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Code AASHTO-LRFD 2012

Element 268
Position I
Moment Type Beam

I. Design Condition (Positive Flexure)


1. Section Properties
1) Slab Properties
Bs = 5150.000 mm
ts = 300.000 mm
th = 140.000 mm
fc' = 33.000 MPa
Ec = 28091.180 MPa
Ar = 18025.770 mm2
Fyr = 275.790 MPa

2) Girder Properties
[Section]
bfc = 450.000 mm bft = 2000.000 mm
tfc = 40.000 mm tft = 40.000 mm
D = 2537.185 mm tw = 20.000 mm
H = 2539.000 mm

Position Material Thick (mm) fy (MPa) fu (MPa) Note


Compression Flange SM520 40.000 450.000 570.000 less than 50.8 mm.
Tension Flange SM520 40.000 450.000 570.000 less than 50.8 mm.
Web SM520 20.000 450.000 570.000 less than 50.8 mm.

[Design Strength]
Fyc = 450.000 MPa(Compression Flange Yield Strength)
Fyw = 450.000 MPa(Web Yield Strength)
Fyt = 450.000 MPa(Tension Flange Yield Strength)
Es = ### MPa(Elastic Modulus of Steel)

3) Transverse Stiffener Properties


Position Type Fy (MPa) H (mm) B (mm) tw(mm) tf(mm) d0 (mm)
Web 1Side 0.000 0.000 0.000 - - 0.000

2. Elastic Section Properties


1) Steel Section
A (mm2) 217487.4 Iy (mm4) 218361255517.5 Iz (mm4) 284300111614.0
dTop (mm) 1522.3 dBot (mm) 1016.7
STop (mm3) 143442888.8 SBot (mm3) 214771790.4
SL (mm3) 157944506.5 SR (mm3) 157944506.5
2) Short-term Composite Section
A(n) (mm2) 427121.0 Iy(n) (mm4) 555217059697.2 Iz(n) (mm4) 747634151641.1
dTop(n) (mm) 652.4 dBot(n) (mm) 1886.6
STop(n) (mm3) 850988751.0 SBot(n) (mm3) 294300925.4
SL(n) (mm3) 415352306.5 SR(n) (mm3) 415352306.5

3) Long-term Composite Section


(Es/Ec = 3n (or n for time dependent material properties defined since the analysis results take into account the long term effects))
A(3n) (mm2) 427121.0 Iy(3n) (mm4) 555217059697.2 Iz(3n) (mm4) 747634151641.1
dTop(3n) (mm) 652.4 dBot(3n) (mm) 1886.6
STop(3n) (mm3) 850988751.0 SBot(3n)(mm3) 294300925.4
SL(3n) (mm3) 415352306.5 SR(3n) (mm3) 415352306.5

II. Strength Limit State - Flexural Resistance


1. Flexure
■ Positive moment
1) Design Forces and Stresses
Positive load combination does not exist. Omit this check.

III. Design Condition (Negative Flexure)


1. Section Properties
1) Slab Properties
Bs = 5150.000 mm
ts = 300.000 mm
th = 140.000 mm
fck = 33.000 MPa
Ec = 28091.180 MPa
Ar = 18025.770 mm2
Fyr = 275.790 MPa

2) Girder Properties
[Section]
bfc = 2000.000 mm bft = 450.000 mm
tfc = 40.000 mm tft = 40.000 mm
D = 2537.185 mm tw = 20.000 mm
H = 2539.0000 mm

Position Material Thick (mm) fy (MPa) fu (MPa) Note


Compression Flange SM520 40.000 450.000 570.000 less than 50.8 mm.
Tension Flange SM520 40.000 450.000 570.000 less than 50.8 mm.
Web SM520 20.000 450.000 570.000 less than 50.8 mm.

