Regeneration

Green DPF Lamp:

This Lamp Indicates the DPF is Actively Regenerating.


The Green Lamp will Illuminate Whenever the Vehicle is in
“Automatic Regeneration Mode”

Vehicle should be operated normally

Note: This process is performed every 180 miles (approximately)

      
Amber or Red Light
Amber/Orange or Red DPF Lamp:
(One indicator with two possible colors)
When this Lamp is Amber/Orange the DPF Filter is Dirty. Filter
Regeneration is Necessary at this Time. When Driving Continues
Without Regeneration, this DPF Lamp will Change from
Amber/Orange to RED. Continuing to Drive the Vehicle with the
Red Lamp Illuminated will Cause the Truck to go into Reduced
Power (“Limp Home Mode”).

Note: An audible chime will sound whenever the Amber/Orange


or Red DPF lamp illuminates. If no action is taken, the chime will
continue to sound periodically to advise the driver.

Green DPF Lamp will Illuminate Along with the


Amber/Orange or Red Lamp to Indicate When the
Regeneration Process is Occurring
Amber or Red Light
Amber/Orange or Red DPF Lamp:
(One indicator with two possible
colors)

• When the Amber/Red Lamp Illuminates, Driver


Interaction Is Required for 1 of 2 Options

• Option 1: Running
– Drive vehicle normally above 30 mph until the
green regeneration lamp illuminates along with the
Amber/Orange or Red Lamp. When regeneration is
completed, both lamps will turn off.
Emergency Regeneration
Amber/Orange or Red DPF Lamp:
(One indicator with two possible
colors)
Option 2: Switched
– Set the parking brake, engine running and transmission in
Park or Neutral Position
– Press DPF switch
– Green DPF lamp turns on along with the Amber/Orange or
Red Lamp.
– Engine RPM increases and the exhaust brake is activated for
about 20 minutes
– Regeneration is completed when both lamps turn off and the
idle RPM returns to normal.
– If Switched regeneration is interrupted, the DPF switch must
be pressed to restart process
DPF Operation During Stationary Regeneration

• Intake Air Throttle closes

• Exhaust Brake Closes

• Engine RPM is raised to 900 RPM

• Additional Fuel is used to raise the temperature of


Catalyst

• Cycle Lasts approximately 20-30 min


Interruption of emergency regeneration

• DPF Switched Regeneration is Interrupted by the Following Actions:


– Releasing the Parking Brake
– Engaging Power Take Off (PTO)
– Engine Speed Increases
>Accelerator Pedal Depressed or Idle Speed Control Knob
– Shifting the Transmission Out of Park
– Depressing the Clutch Pedal
– Switching the DPF Switch Off
• When manual regeneration interrupts,
– DPF Green Lamp turns off
– DPF Orange or Red Lamp continues to stay on
-> Must Restart Switched Regeneration!
Limp Home Mode during attempted
DPF Regeneration

• DPF emergency regeneration was not performed even


though the Red lamp was illuminated

• DPF differential pressure is too high

• DPF particulate matter accumulation mileage is over 180

• Catalyst temperature is too low during regeneration

• Emergency Regeneration fails


MIL Malfunction Indicator Lamp

Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL):

This lamp indicates a possible concern with engine and/ or emissions


performance. If regeneration is not completed as indicated by the DPF
warning lamps this light may be illuminated and the vehicle will operate
in “Limp Home” or Reduced Power Mode.

