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U.S.

History Packet
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Unit 1: Colonization through American Revolution 2
Unit 2: New Nation 19
U.S. Constitution 38
Unit 3: Westward Expansion and Sectionalism 42
Unit 4: Civil War 58
Unit 5: Reconstruction 69
Unit 6: Turn of the Century 75
Unit 7: Imperialism and WWI 92
Unit 8: The Twenties and the Thirties 104
Unit 9: World War II 121
Unit 10: 1950s and 1960s Cold War 132
Unit 11: 1950s and 1960s Domestic Society 148
Unit 12: Civil Rights Movement 153
Unit 13: Contemporary U.S. History 163

Appendix
Declaration of Independence 176
Constitution of the United States 179
Amendments to the Constitution 193

Maps 209

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Unit 1: Colonization through American Revolution

Tested Information:
I. Colonization
A. Religious Freedom: Tolerance vs. Persecution
1. New England: Puritans- John Winthrop, Mayflower Compact
2. Pennsylvania: Quakers- William Penn
3. Maryland: Catholics (Maryland Act of Toleration)
4. Rhode Island: Roger Williams, religious freedom, separation of church and state
B. Economic Opportunity
1. Jamestown
a. First successful colony in the New World
b. looking for gold but planted tobacco instead
2. Determined by the geography of each region (colonial characteristics):
a. New England: fishing, shipping, and trade due to rocky terrain and harsh
climate
b. Middle Colonies: large farms that grow crops like wheat and corn due to
fertile soil and more moderate climate
c. Southern colonies: plantation system that relies on slavery to grow crops
like rice, cotton and indigo due to more tropical climate
d. Mercantilism- see vocabulary for definition
e. Competition between England, France and Spain to add new territory in order to
make their country more powerful
C. Political Developments
1. Virginia House of Burgesses (1619)- first elected legislature of the colonies
2. Mayflower Compact (1620)- colonists agree to follow the rules of the colony and
established the rule of law
3. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639)- first written constitution of the colonies
and incorporates the idea of the consent of the governed

II. Growing Tensions with Britain


A. British attempts to tax and regulate colonial trade as a result of the French and
Indian War
1. Mercantilism: economic policy used by Britain to regulate industry and trade
in the American colonies
2. Proclamation of 1763- closed the region west of the Appalachian Mountains to
colonists
3. Stamp Act: tax on paper products and “taxation without representation”
4. Boston Tea Party: Leads to the closing of the ports (Intolerable Acts)
B. Colonists’ reaction to British policy ideas leading to the Declaration of
Independence
1. French and Indian War: ends salutary neglect
2. Declaratory Act: Power of British Parliament to have complete control over the
Colonies
3. Boston Massacre: Clash between colonists and British soldiers
4. First Continental Congress: Colonists expressed grievances to King George III
5. Second Continental Congress: Organized the colonial army and wrote the
Declaration of Independence

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6. Common Sense: Called for an end to British rule

C. Declaration of Independence: expressed the reasons for independence


1. Inalienable rights/natural rights
2. List of grievances
3. Consent of the Governed

III. American Revolution


A. Britain
1. Strengths
a. Strong, well-trained army and navy
b. Well financed military
c. Allies- Indians
2. Weaknesses
a. distance from battlefront (ocean away)
b. unfamiliar territory
c. weak military leaders
B. American Colonies
1. Strengths
a. familiar home ground
b. experienced officers from colonial wars (French and Indian War)
c. inspiring cause- independence
2. Weaknesses
a. shortage of food, soldiers’ pay, and ammunition
b. no central government to direct wartime efforts
c. soldiers and militia untrained and undisciplined
C. Important Battles
1. Lexington and Concord
2. Battle of Bunker Hill
3. Battle of Saratoga
a. turning point in the war
b. France, Spain, and Holland declare war on Britain
4. Battle of Yorktown
a. final major battle of the American Revolution
D. The Treaty of Paris of 1783
a. recognizes independence of the United States
b. sets boundaries of the United States

People
• Ben Franklin - Colonial inventor, printer, writer, statesman; contributed to the
Declaration of Independence and Constitution.
• General Charles Cornwallis- commanding general of the British army
• George Washington - Commander in Chief of the American Army.
• King George III - King of England
• Puritans - broke from the Anglican church and hoped to build a religious utopian
society in the New World
• Quakers - member of a Protestant group that emphasizes equality and pacifism
• Thomas Jefferson - Author of the Declaration of Independence.
• Thomas Paine - Author of political pamphlets during the 1770’s and 1780’s; wrote
Common Sense in 1776.

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Vocabulary
• Inalienable rights - Natural rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
• Maryland Act of Toleration -1639 law that allowed all Christians the right to
belong to the church of their choice; foundation of American belief in freedom of
religion
• Mayflower Compact (1620)- agreement in which settlers of Plymouth colony agreed
to follow their government’s law.
• Mercantilism - economic theory that a country acquire and keep as much gold
and silver as possible by having colonies where they could harvest raw materials
and sell finished products
• Persecution - to oppress someone because of his/her beliefs.
• Tolerance- to accept someone regardless of his/her beliefs
• Salutary neglect – English policy of relaxing the enforcement of regulations
over the colonies that led to the development of American political and economic
freedom

State Standards covered in Unit 1


I.A. and B.1. Colonization- Religious Freedom and Economic Opportunity
Concept: Exploration and Colonization
Performance Objective: Describe the reasons for colonization of America
State Standard Code: US 3-2

I.B.2. Colonization- Colonial Characteristics


Concept: Exploration and Colonization
Performance Objective: Compare the characteristics of the New England, Middle and Southern
Colonies
State Standard Code: US 3-3

I.A. Colonization- Key Figures


Concept: Exploration and Colonization
Performance Objective: Describe the impact of key colonial figures
State Standard Code: US 3-4

II.A. and B. Growing Tensions with Britain


Concept: Revolution and New Nation
Performance Objective: Assess the economic, political, and social reasons for the American
Revolution
State Standard Code: US 4-1

III.C.3. American Revolution- European Involvement


Concept: Revolution and New Nation
Performance Objective: Analyze the effects of European involvement in the American Revolution
on the outcome of the war
State Standard Code: US 4-2

III.C. American Revolution- Important Battles


Concept: Revolution and New Nation
Performance Objective: Describe the significance of major events in the Revolutionary War
State Standard Code: US 4-3

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Unit 1 Reading
Colonial America

Between 1607 and 1732 the English established thirteen colonies along the eastern coast of
North America. English law and customs strongly influenced life in these new colonies. But as
time passed, the experience of living in a new world caused colonists to alter some of their
English traditions. By the mid-1700s, life in the colonies was no longer purely English. A
different lifestyle had emerged. Increasingly, people called this new way of life "American."

When the English first immigrated to America, they brought with them certain English
political traditions and ideas. Among these were the Magna Carta (1215) based beliefs that the
accused have a right to a trial by jury and that taxpayers have the right to give their consent to tax
increases (taxation with representation). Englishmen also carried to the colonies the English
tradition of representative (parliamentarian) government. In 1619, Virginians established the
New World's first elected legislature, the House of Burgesses. Later other colonies established
locally elected legislatures. In 1620, after landing in Plymouth, Massachusetts, the Pilgrims
agreed to the Mayflower Compact which established the idea of the rule of law meaning that all
people living in the colony agreed to follow the rules created by the majority. In addition, three
towns in Connecticut wrote the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. This document is the first
written constitution of the colonies and included the idea that the people give the government to
right to make laws that the people agree to follow (consent of the governed).

Life in the New World led colonists to make their political institutions more democratic.
Though men in the colonies were required to own land to be eligible to vote (as were men in
England), it was relatively easy to meet property qualifications for voting in the colonies. By the
mid-1750s a greater percentage of men in the colonies could vote than could those in England.
Another step toward democratic government took place in New England where eligible citizens
were given the right to vote in town meetings. Meanwhile, for reasons of both moral conviction
and practical necessity, most colonies became more tolerant toward different religious groups.
There was far more religious freedom in the colonies than in England.

The geographic conditions in America also produced new economic patterns in the colonies.
Originally, Englishmen hoped to find gold in America, as had the Spanish. But gold was not to
be found in the English colonies. The absence of this and other precious metals probably
benefited the colonies in the long run. Colonists were forced to find or develop other sources of
wealth or means of livelihood. In southern and middle colonies people discovered that the
geography of the region was well suited for farming. Soon cash-crops of rice, tobacco, and
wheat were produced and traded with England. New England's forests and nearby ocean waters
provided the basis for profitable ship-building and fishing industries. Meanwhile, the scarcity of
labor encouraged two other institutions--indentured servitude and slavery.

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The American experience also caused changes in social customs. A class system similar to
that in Europe was present when the colonies were first founded. But the abundance of
economic opportunity in America made it possible for many people to improve their social
standing. Some agreed to becoming indentured servants for seven years, in exchange for passage
to America as well as food and shelter while a servant. These immigrants could, through hard
work, achieve success and the respect of others. In fact, individuals were often valued more for
their work ethic and economic success than for their "blood line." This attitude led to a
weakening of the class system.

And so, by the mid-1700s, the American experience had strengthened democratic institutions,
fostered religious tolerance, encouraged economic initiative, and promoted greater social
equality (at least among whites). In short, the experience was changing English colonists into
something new. They were becoming Americans.

Growing Conflict with Britain

It was probably inevitable that once Britain's colonial "children" matured, they would seek
independence from their mother country. After all, the colonists and the British had conflicting
interests in America. Most colonists came to America in search of greater personal freedom and
opportunity. But Britain saw America as something to be exploited and controlled. So while the
colonists wanted to be free from controls, Britain intended to do just the opposite.

During the first hundred years of colonial development in America, England's domestic
problems and foreign wars diverted its attention from colonial affairs. But following Britain's
defeat of her arch-rival, France, in 1763, Britain decided to begin stricter management of her
colonies. Britain decided to enforce its mercantile policy by cracking down on colonists who
had been illegally trading with countries other than Britain. Britain also decided to establish
control over lands west of the Appalachians which the French had surrendered to Britain
following the French and Indian War (1754-1763). To accomplish this, Britain declared the
Proclamation of 1763 which closed lands west of the Appalachians to colonial settlement.
Finally, and more fatefully, Britain decided to tax the colonists in order to pay part of the
expenses of protecting the colonies from Indians or other potential enemies.

The colonies deeply resented Britain's new controls. They complained that mercantile laws
hurt their businesses. Colonists wanted to be able to trade as freely as any businessman in
Britain. Colonists also complained that the Proclamation of 1763 violated their colonial charters
which promised western lands to them. But it was Britain's taxation of the colonists that
produced the loudest outcry. Parliament's taxes, the colonists claimed, were illegal because they
were levied without the consent of the colonists or their representatives (taxation without
representation). This "taxation without representation," they claimed was a violation of their
rights as Englishmen.

Many colonists began to protest against the new British policies. Led by people such as
Samuel Adams of Boston, many colonists harassed tax collectors and boycotted British goods.
Although this political action caused Parliament to repeal most of its taxes, it maintained a small
tax on tea with the Tea Act which was passed in 1773. Small tax or not, the tea tax was still

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taxation without representation since the colonists did not have the opportunity to vote for or
against the tax in Parliament. Angry colonist, now called Patriots, staged new protests. One of
these was the Boston Tea Party.

The Boston Tea Party marked a turning point in British-colonial relations. Angry about the
destruction of tea and other property, Parliament decided to abandon conciliation and take
disciplinary action with the passage of the Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts). The British closed
Boston harbor and limited the power of the Massachusetts assembly. Anxious to assist the
Bostonians, Patriot organizations in twelve of the colonies sent representatives to the First
Continental Congress. The Congress asked colonists to send aid to Boston and join in a massive
boycott of British goods. It also urged Patriots to pressure other colonists into supporting the
boycott.

In Massachusetts, Patriot organizations began to organize and train volunteer soldiers called
minutemen. Determined to crush this military buildup in Massachusetts, the British decided to
march on Concord and seize Patriot munitions there. While on their way to Concord, the British
met a band of minutemen at Lexington. Shots rang out. The Revolutionary War had begun and
the colonists called the Second Continental Congress to determine their next move.

When the Second Continental Congress met a month later, it decided that the colonists should
continue to use military means to force a repeal of unjust British laws but did not yet want
independence from Britain. The Congress also chose George Washington to lead the Continental
Army. At the same time, the Congress sent the Olive Branch Petition to King George III
promising loyalty once the colonists’ rights as Englishmen had been restored.

However, the king responded to Congress's request by sending more troops to America. The
desire for reconciliation began to fade. By the early months of 1776, more and more colonists
began to think the previously unthinkable--independence!

American Revolution

When the Second Continental Congress met in May of 1775, its goal was to pressure
Parliament into halting its illegal taxation and other violations of the colonists’ rights as
Englishmen. Until that change occurred, Congress vowed to lead the colonists in their effort to
stop further abuse of their rights. Despite bloody battles between the Americans and British
during the closing months of 1775, Congress had no intention of declaring independence from
Britain. It was merely fighting to force a change in Parliament's colonial policy.

But as the fighting continued into 1776, it seemed clear that Parliament would not change its
ways. Colonists increasingly became convinced that America had to separate itself from British
rule. Encouraged on by pro-independence arguments, such as that in Thomas Paine's "Common
Sense," the Second Continental Congress signed the Declaration of Independence on July 4,
1776. In the opinion of the Congress, the colonies were now independent states. In the opinion
of Britain, however, the colonies were still colonies which had to be forced into submission.

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After July 4, 1776, the Continental Army was no longer fighting for colonists rights--it was
fighting for American independence. But the war for independence at first went poorly for the
American forces. The Patriots could not hold major cities such as New York and Philadelphia.
General Washington's army barely survived these early defeats and the cold winter months at
places like Valley Forge. To make matters worse, Loyalists (colonists who supported Britain)
and Iroquois Indians joined the British forces.

But a change in fortune came in 1778 when a British force was defeated at Saratoga in New
York by General Gates and his army of Patriots. News of this victory helped persuade France,
Spain, and Holland to declare war on Britain and to become America's allies. Finally in 1781,
with French help, General Washington forced the surrender of a large British army under the
command of General Cornwallis at Yorktown in Virginia.

Britain's defeat at Yorktown, as well as pressing military problems in Europe, made Britain
eager to end the war. In the Treaty of Paris (1783), Great Britain finally recognized the
independence of the United States. In the treaty Britain also ceded to the U.S. territory westward
to the Mississippi.

Colonial America Vocabulary


Cash Crop: a crop that is produced for sale rather than for consumption by the farmer and his or
her family.

Indentured Servant: individual working for another who is under a contract for a specific
period of time (usually seven years) in exchange for transportation, food, and shelter.

Jamestown (1607): first successful permanent English settlement in North America

John Winthrop: Puritan governor who believed Puritans were the chosen people and that the
Puritans could create a “city upon a hill” or a perfect society.

Maryland Act of Toleration (1639): law that allowed all Christians the right to belong to the
church of their choice

Mercantilism: an economic and political policy in which the government regulates the
industries, trade, and commerce with the national aim of obtaining a favorable balance of trade

Middle Colonies: characterized by large farms that grew crops like wheat and corn due to fertile
soil and moderate climate

Naval stores: naval supplies such as tar, pitch, and turpentine which are needed for building and
maintaining wooden ships.

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Navigation Acts: Laws passed by Parliament between 1651 and 1673 which required that
certain colonial products could only be sold to England and that colonists were required to buy
manufactured goods only from England

New England Colonies: characterized by fishing, shipping, and trade due to rocky terrain and
harsh climate

Puritans: settled in New England, had a strong work ethic, and were intolerant to other religions
within their communities

Quakers: settled in Pennsylvania, believed that people could have a direct relation with God,
rather than one mediated by a minister

Roger Williams: founder of the colony of Providence, Rhode Island and a strong believer of the
separation of church and state

Salutary Neglect: English policy of relaxing the enforcement of regulations over the colonies
that led to the development of American political and economic freedom

Southern Colonies: characterized by the plantation system and slavery in order to grow crops
like rice, tobacco, and indigo due to more tropical climate

Triangular trade: a common trading pattern during the colonial period in which merchants
traded colonial rum for slaves in Africa, then traded these slaves for molasses in the West Indies,
and then traded the molasses for more rum in the colonies.

William Penn: founded the colony of Pennsylvania and created a government dedicated to
religious freedom, to equality and peace.

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Growing Tensions with Britain and American Revolution Vocabulary
Battle of Saratoga: turning point in the American Revolution. Afterwards France, Spain, and
Holland declare war on Britain.

Battle of Yorktown: final major battle of the American Revolution

Benjamin Franklin: colonial inventor, printer, writer, statesman, and contributed to the
Declaration of Independence

Boston Massacre (1770): the killing of five Bostonians by British soldiers who claimed they
were protecting themselves from a hostile mob.

Boston Tea Party (1773): colonists protested the Tea Act by throwing crates of tea in to the
harbor

Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts) (1774): a series of laws designed to punish Boston and
discourage rebelliousness elsewhere by (1) closing Boston harbor (2) weakening the power of
the elected legislature of Massachusetts, and (3) restricted town meetings.

"Common Sense" (1776): pamphlet which argued that the colonists should separate themselves
from Great Britain.

Consent of the governed: a condition in which the authority of a government should depend
upon the consent of the people, as expressed by votes in elections.

Declaration of Independence (1776): a document signed by members of the Second


Continental Congress which declared that the thirteen British colonies were no longer colonies
but rather thirteen sovereign and independent states.

First Continental Congress (1774): a meeting of delegates (excluding Georgia) which decided
to oppose the Coercive Acts by mounting a colony-wide boycott of British goods.

French and Indian War (1754-1763): started due to British and French conflicting interests in
North America

George Washington: Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army

Grievance: compliant against something thought to be wrong.

Inalienable Rights: natural rights that cannot be taken away by the government; life, liberty, and
pursuit of happiness

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King George III: King of England during the end of the French and Indian War and the
American Revolution

Mercenary: a soldier who is hired to serve in a foreign army

No Taxation without Representation: colonial reaction to Parliament’s changes in mercantile


policies following the French and Indian War.

Proclamation of 1763: a British law prohibiting colonial settlement of lands west of the
Appalachian Mountains.

Quartering Acts (1774): laws which required colonists to provide housing for British troops.

Second Continental Congress (1775-1781): a second meeting of the Continental Congress


whose members signed the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776 and served as the U.S.
national government from 1776 to 1781 when it was replaced by the Congress of the Articles of
Confederation.

Stamp Act (1765): enacted to raise money in order to pay off British debt from war

Thomas Jefferson: author of the Declaration of Independence

Thomas Paine: author of the pamphlet “Common Sense”

Treaty of Paris (1783): officially ended the American Revolution and recognized the
independence of the United States

Writ of Assistance: a general search warrant that allowed an official to search any building or
ship at any time.

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Before and After the French and Indian War

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The Bloody Massacre by Paul Revere
(The Boston Massacre)

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Unit 2: New Nation

Tested Information:
I. Critical Period and Constitution
A. Albany Plan of Union
1. influenced by Iroquois Confederation
B. Articles of Confederation- America’s first national constitution which established a
weak national government, but it was replaced by the U.S. Constitution
1. States rights- states have more power than federal government
2. weak central government (problems with the Articles)
3. Shays Rebellion- Massachusetts farmers rebelled over tax, government
under Articles could not raise army, rebellion went on, showed fatal flaw in
Articles and Federal Government
C. Constitutional Convention
1. Problems with the Articles- no power to tax, unanimous vote, no executive
branch, no national army, no judicial, and no enforcement of laws
2. Great Compromise- Resolved dispute over representation in the legislative
branch, created House of Representatives based on population (large
states), and Senate, based on equal representation (small states).
3. Separation of Powers- (see terms)
D. Struggles over Ratification
1. federalists / anti-federalists
E. Bill of Rights
1. 1st amendment (speech, religion, press, assembly, petition)
2. 4th amendment (search & seizure)
3. 5th & 6th amendment trial rights (right not to self-incriminate, due process,
double jeopardy, and right to an attorney)
4. 10th amendment (powers not specifically given to the national government
belong to the States and the people)

II. Washington and the Federalists


A. Presidency of George Washington
1. establishment of precedence of the presidency (2 terms, 1st cabinet)
2. farewell address- stay away from foreign alliances
B. Economic Policies of Alexander Hamilton
1. His policy for a National Bank and a Protective Tariff (favoring wealthy
merchants)
C. Creation of Political Parties
1. creation of Jeffersonian Republicans- split from the federalists over Hamilton’s
economic plan (favored agricultural interests)
2. first peaceful transition of political power through the election 1800
D. Establishment of the federal system through the Marshall Court
1. Marbury v. Madison (see terms)
2. judicial review (see terms)
3. McColluch v. Maryland- Fight over 1st national bank

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III. Jefferson Presidency
A. Louisiana Purchase (1803)- area of land purchased in 1803 by President Jefferson
from France. It nearly doubled the size of the United States.
B. Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804- 1806)- expedition across the Louisiana territory in
search of a water route to the Pacific Ocean.

