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Arsitektur Komputer

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ARITMATIKA KOMPUTER
Materi :
 Englander, bab 2 dan 3
 Stallings, bab 8
 IEEE 754 pada website IEEE
Komputer  sistem biner
Tanya kenapa?
 Desain komputer terdahulu : desimal
◦ Mark I and ENIAC
 John von Neumann mengusulkan
pemrosesan data biner (1945)
◦ Desain komputer yang lebih sederhana
◦ Digunakan u/ instruksi dan data
 Hubungan alami antara
switch on/off dan kalkulasi On Off
True False
menggunakan logika Boolean
Yes No
1 0

Chapter 2 Number Systems 2-3


Biner : Representasi Integer
 Hanya memiliki 1 dan 0 untuk
merepresentasikan semuanya
 Angka positif disimpan dalam biner
◦ e.g. 41=00101001
 Tidak ada tanda negatif
◦ Sign-Magnitude
 Two’s compliment
Sign-Magnitude
 Bit paling kiri  bit penanda
 0 = positif
 1 = negatif
 +18 = 00010010
 -18 = 10010010
 Masalah
◦ Perlu mempertimbangkan kedua tanda
dan besaran dalam aritmatika
◦ Dua representasi “nol” (+0 dan -0)
Komplemen Dua
 +3 = 00000011
 +2 = 00000010
 +1 = 00000001
 +0 = 00000000
 -1 = 11111111
 -2 = 11111110
 -3 = 11111101
Keuntungan
 Satu representasi “nol” (00000000)
 Perhitungan aritmatika lebih mudah
 Cukup mudah menegatifkan
◦ 3 = 00000011
◦ Boolean complement : 11111100
◦ Add 1 to LSB : 11111101
Geometric Depiction of Twos
Complement Integers
Negation Special Case 1
 0= 00000000
 Bitwise not 11111111
 Add 1 to LSB +1
 Result 1 00000000
 Overflow is ignored, so:
-0=0
Range of Numbers
 8 bit 2s compliment
◦ +127 = 01111111 = 27 -1
◦ -128 = 10000000 = -(27)
 16 bit 2s compliment
◦ +32767 = 011111111 11111111 = 215 - 1
◦ -32768 = 100000000 00000000 = -215
Aritmatika
 Desimal atau basis 10
◦ Asal: perhitungan menggunakan jari
◦ “Digit” berasal dari bahasa Latin digitus yang
artinya “jari”
 Base / Basis : angka pada beberapa digit
yang berbeda termasuk nol
◦ Contoh : Basis 10  10 digit, 0 sampai 9
 Binary  basis 2
 Bit (binary digit): 2 digit, 0 dan 1
 Octal atau basis 8: 8 digit, 0 sampai 7
 Hexadecimal atau basis 16:
16 digits, 0 sampai F
◦ Examples: 1010 = A16; 1110 = B16

2-
Chapter 2 Number Systems 11
“Keeping Track of the Bits”
 “Bit” umumnya disimpan dan
dimanipulasi pada suatu grup:
◦ 8 bits = 1 byte
◦ 4 bytes = 1 word
 Jumlah bit yang digunakan :
◦ Mempengaruhi akurasi hasil
◦ Membatasi ukuran angka yang bisa
dimanipulasi oleh komputer

2-
Chapter 2 Number Systems 12
Angka : Representasi Fisik
 Jumlah jeruk yang sama
dengan angka yang
berbeda
◦ Cave dweller: IIIII
◦ Roman: V
◦ Arabic: 5
 Basis berbeda, namun
jumlah sama
◦ 510
◦ 1012
◦ 123

Chapter 2 Number Systems 2-13


Number System
 Roman: position independent
 Modern: based on positional notation
(place value)
◦ Decimal system: system of positional notation
based on powers of 10.
◦ Binary system: system of positional notation
based powers of 2
◦ Octal system: system of positional notation
based on powers of 8
◦ Hexadecimal system: system of positional
notation based powers of 16

2-
Chapter 2 Number Systems 14
Positional Notation: Base 10
43 = 4 x 101 + 3 x 100
10’s place 1’s place