[Design Strength]
Fyc = 450.000 MPa(Compression Flange Yield Strength)
Fyw = 450.000 MPa(Web Yield Strength)
Fyt = 450.000 MPa(Tension Flange Yield Strength)
Es = ### MPa(Elastic Modulus of Steel)

3) Transverse Stiffener Properties


Position Type Fy (MPa) H (mm) B (mm) tw(mm) tf(mm) d0 (mm)
Web 1Side 0.000 0.000 0.000 - - 0.000

2. Elastic Section Properties


1) Steel Section
A (mm2) 217487.4 Iy (mm4) 218361255517.5 Iz (mm4) 284300111614.0
dTop (mm) 1522.3 dBot (mm) 1016.7
STop (mm3) 143442888.8 SBot (mm3) 214771790.4
SL (in3) 157944506.5 SR (in3) 157944506.5

2) Short-term Composite Section


A(n) (mm2) 427121.0 Iy(n) (mm4) 555217059697.2 Iz(n) (mm4) 747634151641.1
dTop(n) (mm) 652.4 dBot(n) (mm) 1886.6
STop(n) (mm ) 3
850988751.0 SBot(n) (mm ) 3
294300925.4
SL(n) (mm3) 415352306.5 SR(n) (mm3) 415352306.5

3) Long-term Composite Section


(Es/Ec = 3n (or n for time dependent material properties defined since the analysis results take into account the long term effects))
A(n) (mm2) 427121.0 Iy(n) (mm4) 555217059697.2 Iz(n) (mm4) 747634151641.1
dTop(n) (mm) 652.4 dBot(n) (mm) 1886.6
STop(n) (mm3) 850988751.0 SBot(n) (mm3) 294300925.4
SL(n) (mm ) 3
415352306.5 SR(n) (mm ) 3
415352306.5

4) Short-term Composite Section(Long. Reinforcement)


A(R) (mm2) 235513.2 Iy(R) (mm4) 264778389736.9 Iz(R) (mm4) 325431511037.5
dTop(R) (mm) 1394.5 dBot(R) (mm) 1144.5
STop(R) (mm3) 189876119.3 SBot(R) (mm3) 231344419.8
SL(R) (mm3) 180795283.9 SR(R) (mm3) 180795283.9

5) Long-term Composite Section(Long. Reinforcement/3)


A(R3) (mm2) 223496.0 Iy(R3) (mm4) 0.0 Iz(R3) (mm4) 298010318234.2
dTop(R3) (mm) 1477.4 dBot(R3) (mm) 1061.6
STop(R3) (mm3) 158837319.5 SBot(R3)(mm3) 221047421.9
SL(R3) (mm ) 3
165561287.9 SR(R3)(mm ) 3
165561287.9

IV. Strength Limit State - Flexural Resistance


1. Flexure
■ Negative moment
1) Design Forces and Stresses
Loadcombination Name :KUAT 1
Loadcombination Type :-
Mu (kN·m) Vu T
Component
Steel (MD1) Long-term (MD2) Short-term Sum (kN) (kN·m)
Forces (-) -42120.151 -14409.445 997.736 -55531.860 -1987.016 10.618

fc,t (MPa)
Component
Steel (MD1) Long-term (MD2) Short-term Sum
Top 293.637 90.718 -5.255 379.101
Stresses
Bot -196.116 -65.187 4.313 -256.990

Muz (kN·m)
Component
Steel (MDz1) Long-term (MDz2) Short-term(MDz3) Sum
Forces 1.439 -86.777 -14.227 -99.565

fl (MPa)
Component
Steel (MDz1) Long-term (MDz2) Short-term(MDz3) Sum
Left 0.005 -0.044 -0.291 -0.330
Stresses
Right -0.005 0.044 0.291 0.330

2) Cross-section Proportions
① Web Proportions (AASHTO LRFD Bridge, 2012, 6.11.2.1)
D
= 126.859 ≤ 150 ...... OK
tw

② Flange Proportions (AASHTO LRFD Bridge, 2012, 6.11.2.2)


bf
= 5.625 ≤ 12 ...... OK
2tf
bf = 450.000 ≥ D/6 = 422.864 ...... OK
tf = 40.000 ≥ 1.1tw = 22.000 ...... OK