People:
• Alexander Hamilton - First Secretary of the Treasury, Federalist.
• Ben Franklin – served as a mediator of disputes that arose between different
delegates at the Constitutional Convention
• George Washington - President of the Constitutional Convention, first President of the
United States of America
• James Madison - “Father” of the U.S. Constitution, Federalist
• John Marshall - Second Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and strengthen the
Constitution.
• Thomas Jefferson- First Secretary of State and the third President.

Vocabulary:
• Anti-federalists - people who supported states rights by trying to limit the power of the
national government; against ratification of the Constitution, and proposed the Bill of
Rights
• Checks and Balances - system in which each of the branches of the federal
government can check the actions of the other branches
• Confederation - loose organization of sovereign states
• Constitution – 1787 U.S. major document, creating a federal system, and defines the
responsibilities and limits of the federal government
• Constitutional Convention - convention that met in 1787 to draft the Constitution of the
United States
• Federalist Papers - written in New York between 1787 and 1788 to persuade delegates
to ratify the new Constitution. Primary authors were Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and
James Madison
• Federalists - supporters of the Constitution
• Inalienable rights - rights that cannot be taken away (Also known as natural rights life,
liberty, pursuit of happiness)
• Judicial review – power of the federal court to determine constitutionality of a law
• Marbury v Madison - first case of judicial review
• Protective Tariff - a tax on imports
• Ratification - approval of the Constitution
• Representative Government: a system of government whose lead of state is not a
monarch and the people elect representatives to act as their agents in making and
enforcing laws
• Separation of Powers - a system dividing power between the legislative, executive, and
judicial branches (based on the Enlightenment)
• Whiskey Rebellion – Over an excise tax to raise money for the government, farmers
rebelled, President Washington put down rebellion, proving strength of new federal
government under the Constitution

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State Standards covered in Unit 2
I. Critical Period and Constitution
Concept: Revolution and New Nation
Performance Objective: Analyze how the new national government was created.
State Standard Code: US 4-4

II. Washington and the Federalists


Concept: Revolution and New Nation
Performance Objective: Examine the significance of the following in the formation of a new nation
State Standard Code: US 4-5

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Unit 2 Reading
The Critical Period

On July 4, 1776 the 13 colonies proclaimed themselves to be free and independent states.
Soon after this declaration states began to write state constitutions for representative-style
governments. Americans also began working on a federal constitution and government which
would replace the Second Continental Congress. America's effort to create a republican form of
government at the state and federal levels seemed to many to be a radical if not risky task. Most
governments of the 18th century were monarchies. Most members of the ruling classes in
Europe believed that republican government was not possible. They believed that common
citizens were unable of electing qualified leaders. Even some Americans shared this concern.
But despite thoughts of failure, Americans began their experiment with a republican government.

The first constitutions were written at the state level. There, constitution-writers improved
upon colonial political traditions. Typically, the new state constitutions called for governments
of three branches which were, in some ways similar to colonial governments. Many states
continued to have bicameral (two-house) legislatures but unlike colonial tradition, the upper
house as well as the lower house was elected by citizens. Each state constitution also called for
an executive or governor. Unlike the colonial governor of royal colonies, who had been
appointed by the British king, governors of each state were elected. Each state constitution also
called for the creation of a state court system.

At the federal level, the newly independent United States aimed to create a government that
did not simply replace one oppressive government (the British) with another. Yet, most
distrusted the idea of a direct democratic government and favored a republic (a government in
which the people elected representatives). Therefore, the new nation decided to create a
confederation, or loose alliance of states as their new government. To that end, even before the
end of the Revolution delegates from the 13 colonies began work on the Articles of
Confederation. Although written in 1777 argument over ownership of land west of the
Appalachians postponed ratification of the Articles. Finally, after all states agreed to give their
western lands to the federal government, the land dispute was solved, and the Articles of
Confederation were ratified in 1781. While the Articles provided the new nation with the limited
government it desired, it did not provide for a federal executive, or a federal court system.
Congress depended on the states to enforce its laws and give it financial support--something the
states rarely did. Even worse, it became obvious that the new government could not effectively
tax U.S. citizens nor could it enforce its own laws. However, the weakness of Congress
guaranteed that it could never threaten the rights of individuals and their states as Parliament had
once done.

Despite the fact that people in the states shared some traditions and views about government,
there were also some deep differences. States argued with each other over conflicting land
claims. Disputes over ownership of land west of the Appalachians were especially heated.
Differing attitudes about slavery in northern and southern states were also beginning to divide

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Americans. And, although each state created a republican form of government, there was
disagreement over which citizens should be allowed to vote. Some state constitutions called for
male suffrage while others restricted voting rights to white men who owned a certain amount of
property. Each state also adopted a different money system.

But the weakness of the Articles of Confederation led to other problems. Since Congress, had
few powers, many treated it with disrespect. States generally ignored Congress's appeals for
money. Foreign governments treated the United States with disrespect. British troops refused to
leave posts in the northwest corner of the U.S. and pirates attacked American ships in the
Mediterranean. Meanwhile individual states began economic warfare with one another by
erecting tariff walls. To make matters worse, the wide variety of state currencies made trade
between states and with foreign nations even more difficult. Matters came to a head in 1786
when a Massachusetts farmer, Daniel Shays, rebelled against the government. Shay’s Rebellion
failed, but it showed the serious problems that faced the government and plagued the Articles of
Confederation. The problems of the country became so large during the years of the Articles of
Confederation (1781- 1789) that people call this time the Critical Period.

After Shay’s Rebellion, it became clear to many that the Articles of Confederation did not
grant the federal government enough power to govern the country. Many believed that the
Articles of Confederation needed drastic revision.

Twelve states sent delegates to the Philadelphia convention. Many of the delegates were
wealthy planters, merchants, and lawyers. The list of 55 delegates included George Washington
(who would unanimously be elected president of the convention), Alexander Hamilton, and
Benjamin Franklin. Other delegates who would become famous included James Madison (who
would be called the “Father of the Constitution” and who would later write the Bill of Rights)
and Roger Sherman, who’s “Great Compromise” would settle the concerns of large and small
states regarding legislative representation.

Although originally asked to revise the Articles of Confederation, the Convention decided
that it was necessary to frame an entirely new and much stronger constitution. Delegates worked
for weeks hammering out compromises and debating issues regarding the new constitution.
When big states and small states clashed over representation in the federal legislature, a
compromise was worked out which gave large states more representation in the House of
Representatives, but kept the number of delegates each state was entitled to have in the Senate at
two. In order to ensure that voters would not make a poor choice for the new executive leader,
the Electoral College was created to be a safeguard and to actually elect the president. Regarding
the issue of slavery, delegates decided not to interfere with the slave trade for 20 years, and also
decided to only count three-fifths of “other persons” (slaves) when determining population for
representation and taxation.

Two main features of the delegates’ work included the ideas of federalism and separation of
powers. The concept of federalism allowed the states to maintain some sovereignty, or
independence, by giving them power to control certain areas such as commerce within that state,
education, and other rules as well. Separation of powers created three individual branches of
government: the legislative branch would make the law, the executive branch would carry out

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the law and the judicial branch would interpret the law. In order to ensure that no branch would,
become too powerful, a system of checks and balances was also included. For example, the
executive branch could veto, or forbid, acts passed by the legislative branch. The judicial branch
could declare an act of Congress unconstitutional through the power of judicial review. The
legislative branch could impeach a president it considered guilty of treason, or “high crimes and
misdemeanors.” In order to make sure it was a “living document,” the framers also allowed for a
procedure to amend, or change, the Constitution. Amending the Constitution is a difficult
process, requiring “extraordinary” majorities on both the federal and state level to make changes.
In the more than two centuries since the Constitution was written, only 27 amendments have
been approved.

Finally, their work completed, the delegates submitted the Constitution to the states for
ratification or approval. Immediately, those in favor of the Constitution, who called themselves
Federalists, began to lobby for the document, while those who were opposed, or Anti-federalists,
lobbied against it because they feared a strong federal government would violate their rights.
Leading Federalists included Hamilton, Madison, Washington, and John Jay, while leading Anti-
federalists included Patrick Henry and Richard Henry Lee. In order to gain support for their
positions, both sides wrote extensive essays that appeared in various newspapers. Madison,
Hamilton, and Jay wrote a series of 85 essays that became known as the Federalist Papers.
Richard Henry Lee promoted the Anti-federalist view in a series of essays titled Letters from the
Federal Farmer. One of the main arguments of the Anti-federalists was that the finished
Constitution did not include a bill of rights which specifically stated the rights guaranteed to
people in the United States. Eventually, the Federalists gave into the demands of the Anti-
federalists and agreed to add a Bill of Rights if the states ratified the Constitution.

One by one, the states voted on the question to ratify. Nine states were necessary to ratify the
Constitution. Eleven of the thirteen voted to approve the Constitution on the first vote. At first,
North Carolina and Rhode Island voted against the Constitution, but eventually approved the
Constitution after further debate. The Constitution was finally ratified in 1788.

The Bill of Rights promised by the Federalists became the responsibility of James Madison.
He selected some of the amendments suggested by state ratification conventions, and created a
list for Congress to consider. Congress eventually submitted 12 amendments to the states for
ratification, and by December 1791, three-fourths of the states had ratified ten of the
Amendments. However, over the next two hundred years it would take seventeen other
amendments and Supreme Court decisions to guarantee political and social equality to many
groups, including African Americans, women, and Native Americans.

Washington and the Federalists

The United States Constitution was ratified in 1788, but that only marked the beginning of the
many decisions the new nation would have to make. America began the process of choosing
government officials. Members of the House of Representatives were directly elected by citizens
in each state. Each state legislature picked two people to serve in the Senate. Electors of the
Electoral College were also selected, and they in turn elected George Washington as President.

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One of Congress's first acts was to pass the Judiciary Act of 1789 which set the size of the
Supreme Court at six justices and created a system of lower federal courts. Washington then
named judges to fill these posts. The President then appointed people to head executive
departments; Thomas Jefferson was named Secretary of State, and Alexander Hamilton was
appointed Secretary of the Treasury. The new government was now in place and ready to begin
solving America's difficult problems. However, ever since 1787, the country has discussed,
debated, and disagreed how the Constitution should be interpreted and how strong the federal
government should be. These discussions were particularly important in the first few decades
after the ratification of the Constitution.

Led by Secretary of the Treasury Hamilton, the federal government began correcting the
monetary and financial mess left over from the Revolution and Confederation. After heated
debate, Congress approved Hamilton's plan for the federal government to pay all U.S. and state
loans remaining from the Revolution. Also passed were revenue-raising tariffs as well as excise
taxes on products like whiskey. Finally, Congress enacted Hamilton's controversial plan for a
U.S. Bank.

Another task of the new government was to end the fear of anarchy which had persisted since
Shays' Rebellion (1786). An opportunity to demonstrate "law and order" came in 1794 when
western Pennsylvania distillers refused to pay the excise tax on whiskey. Determined to crush
this Shays-like threat to authority, Washington sent a large army into Pennsylvania and the so-
called Whiskey Rebellion was quickly put down. Washington's actions made it clear to all that,
unlike government under the Articles of Confederation, government under the U.S. Constitution
would enforce the law.

Meanwhile Washington sought to avoid clashes with foreign countries which might lead the
young U.S. into a war it might lose. Toward this end, Washington issued the Proclamation of
Neutrality (1793). This declared that the U.S. would not take sides in the war which was raging
between Great Britain and the newly proclaimed Republic of France.

While many Americans praised Washington and Hamilton for their strong leadership, not all
Americans were happy with their policies. Many opposed the tariffs and, as you have read, the
excise tax on whiskey. Some wanted the U.S. to support France in its war with Britain--after all
France had become a republic and had once helped America win its independence. To add to the
controversy, people like Thomas Jefferson argued against Congress's creation of a U.S. Bank.
He claimed that Congress had dangerously exceeded its powers because Article 1, Section 8 of
the Constitution had not specifically authorized Congress to create a bank. But Hamilton argued
that since the Constitution specifically authorized Congress to coin money and regulate its value,
the Constitution by "implication" also authorized Congress to create a bank. Jefferson protested
against this use of "implied powers" and the "elastic clause" claiming it would lead to overly
strong and abusive government. To Jefferson's great disappointment, Washington sided with
Hamilton.

The nation became split over the issue of the U.S. Bank and other policies of the government.
Led by Jefferson, those who opposed Hamilton's financial plan created the Democratic-
Republican Party. Former Anti-Federalists, who had always feared federal government's power

25
might threaten states' rights, joined the Democratic-Republicans. Meanwhile supporters of
Hamilton's ideas formed the Federalist Party.
The election of 1796 was the first major show-down between the two parties. With the
support of Washington, who was retiring after two terms in office, the Federalists defeated the
Democratic-Republicans. John Adams, a Federalist and Vice-President under Washington, was
elected President defeating the Democratic-Republican candidate Thomas Jefferson. The
Federalists also won control of Congress.

President Adams faced difficulties during his term in office. Many Americans, especially
Democratic-Republicans severely criticized Adams for his domestic and foreign policies. In
1798 the Federalist-controlled Congress passed the Alien and Sedition Acts. These laws placed
severe restrictions on the freedoms of foreigners in the United States and on the ability of
Americans to express views in opposition to the government. By the time elections were held in
1800, many Americans had turned away from the Federalists. In that year, the Democratic-
Republicans and their presidential candidate, Thomas Jefferson, were elected to power. The
Presidential Election of 1800 marked the first peaceful transition of political power.

When Jefferson became president, Spain controlled the territory to the west of the
Mississippi River (known as the Louisiana Territory). In 1800, Spain ceded the territory to
France in a secret treaty. Jefferson was very concerned about this territory because he thought it
was essential for the United States to have access to the Port of New Orleans at the mouth of the
Mississippi River. He also worried that the French wanted to build an empire in North America.
In 1802, the Spanish governor, taking orders from the French, denied the United States access to
this port. Fortunately for the United States, in 1803 French Emperor Napoleon I decided to sell
the Louisiana Territory to the United States for $15 million. Napoleon needed the money to fight
another war with Britain. The Louisiana territory was a “steal” for the United States, and
Jefferson was pleased with the purchase. He’d already planned an exploratory expedition into the
western part of the continent which became known as the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Jefferson
hoped this expedition would find an overland trade route to the Pacific Ocean.

As the country expanded and time passed, tensions with Britain mounted. The British navy
controlled the seas and therefore held great power over shipping between North America and
Europe. Many American sailors were former members of the British navy. When the British
began to stop ships and force these sailors back into the British navy. In response, the United
States passed the Embargo Act, which prohibited American ships from sailing into foreign ports.
Overseas trade came to a standstill and badly hurt the American economy. The embargo was
repealed, but tensions became so bad that the United States ended up at war with Britain, the
War of 1812.

The War of 1812 was favored by Congressional “War Hawks,” who were primarily from
western and southern states. Most people from New England were opposed to the war, arguing
that its impact on the northeastern economy would be devastating.

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Critical Period and the Constitution Vocabulary
Anti-Federalists: people who opposed ratification of the U.S. Constitution.

Articles of Confederation: America's first national constitution which established a weak


national government, ratified in 1781 but replaced after the states ratified the U.S. Constitution in
1788.

Benjamin Franklin: served as a mediator of disputes that arose between different delegates at
the Constitutional Convention

Bicameral legislature: a legislature of two houses or chambers (e.g., The U.S. Congress is made
up of two houses--the U.S. Senate and the House of Representatives.).

Bill of Rights: the first 10 Amendments to the Constitution which guarantee certain liberties
such as freedom of speech and religion.

Checks and Balances: a system established by the U.S. Constitution which gives each branch of
the national government some power to oversee the powers of the other two branches.

Confederation: a loose organization of sovereign states where the states have the majority of the
power while the federal government remains weak.

Constitution (1787): created a federal system and defines the responsibilities and limitations of
the federal government

Constitutional Convention (1787): a group of delegates from various states which met in
Philadelphia to write a new national constitution.

Critical Period (1781-1789): a time when weak national leadership under the Articles of
Confederation could not solve problems which threatened the future of the newly formed United
States.

Federalists: people who favored ratification of the new U.S. Constitution.

"Federalist Papers": articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison
which explained the newly drafted Constitution and urged people to support its ratification.

Fifth and Sixth Amendments: right to due process and an attorney, protection from self-
incrimination and double jeopardy

First Amendment: right to freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly, and petition

Fourth Amendment: protection against unreasonable search and seizure

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George Washington: President of the Constitutional Convention

Great Compromise: a compromise at the Constitutional Convention which resolved the


argument between large and small states by calling for a two-house Congress.

Inalienable Rights: natural rights that cannot be taken away by the government; life, liberty, and
pursuit of happiness

James Madison: “Father” of the U.S. Constitution and a member of the Federalist Party

New Jersey Plan: a plan for a new constitution presented by William Paterson of New Jersey
which, among other things, proposed a national Congress in which all states would be equally
represented.

Ratification: approval of the Constitution

Representative Government: a system of government whose lead of state is not a monarch and
the people elect representatives to act as their agents in making and enforcing laws.

Separation of powers: a system which places legislative, executive, and judicial powers in the
hands of different groups of people.

Shays' Rebellion (1786): an attempt by Massachusetts farmers, led by Daniel Shays, to force the
state government to inflate the money supply and stop the courts from seizing farmers' lands for
non-payment of debts.

Tenth Amendment: states that the powers not specifically given to the federal government
belong to the states and the people.

Virginia Plan: a plan for a new constitution presented by Edmund Randolph of Virginia which,
among other things, proposed a Congress wherein each state would be represented according to
the size of the state's population.

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Washington and the Federalists Vocabulary
Alexander Hamilton: first Secretary of the Treasury and a member of the Federalist Party

Alien and Sedition Acts (1798): laws that authorized the President to deport foreigners he
believed were dangerous to the country as well as forbad criticism of the president and congress.

Democratic-Republican Party: a party founded by Jefferson which consisted mainly of


common people and which opposed Hamilton's financial program as well as his support of a
loose interpretation of the Constitution.

Federalist Party: a political party founded by Alexander Hamilton and others who supported
strong national economic policies, favored a loose interpretation of the Constitution, and feared
"too much democracy" in the hands of the "undereducated common man."
George Washington: first President of the United States

Internal improvements: proposal by Alexander Hamilton to create a system of roads, canals,


and bridges in early America.

John Adams: second President of the United States and a member of the Federalist Party

John Marshall: second Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court and strengthened the
Constitution through judicial review

Judicial Review: the power of the Supreme Court to review laws and determine if they are
constitutional.

Judiciary Act of 1789: created a system of lower courts and set the number of Supreme Court
Justices to six.

Loose interpretation: an interpretation of the Constitution that accepts broad, flexible, implied
meanings to rules set down in the Constitution

Marbury v. Madison: first case of judicial review judicial review- testing whether a law
follows the Constitution

McColluch v. Maryland: a case of judicial review- affirming the superiority of the federal
government, over the states, in the Constitution.

"Midnight Judges": judges who were appointed to federal judgeships late in the evening of
President Adams' last day in office.

National Bank: bank proposed by Alexander Hamilton and was established by Congress

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Partisan politics: political actions aimed at helping one's political party and hurting the
opposing party.

Protective Tariff: high tax on imported goods designed to encourage people to buy cheaper
domestic goods.

