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PK291N: Petroleum Testing Lab

Title of the Experiment: ASTM distillation

Date of Conduction: 3/03/2010

Date of Submission: 17/03/2010

Vivek Chaudhary
Manisha Gupta
Mohd. kashif
Grp No-4
Objective
To carry out the ASTM distillation of given gasoline sample(ASTM D86).

Apparatus/Materials Used

• A 100 ml sample of gasoline


• Distillation flask- A 100 ml distillation flask of borosilicate glass
• Condenser and cooling bath
• Flask support
• Graduated cylinder-A 100 ml cylinder with least count of 1 ml
• Source of heat-electric heater
• Thermometer:Range-(0-300)oC with 1oC as the least count
• Shield

Theory

ASTM distillation is carried on petroleum products.It is a non-fractionating distillation.This is


also called Engler distillation.

This method gives the distillation range of petroleum products. It is applicable to organic
liquids such as hydrocarbons,oxygenated compounds,chemical intermediates and blends
thereof.

The distillation charactristics give a broad indication of fuel type.Being a measure of voltality
,they determine the system of fuel metering required (wick feed,carburation or
atomization),and are indicative of the vapourisation behaviour of fuels in storage (vapour loss
& vapour lock),and in piston-engine manifolds (uniformity of distribution to cylinders).The
extent of the distillation range for any given fuel is representative of the availability of that fuel
from the parent crude oil.
The IP designation of ASTM distillation is IP123/83 and the corresponding ASTM designation
is ASTM D86-78
Observations:
• Room temperature=25.0oC
• Temperature of condenser bath=29.0oC
• Volume of gasoline sample taken=100.0 ml

INITIAL BOILING POINT=49 °C

S.NO. RECOVERY IN ml TEMPERATURE TIME IN sec


IN °C
1 10 105 154
2 20 110 164
3 30 118 119
4 40 120 94
5 50 128 95
6 60 132 97
7 70 140 98
8 80 150 85
9 90 160 83
10 98 184 75
Results
• Initial boiling poiint=60.0oC
• End point 5 minutes=182.0oC
Discussion
• ASTM distillation specifies the evaporation characteristics of gasoline.Ease of
starting is governed by IBP to 10% range boiling point.Lower IBPs are preffered
for cold climates. A drawback of very low IBP is vapour locking of the engine due
to high evaporation.
• According to Indian specifications for gasoline temperature corresponding to 10%
recovery is 70.0 oC, 50% recovery –125.0 oC , 90% recovery-180.0 oC.
• 10% boiling point is lower than that of specified one.It implies that the given
gasoline sample has :
Flash point - low
Ease of starting - excellent
Vapour losses - very high
Vapour locking - high
in comparision to the gasoline fuel as per Indian specifications.
• 50% , 90% boiling points have also been observed lower as compared to specified
ones. A lower 90% boiling point signify decrease in crank case dilution as the
fuel is volatile at the working conditions of carburettor.

Sources of errors/precautions
• Temperature of te condenser bath was not equal to 0.0 oC.It was equal to 29.0 oC
,which is very high as compared to 0.0 oC.
• Heating rate was not equal to the prescribed heating rate in ASTM
INTERNATIONAL manual.According to the prescribed heating rate ,2 drops per
second of condensate should fall in the cylinder .In the experiment performed , just
one drop was falling in the cylinder in one second.
• Capacity of the flask for holding the gasoline sample was not equal to 200 ml.
• Thermometer readings should be read carefully.