Place 101 100

Value 10 1

Evaluate 4 x 10 3 x1

Sum 40 3

2-
Chapter 2 Number Systems 15
Positional Notation: Base 10
527 = 5 x 102 + 2 x 101 + 7 x 100
100’s place 10’s place 1’s place

Place 102 101 100

Value 100 10 1

Evaluate 5 x 100 2 x 10 7 x1

Sum 500 20 7

2-
Chapter 2 Number Systems 16
Positional Notation: Octal
6248 = 40410
64’s place 8’s place 1’s place

Place 82 81 80

Value 64 8 1

Evaluate 6 x 64 2x8 4x1


Sum for 384 16 4
Base 10

2-
Chapter 2 Number Systems 17
Positional Notation:
Hexadecimal
6,70416 = 26,37210
4,096’s place 256’s place 16’s place 1’s place

Place 163 162 161 160

Value 4,096 256 16 1

Evaluate 6x 7 x 256 0 x 16 4x1


4,096
Sum for 24,576 1,792 0 4
Base 10

2-
Chapter 2 Number Systems 18
Positional Notation: Binary
1101 01102 = 21410

Place 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20

Value 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

Evaluate 1 x 128 1 x 64 0 x 32 1 x16 0x8 1x4 1x2 0x1

Sum for 128 64 0 16 0 4 2 0


Base 10

Chapter 2 Number Systems 2-19


Estimating Magnitude: Binary

1101 01102 = 21410

1101 01102 > 19210 (128 + 64 + additional bits to the right)


Place 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20

Value 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

Evaluate 1 x 128 1 x 64 0 x 32 1 x16 0x8 1x4 1x2 0x1

Sum for 128 64 0 16 0 4 2 0


Base 10

Chapter 2 Number Systems 2-20


Range of Possible Numbers
 R = BK where
◦ R = range
◦ B = base
◦ K = number of digits
 Example #1: Base 10, 2 digits
◦ R = 102 = 100 different numbers (0…99)
 Example #2: Base 2, 16 digits
◦ R = 216 = 65,536 or 64K
◦ 16-bit PC can store 65,536 different number
values

Chapter 2 Number Systems 2-21


Decimal Range for Bit Widths
Bits Digits Range
1 0+ 2 (0 and 1)
4 1+ 16 (0 to 15)
8 2+ 256
10 3 1,024 (1K)
16 4+ 65,536 (64K)
20 6 1,048,576 (1M)
32 9+ 4,294,967,296 (4G)
64 19+ Approx. 1.6 x 1019
128 38+ Approx. 2.6 x 1038

Chapter 2 Number Systems 2-22


Base or Radix
 Base:
◦ The number of different symbols required to
represent any given number
 The larger the base, the more numerals are
required
◦ Base 10: 0,1, 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9
◦ Base 2: 0,1
◦ Base 8: 0,1,2, 3,4,5,6,7
◦ Base 16: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F

2-
Chapter 2 Number Systems 23
Number of Symbols
vs. Number of Digits
 For a given number, the larger the
base
◦ the more symbols required
◦ but the fewer digits needed
 Example #1:
◦ 6516 10110 1458 110 01012
 Example #2:
◦ 11C16 28410 4348 1 0001 11002

2-
Chapter 2 Number Systems 24
Counting in Base 2
Binary Equivalent Decimal
Number 8’s (23) 4’s (22) 2’s (21) 1’s (20) Number
0 0 x 20 0
1 1 x 20 1
10 1 x 21 0 x 20 2
11 1 x 21 1 x 20 3
100 1 x 22 4
101 1 x 22 1 x 20 5
110 1 x 22 1 x 21 6
111 1 x 22 1 x 21 1 x 20 7
1000 1 x 23 8
1001 1 x 23 1 x 20 9
1010 1 x 23 1 x 21 10