Strict interpretation: an interpretation of the Constitution that accepts only a literal meaning to
rules set down in the Constitution

Thomas Jefferson: first Secretary of State, a member of the Democratic-Republican Party, and
the third President of the United States

Whiskey Rebellion: the refusal by farmer-distillers of western Pennsylvania to pay the excise
tax on whiskey.

Whiskey Tax: an excise tax to raise money for the government

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The Constitution

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Preamble (Introduction)
We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice,
insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and
secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this
Constitution for the United States of America.

First Article
Provides for a bicameral Congress and defines its power to make laws

Second Article
Provides for the election of the President and Vice President with defined powers, and for the
appointment of other officials

Third Article
Sets up a Supreme Court, authorizes the Congress to set up other courts, and defines their powers

Fourth Article
Defines the relationship between the Federal Government and the States, and between the States
themselves

Fifth Article
Tells how the Constitution may be amended

Sixth Article
Accepts the responsibility for all debts that the Nation owed before the adoption of the
Constitution; declared that the Constitution, constitutional laws, and treaties are the supreme law
of the land; and provides that all public officers must take an oath to support the Constitution

Seventh Article
Declares that ratification by nine States will put the Constitution into effect

Bill of Rights

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First Amendment
Forbids the Congress to interfere with religion, free speech, a free press, or with the right to
peacefully assemble, or to petition the Government

Second Amendment
Guarantees the right of people to have weapons

Third Amendment
Prevents the government from forcing people living in the United States to provide private
housing for soldiers

Fourth Amendment
Provides that there shall be no search or seizure or persons, houses, goods, or papers, without a
search warrant

Fifth Amendment
Declares that there shall be no trial for serious offenses without a grand jury indictment, no
repeat trials for the same offense (double jeopardy), no self-incrimination (testify against
yourself), no repeal of rights without trial, and no property taken for public use except at fair
price

Sixth Amendment
Requires speedy and public trial for criminal offenses in the district where the crime is
committed, a fair jury, a plain statement of charges against the accused, gives the accused the
right to be represented by a lawyer and to call witnesses for the defense, and requires all
witnesses to testify in the presence of the accused

Seventh Amendment
Provides that lawsuits over $20 have the option of trial by jury

Eighth Amendment
Prohibits too large bail or fines, and cruel and unusual punishments

Ninth Amendment
Declares that rights not specifically stated in the Constitution cannot be taken away from the
people

Tenth Amendment
States that the powers not given to the Federal Government or prohibited by the Constitution are
given to the States or to the people

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Hamilton and Jefferson
In the early years of the new republic, there was a strong fear over tyranny- whether a
strong national government or of the people themselves. At the Constitutional
Convention, popular sovereignty was an overriding and often divisive issue. Two of the
most influential officials in President Washington’s administration- Alexander Hamilton
and Thomas Jefferson- held contrasting views on popular sovereignty.

As you read, think of why these men held such differing views on human nature.

Alexander Hamilton Thomas Jefferson


All the communities divide themselves into the few Men…are naturally divided into two parties. Those
and the many. The first are the rich and well born; who fear and distrust the people…Those who
the other, the mass of the people. The voice of the identify themselves with the people, have
people has been said to be the voice of God; how- confidence in them, cherish and consider them as
ever generally this maxim has been quoted and the most honest and safe…depository of the public

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believed, it is not true in fact. The people are interest. (1824)
turbulent and changing; they seldom judge or
Every government degenerates when trusted to the
determine right. Give therefore to the first class a
rules…alone. The people themselves are its only
district, permanent share of the government. They
safe depositories. (1787)
will check the unsteadiness of the second; and as
they cannot receive any advantage by a change, I have such reliance on the good sense of the body
they there-fore will ever maintain good of the people and the honesty of their leaders that I
government. (1787). am not afraid of their letting things go wrong to any
length in any cause. (1788)
Take mankind in general, they are vicious- their
passions may be operated upon…Take mankind as Whenever the people are well-informed, they can e
they are, and what are they governed by? Their trusted with their own government; whenever
passions. There may be in every government a few things get so far wrong as to attract their notice,
choice spirits, who many act from more worthy they may be relied on to set the to rights. (1789)
motives. One great error is that we suppose man-
I have great confidence in the common sense of
kind more honest than they are. Our prevailing
mankind in general. (1800)
passions are ambition and interest; and it will be
duty of a wise government to avail itself of those
passions, in order to make them subservient to the
public good. (1787)
Formation of Political Parties Mini DBQ

Question: Compare Alexander Hamilton’s views on the role of citizens and democracy
with those of Thomas Jefferson.

Step 1: What prior knowledge do you have? LOOK AT YOUR NOTES!

Hamilton believes this Jefferson believed this

Step 2: Look over the two documents. Find quotes that match your prior knowledge.

Step 3: Write a paragraph

Begin with a THESIS STATEMENT: include the following phrases- Hamilton,


Jefferson, different views, citizens and democracy

You must use TWO quotes from Hamilton and TWO quotes from Jefferson

Follow this outline for the structure of your paragraph

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I. Thesis Statement

A. Topic Sentence…Alexander Hamilton believed…

1. Fact 1 (Quote)
2. Elaborate and Explain Fact 1
3. Fact 2 (Quote)
4. Elaborate and Explain Fact 2

B. Transition to Jefferson (can be part of Jefferson’s topic sentence)

C. Topic Sentence…Thomas Jefferson believed…

1. Fact 3 (Quote)
2. Elaborate and Explain Fact 3
3. Fact 4 (Quote)
4. Elaborate and Explain Fact 4

II. Conclusion Sentence- Restate thesis statement

U.S. Constitution
The Founding Fathers built the United States Constitution upon certain principles. The
Constitutional Convention’s (Philadelphia Convention) dedication to these principles created a
democratic form of government. This Constitution and its principles have stood the test of time
and have been the model for republican governments throughout the world. These principles
deserve special attention.

GOVERNMENT BY THE CONSENT OF THE GOVERNED

Delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1787 believed that government receives its
authority from the consent of the governed. The American Revolution was, to a great extent,
caused by Britain's violation of this principle--Parliament taxed the colonists without their
consent. The Declaration of Independence was built upon the principle that governments derive
"their just powers from the consent of the governed."

The Founding Fathers made government by consent a central feature of the Constitution. The
Constitution gave voting citizens the power to directly elect their representatives in the House of
Representatives. It also called for indirect election of senators and the President. The
Constitution also guarantees each state a republican (representative) form of government.

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Finally the Framers gave to the people the power to accept or reject the Constitution--only with
the people's consent would the new Constitution be ratified.

FEDERALISM

In order to create a strong national government and yet grant states control over their internal
affairs, the Framers developed the principle of federalism. According to this ingenious idea, the
power to govern would be shared between the national government and the state governments.
The national government would be given power to govern those matters that affected more than
one state. Since trade between states and foreign nations affected more than one state, power to
regulate this kind of trade would be granted to the national government. Since a single, national
money system was needed for proper interstate and foreign trade, the power to coin and print
money was also given to the national government. Since future battles with foreign countries
were a concern of all Americans, the Constitution gave Congress the power to raise and maintain
an army and navy. Finally, since the national government needed money to carry out its duties,
the Constitution gave Congress the power to tax the people.

Under federalism, states retained many powers. The Constitution protected states' rights to
govern their internal affairs. They retained the right to regulate intrastate (within the state)
commerce as well as to determine qualifications for voters. States retained the power to establish
and administer public schools as well as to make rules about marriage and divorce. States also
retained the power to license businesses.

LIMITATION ON GOVERNMENTAL POWERS

The Founding Fathers also believed that the power of government should be limited. Fearing
that the Congress might abuse its power, as Parliament had once done, the Convention granted
Congress a limited number of powers (see Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution). In Article 1,
section 9 of the Constitution denied specific powers to the national government. In Article 1,
Section 10, the Framers placed a few limits on state governments. States could not, for example,
enter into alliances with foreign nations, print money, enact tariffs, or pass bills of attainder.
After the Constitution was ratified, the Bill of Rights (the first 10 Amendments) was added to the
Constitution further to limit the power of government.

SEPARATION OF POWERS AND CHECKS AND BALANCES

In their determination to keep individuals in the national government from misusing their
power, the Founding Fathers developed a system of separation of powers. According to this
system, the legislative (law-making), executive (law-enforcing) and judicial (law-interpreting)
powers of government were given to different groups of government officials. Law-making
powers were given to the legislative branch, a Congress of two houses--the House of
Representatives and the Senate. Law-enforcing powers were given to the executive branch

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headed by the President. Law-interpreting powers were given to the judicial branch headed by
the Supreme Court.

To prevent any one branch from abusing its power, the Framers also created a system of
checks and balances. According to this system, each branch of government could check or place
some controls on the other. The President, for example, has the power to veto bills of Congress.
Congress has the power to remove the President from office.

NEED FOR FLEXIBILITY AND CHANGE

The Founding Fathers understood that the national government and the Constitution had to be
flexible. They included in Article 1, Section 8 the "elastic clause" which gave Congress
flexibility in carrying out its listed powers. The Framers also enabled the people to alter their
Constitution to meet the needs of a changing nation. Article 5 of the Constitution says that the
Constitution may be amended with the approval of three-fourths of the states or by convention.
With this flexibility and capacity for change, America's Constitution is just as effective today as
it was 200 years ago. For this reason it is called the "living Constitution."

Constitution Vocabulary
Bill of Attainder: a law that pronounces a person guilty without a trial.

Checks and Balances: a system established by the U.S. Constitution which gives each branch of
the national government some power to check (control) the other two branches.

Chief Justice: a Justice of the Supreme Court who serves as its administrative leader.

Delegated powers: powers specifically granted the national government by the Constitution,
especially those powers granted to Congress in Article 1, Section 8.

Elastic clause: a clause in the Constitution (Article 1, Section 8, Clause 18), which allows
Congress to enact laws which are implied (but not directly stated) in the Constitution.

Electoral College: a group of people chosen by each state who are authorized to elect the
President and Vice-President. Originally state governments chose the electors but nowadays
citizens of each state choose their state's presidential electors.

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Ex post facto law: a law that would punish a person for an act even though that act was not
illegal when it was done. The Constitution prohibits Congress and the states from making ex
post facto laws.

Executive: a person who enforces or carries out laws.

Habeas corpus: the right of an arrested person to go before a judge to find out what crimes he or
she has been charged with.

Impeach: to bring charges of illegal conduct against an official such as the President.

Implied powers: powers which are "suggested" by the Constitution but not directly stated.

Ratify: to approve.

Reserved powers: those powers which are not granted the national government but are instead
reserved to the states.

Veto: the refusal of the President or the governor of a state to approve a bill.

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Unit 3: Westward Expansion and Sectionalism

Tested Information:
I. Westward Expansion
A. Louisiana Territory
1. Thomas Jefferson-expanded Executive Power by purchasing the Louisiana
Territory
2. Lewis and Clark
3. Increased U.S. involvement in foreign affairs by negotiating with France
4. Doubled the size of America
B. Texas
1. United States annexed Texas (formerly part of Mexico) in 1845. Texas becomes a
slave state. Texas contributed to sectional conflict in the United States in
the 1850s
2. A border dispute in Texas led to the Mexican-American War
C. Gold Rush
1. In 1849, gold is discovered in California. The discovery of gold led to an increase
in population on the West Coast which eventually led to sectional conflict in the
United States in the 1850s
D. Mexican-American War & Mexican Cession
1. Training ground for Civil War generals
2. Treaty of Guadalupe- Hidalgo ends the war
a. Mexico lost 1/3 of its territory
b. U.S. pays Mexico $15 million dollars for the southern and western part of the
United States which included what is now California, New Mexico,
Arizona, Nevada, and Utah
E. Gadsden Purchase
1. To complete the southern route of the transcontinental railroad, the United States
purchased the land south of the Gila River creating the current border
between Arizona and Mexico

II. Sectionalism
A. Economic and social differences of the North, South, and West.
1. Plantation system in South:
a. impact of the cotton gin
b. Southern class system based on land ownership
2. Manufacturing in North:
a. impact of mass production
b. creating wealth
c. opportunities to rise in society
3. Immigrant labor in North vs. slave labor in South
4. Western territories: slave or free?
B. Balance of power in the Senate.
1. Missouri Compromise
2. Compromise of 1850/Fugitive Slave Act
C. Extension of slavery in the territories.
1. Missouri Compromise- Maine was admitted as a free state and Missouri as a
slave state, thus preserving the sectional balance in the Senate. The rest of
the Louisiana Territory was split into two sections, slave and free, the line was
set at 36, 30, everything above the line would be free and below slave.

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2. Compromise of 1850- Compromise that hoped would settle all questions and
controversy between the free and slave states growing out of slavery. It
included:
a. California admitted as a free state
b. Stricter fugitive slave law
c. No slave trade in Washington D.C.
d. Territories of New Mexico and Utah would decide on the slavery issue
through Popular Sovereignty.
e. Texas-New Mexico boundary dispute resolved: Texas paid $10 million by
federal government.
3. Kansas-Nebraska Act- Law that established the territories of Kansas and
Nebraska and gave their residents the right to decide on slavery in their
territory based on Popular Sovereignty.
4. Bleeding Kansas- name applied to the Kansas Territory in the years before the
Civil War, when the territory was a battleground between proslavery and
antislavery forces.
5. Dred Scott Decision- Supreme Court ruled that African Americans were not
and could never be citizens, Scott had no claim to freedom because he had
lived as a slave in Missouri, and the Court ruled that the Missouri Compromise
was unconstitutional.
D. Role of Abolitionists:
1. Agents of political and social change
2. Many involved in other reform work like women’s suffrage
E. Debate over popular sovereignty/states rights:
1. Missouri Compromise, 1820
2. Nullification Crisis, 1832
3. Lincoln-Douglas Debates, 1858
4. Debate over states rights vs. federalism
F. Presidential election of 1860:
1. Threat of southern secession if Lincoln is elected
2. Southern states secede starting in the winter of 1860
G. Creation of Republican Party

People
• Abraham Lincoln - Republican who ran for the Senate seat from Illinois in
1858 taking the position that slavery should not be extended into the western
territories
• Dred Scott - slave who sued for his freedom because his master had taken
him into non-slave territories and still held him as a slave
• Frederick Douglass - self-educated slave who escaped and became a leading
spokesman for the abolitionist movement, publisher of the The North Star
• Harriet Beecher Stowe - author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin
• Harriet Tubman - runaway slave and conductor on the Underground
Railroad
• James Gadsden - negotiated the last purchase of the continental United states
• James K. Polk - President during the Mexican-American War
• John Brown - made the abolition of slavery a personal crusade; murdered
slavery supporters in Kansas and led the raid at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia; executed

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• John C. Fremont - surveyor/explorer of the West known as the “Pathfinder” and
later the first presidential nominee for the Republican Party
• Lewis and Clark - explorers who explored the Louisiana Purchase
• Stephan Douglas - Democrat who ran for the Senate seat from Illinois in 1858
taking the position that popular sovereignty should determine whether slavery would
extend into the western territories
• William Lloyd Garrison - abolitionist who led the American Anti-Slavery Society
and editor of The Liberator

Vocabulary
• Abolitionists – those who wanted to abolish or end slavery
• Expansion - spreading into a connecting area
• Manifest Destiny - Belief it was the God given right of Americans to expand
westward to the Pacific Ocean
• Popular sovereignty - the policy of allowing people in a territory to decide
whether or not they will allow slavery there
• Push-Pull theory - events and conditions that either force (push) people to
move elsewhere or strongly attract (pull) them to do so
• Secession - formal withdrawal of a state from the Union
• Sectionalism - the placing of the interests of one’s own region ahead of the
interests of the nation as a whole
• Underground Railroad- a vast network of people who helped fugitive slaves
escape to the North and to Canada. It was not run by any single organization or
person, but rather, it consisted of many individuals. It effectively moved hundreds of
slaves northward each year -- according to one estimate, the South lost 100,000 slaves
between 1810 and 1850.

State Standards covered in Unit 3


I. Westward Expansion
Concept: Westward Expansion
Performance Objective: Trace the growth of the American nation during the period of western
expansion
State Standard Code: US 5-1

II. Sectionalism
Concept: Civil War
Performance Objective: Explain the economic, social, and political causes of the Civil War
State Standard Code: US 6-1

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Unit 3 Reading
The America of 1800 was predominantly agricultural. Although some people lived in small
cities along the eastern seaboard, the great majority of Americans lived on farms. But by 1850,
this life was being changed by America's entry into the Industrial Revolution. This great period
of change was a time when new power-driven machines changed the way products were made.
As the Industrial Revolution proceeded, fewer products were handmade at home and more were
machine made in factories.

The American Northeast was the first section of the country to use the technology of the
Industrial Revolution. Huge textile mills with water-powered spinning and weaving machines
were built along New England's swift flowing streams. The demand for mill workers caused
many rural Americans to leave the farms and move to factory towns. The demand for labor also
caused increased immigration. The need for access to raw materials and markets led to
improvements in transportation. Canals were dug and steam-powered ships and railroads were
built. This economic expansion led to the rapid growth of cities, especially those in the
Northeast.

Economic activity also bustled in the West. As the U.S. acquired western lands, trappers,
miners, and farmers moved into these regions. Meanwhile the old South remained mainly
agricultural. Inventions such as the cotton gin and cloth-making machines increased the demand
for southern cotton.

The early to mid-1800s was also a time of reform. A stronger sense of the dignity and
equality of people led to democratic reforms such as the elimination of property qualifications
for voting. This period was also a time of reform in education as well as in the treatment of
prisoners and the mentally ill. Women began their effort to gain political equality. Abolitionists
started a determined effort to abolish slavery in America. Their effort became one of the causes
of the Civil War (1861-1865).

The 1840s were years of territorial growth. During this decade America realized its Manifest
Destiny by expanding to the Pacific Ocean. But the addition of new lands reopened the question
of whether slavery would extend into these territories. Controversy over slavery intensified
during the 1850s and finally led to the Civil War.

Territorial expansion of the 1840s began when the U.S. finally accepted the Republic of
Texas's request for statehood. Texas, which had been a province of Mexico, won its war of
independence in 1836. Texas then asked to be admitted to the U.S. as a state. Northerners,
however, were opposed to the admission of Texas because it sought admission as a slave state.
Over the next nine years Congress repeatedly denied Texas's request for statehood. Finally in
1845, after Texas hinted that it might join in an alliance with Britain, Congress voted to admit
Texas to the Union.

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After annexing Texas, the U.S. found itself in a dispute with Mexico on the location of the
Texas-Mexican border. The argument led to the Mexican War (1846-1848). As a result of the
war, the U.S. acquired a huge area of land called the Mexican Cession for $15 million. This
territory included what is now California, Nevada, Utah, and large portions of Arizona, New
Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming.

Meanwhile, American settlers had been pouring into the Oregon Country which had been
jointly owned by the U.S. and Britain since 1818. By the mid-1840s Americans were insisting
that the U.S. should claim exclusive ownership of Oregon even if it meant war with Britain. But
when the Mexican War started, the U.S. decided that another Anglo-American war was out of
the question. In 1846 the U.S. and Britain decided to divide the Oregon Country along the 49th
parallel. The British portion was renamed British Columbia and the American portion became
what are now the states of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho.

While expansion to the Pacific was a source of national pride, it also intensified the debate
over slavery in the new lands. At first the compromise seemed to settle the problem--the
Compromise of 1850 divided the western territories into free and slave sections. But this
solution was short lived. In its Dred Scott decision (1857), the Supreme Court declared that
Congress had violated the Constitution when it banned slavery in U.S. territories. In other
words, the Court ruled that slave-owners could take their slaves into any U.S. territory.

Northerners were outraged by the Dred Scott decision. They reasoned that if slaves could be
taken into territories, those territories would later join the U.S. as slave states. That would
weaken the North's position in Congress. Abolitionists were also furious that slavery would be
spreading. The Underground Railroad intensified its efforts to help slaves escape. The
abolitionist leader John Brown resorted to violence in "Bleeding Kansas" and the raid on Harpers
Ferry. Meanwhile Northerners created a new political party, the Republican Party, whose main
goal was to prevent slavery from spreading into the western territories.