③ Minimum Negative Flexure Concrete Deck Reinforcement (AASHTO LRFD Bridge, 2012, 6.10.1.7)
Ars = 18025.770 ≥ 0.01Adeck = 16350.000 mm2 ...... OK
in which :
Adeck = ### mm2

3) Flexural Strength Limit State in Negative flexure


▪ Section Classification (AASHTO LRFD Bridge, 2012 6.10.6.2.3)
min ( Fyc, Fyt ) = 450.000 ≤ 485.00 MPa ...... OK
Iyc
= 87.79 ≥ 0.3 ...... OK
Iyt
2 Dc Es
= 101.714 ≤ 5.7 √ = 121.659 ...... OK
tw Fyc
in which :
Iyc = ### mm4
Iyt = ### mm4
Dc = 1017.137 mm

∴ Compact or Noncompact section.

▪ Hybrid Factor, Rh (AASHTO LRFD Bridge, 2012, 6.10.1.10.1)


Rh = 1.000 (homogeneous section)

▪ Web Load-Shedding Factor, Rb (AASHTO LRFD Bridge, 2012, 6.10.1.10.2)


2 Dc Es
= 101.714 ≤ λrw = 5.7 √ = 121.659
tw fyc
in which :
fyc = 450.000 MPa(specified minimum yield strength of a compression flange)

Rb = 1.000

▪ Local Buckling Resistance based on Unstiffened Flanges (AASHTO LRFD Bridge, 2012, 6.11.8.2.2)
λf = bfc / tfc = 47.500
E·k
λp = 0.57 √ = 24.332
Fyc · △
E·k
λr = 0.95 √ = 48.470
Fyr
in which :
fv
△ = √ 1- 3( )2 = 1.00000 ( fv = T / 2 Ao tfc )
Fyc
A0 = ### mm2
Fyr = 315.000 MPa ( Fyc · (△ - 0.3) )
k = 4.000 ( plate-buckling coefficient for uniform normal stress )

λp < λf ≤ λr Therefore,
△ - 0.3 λf - λp
Fcb = Rb · Rh · Fyc [ △- ( △ - )( )] = 320.426 MPa
Rh λr - λp
in which :
Fyc = 450.000 MPa
Rb = 1.000
Rh = 1.000

E · ks
λf ≤ 1.12 √
Fyc Therefore,
Fcv = 0.58 · Fyc = 261.000 MPa
in which :
ks = 5.340 ( plate-buckling coefficient for shear stress)

fv
Fnc = Fcb · √ 1 - ( )2 = 320.426 MPa
Фv · Fcv
▪ Flexural Resistance based on Flange in Tension (AASHTO LRFD Bridge, 2012, 6.11.8)
fbu = 379.101 ≤ Фf · Fnt = 450.000 MPa ...... OK
in which :
Фf = 1.000
Fnt = Rh · Fyt = 450.000 MPa

▪ Flexural Resistance based on box Flange in Compression (AASHTO LRFD Bridge, 2012, 6.11.8)
fbu = 256.990 ≤ Фf · Fnc = 320.426 MPa ...... OK
in which :
Фf = 1.000
Fnc = 320.426 MPa

V. Strength Limit State - Shear Resistance


1. Shear
■ Max
1) Design Forces and Stresses
Loadcombination Name :KUAT 1
Loadcombination Type :-
Vu (kN)
Component
Steel Long-term Short-term Sum
Forces -1602.722 -459.128 8.877 -2052.973

2) Shear Resistance (AASHTO LRFD Bridge, 2012, 6.10.9)


▪ Ratio of the shear-buckling resistance to the shear yield strength, C (AASHTO LRFD Bridge, 2012, 6.10.9.3.2)
▪ Web Classification
Longitudinal Stiffener : Not Exist
Transverse Stiffener : Not Exist
Transverse Spacing = 0.0 mm < 3D = 7611.6 mm
So, this web is considere unstiffened web

shear-buckling coefficient of unstiffened Webs


k = 5.000

D E·k
= 126.859 > 1.40 √ = 66.816
tw Fyw
therefore,
1.57 E·k
C = ·( )= 0.222
D Fyw
( )
2
tw