• This condition should only be diagnosed and repaired by an Isuzu


trained technician.
–  MIL lamp is on, vehicle speed is reduced
–  Technician diagnosis required
–  IDSS induced regeneration (fast or slow) based on diagnosis
– Slow process takes 2 hours
Selectable Regeneration

DPF Switch located on dash

• Note: For quickest possible regeneration, be sure the vehicle is at


operating temperature before performing selectable regeneration.
–  Engine running and transmission in “Park” Position
–  Parking brake is applied
–  Press and hold the DPF switch until the amber/orange DPF lamp turns “ON”
– If amber DPF lamp goes “Off”, regeneration is not necessary.
–  If the amber/orange DPF lamp stays on “ON”, it means that regeneration is
possible
– Press the DPF switch again to start regeneration
– The amber/orange DPF lamp will turn “ON” along with the green lamp
indicating that regeneration is taking place. This will take about 20 minutes.
–  Engine RPM will increase and the exhaust brake will activate
Additional Information

2007-2009MY
Isuzu Diesel Engines
Equipped with DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter)
Early Regeneration
• During pre delivery process (body building, transportation,
PDI, etc. . .) many starts and stops may be performed on
a vehicle without any road time to build up heat and
perform regeneration. This activity may require the DPF
system to regenerate at an early mileage. This
regeneration is requested as normal operation.
Intake Throttle Valve

The Intake Throttle and Exhaust Brake Will Close During


Automatic Regeneration.
• To Enhance the Operation of the Exhaust Brake.
• And During Cold Engine Warm Up.
Ignition Temperature for Rye Grass
IGNITION TEMPERATURE VERSUS CONTACT TIME FOR DRIED GRASS
(Method based on U.S. Forest Service Test ED & T 1337)

1 1 00

1 000

900

IG N IT E S Rye Grass
800
Ho t
Su r f ace 700
Tem p er at u r e
(F) 600

500 675 degrees


400
N O I G N IT IO N

300

200
0 2 4 6 8 10

Co n t act t im e: M in u t es
Exhaust Differential Pressure Sensor
.

Never Ever Change the length of the


Hoses or Reverse them!!!!!!!
EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE
(EGT) SENSORS 1 and 2

Both EGT sensors 1 and 2 are a


variable resistor type. Sensor 1
measures the temperature of the
exhaust gas in front of oxygen
catalyst and Sensor 2 measures
the temperature of the exhaust
gas in front of DPF. The ECM
monitors both temperatures for
filter regeneration control.
Review Questions
1. What do I do when the green light comes on?
Answer: Nothing….. Continue to operate the vehicle as
usual, this lamp indicates the system is operational and
the truck is regenerating.
2.) What do I do when the amber/orange light comes on?
Answer: Operate the vehicle above 30 mph for
approximately 20 minutes or Park the vehicle (set the
hand brake) and press the regeneration button.
3.) What do I do when the red light comes on?
Answer: Operate the vehicle above 30 mph for
approximately 20 minutes or Park the vehicle (set the
hand brake) and press the regeneration button.
Review Questions
4.) The amber/orange light came on - I parked the vehicle
and pressed the regeneration button - then I drove off.
The truck drove normally, until the Red light came on and
Check Engine Light (MIL) illuminated and the truck started
barely running - what happened
Answer: The truck went into “limp home mode” because it
did not finish switched regeneration.
5.) What do I do if I need to manually regenerate every
day?
Answer: Plan for this required event in your daily activity.
6.) What is the anticipated regeneration interval?
Answer: The regeneration interval is approximately 180
miles
Engine Oil Level
During Regeneration, trace fuel may become mixed with the
engine oil causing the engine oil level to rise.
For this reason, the oil dipstick mark inspection procedure
have been changed.

Necessary to
change oil ASAP
Position A ×

Full ● Usable
Notch in Refill to
FULL
dipstick
MIN ●
Necessary to
add oil
Fuel and Oil Recommendations

Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel

API Rated CJ-4 Oil


(low ash)
Sun visor Label
Information
• More detailed information regarding the DPF system can
be found in the following areas listed below.
• Owners manual
• Driver side visor
• Emission System Operation video in glove box
• The following websites;
– www.isuzutruckservice.com
– www.isuzucv.org
– www.isuzudieselengine.com
• Service Information Bulletin
» Information IB07-L-001
» Information IB07-L-002A
Emissions Operations CD/DVD
• Each new truck will be equipped with a Driver Education CD.
• This CD will be located in the glove box of every new truck.
• The CD had an audio section and a video section.
Summary

»Question & Answers