The actions of the Northerners, especially the radicalism of John Brown, convinced
Southerners that the North was "fanatically" opposed to the South and its way of life. The
election of 1860 was, for many Southerners, the last straw. The Republican candidate, Abraham
Lincoln, was elected President. Although Lincoln was willing to tolerate slavery in states where
it already existed, he was opposed to its continued spread into the territories. Many Southerners
saw Lincoln as their enemy. Led by South Carolina, the southern states began to secede from the
Union.

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Westward Expansion Vocabulary
Gadsden Purchase (1853): a section of land (now the southern part of Arizona and New
Mexico) which was purchased from Mexico for $10 million in order to provide level land on
which a transcontinental railroad route easily could be built.

Gold Rush: discovery of gold led many to move to California in hopes of striking it rich and
created tension between the United States and Mexico since California was part of Mexico.

James K. Polk: President during the Mexican- American War

Lewis and Clark: explorers who explored the Louisiana Purchase

Louisiana Purchase: area of land purchased in 1803 from France. It nearly doubled the size of
the United States.

Manifest Destiny: a belief held by many during the 1840s that it was the God given right of
Americans to expand westward to the Pacific Ocean.

Mexican Cession (1848): land bought from Mexico which included areas now known as the
states of California, Nevada, Utah, and most of Arizona and New Mexico.

Push- Pull Theory: events and conditions that either force people to move elsewhere or strongly
attract them to do so

Texas Annexation: agreement that made the Republic of Texas a state within the United States.

Thomas Jefferson: expanded the executive power of the President by purchasing the Louisiana
Territory

Treaty of Guadalupe- Hidalgo: ended the Mexican- American War and gave the United States
the Mexican Cession for $15 million.

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Sectionalism Vocabulary
Abolitionist: a person who wanted to outlaw slavery.

Abraham Lincoln: Republican who ran for the Senate seat from Illinois in 1858 taking the
position that slavery should not be extended into the western territories

Bleeding Kansas: a term used to describe the fighting in 1856 between pro- and anti-slavery
groups in Kansas each of which wanted to win popular-sovereignty elections in that territory.

Compromise of 1850: a series of laws that granted California statehood as a free state, provided
popular sovereignty for the territories of New Mexico and Utah, banned the sale of slaves in the
District of Columbia, and enacted a strict fugitive slave law.

Cotton gin: a device which separates cotton seeds from cotton fibers.

Dred Scott: slave who sued for his freedom because his master had taken him into non-slave
territories and still held him as a slave

Dred Scott decision (1857): a Supreme Court decision, written by Chief Justice Taney which
declared that Congress could not ban slavery in U.S. territories and that the Missouri
Compromise was, therefore, unconstitutional.

Election of 1860: result caused the Southern states to begin seceding from the Union

Frederick Douglass: self-educated slave who escaped and became a leading spokesman for the
abolitionist movement, publisher of the North Star

Free Soil Party: a political party which opposed the extension of slavery

Fugitive Slave Act (1850): one of the parts of the Compromise of 1850 which imposed fines or
prison terms on those found guilty of helping slaves escape.

Harriet Beecher Stowe: author of the book Uncle Tom’s Cabin

Harriet Tubman: runaway slave and conductor on the Underground Railroad.

John Brown: made the abolition of slavery a personal crusade; murdered slavery supporters in
Kansas and led the raid at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia; executed

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Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854): a law which reorganized much of the old Louisiana Purchase by
creating the Kansas and Nebraska Territories and allowing residents of those territories to decide
through popular sovereignty whether the land would be open to slavery.

Lincoln- Douglas Debates (1858): series of discussions during the Illinois Senatorial race of
1858 which focused on the issue of slavery in the United States and its territories.

Missouri Compromise (1820): a law which admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a
free state (thus maintaining the even balance between slave and free states) and which prohibited
slavery in parts of the Louisiana Purchase north of 36 degrees, 30 minutes latitude.

Nullification Crisis: occurred when South Carolina refused to enforce a federal tariff law passed
by the U.S. Congress and threatened to secede from the Union of the law was enforced.

Popular Sovereignty: the policy of allowing people in a territory to decide whether or not they
would allow slavery there.

Radical: a person favoring extreme change and willing to use strong, even illegal, methods to
bring about that change.

Republican Party: a political party formed in 1854, whose major goal was to block the
extension of slavery into the territories.

Secession: formal withdrawal of a state from the Union

Sectionalism: placing the interests of one’s own region ahead of the interests of the nation as a
whole.

Stephan Douglas: Democrat who ran for the Senate seat from Illinois in 1858 taking the
position that popular sovereignty should determine whether slavery would extend into the
western territories

Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852): a book depicting the harsh treatment of slaves in the South.

Underground Railroad: a vast network of people who helped slaves escape to the North and to
Canada.

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OVERVIEW: THE ENSLAVEMENT OF AFRICANS IN THE NEW WORLD

“This is a world of compensations; and he who would be no slave, must consent to have no slave. Those
who deny freedom to others, deserve it not for themselves; and, under a just God, can not long retain it.”
-President Abraham Lincoln in an April 6, 1859 letter to Henry Pierce

The enslavement of Africans in the United States began with the colonization of the
Americas by Europeans. Between 1520 and 1860, approximately 12 million men, women, and
children were uprooted from Africa and put on European vessels for a life of slavery in the New
World.1 The “triangular trade” was established during the colonial era in the United States.
Captured Africans were brought to Virginia, Maryland, and many other southern colonies to help
produce tobacco and sugar (much of which was processed into rum) in the colonial era, then later
(around the turn of the 19th century) to pick cotton; the products of slave labor were sold to
European countries; and the money these sales brought in was used to acquire more slaves—
hence a “triangle of trade” arose between Africa, the Americas, and Europe.

In the United States, the rise of cotton plantations, tobacco plantations, and sugar
plantations fueled a need for free and/or cheap labor. Initially, indentured servants arrived to
work the plantations. But indentured servants were only temporary employees who retained
certain rights and could earn wages. Plantation owners tried to force Native Americans to work
the fields, but they proved difficult to capture and easily escaped into surrounding areas with
which they were very familiar. Africans, on the other hand, did not know the land and proved to
be much easier to keep on the plantations. Most slaves were captured in central Africa and
brought to the Ivory Coast in coffles (fastened into groups by chains). Usually a third died along
the journey to the coast, and the trek became known as “the trail of bones.” They were then
separated from members of their own tribe and put in makeshift cages. Captured Africans often
could not speak the language(s) of their fellow captives and communication between prisoners
1
http://ngilegacy.com/holocaust.htm

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was difficult. The Africans were then “spoon packed” aboard vessels, with anywhere from 300 to
500 captives on a single ship. They then proceeded to endure a three-month journey with
minimal food, sunlight, exercise, and other basic amenities. Many became sick, and quite a few
died en route to the Americas. The stench from the filth, disease, and dead bodies on slave ships
was so strong that people in the Americas often smelled the ships before they could see them.

Upon arrival, Africans were sold to plantation owners as slaves. Plantation life meant
working from daylight to dark, living in overcrowded cabins, having no control over your daily
activities, punishments at the whims of overseers, separation from family members, lynching,
rapes, and other cruelties. Though some Americans had opposed slavery from its inception (most
notably the Quakers in Pennsylvania), in the 1830s a determined and coordinated movement
arose for abolishing slavery. The movement encompassed both whites (such as William Lloyd
Garrison. editor of the antislavery newspaper The Liberator) and blacks (including former slaves
such as Frederick Douglass, and free blacks as well). Their efforts contributed to a highly
charged political arena, with debates over sectionalism and slavery eventually threatening the
Union.

As debates between abolitionists and pro-slavery advocates heated the national scene,
some slaves began to escape to the North through what became known as the “Underground
Railroad.” Started in the early 19th century by Quakers in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, the
Railroad consisted of a network of paths and individuals aiding runaway slaves. Harriet Tubman,
a former slave herself, was one of the Railroad’s most notable “conductors,” returning
continually to the South to aid other runaway slaves. While some slaves ran to find freedom,
others stayed and rebelled. Slave rebellions in the South were the exception rather than the rule,
but they had widespread repercussions. In 1831, the largest uprising occurred when a slave
named Nat Turner successfully led around 70 or 80 slaves in a rebellion against plantation
owners in Virginia.

A multitude of literature, drawings, photographs, narratives, poems, songs, speeches,


debates, maps, and other historical documents on slavery exists. Historians, educators, and
students face the challenge of sifting through multiple viewpoints in order to understand how

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slavery developed, why it split the nation, and how its painful and enduring legacy shapes
America even to the present day. The following lessons offer a glimpse into the crucial and
tumultuous time period when slavery flourished in the United States.

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Unit 4: Civil War

Tested Information:
I. Civil War
A. Southern states secede starting in the fall of 1860
B. Advantages/disadvantages of Union and Confederacy:
1. Union-more men, more money, more materials; lack of military leadership
2. Confederacy-leadership, defensive war, morale, less technology
C. Fall of Fort Sumter: official start of war
D. First Battle of Bull Run/Manassas: both sides learn this wouldn’t be a 90 day war
E. Turning points
1. Antietam: Union victory leads to the Emancipation Proclamation; ends
possibility of European involvement
2. Gettysburg: Union victory stops Confederate move north; Lincoln’s delivers
the Gettysburg Address to help unify the North
3. Vicksburg: Union victory gives Union control of Mississippi River
F. Military and Civilian leaders (see people)
G. Effects of the Emancipation Proclamation: Lincoln’s plan freed the slaves in the
rebellious south but not the Border states; creation of the 54th Massachusetts
Regiment
H. Surrender at Appomattox Courthouse
I. Results of the War:
1. Power of the national government strengthened
2. Destruction of the South
3. End of slavery

People
• Abraham Lincoln: president of the Union who’s goal at the start of the war was
to keep the Union together, not necessarily to end slavery
• Jefferson Davis: president of the Confederate States of America
• Robert E. Lee: commander of the Confederate Army
• Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson: Confederate general who turned back the Union
army at the first Battle of Bull Run/Manassas
• Ulysses S. Grant: winning commander of the Union army
• William Sherman: led the Atlanta campaign to destroy Confederate resources
and demoralize the people of the South

Vocabulary
• 54th Massachusetts Regiment - African American regiment that fought in the
battle of Fort Wagner. Remembered in the Movie “Glory.”
• Border States - slave holding states who remained in the Union during the Civil
War
• Confederate States of America - southern states during the Civil War
• Copperheads - Northern Democrat who favored making peace with the Confederacy
• Emancipation - freeing of slaves
• Siege - the action of an armed force that surrounds a fortified place and isolates it
while continuing to attack
• Secession - formal withdrawal of a state from the Union

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• Union - northern states during the Civil War

State Standards covered in Unit 4


I. Civil War
Concept: Civil War and Reconstruction
Performance Objective: Analyze aspects of the Civil War: changes in technology, importance of
resources, turning points, military and civilian leaders, effect of the
Emancipation Proclamation, and effect on the civilian populations
State Standard Code: US 6-2

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Unit 4 Reading
That we here highly resolve that these honored dead shall not have died in vain..,
that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government
of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.”
---Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg Address

The national experience during the seventy years following ratification of the Constitution in
1788 had not convinced all Americans to support strong national power and goals. As early as
1798, Thomas Jefferson wrote the Kentucky Resolution which argued that the Union and the
Constitution was a compact of states and that states, therefore, had the right to declare laws of
Congress unconstitutional. This idea was repeated again by John C. Calhoun in 1828 when he
claimed that a state, as a member of a compact of states, could declare laws of Congress null and
void. Calhoun also believed that a state could terminate membership in its compact with other
states and secede from the Union. During the next 30 years some Southerners continued the talk
of secession as a last resort. This became a reality when, in late 1860, southern states began
seceding from the Union.

Southern secession was sparked by the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. Southerners
strongly objected to Lincoln because he and fellow members of the Republican Party were
adamantly opposed to the extension of slavery into the territories. With Republicans in power,
the Southerners reasoned, southern interests would be ignored, and southern power in
government would weaken. Rather than face such a fate, southern states, led by South Carolina
in December of 1860, began seceding from the Union. Within two months the seceding states
formed their own national government--the Confederate States of America.

Lincoln did not view southern secession as legal. When Southerners demanded that the
U.S. remove its soldiers from Fort Sumter, South Carolina, Lincoln refused. In April 1861,
sectional conflict between the North and South exploded into Civil War when Confederate
troops fired on Union-held Fort Sumter outside Charleston, South Carolina. While there were no
casualties at Fort Sumter, the war that followed became the bloodiest in U.S. history. Over
600,000 Americans from the Union and Confederacy died, and nearly 500,000 were wounded.

After the fall of Fort Sumter to the Confederacy, President Abraham Lincoln called for
volunteers to quell the rebellion. Hundreds of thousands took up arms. Southerners, wanting to
preserve their way of life, did the same. The war divided not only the nation, but divided families
as well. Lincoln’s brother-in-law died fighting for the Confederacy, while Confederate General
Robert E. Lee’s nephew fought for the Union Navy. Several counties in the Western part of
Virginia were anti-slavery; during the war, they seceded from Virginia and were admitted into
the Union in 1863 as the state of West Virginia. In addition, several “Border States” remained
loyal to the Union, even though many of their residents were slaveholders.

Both the Union and Confederacy developed military strategies to subdue their foe. The
Union’s strategy was dubbed the “Anaconda Plan” because it was designed to strangle the

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Confederacy similar to how the anaconda snake suffocates its victims in its coils. The Union
would blockade Southern ports, split the Confederacy in two along the Mississippi River, and
seize the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia. The Confederate strategy was mostly
defensive, although Confederate leaders, including President Jefferson Davis, encouraged their
generals to attack or invade the North if the opportunity arose.

While the North had the larger share of industrial, economic, and political resources, the
South could rely on their economic resource of “King Cotton,” as well as an abundance of great
military leaders, including Robert E. Lee. Although often criticized, Abraham Lincoln proved to
be a superior leader to Jefferson Davis, who found himself often unable to carry out policies
needed to support the Confederate war effort.

Early in the war, Confederate victories were numerous. The opening battle of the war at Bull
Run creek (near Manassas, Virginia) was won through the inspirational leadership of General
Thomas J. Jackson, who earned the nickname “Stonewall.” In an effort to stem the tide of
Southern victories, President Lincoln appointed a series of generals to command the Union army,
including General George McClellan. However, McClellan proved to be overcautious and unable
to successfully capitalize on the Union’s superior numbers and greater supplies to defeat the
Confederates. However, Lincoln finally found a general who would take the battle to the
Confederacy: General Ulysses S. Grant, who had become known as a tough, brave, and decisive
commander in battles such as Shiloh and Vicksburg.

At Antietam (near Sharpsburg, Maryland) Lee’s forces were defeated in the bloodiest one-
day battle in American History. More than 26,000 died in the failed attempt by the South to
invade the North. While the battle was not settled decisively in favor of the Union, it gave
Lincoln enough of a victory so that he could issue the Emancipation Proclamation from a
perceived position of strength; and thus prevent the measure from being seen as an act of
desperation. Lincoln had known from the outset of the war that if he made ending slavery one of
the Union’s main goals, he might lose crucial support from the Border States. The Proclamation
was therefore portrayed as simply a war measure designed to unify the North and undermine the
South. By signing the Proclamation, Lincoln announced his plan to free slaves, but only in
“territories in rebellion,” meaning that only slaves in the Confederacy, and not ones in Border
States, were free. In addition, this proclamation ended the possibility of European involvement
in the war on the side of the Confederacy since most Europeans did not support the institution of
slavery.

Later in 1863, the North and the South fought a historic battle at Gettysburg, in south central
Pennsylvania. Names such as “Cemetery Ridge,” “Little Round lop,” “Devil’s Den,” and
“Pickett’s Charge” became known to millions as the two armies fought in what many view as the
decisive battle of the war. When the Confederates retreated, over 40,000 were dead, and the
South had suffered a defeat from which it would not recover. During the same few days in July
1863, Union troops captured Vicksburg and gained control of the Mississippi River. A few
months after the battle, Lincoln was invited to add “a few appropriate remarks” at a ceremony
dedicating the Gettysburg battlefield as a national cemetery. In the words of historian Garry
Wills, Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address “remade America.”

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After Gettysburg, the war turned into one of attrition, with the North wearing down the
Confederacy. Grant lost nearly double the men Lee did during the Virginia Wilderness
campaign, but unlike the Union the Confederacy didn’t have reserves to replace those lost troops.
General William Tecumseh Sherman marched through Georgia, carving a wide path of
destruction, burning Atlanta, and finally reaching the sea at Savannah. This campaign became
known as “Sherman’s March to the Sea.” In early 1865, the Union was able to capture the
Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia.

Finally, in April 1865, Lee surrendered his army to Grant at Appomattox Court House.
Terms of the surrender were generous, with Lee’s men being allowed to keep horses, personal
possessions, and food, as well as his officers being allowed to keep their sidearm. However, the
bloodshed of the Civil War was not yet over. Less than a week after Lee surrendered, John
Wilkes Booth, a Southern sympathizer, assassinated President Lincoln as he watched a play in
Ford’s Theater in Washington D.C. Millions mourned the fallen Lincoln, who was seen as the
“Great Emancipator” because of his work in ending slavery. Without the leadership of Lincoln,
others would have to guide the nation through Reconstruction.

Civil War Vocabulary


54th Massachusetts: first Northern African- American regiment that fought in the Battle of Fort
Wagner

Abraham Lincoln: President of the Union whose goal at the start of the war was to keep the
country together not necessarily to end slavery.

Advantages of Confederacy: leadership, defensive war, and morale

Advantages of Union: more men, more money, and more materials

Antietam: Union victory that leads to the Emancipation Proclamation and ends possibility of
European involvement

Appomattox Courthouse: place where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant

Blockade: a barrier (often made up of warships) set up around a nation to prevent it from trading
with other nations.

Border States: slave holding states who remained in the Union during the Civil War

Confederate States of America (C.S.A.): a nation formed by the eleven states that seceded from
the U.S. in late 1860 and 1861. (The U.S. claimed the secession was illegal, and the U.S., as well
as other nations, did not officially recognize the C.S.A.'s right to exist.)

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Copperhead: a Northerner who believed that the South had the right to seceded and opposed
military methods to force the South's return to the U.S.

Draft: a law requiring men of a certain age to serve in the armed forces.

Emancipation Proclamation (1863): a declaration by President Lincoln freeing all slaves in the
Confederacy.

First Battle of Bull Run: proved to both sides that the Civil War would not be a 90 day war.

Fort Sumter: official start of the Civil War.

Gettysburg: Union victory stops Confederate move North and possible Confederate victory in
the Civil War.

Gettysburg Address: speech given by Abraham Lincoln in order to remind Union why they are
fighting the war and unify the North

Ironclad: a warship of the Civil War period whose wooden hull or frame was covered with thick
plates of iron.

Jefferson Davis: President of the Confederate States of America

Robert E. Lee: commander of the Confederate Army of Virginia

Siege: the surrounding and bombarding of a fortified place by an enemy force with the intent of
forcing its surrender.

Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson: Confederate general who turned back the Union Army at the
First Battle of Bull Run

Ulysses S. Grant: winning commander of the Union Army

Union: name given to that part of the U.S. which did not secede during the Civil War.

Vicksburg: Union victory gives Union control of the Mississippi River

William Sherman: led the Atlanta campaign to destroy Confederate resources and demoralize
the people of the South.

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The Emancipation Proclamation
January 1, 1863

A Transcription

By the President of the United States of America:

A Proclamation.

Whereas, on the twenty-second day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand
eight hundred and sixty-two, a proclamation was issued by the President of the United
States, containing, among other things, the following, to wit:

"That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and
sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the
people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then,
thenceforward, and forever free; and the Executive Government of the United States,
including the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the
freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of
them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom.

"That the Executive will, on the first day of January aforesaid, by proclamation,
designate the States and parts of States, if any, in which the people thereof, respectively,
shall then be in rebellion against the United States; and the fact that any State, or the
people thereof, shall on that day be, in good faith, represented in the Congress of the
United States by members chosen thereto at elections wherein a majority of the qualified
voters of such State shall have participated, shall, in the absence of strong countervailing
testimony, be deemed conclusive evidence that such State, and the people thereof, are
not then in rebellion against the United States."