▪ Nominal Resistance of Unstiffened interior Webs or End panel (AASHTO LRFD Bridge, 2012, 6.10.9.3.3)
Vp = 0.58Fyw · D · tw = 13244.104 kN
Vn = Vcr = C · Vp = 2942.994 kN
in which :
C = ratio of the shear-buckling resistance to the shear yield strength
= 0.222

Transverse Spacing = 0.0 mm < 1.5 D = 3805.8 mm ...... OK

Vui = -2052.973 ≤ Фv · Vn = 2942.994 kN ...... OK


in which :
Фv = 1.000

VI. Service Limit State


■ Positive/Negative moment
1) Design Forces and Stresses
There is no service load combination. Omit this check.

■ Negative moment
1) Design Forces and Stresses
▪ Concrete Deck Effectiveness Check
fr, modulus of rupture = 3.619 MPa
Service II factored longitudinal tensile stress in de = 4.273 MPa
∴ Concrete deck is effective in tension

Loadcombination Name :LAYAN 2


Loadcombination Type :-
Ms (kN·m) / fc,t (MPa)
Component
Steel Long-term Short-term Sum
Forces (+) -33582.917 -16452.191 0.369 -50034.740
Top 234.120 19.333 0.000 253.453
Stresses
Bot -156.366 -55.903 0.001 -212.267

④ Check stress of the concrete deck (AASHTO LRFD Bridge, 2012, 6.10.4.2)
fdeck = 4.273 ≤ 2x 0.24 Φx√ fc' = 6.514 MPa The concrete deck is effective
in which :
M·y ( ### ) · ( 1052.438 )
fdeck = = = 4.273 MPa
I·n ( ### ) · ( 7.298 )
n = Es / E c = 7.298
Φ = 0.900
fc' = 33.000 MPa

2) Permanent deformation (AASHTO LRFD Bridge, 2012, 6.10.4.2)


▪ This section is not a compact section in positive flexure, skip top and bottom flange stress check.

③ Nominal Bend-buckling Resistance for webs (AASHTO LRFD Bridge, 2012, 6.10.4.2.4)
0.9 E · k
Fcrw = = 499.834 MPa ≤ min ( Rh·Fyc, Fyw/0.7 ) = 450.000 MPa
( D / tw )2
∴ Fcrw = 450.000 MPa
in which :
Dc = 1152.754 mm
k = 9 / ( DC / D )2 = 43.599

fc = -212.267 MPa ≤ Fcrw = 450.000 MPa ...... OK


in which :
fc = compression-flange stress at the section under consideration due to the Service II loads.

▪ Check minimum negative flexure concrete deck reinforcement (AASHTO LRFD Bridge, 2012, 6.10.1.7)
fdeck = 4.273 > 0.24 Φx√ fc' = 3.257 MPa
in which :
M·y ( ### ) · ( 1052.438 )
fdeck = = = 4.273 MPa
I·n ( ### ) · ( 7.298 )
n = Es / E c = 7.298
Φ = 0.900
fc' = 33.000 MPa

fdeck > 0.24Φ√ fc'


So, minimum negative flexure concrete deck reinforcement is needed.
∴ Ar = 18025.770 mm2 > Ar_lim = 0.01Adeck = 15450.000 mm2 ...... OK

VII. Constructibility
1. Flexure
■ Negative moment
1) Design Forces and Stresses
Construction Stage : Stage2-3
Step : 2
Mu (kN·m) / fc,t (MPa) Tu
Component
Steel Section Only (kN·m)
Force (-) -42120.151 1.053
Stress Top 293.637
-
(fbu) Bot -196.116

2) Check slenderness of web (AASHTO LRFD Bridge, 2012, 6.10.6.2.3-1)


2 · Dc Es
= 100.777 ≤ 5.7 √ = 121.659 .... Compact or noncompact Web
tw Fyc
in which :
Dc = 1007.768 mm

3) Discretely Braced Flanges in Compression (AASHTO LRFD Bridge, 2012, 6.10.3.2.1)