Chapter 2 Number Systems 2-25


Addition
Base Problem Largest Single Digit

6
Decimal 9
+3

6
Octal 7
+1
6
Hexadecimal F
+9
1
Binary 1
+0

Chapter 2 Number Systems 2-26


Addition
Base Problem Carry Answer
6
Decimal Carry the 10 10
+4

6
Octal Carry the 8 10
+2
6
Hexadecimal Carry the 16 10
+A
1
Binary Carry the 2 10
+1

Chapter 2 Number Systems 2-27


Binary Arithmetic

1 1 1 1 1

1 1 0 1 1 0 1
+ 1 0 1 1 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1

Chapter 2 Number Systems 2-28


Binary Arithmetic
 Addition
◦ Boolean using + 0 1
XOR and AND 0 0 1
 Multiplication 1 1 10
◦ AND
◦ Shift x 0 1
 Division 0 0 00
1 00 01

2-
Chapter 2 Number Systems 29
Binary Arithmetic: Boolean Logic
 Boolean logic without performing arithmetic
◦ EXCLUSIVE-OR
 Output is “1” only if either input, but not both inputs, is a “1”
◦ AND (carry bit)
 Output is “1” if and only both inputs are a “1”

1 1 1 1 1

1 1 0 1 1 0 1
+ 1 0 1 1 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1

Chapter 2 Number Systems 2-30


Binary Multiplication
 Boolean logic without performing
arithmetic
◦ AND (carry bit)
 Output is “1” if and only both inputs are a “1”
◦ Shift
 Shifting a number in any base left one digit multiplies its
value by the base
 Shifting a number in any base right one digit divides its
value by the base
 Examples:
 1010 shift left = 10010  1010 shift right = 110
 102 shift left = 1002  102 shift right = 12
Chapter 2 Number Systems 2-31
Binary Multiplication

1 1 0 1

1 0 1

1 1 0 1 1’s place

0 2’s place

1 1 0 1 4’s place (bits shifted to line up with 4’s place of multiplier)

1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Result (AND)

Chapter 2 Number Systems 2-32


Binary Multiplication
1 1 0 1 1 0 1

x 1 0 0 1 1 0

1 1 0 1 1 0 1 2’s place (bits shifted to line


up with 2’s place of multiplier)

1 1 0 1 1 0 1 4’s place

1 1 0 1 1 0 1 32’s place

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 Result (AND)
Note the 0 at the end, since
the 1’s place is not brought
down.

Note: multiple carries are possible.

Chapter 2 Number Systems 2-33


From Base 10 to Base 2
Base 10 42 Remainder

Quotient 2 ) 42 ( 0 Least significant bit


2 ) 21 ( 1
2 ) 10 ( 0
2) 5 (1
2) 2 (0
2) 1 Most significant bit
Base 2 101010
Chapter 2 Number Systems 2-34
From Base 10 to Base 16
Base 10 5,735 Remainder

Quotient 16 ) 5,735 ( 7 Least significant bit


16 ) 358 ( 6
16 ) 22 ( 6
16 ) 1 ( 1 Most significant bit
16 ) 0
Base 16 1667

Chapter 2 Number Systems 2-35


From Base 10 to Base 16
Base 10 8,039 Remainder

Quotient 16 ) 8,039 ( 7 Least significant bit


16 ) 502 ( 6
16 ) 31 ( 15
16 ) 1 ( 1 Most significant bit
16 ) 0
Base 16 1F67

Chapter 2 Number Systems 2-36


From Base 8 to Base 10
72638 = 3,76310
Power 83 82 81 80

512 64 8 1

x7 x2 x6 x3
Sum for
Base 10 3,584 128 48 3

Chapter 2 Number Systems 2-37


From Base 8 to Base 10
72638 = 3,76310
7
x8
56 + 2 = 58
x8
464 + 6 = 470
x8
3760 + 3 = 3,763

Chapter 2 Number Systems 2-38


From Base 16 to Base 2
 The nibble approach
◦ Hex easier to read and write than binary

Base 16 1 F 6 7

Base 2 0001 1111 0110 0111

◦ Why hexadecimal?
 Modern computer operating systems and networks
present variety of troubleshooting data in hex format

Chapter 2 Number Systems 2-39


Hardware for Addition and
Subtraction
Unsigned Binary Multiplication
Expressible Numbers
IEEE 754
 Standard for floating point storage
 32 and 64 bit standards
 8 and 11 bit exponent respectively
 Extended formats (both mantissa and
exponent) for intermediate results
Floating
Point
Multiplication
Floating
Point
Division