Now, therefore I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, by virtue of


the power in me vested as Commander-in-Chief, of the Army and Navy of the
United States in time of actual armed rebellion against the authority and
government of the United States, and as a fit and necessary war measure for
suppressing said rebellion, do, on this first day of January, in the year of our
Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, and in accordance with my
purpose so to do publicly proclaimed for the full period of one hundred days,
from the day first above mentioned, order and designate as the States and parts
of States wherein the people thereof respectively, are this day in rebellion
against the United States, the following, to wit:

Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, (except the Parishes of St. Bernard, Plaquemines, Jefferson,
St. John, St. Charles, St. James Ascension, Assumption, Terrebonne, Lafourche, St.
Mary, St. Martin, and Orleans, including the City of New Orleans) Mississippi,
Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia, (except the
forty-eight counties designated as West Virginia, and also the counties of Berkley,

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Accomac, Northampton, Elizabeth City, York, Princess Ann, and Norfolk, including the
cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth[)], and which excepted parts, are for the present, left
precisely as if this proclamation were not issued.

And by virtue of the power, and for the purpose aforesaid, I do order and declare that all
persons held as slaves within said designated States, and parts of States, are, and
henceforward shall be free; and that the Executive government of the United States,
including the military and naval authorities thereof, will recognize and maintain the
freedom of said persons.

And I hereby enjoin upon the people so declared to be free to abstain from all violence,
unless in necessary self-defence; and I recommend to them that, in all cases when
allowed, they labor faithfully for reasonable wages.

And I further declare and make known, that such persons of suitable condition, will be
received into the armed service of the United States to garrison forts, positions, stations,
and other places, and to man vessels of all sorts in said service.

And upon this act, sincerely believed to be an act of justice, warranted by the
Constitution, upon military necessity, I invoke the considerate judgment of mankind,
and the gracious favor of Almighty God.

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States
to be affixed.

Done at the City of Washington, this first day of January, in the year of our Lord one
thousand eight hundred and sixty three, and of the Independence of the United States of
America the eighty-seventh.

By the President: ABRAHAM LINCOLN


WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State.

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Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address
Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation,
conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation or any nation so
conceived and so dedicated can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We
have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting-place for those who here gave
their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.
Buy, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate- we cannot consecrate- we cannot hallow- this
ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our
poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here,
but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us living, rather, to be dedicated here to the
unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far have so nobly advanced. It is rather
for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us- that from these honored dead
we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion-
that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain- that this nation, under
God, shall have a new birth of freedom- and that government of the people, by the people, and
for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

1. A score is 20 years. How long is “fourscore and seven years”? ________________________


2. The dedication of the cemetery at Gettysburg took place in 1863. What year would it have
been “fourscore and seven years ago”?

Use a dictionary to define the following terms.


3. Define conceive.
4. Define consecrate.
5. Define hallow.
6. Why did Lincoln give this speech?

7. Why did Lincoln state that they could not dedicate the cemetery? Who had already done that
and how?

8. What tasks does Lincoln say still must be done? (Refer to the last paragraph for your answer)

9. What did Lincoln mean by “government of the people, by the people, and for the people”?

10. Why do you think this speech became one of the most famous in American History?

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Diary from Dixie
Many authors of Civil War novels have drawn their stories and characters from the diaries, letters, and
journals left behind by the people who lived through the Civil War. One such diarist was Mary Boykin
Chesnut who, as one historian noted, was “at the right time with the right connections.” She was the
daughter of a distinguished South Carolinian who had served as governor and in the House of
Representatives and the Senate. As the wife of Colonel James Chesnut, brigadier general to Jefferson
Davis, she knew most of the political and military leaders on the Confederacy.

As you read the excerpts from Mary Chesnut’s diary, look for her impressions of the war and its impact
on the soldiers and the families left behind.

July 14, 1861 June 9, 1862


…Now every day we grow weaker and they …When we read of the battle in India, in Italy,
grow stronger, so we had better give a telling in the Crimea, what did we care? It was only an
blow at once. Already we begin to cry out for interesting topic, like any other, to look for in
more ammunition, and already the blockade is the paper. Now, you hear of a battle with a thrill
beginning to shut it all out… and a shudder. It has come home to us. Half the
I did not now there was such a “bitter cry” people that we know in the world are under the
left in me; but I wept my heart away today when enemy’s guns. A telegram comes to you and
my husband went off. Things do look so you leave it on your lap. You are pale with
black… fright. You handle it, or dread to touch it, as you
would a rattlesnake, or worse; for a snake could
July 24, 1861 only strike you. How many, many of your
…They brought me a Yankee soldier’s portfolio friends or loved ones this scrap of paper may tell
from the battlefield…One might shed a few you have gone to their death.
tears over some of the letters. Women- wives When you meet people, sad and sorrowful is
and mothers- are the same everywhere… the greeting. They press your hand, and tears
stand in their eyes or roll down their cheeks as
July 27, 1861 they happen to have more or less self-control.
…Here is one or Mr. Chesnut’s anecdotes of the They have brothers, fathers, or sons as the case
Manassas. He had in his pocket a small paper of may be in the battle; and this thing now seems
morphine. He put it there to alleviate pain… never to stop…
Later in the day he saw a man lying under a tree A woman…heard her son was killed, but
who begged for water. He wore a Federal hard hardly taken in the horror of it when they
Uniform. As Mr. Chesnut carried him the water, came to say it was all a mistake. She fell on her
he asked where he was from. The man refused knees with a shout of joy. “Praise the Lord, oh
to answer. “Poor fellow, you can have no cause my soul!” she cried in her wild delight. The
to care about all that now. You can’t hurt me swing back of the pendulum from the scene of
and God knows I would not harm you. What weeping and wailing a few moments before was
else do you want?” “Straighten my legs. They very exciting. In the midst of this hubbub, the
are doubled up under me.” The legs were hearse drove up with the poor boy in his metallic
smashed. Mr. Chesnut gave him some morphine coffin.
to let him know at least a few moments of peace. Does anybody wonder why so many women
die? Grief and constant anxiety kill nearly as
many women as men die on the battlefield. [The
woman] is at the point of death with brain fever;
the sudden change from joy to grief was more
than she could bear…

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So I agreed to go…
(Richmond, Virginia)
November 30, 1863 February 22, 1865
Anxiety pervades. Lee is fighting Meade, Bragg Isabella has been reading my diaries. How we
falling back before Grant, Longstreet- the laugh at my sage ratiocinations all come to
soldiers call him Peter the Slow- sitting down naught, my famous insight into character proved
before Knoxville. utter folly. The diaries were lying on the hearth
ready to be burned, but she told me to hold on,
January 11, 1864 to wait awhile…
General Preston told us of the impression the
first dead Confederate soldiers’ faces, grim in February 25, 1865
death, lying stiff and stark, made upon him in …I sat down and wrote my husband, words so
Shiloh: cold, staring open-eyed. They were all much worse than anything I can put in this book;
hard frozen, these dead bodies… and as I wrote I was blinded by tears of rage.
Everybody who comes in brings a little bad Indeed I nearly wept myself away. In vain.
news, not so much in itself; but the cumulative Years, death, depopulation, bondage, fears; these
effect is depressing indeed. have all been borne…

January 31, 1864


Mrs. Davis gave her “Luncheon to Ladies” on (Camden, South Carolina)
Saturday. Many more persons were there than May 16, 1865
at any of those luncheons which have gone We are scattered, stunned, the remnant of heart
before. We had gumbo, ducks and olives, left alive in us filled with brotherly hate. We sit
supreme de volaille, chickens in jelly, oysters, and wait until the drunken tailor who rules the
lettuce salad, chocolate cream, jelly cake, claret United States issues a proclamation and defines
cup, champagne, etc… our anomalous position…
Today, for a pair of forlorn shoes, I gave
eighty-five dollars…Mr. Pettigrew says: “You June 4, 1865
take your money to market in the market basket President Davis is in a dungeon, and in chains.
and bring home what you buy in your Men watch him day and night…Our turn next,
pocketbook.” maybe. Not among the Negroes does fear dwell
now, nor uncertainty nor anxiety. It dwells here,
June 2, 1864 haunting us, tracking us, running like an
…I paid today, for two pounds of tea, forty accursed discord through all the music tones of
pounds of coffee, and sixty pounds of sugar, our existence.
$800.

(Lincolnton, North Carolina)


February 16, 1865
…So my time had come too. My husband urged
me to go home. He said Camden would be safe
enough, that they had no spite to that old town
as they have to Charleston and Columbia.
Molly too. She came in, weeping and wailing,
wiping her red-hot face with her cook’s grimy
apron. She said I ought to go among our own
black people on the plantation. They would take
care of me better than anyone else.

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Unit 5: Reconstruction

Tested Information:
I. Reconstruction
A. Various plans for Reconstruction of the South
1. Lincoln’s 10% Plan- Confederate states would be allowed to join the union as
soon as 10% of the population swore allegiance to the union
2. Andrew Johnson’s plan for Reconstruction- very lenient, favorable to the
South
a. Original promise to follow Lincoln’s plan, but end up more conciliatory
toward Southern states and ignores the freed men
3. Military Reconstruction Act- Reconstruction Act of 1867, put the South under
military rule, required states to allow all male voters, including African
Americans, required southern states to guarantee equal rights to all citizens,
and required the states to ratify the 14th Amendment
B. Lincoln’s Assassination- assassinated by John Wilkes Booth at Ford’s Theatre
C. Johnson’s Impeachment- first president to be impeached, one vote short of
conviction
D. Congressional Radical Republicans
1. Wanted to punish the South
2. 13th Amendment- outlawed slavery in the U.S.
3. 14th Amendment- all citizens have rights
4. 15th Amendment- no citizen can be denied the right to vote based on race,
color, or servitude
E. Election of 1876
1. Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction- Democrats would give the
presidency to Rutherford B. Hayes ( R) and in return federal troops would be
removed from the South, ended Reconstruction
F. Jim Crow Laws
1. Voting Restrictions- Various methods of keeping African Americans from
voting, including:
a. Poll Tax- a special fee that must be paid before a person can vote
b. Grandfather Clause- Could only vote if your Grandfather had voted in a
previous election
c. Literacy Tests- a test administered before voting that required them to read
a portion of the U.S. Constitution
2. Segregation- separation of races in society
3. Lynching- (see terms)
4. De facto segregation- (see terms)
5. De Jure segregation- (see terms)
G. Ku Klux Klan (KKK)- a white southern organization aimed at keeping traditional
southern society alive through lynching, intimidation, and violence.
H. Counter Actions
1. Enforcement Act of 1870- Protected the voting rights of African Americans and
gave the federal government power to enforce the 15th Amendment

People
• Abraham Lincoln- 16th President whose death gave rise to the power of the
Radical Republicans
• John Wilkes Booth- Assassinated President Lincoln

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• Andrew Johnson- 17th President who was impeached by the Radical Republicans
• Thaddeus Stephens- leader of the Radical Republicans
• Rutherford B Hayes- his election led to the end of reconstruction in the South
• Samuel Tilden- won the popular vote, but lost the election of 1878

Vocabulary
• Carpetbaggers – negative nickname for a northern Republican who moved to
the South after the Civil War to invest in the
• Scalawags – negative nickname for a white Southern Republican who sided
with Northern interest
• Freedmen’s Bureau - organization that helped newly freed slaves
• Black Codes - laws that restricted freedmen’s rights
• Sharecropping-a system of farming in a which a farmer works a portion of a
plantation owner’s land and receives a share of the crop at harvest time as
payment
• Impeachment of Andrew Johnson - Radical Republicans accused Andrew Johnson
of violating the Tenure of Office Act
• Tenure of Office Act - passed after Lincoln’s assassination that required Andrew
Johnson to seek approval from the Senate before removing a member of his Cabinet
• Segregation- forced separation often times by race
• De facto segregation - segregation caused by social conditions such as poverty
• De Jure Segregation - segregation created by law
• Lynch-murder of a person by a mob

State Standards covered in Unit 5


I. Reconstruction
Concept: Civil War and Reconstruction
Performance Objective: Analyze immediate and long term effects of Reconstruction and post
Civil War America
State Standard Code: US 6-3

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Unit 5 Reading
After the South's defeat in the Civil War, the rebellious states were rejoined to the Union.
This process, which lasted from 1865 to 1877, was called Reconstruction.

Despite a lack of specific constitutional guidelines dealing with secession or readmission of


rebellious states, President Lincoln claimed that it was the Chief Executive's responsibility to
reconstruct the Union. Lincoln, therefore, created his own plan for Reconstruction. His plan did
not call for strict punishment of southern states partly because, in his view, these states had never
really left the Union. In Lincoln's opinion, only a few individual leaders of the South, not the
states themselves or average Southerners, deserved punishment. Lincoln's plan held that each
southern state could establish a legal government once 10% of its voters swore allegiance to the
U.S. Lincoln’s plan became known as the Ten Percent Plan.

After Lincoln's assassination, his Vice President, Andrew Johnson succeeded to the
presidency. Johnson tried to continue Lincoln's so-called 10% plan for Reconstruction. But a
strong block of Congressmen called Radical Republicans claimed that the 10% plan was too
lenient. They also complained that southern states were enacting laws called Black Codes which
deprived blacks of their rights. Claiming that it was Congress's responsibility, not the
President's, to reconstruct the South, Radical Republicans passed their own reconstruction
program. In 1866 Congress proposed the 14th Amendment which made blacks citizens and
prohibited states from depriving them of their rights. Congress also passed the Reconstruction
Act of 1867 which dissolved most southern state governments and established military rule over
the South. The law also blocked southern states from rejoining the union until southern voters
(both whites and blacks) adopted new state constitutions which guaranteed rights for blacks.
President Johnson vetoed most of Congress's programs. Although Congress passed its laws over
Johnson's veto, it failed in its effort to remove Johnson from office by impeachment.

Most southern whites, especially those who had supported secession, were angry over the
harshness of Reconstruction. But southern governments, under the new leadership of
carpetbaggers, scalawags, and freed blacks began to comply with Congress's wishes.
Reconstruction laws brought about a change in state governments--for the first time blacks were
able to elect their fellow blacks to public office. With the help of the Freedmen's Bureau, much
was done to help southern blacks. But there was also some corruption. Carpetbaggers and
scalawags often sought state office for their own benefit rather than for the benefit of the state.
To make matters worse, racist organizations like the Ku Klux Klan began to terrorize blacks.

But the renewed suffering of blacks in the South did not stir the North's conscience as pre-war
slavery had done. America seemed to have turned its attention to a new adventure--
industrialization. With this mindset, the U.S. became less interested in the problems of
America's blacks.

During Reconstruction, Southerners began resent Northern occupation. The Election of 1876
offered them the opportunity to rid themselves of their Northern oppressors. The results of the
election left no clear winner to the Presidency. Therefore, the U.S. House of Representatives
would decide the next President. The Southern Democrats agreed to elect the Republican

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candidate, Rutherford B. Hayes, if the Radical Republicans agreed to withdrawal all Union
military personnel, thus ending Reconstruction in the south. This agreement became known as
the Compromise of 1877.

Reconstruction Vocabulary
Abraham Lincoln: President whose death gave rise to the Radical Republicans

Andrew Johnson: first President to be impeached by Congress (Radical Republicans)

Black Codes: laws which southern state legislatures passed immediately after the Civil War
which deprived blacks of rights such as the right to vote and own a gun.

Carpetbaggers: name for Northerners who went to the South after the Civil War to participate
in reconstruction governments and other post-war developments.

Compromise of 1877: agreement that ended Reconstruction in the South

Enforcement Act of 1870: protected the voting rights of African- Americans and gave the
federal government the power to enforce amendments.

Fifteenth Amendment (1870): a constitutional amendment which prohibited federal or state


governments from denying citizens the right to vote on account of race, color, or condition of
previous servitude.

Fourteenth Amendment (1868): a constitutional amendment which granted citizenship to all


persons born or naturalized in the U.S. and forbad states from denying citizens of equal
protection of the laws and due process of law.

Freedmen's Bureau: government organization which helped freed slaves after the Civil War.

Impeach: to accuse a President or other high government official of crimes which, if found
guilty, would lead to his or her removal from office.

Jim Crow laws: laws passed by southern state governments which segregated blacks from
whites in schools, parks, and other public places.

John Wilkes Booth: assassinated Abraham Lincoln

Lynch: murder of a person by a mob

Ku Klux Klan: a secret organization formed in the South after the Civil War which terrorized
blacks in order to keep them from voting or otherwise exercising their right to equality.

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Radical Republicans: a group of politicians during the Reconstruction era that believe in
punishing the South for seceding from the Union. They also believed that freed slaves should
have political and social equality with all other citizens.

Reconstruction (1865-1877): the process of reorganizing and reforming southern state


governments after the Civil War and then rejoining them to the Union.

Reconstruction Act of 1867: a law which established military rule in the defeated South and
required southern states to grant full rights to blacks before they would be fully readmitted to the
Union.

Scalawag: a white Southerner who supported Radical reconstruction of the South and joined
with blacks and carpetbaggers in reconstruction governments.

Segregation: forced separation often times by race

Sharecropper: a farmer who works a farm owned by someone else. The owner provides the
land, seed, and tools in exchange the farmer shares part of the crops and goods produced on the
farm.

Suffrage: the right or privilege to vote

Tenure of Office Act (1867): a law which forbad the President from firing officials who had
originally been confirmed by the Senate unless the Senate first consented to the dismissal.

Ten percent plan: President Lincoln's plan of allowing Southerners to reestablish state
governments as soon as 10 percent of the voters took an oath of allegiance to the U.S.

Tenant farmer: one who farms land owned by another and pays rent in exchange for living and
farming the land.

Thirteenth Amendment (1865): outlawed slavery in the United States

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1868 Impeachment was a Chaotic Affair
Arizona Republic 12/13/98 Like Clinton, Johnson was not a The issue came to a head in February
By Lance Gay popular president with those who 1868 when Johnson decided to fire
WASHINGTON- There was no controlled Congress. As a senator from Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, who had
counterpart to Kenneth Starr in 1868, Tennessee, Johnson had been the only been appointed by Lincoln in 1862.
but there was Dr. Cornelius Rea, a Southerner to vote against secession, and Johnson’s act was deliberately
minister who swore he knew from just President Abraham Lincoln sought to provocative, Bergeron said. The
reading the newspaper that President reward him and get votes from the South president knew firing Stanton would
Andrew Johnson was “more or less by appointing him as his vice presidential provoke an uproar in Congress. Three
drunk” when he read George nominee on the National Union ticket in days after Johnson replaced Stanton with
Washington’s birthday speech that 1864. Ulysses Grant, the House voted 126-47 to
year. Johnson became president in April impeach Johnson.
Rea’s testimony before a House 1865 at the end of the Civil War, after
committee drawing up articles to Lincoln’s assassination, and sought to Kept low profile
impeach Johnson is just a hint of the continue Lincoln’s healing policies of Bergeron said Johnson hired five
fracas that erupted in Congress a rebuilding a nation slowly. lawyers to defend himself, but otherwise
century ago. Radical Republicans Members of the radical wing of the kept a low profile until the matter went to
waited just three days after Johnson Republican Party, which control-led both the Senate.
dismissed Secretary of War Edwin M. the House and the Senate, felt the Union’s “As we also see now, the president
Stanton before rushing through a victory allowed them to push whatever really has nothing to say until the House
resolution during an unusual Saturday policies they wished over what Rep. completes its work.” Bergeron said.
session to impeach Johnson by a vote Thaddeus Stevens, R-PA, called a The lawyers sought to slow down the
of 107-39. “conquered province.” process, contenting Congress was rushing
Paul Bergeron, a University of “From the first few months, the to judgment, treating impeachment “as if
Tennessee history professor who is radicals showed they had no intention of it were a case before a police court.”
compiling Johnson’s papers, said it was working with Johnson. There was enmity House Republicans saw no reason for
only later that the Republicans realized from the beginning,” Bergeron said. delay. As Rep. John Logan told senators,
they didn’t have any specific articles of “We are not doubtful of your verdict.
impeachment in the resolution. They Battle with vetoes Andrew Johnson has long since been tried
spent the next two weeks whipping up In a series a legislative fights, Johnson by the whole people and found guilty, and
the 11 specific articles to cite Johnson. repeatedly vetoed the radicals’ legislation you can but confirm that judgment.”
“It was very much a chaotic affair,” —29 times in less than four years, more But the case fell apart in the Senate,
said Bergeron, noting that neither the than twice as often as any other president where seven Republican “recusants”
House nor the Senate had ever tackled to that time. bolted from the radical ranks by
an impeachment of a president. “They One of those bills—a measure that questioning the motives of those who
understood the basics, because they had forbade the president from firing a brought the charges against Johnson, and
done it with lesser officials such as Cabinet officer without Senate approval asking whether the offenses were serious
federal judges. But they were on (Tenure of Office Act) — eventually enough to remove Johnson from office.
uncharted grounds with a president.” would bring the crisis to a head. Johnson also launched a clever behind-
Many of those rules written in 1868 After the 1866 elections, in which the the-scenes campaign to gather support
are being followed in Congress today. Republicans gained two-thirds control of from moderates, cutting deals to head off
Just the legal arguments presented by both the House and the Senate, Congress legislative controversies, and offering
both sides in the Johnson case fill two began to contemplate impeachment of this conciliatory appointments to office.
large volumes in the Senate’s library. “accidental president” with charges and After 11 weeks of debate, the Senate
countercharges of tyrannies and took its first vote May 16. The tally was
Precedents no help today conspiracies. 35-19, one short of the two-thirds needed
But Bergeron said he doubts legal Rep. James Ashley, R-Ohio, was for impeachment. Ten day’s later, two
precedents from the Johnson case will convinced Johnson was implicated in more articles of impeachment were
be of much help to the current Lincoln’s assassination. He also brought up to vote, with similar results.
lawmakers as they decide the fate of maintained that missing pages numbered The impeachment crippled Johnson’s
President Clinton on allegations of 3, 4, 12 and 15 had been ripped from presidency over its remaining 10 months,
perjury and obstructing justice. assassin John Booth’s diary because they but Bergeron said it had little lasting
“You’re talking about a political mentioned Johnson’s negotiations with impact on Washington’s institutions, and
fight—it came down to a matter of Confederate leader Jefferson Davis. made no new political careers.
counting votes,” he said.