① Check flange nominal yielding (6.11.3.2-3)
fbu = 293.642 ≤ Φf · Rh · Fyf · △ = 450.000 MPa ...... OK
in which :
Φf = 1.000
Rh = 1.000
fv
△ = √ 1-3 ( )2 = 1.00000
△ = √ 1-3 ( )2 = 1.00000
Fyf
in Which :
T
fv = = 0.002 MPa
2 · A0 ·tf
A0 = ### mm2

② Check flexural resistance


fbu = 293.642 ≤ Φf · Fnc = 320.426 MPa ...... OK
in which :
Φf = 1.000
Fnc = 320.426 MPa

▪ Web Load-Shedding Factor, Rb (AASHTO LRFD Bridge, 2012, 6.10.1.10.2)


In constructibility (AASHTO LRFD Bridge, 2012, 6.10.3.2.1)
Rb = 1.000

▪ Local Buckling Resistance based on Unstiffened Flanges (AASHTO LRFD Bridge, 2012, 6.11.8.2.2)
λf = bfc / tfc = 47.500
E·k
λp = 0.57 √ = 24.332
Fyc · △
E·k
λr = 0.95 √ = 48.470
Fyr
in which :
fv
△ = √ 1- 3( )2 = 1.00000 ( fv = T / 2 Ao tfc )
Fyc
A0 = ### mm2
Fyr = 315.000 MPa ( Fyc · (△ - 0.3) )
k = 4.000 ( plate-buckling coefficient for uniform normal stress )

λp < λf ≤ λr Therefore,
△ - 0.3 λf - λp
Fcb = Rb · Rh · Fyc [ △- ( △ - )( )] = 320.426 MPa
Rh λr - λp
in which :
Fyc = 450.000 MPa
Rb = 1.000
Rh = 1.000

E · ks
λf ≤ 1.12 √
Fyc Therefore,
Fcv = 0.58 · Fyc = 261.000 MPa
in which :
ks = 5.340 ( plate-buckling coefficient for shear stress)

fv
Fnc = Fcb · √ 1 - ( )2 = 320.426 MPa
Фv · Fcv
③ Check web bend buckling
For sections with compact or noncompact webs, shall not be checked.

4) Discretely Braced Flanges in Tension (AASHTO LRFD Bridge, 2012, 6.11.3.2)


▪ Flange Lateral bending Stress (AASHTO LRFD Bridge, 2012, 6.10.1.6)
Because of discretely braced tension flange.
Muz ###
fl = = = 0.005 MPa
Sl 2.843E+08

fl = 0.005 ≤ 0.6Fyf = 270.000 MPa ...... OK

① Check flange nominal yielding


fbu + fl = 293.642 ≤ Φf · Rh · Fyt = 450.000 MPa ...... OK
in which :
Φf = 1.000
Rh = 1.000

2. Shear
■ Max
1) Design Forces
Construction Stage : Stage2-3
Step : 2
Vu (kN)
Component
Steel Section Only
Force -1551.231

2) Shear requirement for webs (AASHTO LRFD Bridge, 2012, 6.10.3.3)


▪ Ratio of the shear-buckling resistance to the shear yield strength, C (AASHTO LRFD Bridge, 2012, 6.10.9.3.2)
shear-buckling coefficient of unstiffened Webs
k = 5.000

D E·k
= 126.859 > 1.40 √ = 66.816
tw Fyw
therefore,
1.57 E·k
C = ·( )= 0.222
D Fyw
( )2
tw

▪ Nominal Resistance of Unstiffened interior Webs or End panel


Vp = 0.58Fyw · D · tw = 13244.104 kN
Vn = Vcr = C · Vp = 2942.994 kN
in which :
C = ratio of the shear-buckling resistance to the shear yield strength
= 0.222
Transverse Spacing = 0.0 mm < 1.5 D = 3805.8 mm ...... OK

Vui = -1602.722 ≤ φv · Vcr = Фv · Vn = 2942.994 kN ...... OK


in which :
Фv = 1.000
ount the long term effects))
ount the long term effects))
actual 379.10067 t 40 target 420 MPa
target 420 t used 36.104826 ratio 0.9333
tused 15

0.802025746
0.9164106682