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Unit 6: Turn of the Century

Tested Information:
I. Industrialization
A. Innovations in Technology
1. Bessemer process
2. Interchangeable Parts
3. Steam Engine
4. Telegraph
5. Electricity
6. Telephone
7. Light bulb and phonograph
B. Monopolies and trusts were created to stifle competition and led to individuals
amassing tremendous wealth
1. Vertical and Horizontal Consolidation
2. Government subsidy for big business
3. Robber Barons and Captain of Industry show the dual sides of how American
business leaders were viewed by the public.
C. Economic philosophies reflect the belief that individual and national wealth is the
result of an unregulated market-place and the strengths and abilities of
individuals to create that wealth
1. Social Darwinism
2. Gospel of Wealth
3. Laissez-Faire
D. Labor movement
1. Movement grew as a result of
a. Low wages
b. Harsh working conditions
c. Inequitable distribution of wealth
2. Unions
a. Knights of Labor-first successful American union
b. American Federation of Labor-union opened only to skilled workers
c. IWW-Industrial Workers of the World-radical union that believed that “the
working class and the employing class” had nothing in common
3. Strikes
a. Pullman
b. Haymarket
c. Homestead
d. Bisbee Deportation
e. The U.S. government supported big business by suppressing organized
labor through legislation and Supreme Court decision

II. Immigration
A.. The arrival of millions of “New” immigrants created social, political and economic
challenges for the United States.
B. Rise in Nativism
C. Immigrants arriving at Ellis Island and Angel Island were put through a battery of
physical and mental tests before being allowed to enter the U.S.
D. Chinese Exclusion Act-made immigrants born in China ineligible for U.S.
citizenship and restricted immigrant Chinese laborers

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E. Immigration Act of 1924-created a quota system for immigrants

III. Urbanization
A. Massive immigration and the industrialization led to increased urban populations
and reflected a shift from an agrarian to urban society.
B. City services could not keep up with this population explosion leading to
overcrowded and unsanitary living conditions (i.e. tenement housing)

IV. Political Corruption


A. One of the effects of the massive wealth created through industrialization was the control
the Robber Barons had over government at the local, state and national levels.
B. One result of the problems created by urbanization was the development of
political machines that ran city services and gained power and wealth through
fraud. (i.e. the boss system, voter fraud, graft, and Tammany Hall)

V. Progressive Movement-created social, political, and economic reforms at the local,


state and national levels to address some of the greatest problems in turn of the
century America.
A. Social Improvements
1. Child Labor Laws- limited hours children could work and raised the minimum
age at which companies could hire children
2. Muckrakers wrote books and articles exposing the levels of political and
economic corruption and the problems of workers, immigrants and urban
dwellers
a. Upton Sinclair’s book, The Jungle, led to the passage of the Meat Inspection and
Pure Food and Drug Acts
b. Jacob Riis published the book How the Other Half Lives which showed the
horrible living conditions in the tenements of New York City
B. Political Improvements
1. Populist Movement
a. Arose in reaction to the declining political voice of average citizens.
Farmers made up the largest number of followers.
b. Proposed major social, political, and economic reforms, many of which were
passed by the Progressives.
2. Amendments
a. 16th Amendment created the national income tax
b. 17th Amendment led to U.S. Senators being directly elected rather than
appointed by state legislatures as a direct result of political corruption
c. The Temperance Movement was created by women like Francis Willard and
Carrie Nation who were concerned about the perceived negative impact
of alcohol on domestic life. Much of the perception of the negative impact
can be tied to the rise of immigration in the era. This movement led to the
passage of the 18th Amendment in the 1920s.
d. The 19th Century suffrage movement to give women the right to vote which
led to the passage of the 19th Amendment
3. Theodore Roosevelt - Progressive president (Republican) known for the
following areas of reform:
a. Conservation of natural resources
b. Creation of the national park system,

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c. Trust-busting-created legislation to regulate the power of the trusts and
monopoly
4. Direct Democracy
a. Initiative
b. Referendum
c. Recall
d. Direct primary

People
• Andrew Carnegie – founder of Carnegie Steel (later known as U.S. Steel.)
Ultimate immigrant success story who advocated the Gospel of Wealth.
• Alexander Graham Bell- inventor of the telephone
• Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony- leaders of the 19th Century
women’s suffrage movement (Seneca Falls Convention)
• Henry Ford – perfected the use of the first assembly line to mass produce cars that
the average American could afford.
• Jacob Riis-Social reformer who published How the Other Half Lives, a book with
graphic photos and descriptions of the horrific living conditions in the tenements of New
York City.
• John D. Rockefeller - oil tycoon who created the Standard Oil trust.
• J.P. Morgan – powerful banker who financed the expansion of the railroads and the
creation of U.S. Steel.
• Robert La Follette - Wisconsin governor that was instrumental in advancing the
progressive movement.
• Samuel Gompers - founder of the AFL
• Theodore Roosevelt-in addition to serving as a Republican president from 1901-
1909, also ran a third party candidate for the Progressive Party (also known as the Bull
Moose party) in 1912.
• Thomas Edison- perhaps the inventor most responsible for creating the
modern world through his inventions like the light bulb and the phonograph
• William Howard Taft – Republican president who continued progressive reform,
vetoed Arizona’s state constitution because it allowed for the recall of judges. Only
president to become a chief justice of the Supreme Court.
• William Marcy Tweed – Corrupt political boss of New York City’s Tammany Hall.
• Woodrow Wilson-Democratic president who continued progressive reforms,
especially ones to regulate the economy.

Vocabulary
• Anarchy - Eliminating of governmental authority
• Bessemer Process - efficient process of smelting steel which leads to the creation
of cheap, lights, strong steel that was used to build bridges and skyscrapers
• Captains of Industry -positive view of industrialists that gave them credit for
improving the economy by building factories, creating jobs and expanding U.S.
markets.
• Communism – form of government where the ownership of all property belongs to the
community as a whole.

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• Direct Primary- election in which all citizens vote to select
nominees for upcoming elections
• Gospel of Wealth-theory that people should be free to make as much money as they
can, but after they make it they should give it away to better society.
• Horizontal integration/consolidation-ownership of several companies making the same
product
• Initiative - a process in which a legislative measure can be
originated by the people rather than by lawmakers
• Laissez-faire-no government regulation of business or the economy.
• Mass Production - ability to increase supply due to the assembly line and other
production techniques.
• Monopoly-exclusive economic control of an industry.
• Nativism-anti-foreign feelings
• New Immigration-those who arrived from Southern and
Eastern Europe from the 1880s until the 1920s
• Old Immigration-those who arrived from Northern and
Western Europe prior to the Civil War
• Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)- a law enacted to halt the sale
of contaminated foods and drugs and to ensure truth in labeling
• Recall- a process for removing a public official from office by a
vote of the people
• Referendum- a process by which a proposed legislative measure
can be submitted to a vote of the people
• Robber Baron-negative view of industrialists that implies they made their fortune
by stealing from the public and their competitors.
• Scabs/Strikebreakers - Workers who replace striking workers.
• Socialism – form of government where the ownership of the means of production and
distribution belong to the society, not individuals
• Social Darwinism-society progresses through competition, with the fittest rising
to positions of wealth and power.
• Suffrage - Movement to get the right to vote
• Temperance –19th century movement to prohibit the
manufacture, sale and consumption of alcohol that will eventually lead to the
passage of the 18th amendment in the 1920s.
• Trust-a group of separate companies that are placed under the control of a single
managing board.
• Vertical integration/consolidation-ownership of businesses involved in each step of a
manufacturing process.
• Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)- organized by women who were
concerned about the destructive power of alcohol and the problems it was causing in
families and society

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State Standards covered in Unit 6
I.A. Industrialization
Concept: Westward Expansion
Performance Objective: Describe the impact the following aspects of the Industrial Revolution on the
United States: transportation improvements, factory system, urbanization,
and inventions
State Standard Code: US 5-5

I.B- D. Industrialization
Concept: Emergence of the Modern United States
Performance Objective: Analyze how the following aspects of industrialization transformed the
American Economy beginning in the late 19th Century: mass production,
monopolies and trusts, economic philosophies, and labor movement.
State Standard Code: US 7-1

II. and III. Immigration and Urbanization


Concept: Emergence of the Modern United States
Performance Objective: Asses how the following social developments influenced American society
in the late Nineteenth and early Twentieth century
State Standard Code: US 7-2

IV. Political Corruption


Concept: Emergence of the Modern United States
Performance Objective: Analyze events which caused a transformation of the United States during
the late Nineteenth and early Twentieth century
State Standard Code: US 7-3

V.A. Progressive Movement- Social Improvements


Concept: Emergence of the Modern United States
Performance Objective: Asses how the following social developments influenced American society
in the late Nineteenth and early Twentieth century
State Standard Code: US 7-2

V.B.1-3 Progressive Movement- Political Improvements


Concept: Emergence of the Modern United States
Performance Objective: Analyze events which caused a transformation of the United States during
the late Nineteenth and early Twentieth century
State Standard Code: US 7-3

V.B.4 Progressive Movement- Direct Democracy


Concept: Emergence of the Modern United States
Performance Objective: Analyze the effect of direct democracy on Arizona statehood
State Standard Code: US 7-4

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Unit 6 Reading
Industrialization

Prior to the Civil War, America was predominantly agricultural and rural. Although there
were some industrial businesses during this time, they were usually small, family-owned
enterprises. But after the Civil War, American industries grew at a fast pace. There were several
reasons for this rapid growth. First, America was rich in iron ore, crude oil, coal, and other
natural resources needed for industrial growth. Second, but no less important, American custom
and law favored industrial growth. America had established a free enterprise, capitalist
economic system. At the heart of this system was the right of individuals to own private
businesses and operate those businesses as the owner wished. This capitalist system with its
wide open economic freedom was a powerful incentive for entrepreneurs (risk-taking
businessmen). They began to build new businesses and experiment with business methods which
would yield higher profits.

American businessmen discovered that large companies had an economic advantage over
small ones. To raise capital (money) for business expansion, many entrepreneurs incorporated
their businesses and sold shares of stock. Eager to own a part of these growing businesses and
share in their profits, many people bought stock in promising corporations.

The most successful of these entrepreneurs were called "captains of industry." They greatly
expanded their businesses by buying out other businesses or combining with them. One of these
"captains" was Andrew Carnegie who built the world's largest steel mill. Another leader was
John D. Rockefeller who combined his Standard Oil Company with other oil refining
corporations and formed the giant Standard Oil Trust. By the late 1800s, Rockefeller's trust had
gained a monopoly of the oil refining business. Another industrial leader was Henry Ford who
became the world's largest auto maker. His success was largely due to his adaptation of the
assembly-line method of mass production.

Meanwhile, inventors also played an important role in America's industrial growth. Foremost
among these was Thomas Edison. His many electrical innovations, such as the light bulb, led to
the creation of industries which generated electricity and manufactured electrically-powered
devices.

America's attitudes about labor also encouraged industrial growth. Acknowledging the need
for industrial workers, the U.S. maintained, with few restrictions, an open immigration policy.
Attracted by America's promise of economic opportunity, immigrant workers came by the
millions. When labor disputes broke out during the 1800s, the U.S. government either remained
uninvolved or sided with business owners. On many occasions, police officers or U.S. troops
broke up strikes. Thus, workers' unions remained weak, and employers were usually able to set
wages and working conditions as they wished. Despite hardships, America's factory workers
labored on and helped build the U.S. into an industrial giant.

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Immigration

In the fifty years between 1860 and 1910, the rural population of the United States nearly
doubled, while the urban population increased sevenfold. These increases were due in part to the
waves of immigrants who had begun arriving in the United States earlier in the century. Between
1830 and 1850, roughly 2.5 million immigrants arrived in America, most of them from Great
Britain and Ireland. Between 1820 and 1880, roughly three million Germans migrated to the
United States. Most Irish immigrants settled in the northeastern United States—New York,
Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Illinois, Ohio and New Jersey. German farmers tended to migrate
to the Midwest—Illinois, Wisconsin, and Missouri in particular—where land was cheap. Many
Norwegians and Swedes settled in Minnesota, the Dakotas, and Wisconsin. In addition, the West
Coast saw the arrival of 160,000 Chinese immigrants, many arriving as laborers in the l860s to
work on the Transcontinental Railroad.

In the early 1880s, immigration patterns changed. Jews from Russia and Poland, diverse
ethnic groups from Austria and Hungary, Italians, and Japanese migrated to the United S4ites.
The new immigrants, like their predecessors, were motivated by similar political, economic and
social pressures to leave their homeland. Starvation, poverty, religious and/or ethnic persecution,
and disease caused thousands to leave their native lands. The Irish Famine, for example, caused
over 200,000 Irish to migrate to the United States in 1850. By the end of 1854, roughly two
million Irish—a quarter of the country’s entire population—migrated to the United States as a
result of the famine.

Most immigrants left their home countries expecting to find a better life. The voyage over to
the United States, however, did not prove easy for many. Ships carrying immigrants from
northern Europe had so many deaths en route to America that they were often called “coffin
ships.” Upon arrival in United States, many immigrants were searched and interrogated at
processing centers such as Ellis Island in New York and Angel Island in California. For most
immigrants, life in the United States proved far more challenging than expected. Most
immigrants were poverty-stricken and had no money for transportation or land. Instead, they
tended to settle close to the port where they disembarked. They dug canals, ran steamboats, and
worked in factories. Urban immigrant ghettoes formed in major urban cities throughout the
United States.

As the number of immigrants grew, a significant current of anti4mmigrant sentiment


known as “Nativism” began to develop. Nativism eventually found political expression in the
anti-foreign, anti-Catholic “Know-Nothing” party that flourished in the 1850s. The Know-
Nothings eventually split over the issue of slavery, but anti-immigrant sentiment continued
through the turn of the century. In the 1 870s and 1 880s, new federal legislation was introduced
limiting the number of immigrants allowed into the United States. For example, in 1882, the
Chinese Exclusion Act restricted the number of Chinese immigrants permitted. The federal
government developed quotas and created the Immigration and Naturalization Service to enforce
the quotas.

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Despite the hardships endured by many new immigrants to the United States between
1820 and 1920, many found a higher quality of life. The United States offered immigrants a
chance to work and to build new lives, while the immigrants themselves helped to diversify the
country, bringing new cultures, languages, and insights to the growing nation.

Urbanization

The American society of the 1700s and early 1800s was predominantly rural and agricultural.
During the late 1800s and early 1900s, an increase in manufacturing transformed America into
an urban, industrial society.

As American industries grew during the late 1800s, so did America's urban areas.
Populations of cities like Pittsburgh and Chicago increased rapidly as steel mills and other large
businesses hired workers by the thousands. The rising urban population led to an increased
demand for food and other needs. "Downtown" retail businesses such as the newly developed
department stores flourished. Those who greatly profited from this economic growth often built
lavish homes in exclusive neighborhoods. But many poorly-paid laborers could only afford
housing in run-down city slums.

Cities offered their residents many opportunities. City governments constructed museums,
libraries, concert halls, and parks. Recognizing people's willingness to spend money on
recreation, entrepreneurs built amusement parks, dance halls, and other such establishments.

Immigrants became an important part of city life. People of the same nationality often chose
to live together. Soon ethnic neighborhoods sprang up in many cities. Immigrants often
continued to practice their "Old World" customs and traditions. This added great diversity and
richness to American society.

Industrial cities faced many "growing pains." Urban populations produced large quantities of
garbage and other wastes. Cities, therefore, built sanitation and sewer systems. Polluted ground
water forced cities to find new sources of drinking water. Trolley car lines and elevated railroads
were built to relieve congested streets. As urban crime grew, city governments expanded their
police forces.

While industrialization created a new and different life in the cities, it also affected people in
rural America. As cities grew, the demand for farm produce increased. This caused many
farmers to abandon subsistence farming and grow cash-crops for sale in city markets. These
farmers began to buy factory-made items, such as tools, instead of making them by hand. The
establishment of mail-order houses such as Sears, Roebuck and Company encouraged rural
Americans to purchase manufactured goods. The Sears catalog became one of the symbols of
America's transition to an industrial society.

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Progressive Movement

America's transition from an agricultural to an industrial society during the late 1800s and
early 1900s brought many changes. Some of these changes were for the better -- industrial
growth made America a wealthy nation. Some of the changes were for the worse -- serious
political and economic problems began to threaten the quality of American life. But the presence
of these problems spurred into action an army of reform-minded Americans called progressives.
These progressives were determined to solve America's political and economic problems.

Government corruption was one major political problem of the post-Civil War period. At the
heart of much of this corruption were political machines and their powerful bosses. By stuffing
ballot boxes or otherwise rigging elections, political machines could control elections. The use
of the spoils system was also common. According to this system, elected officials often
appointed unqualified friends or political supporters to government jobs. Bribery for political
favors was also common. This corruption threatened American democracy.

Progressive reformers worked to correct these wrongs and make America more democratic.
In 1883 the Civil Service Reform Act was passed which required that applicants for certain
government jobs take a civil-service test. Scores on these tests, not contacts with an official or
machine boss, determined who received government jobs. The power of political machines
further weakened when states created a system of primary elections. These elections allowed all
party members, to select a party's candidates. States also began using secret ballots for elections.
The states made other democratic reforms such as recall, initiative, and referendum. Probably
the most important political reform was the 19th Amendment, ratified in 1920, which granted
women the right to vote. Unfortunately, progressives did little to protect the rights of black
Americans.

America also faced serious economic problems during the late 1800s. During these years
some industrialists became extremely wealthy, but other Americans remained desperately poor.
Meanwhile, giant monopolies gained control of entire industries. These monopolies used their
power to crush competition and raise prices. This made some people richer and others poorer.

Progressive reformers tried to solve the economic problems. They urged Congress to make
laws to regulate businesses and limit their wrong-doing. Congress responded by passing the
Interstate Commerce Act of 1887. This law gave government the power to regulate interstate
railroads. Two other regulatory laws were the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 and the Clayton
Antitrust Act of 1914. These laws gave government the power to break up monopolies. Other
economic reforms helped curb environmental waste, dangerous working conditions, and
production of unhealthy foods and drugs. Reform-minded Presidents, such as Theodore
Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson, supported many progressive reforms, and boosted the
progressive cause.

85
Industrialization Vocabulary
Andrew Carnegie: founder of U.S. Steel which came to control almost the entire steel-making
industry and wrote the Gospel of Wealth.

Alexander Graham Bell: inventor of the telephone

Bessemer process: efficient process of smelting steel which leads to the creation of cheap, strong, light-
weight steel that was used to build bridges and skyscrapers

Captains of Industry: positive view of industrialists that gave them credit for improving the
economy by building factories, creating jobs, and expanding the U.S. markets

Capitalism: an economic system based on private ownership of property.

Communism: form of government where the ownership of all property belongs to the
community as a whole. There is no private ownership of property.

Corporation: a business chartered by the state. It is legally separate from the individuals who
own it. The owners are called stockholders in that business.

Entrepreneur: one who is willing to take risks to start and direct a new business.

Free enterprise system: an economic system in which individuals and corporations are free to
conduct their businesses with little or no interference from government.

Gospel of Wealth: book that argued that people should be free to make as much money as they
can, but after they make it they should give it away to better society

Henry Ford: perfected the assembly line to mass produce the Model-T car, a car the average
person could afford

J.P. Morgan: powerful banker who financed the expansion of the railroads and the creation of
U.S. Steel

John D. Rockefeller: oil tycoon who created the Standard Oil Company

Labor union: an association of workers who unite to protect their interests or gain better
working conditions.

Laissez-faire: a non-interventionist, "hands-off" approach by government to the economic


affairs of a nation -- similar to the concept of free enterprise.

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Lockout: the temporary closing down of a business by an employer to force employees to accept
the employer's demands.

Mass Production: ability to increase supply due to the assembly line and other production
techniques

Monopoly: exclusive or total control of a certain industry. (For example, Rockefeller's Standard
Oil Trust monopolized the oil refining industry in the U.S.)

Philanthropist: a person who donates time or money for the benefit of others.

Robber Barron: negative view of industrialists that implies they made their fortune by stealing
from the public and their own companies

Samuel Gompers: founder of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) in 1886

Scabs: people hired to cross picket lines and work jobs being boycotted by striking workers.

Social Darwinism: a belief of the late 1800s and early 1900s that the wealthiest and most
powerful citizens had proven themselves to be society's most worthy leaders.

Thomas Edison: inventor of the light bulb, phonograph, movie projector and many other useful
products

Trust: a group of separate companies that are placed under the control of a single managing
board.

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Immigration and Urbanization Vocabulary
Assimilation: the process of becoming absorbed. (For example, minority groups sometimes
become assimilated into the general population by intermarriage.)

Chinese Exclusion Act (1882): a law which barred immigration from China for ten years and
denied U.S. citizenship to those who had already immigrated.

Immigration Act of 1924: created a quota system for immigrants which allowed the government
to restrict certain types of immigrants (new immigrants) from entering the country

Nativists: Americans who wanted to halt immigration so that the U.S. would be populated only
by native-born Americans.

New Immigrants: those who arrived from Southern and Eastern Europe from the 1880s until the
1920s

Old Immigrants: those who arrived from Northern and Western Europe prior to the Civil War

Slums/Ghetto: overcrowded, run-down working communities.

Tenement house: a building which is divided into apartments, particularly one that provides
substandard living conditions and is located in a poorer section of a city.

Urbanization: migration of people to the cities for work.

Xenophobia: fear and hatred of strangers or foreigners or of anything that is strange or foreign

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Progressive Movement Vocabulary
Captains of Industry: positive view of industrialists that gave them credit for improving the
economy by building factories, creating jobs, and expanding the U.S. markets

Conservationism: belief that the environment should be protected so that future generations may
be able to use it

Eighteenth Amendment (1919): outlawed the manufacture, sale, or transportation of liquors


within the United States.

Jacob Riis: published the book How the Other Half Lives which showed the horrible living
conditions in the tenements of New York City

The Jungle: led to the passage of the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act

Merit System: a system built into the Civil Service system which requires that government jobs
be given to those who merit (deserve) that job on the basis of performance on a competitive civil
service examination.

Muckraker: a person who investigates and reports corruption in government and other problems
of society.

Nineteenth Amendment (1920): granted all U.S. citizens, including women, the right to vote.

Patronage: the practice by winners in an election of awarding government jobs to their political
supporters.

Political corruption: dishonesty on the part of government officials such as rigging elections or
accepting bribes in exchange for governmental favors.

Political machine: an organization controlled by political party leaders which would sometimes
use illegal methods, such as ballot-box stuffing, to ensure victory for candidates chosen by the
party leaders.

Populist Movement: political movement of the late 1800s which appealed to western farmers by
supporting the idea of a graduated income tax and the direct election of senators and by opposing
the use of the gold standard

Progressive Movement: a reform movement of the early 1900s aimed at correcting America's
political, social, and economic problems.

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Pure Food and Drug Act (1906): law that provided for federal inspection of meat products, and
forbade the manufacture, sale, or transportation of tainted food products or poisonous patent
medicines.

Robber Barron: negative view of industrialists that implies they made their fortune by stealing
from the public and their own companies

Sherman Antitrust Act (1890): a law which attempted to end monopolistic business methods
by making "combinations in restraint of trade" illegal.

Seventeenth Amendment (1913): an amendment to the Constitution which gives citizens in


each state the right to directly elect their state's two senators. Prior to this amendment, the
senators were chosen by the state legislators.

Sixteenth Amendment (1913): amendment which permitted the taxation of each individual's
income based on a rate that increases as the person's income increases.

Suffrage: the right to vote

Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Stanton: advocated equality for women and a constitutional
amendment to allow women to vote (19th Amendment)

Tammany Hall: the headquarters and name of the Democratic Party organization (founded in
1789) in New York City.

Temperance Movement: movement in the late 1800s and early 1900s to end drinking in the
United States

Theodore Roosevelt: President of the United States who believed in conservationism and
recognized the hardships faced by American workers

Upton Sinclair: a socialist muckraker who wrote “The Jungle” which described the poor
conditions of the Chicago meat packing industry.

William Taft: President of the United States who continued the Progressive Movement and the
only president to become Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.

William Tweed: corrupt political boss of New York City’s Tammany Hall

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Unit 7: Imperialism

Tested Information:
I. Imperialism
A. Causes of Imperialism
1. Need for natural resources
2. Need for new markets.
3. Nationalist Competition
4. Manifest Destiny
B. Purchase of Alaska
1. Purchased from Russia for political reasons.
2. extension of the Monroe Doctrine
3. Example of executive rights to negotiate treaties for land purchase.
C. Hawaii
1. Hawaii becomes a U.S. territory in 1898
2. US seeking refueling station for China trade
3. US seeking a military foothold in the Pacific
D. Spanish American War
1. Causes
a. yellow journalism
b. De Lome letter
c. sinking of the USS Maine
2. Turning point to becoming a world power
3. First time U.S. took on an Imperial power
4. Encouraged the U.S. to strengthen the Navy
5. Annexation of noncontiguous lands to US: Puerto Rico, Guam and the
Philippines
6. Filipino insurrection against American occupation
7. Cuba became a U.S. sphere of influence (Platt Amendment)
F. Panama Canal
1. Need for quick transportation from Eastern factories to the Orient.
2. Military need in the Pacific
G. China
1. Open Door Policy: favored open trade relations between China and other
countries

II. World War I


A. Causes of the War
1. Nationalism
2. Imperialism/ Militarism
3. System of Alliances
a. Triple Alliance- Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
b. Triple Entente- Great Britain, France, and Russia
4. Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
B. War in Europe
1. Allied Powers- Great Britain, France, and Russia
2. Central Powers- Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria
3. U.S. remains neutral
4. Trench warfare
C. U.S. entry into the War

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1. Sinking of the Lusitania
2. Zimmerman Telegraph
3. U.S. declares war on Germany
4. U.S. institutes the Selective Service Act
5. U.S. forces break the stalemate and turn the tide of the war
D. End of the War
1. Armistice begins on November 9, 1918
2. Treaty of Versailles
a. Great Britain and France want to punish Germany
b. Wilson’s Fourteen Points
- self-determination of people
- creation of the League of Nations
c. U.S. Congress refuses to ratify treaty
E. Results of the War
1. Attitude of disillusionment
2. U.S. returns to isolationism

Imperialism People
• Admiral Dewey - Defeated the Spanish Fleet in the Philippines.
• Theodore Roosevelt - Rough Rider in Spanish-American War;
President given credit for modernizing foreign policy that helps the U.S. become a
world power in the 20th century; won Nobel Peace prize for negotiating an end to
the Russo-Japanese War in 1905
• William Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer- publishers who used their
newspapers to stir up public sentiment for support of US involvement in helping Cuba
liberate themselves from Spanish control
• William McKinley - President during the Spanish American war; conflicted
over annexation of the Philippines

WWI People
• Archduke Franz Ferdinand- his assassination by a Serbian national led to
the beginning of WWI
• Czar Nicholas II- leader of Russia during WWI
• Kaiser Wilhelm II- leader of Germany during the majority of WWI
• Woodrow Wilson- President of the U.S. during WWI and responsible for
the creation of the League of Nation

Imperialism Vocabulary
• Annex - to incorporate land into another country.
• De Lome letter - The Spanish diplomat's letter was critical of U.S. President
McKinley and the prospects for peace. It was leaked to the US press and became one
of the causes of the Spanish-American War.
• Filipino Insurrection- a rebellion by Filipinos who opposed the U.S.
annexation of the Philippines and instead wanted independence for their country.
• Imperialism - Gathering of colonies for mercantilist reasons
• Manifest Destiny- belief it was the God given right of Americans to expand to
the Pacific Ocean and beyond (Pacific Islands and Central and South America)

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• Monroe Doctrine - 1823 U.S. policy that stated that North, Central and
South America were not to be the sites for future European colonization and the
U.S. would not interfere in Europe’s internal affairs and expanded US influence in
the Western Hemisphere starting in the late 1800s
• Open Door Policy - policy where all nations would have equal trading
privileges in China
• Platt Amendment- gave the U.S. the right to establish naval bases in Cuba
and to intervene in Cuban affairs.
• Roosevelt Corollary - Theodore Roosevelt’s extension to the Monroe
Doctrine that allowed for U.S. intervention in the nations of the Western
Hemisphere
• Sphere of Influence - areas of a nation where a foreign country has special
privileges, often trading rights, denied to other foreign nations
• “Seward’s folly” - term used to describe the purchase of Alaska because
immediate economic benefits were not apparent
• Yellow Journalism - the use of sensationalized and exaggerated
reporting by newspapers or magazines to attract reader, this was used by Hearst
and Pulitzer to help start the Spanish American War.

WWI Vocabulary
• Armistice- an agreement by two opponents to stop fighting.
• Disillusionment- attitude of post WWI America over reasons the U.S.
entered World War I in the first place.
• Doughboys: American infantrymen who fought in World War I.
• League of Nations- an association of nations designed to promote world
peace and international cooperation -- later replaced by the United Nations.
• Nationalism- attitude that the members of a nation have when they care
about their national identity
• Selective Service Act- a law which authorized the U.S. government to
draft men between the ages of 21 and 31 into military service. The age limits
were later expanded to 18 and 45.
• Treaty of Versailles- the treaty negotiated in Versailles, France which
formally ended World War I.
• Zimmerman telegraph- a diplomatic note sent by the German Foreign
Secretary, Arthur Zimmerman, to the German minister in Mexico which authorized the
minister to seek a German-Mexican alliance if the U.S. declared war on Germany.

State Standards covered in Unit 8


I. Imperialism
Concept: Emergence of the Modern United States
Performance Objective: Analyze events which caused a transformation of the United States during
the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
State Standard Code: US 7-3

II. World War I


Concept: Emergence of the Modern United States
Performance Objective: Analyze events which caused a transformation of the United States during
the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

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State Standard Code: US 7-3

Unit 7 Reading
Imperialism

During the early years of U.S. history, many Americans wanted the U.S. to isolate itself from
the affairs of the rest of the world. But that did not happen. The world changed rapidly during
the 19th century. This change encouraged more U.S. involvement in world affairs.

One change in the 1800s was rapid industrialization of U.S. and Europe. This caused
Americans as well as Europeans to look abroad for raw materials and markets for their
manufactured products. A second major development during the 19th century was growing
concern by nations that they might not be able to survive in an increasingly warlike world. To
survive in such a world, some nations wanted to increase their territorial size, economic power,
and military strength. Growing feelings of nationalism fed the nations' determination to survive.
Nationalism is a feeling of strong pride and loyalty towards one's country and nationality.

Led by these two powerful forces -- the wish for more trade and the desire for greater national
strength -- many nations adopted an aggressive foreign policy of expansionism called
imperialism. Imperialist nations believed that colonies would provide them with raw materials,
markets, and military bases. Nations such as Great Britain were quick to acquire overseas
colonies. By the end of the 19th century, Great Britain had gained control of many colonies in
Africa and Asia. Other European nations also competed for overseas possessions.

At first Americans were reluctant to expand beyond North America. But during the mid-
1800s, some Americans began to argue that the U.S. needed to increase its economic and
military power by gaining control of more territory. This belief led to the U.S. purchase of
Alaska from Russia in 1867. Meanwhile, the U.S. negotiated special trading rights with Pacific
nations such as Japan.

Near the end of the 1800s, developments in Latin America captured the attention of the U.S.
A Cuban revolt against Spanish colonial rule dominated the headlines of sensationalist
newspapers called the "yellow press." Then in 1898, while docked at Havana, Cuba, the U.S.
battleship Maine exploded. Quick to blame Spain, many Americans demanded war.

The resulting Spanish-American War was a turning point in U.S. history. The victorious U.S.
took control of former Spanish possessions such as the Philippines and Puerto Rico. After some
debate over the wisdom and morality of becoming an imperialist power, the U.S. decided to
control these lands. The U.S. became an imperial power.

The war also prompted other U.S. expansionist moves. First, the U.S. annexed Hawaii in
1898 because of its militarily, strategic location. Second, the U.S. gained land in the Isthmus of
Panama through which to dig a canal. The U.S. government believed it needed such a canal to
protect U.S. interests in both the Atlantic and Pacific. Finally, to prevent European nations from

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exploiting internal problems in Latin-American countries, President Theodore Roosevelt issued
his Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine in 1904. The corollary stated that the U.S. could
intervene in the internal affairs of Latin-American countries. Both Presidents Taft and Wilson
exercised this power by sending U.S. troops into Latin America to "straighten out" economic
problems or political unrest. Latin-American nations generally thought these actions violated
their sovereignty.

Meanwhile in the U.S., many Americans objected to U.S. imperialistic policies. They formed
the Anti-Imperialist League and lobbied against annexing such lands as Hawaii and the
Philippines. These people claimed that the U.S. betrayed its democratic principles by ruling over
other peoples and denying them their right of self-determination.

But many if not most Americans supported U.S. expansion abroad. Some were highly
ethnocentric and nationalistic. They believed both Americans and the peoples of U.S.
possessions would benefit from expanding American culture and power.

World War I

The late 1800s and early 1900s were years of imperialist competition. Nationalist pride and
the desire for economic and military power caused nations like the United States to search the
world for potential colonies. By the late 1800s, European countries colonized most of Asia and
Africa. Imperialist nations competed intensely for the few bits of land that remained. Concerned
that this competition could lead to war, nations such as Great Britain and Germany began to
strengthen their military forces. Seeking even greater security, some nations formed military
alliances.

During the late 1800s, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy joined in a military alliance
called the Triple Alliance. Fearing this alliance, Great Britain, France, and Russia created their
own military alliance called the Triple Entente. At the same time, smaller nations sought
protection from larger ones. Russia for example, promised to protect the small nation of Serbia
from its enemy, Austria-Hungary. Meanwhile, the U.S. refused to join any alliance. It honored
its traditional policy of neutrality in European affairs.

Unfortunately, the competitive climate and the alliance system helped plunge the world into
war. In Sarajevo, Bosnia on June 28, 1914, a pro-Serbian nationalist, Gavrilo Princip,
assassinated the Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife. The Archduke Ferdinand was the
only direct heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne. Austria-Hungary claimed Serbia was partly
responsible for the assassination and declared war. Honoring its pledge to protect Serbia, Russia
entered the war. France and Britain then joined Russia in an alliance which called itself the
Allied Powers. Meanwhile Germany, Bulgaria, and Turkey joined Austria-Hungary in an
alliance called the Central Powers. Within months of the Archduke's assassination most of the
world's powerful nations were locked in a deadly conflict called the Great War (later to be
renamed World War I).

When war broke out in Europe, President Wilson once again reaffirmed America's neutrality.
He also insisted on America's right as a neutral nation to transport non-war materials to warring

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nations. Although both Britain and Germany interfered with American ships, the deadly attacks
of German submarines most angered Americans. Not wishing to offend the U.S., the Germans
limited their attacks for several years. But in early 1917, the German leader, Kaiser Wilhelm,
ordered unlimited submarine warfare on any ships in the war zone, including American ships.
Outraged at these attacks, the U.S. declared war on Germany.

With America's entry into the war, President Wilson did not limit his goal to the mere defeat
of the Central Powers. He also worked for a permanent, world peace. Towards this end, Wilson
announced in early 1918 his famous plan for world peace, called the Fourteen Points. Of
particular significance was the fourteenth point, which called for the creation of a world
confederacy called the League of Nations. By urging creation and U.S. membership in a League
of Nations, Wilson proposed the U.S. abandon its old policies of isolationism and neutrality.
Instead, Wilson proposed a new foreign policy of cooperation with other nations for the good of
the world.

In late 1918, Germany asked for an armistice. World War I came to an end. Soon afterwards,
Wilson and the other Allied leaders met in Versailles, France to draft a peace treaty. Among its
provisions was a redrawing of the map of Europe. The leaders established new nations, such as
Czechoslovakia, and recreated Poland on lands taken from Russia and the defeated Central
Powers. Over the objections of Wilson, the treaty severely punished Germany by stripping away
its colonies and forcing it to pay heavy reparations. But the treaty did include Wilson's major
goal -- the League of Nations.

Much to Wilson's disappointment, America did not support a new internationalist foreign
policy. Many Americans feared that membership in the League would only result in American
participation in more foreign wars. In 1919, the U.S. Senate rejected the Treaty of Versailles and
its League of Nations. In rejecting the League, the U.S. returned to its traditional policy of
isolationism. America's brief experiment with internationalism seemed to end.

Imperialism Vocabulary
Annex: to incorporate land into another country.

De Lome Letter (1898): a note written by the Spanish Ambassador to the United States which
criticized President McKinley by calling him weak and helped generate public support for a war
with Spain.

Ethnocentrism: the belief that one's own race, nation, or culture is superior to all others.

Foreign policy: a nation's plan for dealing with other nations. (For example, when war broke
out between Great Britain and France, President Washington adopted, in 1793, a foreign policy
of neutrality.)

Imperialism: a policy by which one nation seeks to acquire or control another land or country
which is usually not next to that country.

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Internationalism: a foreign policy of cooperation with other nations for the good of all.

Intervention: the act of interfering, often with military force, in the internal affairs of another
country with the intent of changing conditions in that country.

Isolationism: a policy of avoiding relations, such as diplomatic involvement, with other nations.

Jingoist: one who is extremely nationalistic and is quick to advocate using military force to
achieve national goals.

Manifest Destiny: belief it was the God given right of Americans to expand to the Pacific Ocean
and beyond

Monroe Doctrine (1823): U.S. policy that stated that North, Central, and South America were
not to be the sites for future European colonization and the U.S. would not interfere in Europe’s
internal affairs.

Open Door Policy (1899): a policy set forth by the U.S. urging nations with spheres of influence
in China to allow all nations to trade freely with China.

Philippine Insurrection (1899-1902): a rebellion by Filipinos who opposed the U.S. annexation
of the Philippines and instead wanted independence for their country.

Platt Amendment (1903): gave the U.S. the right to establish naval bases in Cuba and to
intervene in Cuban affairs

Roosevelt Corollary (1904): an expansion of the Monroe Doctrine in which President Theodore
Roosevelt claimed for the U.S. the right to intervene in Latin America when necessary to
preserve order.

Social Darwinism: the idea that strong businesses, nations and/or cultures should dominate the
weaker ones.

Sphere of influence: a geographic area which is under the control or influence of a strong
foreign power.

Theodore Roosevelt: U.S. President given credit for modernizing U.S. foreign policy that helps
the U.S. become a world power and winner of the Nobel Peace Prize for negotiating the end to
the Russo-Japanese War.

William McKinley: U.S. President during the Spanish-American War who was conflicted over
the annexation of the Philippines.

Xenophobia: fear and hatred of foreigners or anything foreign.

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Yellow journalism: the use of sensational headlines and stories with little attention to fact
designed to stir up the emotions of readers.

World War I Vocabulary


Armistice: an agreement by two opponents to stop fighting.

Disillusionment: attitude of post WWI America over reasons the U.S. entered World War I in
the first place.

Doughboys: American infantrymen who fought in World War I.

International law: a body of rules guiding the relations between nations that most nations have
agreed should be followed by all. (For example, most nations have agreed that all nations should
treat their prisoners of war in a humane way.)

International waters: oceans and all other waters (except those claimed as territorial waters of a
nation) which are open to ships of all nations.

League of Nations (1920-1946): an association of nations designed to promote world peace and
international cooperation -- later replaced by the United Nations.

Russian Revolution (1917): the revolution in Russia in which the government of the Czar was
overthrown and later replaced by a communist government led by Lenin.

Sedition Act (1918): an amendment to the Espionage Act of 1917 which outlawed disloyal
statements about the U.S. government.

Selective Service Act (1917): a law which authorized the U.S. government to draft men between
the ages of 21 and 31 into military service. The age limits were later expanded to 18 and 45.

Treaty of Versailles (1919): the treaty negotiated in Versailles, France which formally ended
World War I.

Triple Alliance: a military alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy formed before
World War I. (Italy dropped out of the Triple Alliance when the war broke out in 1914.) Turkey
and Bulgaria joined the alliance in 1914.

Triple Entente: a military alliance of Great Britain, France, and Russia formed before World
War I broke out.

War bonds: a certificate stating that the government has borrowed a certain amount of money
for the war effort and that this money will be repaid, with interest added, to the lender.

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Zimmerman Note (1914): a diplomatic note sent by the German Foreign Secretary, Arthur
Zimmerman, to the German minister in Mexico which authorized the minister to seek a German-
Mexican alliance if the U.S. declared war on Germany.

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Unit 8: Twenties and Thirties

Tested Information:
I. Twenties
A. Collision of traditional values with the forces of modernity
1. Women: Flappers (Looks, Behavior, Morality), 19th Amendment
2. Prohibition-18th Amendment, Speakeasies, Bootleggers, Enforcement
3. Harlem Renaissance- resurgence of black culture, music (birth of Jazz), and
literature
4. Great Migration of African Americans to the North,
5. Scopes Trial- Fundamentalism vs. Darwinism
B. Red Scare/Nativism
1. Causes
a. Reaction to Eastern European immigrants (Jews and Catholics) and all
other foreigners to northern cities
b. Reaction to fear of Communist revolution spreading to the US
2. Results
a. Sacco-Vanzetti case
b. Palmer Raids- raids against suspected communists and enemies of
America
c. Restricting immigration (1924 Quota Act )- set a quota on how many
immigrants could enter the U.S. per country based on the census of 1890
d. Re-emergence of the KKK- increase in membership, harassment and
violence by the KKK towards anything or anyone that was anti-American
(Jews, Catholics, Immigrants, and African Americans)
C. Economics
1. Mass production of goods/Assembly Line
- Automobile (Model T)
2. Consumer Goods:
- Radio, Household appliances like radio, vacuum, washing machine. . .
3. Standard of Living
- Not equally prosperous for everyone, i.e. farmers and laborers
4. Stock Market
- Speculation, buying on margin
5. Mobility, both social and geographic (agrarian to urban)
D. Foreign Policy
1. Return to isolationism

II. Thirties
A. Economic causes of the Depression
1. Economic policies of the 1920’s
a. Over production by business and industry
b. Availability of easy credit
2. Investment patterns/Stock Market Crash
a. Over speculation and margin buying
b. Bank failures
B. Dust Bowl
1. Drought conditions occurred across the South and Midwest
2. Poor farming techniques and drought contribute to farm foreclosures
3. Migration to West (California)

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C. Effects of Society
1. High levels of unemployment
2. Business failure and layoffs
3. Increased levels of poverty: Hoovervilles, bread lines, fragmentation of
families
D. Election of Franklin Roosevelt
1. Caused by the failures of the Hoover administration to end the Depression and
the election results were impacted by media images of suffering citizens and
the attack on the Bonus Army
E. Roosevelt’s New Deal
1. Changes the relationship and expectations between government and the
American people
2. New Deal addresses Relief, Reform and Recovery programs like:
a. Jobs Program like WPA- Works Progress Association, largest of New Deal
programs and CCC- Civilian Conservation Corps, created jobs for unemployed
youth (individual programs not tested)
b. Social Security- old age pension, workers insurance, etc…
c. TVA- Tennessee Valley Authority; created jobs and electricity in least developed
regions of the country
d. SEC: Securities and Exchange Commission, created to regulate financial
markets
F. Opposition to the New Deal
1. Demagogues like Huey Long and Fr. Coughlin criticized the New Deal saying
that it didn’t go far enough in creating economic relief
2. The Supreme Court declared parts of the New Deal to be unconstitutional
which led FDR to create what became known as the Court Packing Plan
3. Court Packing Plan- FDR tried to add Supreme Court justices to protect his
programs

People:
• Al Capone- Leading US gangster in the 1920s who made much of his fortune from
selling illegal liquor during prohibition
• Calvin Coolidge - President who promoted big business (“Man who builds a factory,
builds a temple”)
• Charles Lindbergh - First to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean; considered one of the
greatest celebrities of the decade
• Demagogue- a person, especially an orator or political leader, who gains power and
popularity by arousing the emotions, passions, and prejudices of the people
• Duke Ellington - African American musician and composer
• Flappers - Description of young women: rebellious, energetic and bold; changed
attitudes, morals and behavior for women
• Franklin Roosevelt - President who created the New Deal, credited for getting the
US out of the Depression, believed that the government’s job was to help the
people
• Henry Ford - his use of the assembly line and other production techniques provide
automobiles for the masses
• Herbert Hoover - believed in a Laissez-faire economic policy, President during the
stock market crash, received the blame for the depression due to his ineffective response to
the depression, and believed that is was not the government’s job to help the people

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• Langston Hughes - African American writer of the Harlem Renaissance
• Marcus Garvey - promoter of the Back to Africa movement and Black Pride
• Sacco and Vanzetti - Anarchist immigrants whose murder conviction and execution
reflected the controversy of the Red Scare
• Warren G. Harding - Presided over corrupt administration. (Teapot Dome scandal)

Vocabulary
• Bonus Army- in 1932 WWI veterans demanded that Congress pay their promised
bonuses immediately because of the impact of the Depression. President Hoover
used the US Army to dismantle their “Hoovervilles” setup around DC
• Bootleggers - slang term used to describe suppliers of illegal
alcohol
• Communism - government theory promoting the elimination of
classes.
• Great Migration-movement of African-Americans to northern
cities, starting in the World War I era, seeking factory work
• Hoovervilles - Shanty towns facetiously named after Herbert Hoover
• Isolationism - foreign policy avoiding interaction with other
countries except for trade
• Laissez Faire - economic policy in which the government does not get involved in
the economy and businesses.
• Margin Buying - putting a small percent down on the purchase of stock and
borrowing the rest
• Nativism - extreme anti-immigrant feeling
• New Deal - FDR’s relief, recovery and reform program to combat the Great
Depression
• Priming the pump - use of public (government) spending to stimulate private
industry (economic foundation of the New Deal)
• Prohibition - 18th amendment that banned the manufacture and
sale of alcoholic beverages
• Scopes Trial- pitted the supporters of fundamentalism (belief in
literal interpretation of the Bible) with those of scientific theory over the origins of
mankind (evolution)
• Speakeasy - Illegal prohibition era bars
• Speculation - Investing in stocks with the hope of a fast and profitable return

State Standards covered in Unit 8


I.A. and C. Twenties
Concept: Emergence of the Modern United States
Performance Objective: Assess how social developments influenced American Society in the late
nineteenth and early twentieth century
State Standard Code: US 7-2

I.B. and D. Twenties


Concept: Emergence of the Modern United States
Performance Objective: Analyze events which caused the transformation of the United States during the
late nineteenth and early twentieth century
State Standard Code: US 7-3

II. Thirties

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Concept: Great Depression
Performance Objectives: Describe the causes and consequences of the Great Depression
State Standard Code: US 8-1
Unit 8 Reading
The Twenties

The 1920s was a decade of great vitality and social change in America. Some writers called it
the Roaring 20s.

The changes of the 1920s were, in part, a reaction to the sacrifice and ill feelings following
the World War I experience. Many Americans were bitter about America's participation in that
"European war." Many also feared that the ideology of the 1917 Marxist revolution in Russia
might spread to the U.S. Some Americans were also tired of the reforming crusade of
progressives such as the Democratic President, Woodrow Wilson. Sensing this postwar
resentment, the conservative Republican presidential candidate of 1920, Warren G. Harding,
promised the voters a "return to normalcy." Harding won the presidential election with over 16
million of the 26 million votes cast.

The reaction to the war also helped produce a carefree, self-indulgent mood in America.
Many people cast aside the traditional "save for a rainy day" ethic and instead borrowed and
spent money on new cars, movies, professional sports, illegal liquor, and other thrills of the time.
This consumption produced an economic boom. The government's laissez-faire approach to the
economy during the 1920s also allowed for greater industrial growth. However, not all people
shared in the prosperity. For example, falling crop prices created hardships for farmers.

The postwar mood encouraged social changes. Women, who gained some economic
opportunity during the war, worked for even greater advancement and equality with men after
the war. The sense of liberation during the 1920s also prompted literary and artistic creativity.
Blacks continued their efforts to end racial discrimination.

Some Americans opposed changes in the traditional American way of life. Some were
shocked at the "unfeminine" behavior of "liberated" women, such as the flappers. Many were
also intolerant of the "un-American" customs of some immigrants and demanded restricted
immigration. Unions also demanded a reduction in immigrant labor. Responding to this
pressure, the federal government enacted a quota system limiting immigration. A revived Ku
Klux Klan voiced extreme intolerance of change. The new KKK vowed to oppose "un-
American" types such as socialists, immigrants, Catholics, Jews, and blacks who tried to enter
the mainstream of American life. This intolerance was a dark side of the Roaring 20s.

The economic boom of the 1920s carried the seeds of its own collapse. A "buy-now-pay-
later" mentality fueled the prosperity of the Roaring 20s. The sudden popularity of installment
buying during the 20s caused an increased demand in autos, radios, and other popular items of
the time. This resulted in booming production and profits for most of America's industries. The
willingness to borrow also fed the rising bull market of the 20s. Investors bought stocks on
margin (10% down payment -- borrow the rest). They speculated that they would be able to sell
at a profit when other eager buyers drove stock prices even higher.

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The borrowing and buying spree of the Roaring 20s came to an end in October of 1929.
Some stockholders began to sell because they believed the economy had become overextended --
too much money borrowed and too many products produced. As these stockholders sold, stock
prices dropped. Other stockholders, especially those who bought on margin, began to panic and
rushed to sell. As more and more sold their shares, stock prices fell to record lows. This sudden
fall of stock prices became known as the Stock Market Crash.

The crash caused a psychological reaction around the country. Concerned with the possible
over-extension of the economy, some businesses cut production and laid off workers. The
unemployed were forced to cut back their spending. As consumer demand dropped, businesses
laid off even more workers. This cycle continually repeated, and the country plunged into a
depression. Meanwhile, the stock market crash and rising unemployment caused many to fear
that banks might not recover their loans. People began a "run on the banks" to withdraw their
money. This money was then often hidden in secret places, such as under floor boards or inside
mattresses. With much money out of circulation and less money available for some to spend and
others to earn, the depression grew more severe.

The Thirties

Herbert Hoover, who was President during the first years of the depression, made some
attempts to stimulate the economy. At his urging, Congress passed a tax cut designed to leave
people with more spendable money. Hoover also asked Congress to authorize more public
construction projects. Through Hoover's urging, Congress passed the Reconstruction Finance
Corporation in 1932 which loaned money to banks and corporations. These efforts, however, did
not halt the slide into an ever-deepening depression. People blamed Hoover for not doing more
to restore the economy. Some people also criticized Hoover for opposing direct federal relief
(welfare) to the needy. In the elections of 1932, American voters rejected Hoover and elected
the Democratic candidate, Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Once in office, F.D.R. and a heavily Democratic Congress carried out a program to end the
depression called the New Deal. Massive federal work projects gave jobs to the unemployed.
The FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) program made the banking system more
secure. The Fair Labor Standards Act helped workers by establishing a minimum wage. To aid
the unemployed, disabled, elderly, and needy children, Congress passed the Social Security Act.
These and other New Deal laws did much to bring relief to the poor and recovery and reform to
America's economy.

Not all were happy with the New Deal. Conservative Republicans accused New Deal
regulations of destroying the American free enterprise system and the spirit of individualism.
They also said that New Deal relief (welfare) programs weakened people's resolve to be self-
reliant. But there were other critics that claimed F.D.R. was not doing enough. People like
Senator Huey Long advocated radical "share our wealth" programs which called for taking
wealth from the rich and giving it to the poor. But, despite this opposition to the New Deal, most
Americans supported it.

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The Twenties Vocabulary
Al Capone: leading U.S. gangster in the 1920s who made much of his fortune from selling
illegal liquor during Prohibition.

Bear market: a prolonged period of time during which prices of stocks drop.

Bootleg liquor: alcoholic beverages that have been smuggled (illegally transported) and illegally
sold.

Bull market: a prolonged period of time during which stock prices rise.

Buying on margin: the practice of buying stock with a down-payment and borrowing the rest.

Calvin Coolidge: U.S. President during the mid-1920s who promoted big business (“Man who
builds a factory, builds a temple”).

Eighteenth Amendment (1919): outlawed the manufacture, sale, or transportation of liquors


within the United States.

Flapper: a name given to young women of the 1920s who broke away from traditional ways of
behavior and dress.

Great Migration: the movement of African- Americans from southern plantations to northern
cities in search of factory work. The movement began during World War I.

Harlem Renaissance: a period, especially during the 1920s, when black artists, writers, and
musicians in Harlem and elsewhere contributed to a rebirth of black culture.

Henry Ford: his use of the assembly line and other production techniques provide automobiles
for the masses.

Herbert Hoover: U.S. President during the stock market crash and the early years of the Great
Depression.

Ku Klux Klan: xenophobic (fear or hatred of foreigners) group that reemerged during the
twenties in response to an increase in immigration

Laissez-faire: a non-interventionist, "hands-off" approach by government to the economic


affairs of a nation -- similar to the concept of free enterprise.

Langston Hughes: African American writer of the Harlem Renaissance

Marcus Garvey: early civil rights leader who promoted the “Back to Africa” movement and
black pride

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Nativists: Americans who wanted to halt immigration so that the U.S. would be populated only
by native-born Americans.

Palmer Raids (1919-1920): mass arrests and deportations of suspected communists and
“enemies” of America

Prohibition (1919-1933): a time when the manufacture, transportation, and sale of liquor was
illegal in the U.S.

Quota system (1921-1965): a system of limiting immigration to the U.S. by assigning to each
nation an immigration quota (number of people from that country who would be allowed to
immigrate to the U.S.).

Red Scare (1918-1920): a time when many Americans feared that communists ("reds") were
planning a communist uprising in the U.S.

Sacco and Vanzetti: anarchist immigrants whose murder conviction and execution reflected the
controversy of the Red Scare.

Scopes Trial (1925): pitted supporters of fundamentalism with those of the scientific theory over
the origins of mankind

Speakeasy: a bar, tavern, or similar business that served liquor illegally during Prohibition
(1919-1933).

Speculator: a person who buys or sells with the hope of making a profit from a rise or fall in
prices.

Warren Harding: considered one of the worst presidents in U.S. history due to the amount of
corruption within his administration.

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The Thirties Vocabulary
Bonus Army (1932): a group of unemployed World War I veterans who marched in
Washington D.C. demanding the payment of the bonus they were promised for military service.

Boondoggles: make-work projects that produce little of true value.

Business cycle: the tendency of the economy (as observed over the past decades) to expand into
a boom economy, then contract into a recession or depression, and then begin to expand once
again.

Buying on margin: the practice of buying stock with a down-payment and borrowing the rest.

Civilian Conservation Corporation (CCC): created jobs for unemployed youth

Court Packing Plan (1937): attempt by FDR to increase the number of justices that sit on the
U.S. Supreme Court in order to prevent his programs from being declared unconstitutional

Deficit spending: the practice of spending more money than the government takes in.

Deflation: a rise in the value of money with a decrease in prices.

Demagogue: a person who by appealing to people's emotion and prejudice seeks to become their
leader. Examples include Father Coughlin and Hewey Long.

Dust Bowl: name given to the Sothern and Midwestern parts of the country where severe dust
storms caused major ecological and agricultural damage to farm land.

Economic depression: a period of marked decline in business activity with a sharp increase in
unemployment.

Franklin Roosevelt (FDR): U.S. President who created the New Deal and is given credit for
getting the U.S. out of the Great Depression

Herbert Hoover: U.S. President who has received the blame for the Great Depression due to his
ineffective response to the Great Depression.

Hoovervilles: shanty towns that popped up during the Great Depression and negatively named
after President Hoover.

Laissez-faire: a non-interventionist, "hands-off" approach by government to the economic


affairs of a nation -- similar to the concept of free enterprise.

New Deal: FDR’s relief, recovery, and reform program to combat the Great Depression

Priming the Pump: the use of public (government) spending to stimulate private industry. This
idea provided the economic foundation of the New Deal.

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Redistribution of wealth: the practice of lessening the gap between the rich and poor with
programs which take money from wealthier citizens and use that to benefit those in need.

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC): created in 1933 to regulate financial markets

Social Security Administration: old age pension, workers insurance

Speculation: investing in stocks with the hope of a fast and profitable return on your investment

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA): created jobs and electricity in the least developed regions
of the country (Tennessee River Valley).

Welfare state: a country where the government has an obligation to provide basic human
services, such as medical care, to persons in need of such services.

Works Progress Administration (WPA): the largest of all New Deal programs which hired
artists

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OVERVIEW: THE ROARING TWENTIES

‘A great social and economic experiment, noble in motive and far-reaching in purpose.”
- Herbert C. Hoover Speaking of Prohibition in a letter to William E. Borah, Feb. 28, 1928.

Following the election of Warren G. Harding in 1920 and a brief two-year recession, the
American economy began an unprecedented period of growth. The nation’s industrial capacity
expanded quickly, as did the income of its citizens; America’s position in world trade became
unrivaled. In the corporate world, once-disdained captains of industry became national heroes.
The nation’s manufacturing, for example, rose by more than 60 percent during the decade; the
gross national product increased at an average of five percent a year; and output per worker rose
by more than 33 percent.2 A boom in the automobile industry fueled the economy and new
industries benefited from technological growth, including radio, motion pictures, aviation, and
electronics, as well as industries which capitalized on inventions such as new plastics and
synthetic fibers. With the economic boom came the new notion of “consumerism.” Consumerism
maintained that not just the affluent but the middle classes as well should be able to buy items
not just because of need, but for the sheer pleasure and enjoyment of buying and owning. Many
citizens purchased electric refrigerators, washing machines, and vacuum cleaners. During the
economic growth of the 1920s, both consumerism and advertising came of age.

However, widespread economic growth during the third decade of the twentieth century did
not occur without social and cultural conflicts. Culturally, the 1920s saw a bitter dispute between
the forces of modernism associated with the new urban-industrial society and the forces of
traditionalism associated with provincial, rural communities.3 Many farmers moved from
surrounding rural areas to cities. Increasing tensions between the old society and the new became
apparent in arguments over race, religion, and prohibition. In New York City, a group of African
American intellectuals, poets, novelists, and artists created a wide range of works that
emphasized the richness of their racial heritage; the movement as a whole came to be known as
the “Harlem Renaissance.” In addition, innovations in the artistic, music, and intellectual

2
American History, A Survey, Seventh Edition, Volume II Since 1865, Knopf, New York,1987, pg. 677.
3
Ibid 1.

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communities added to the creative ferment of the “Jazz Age.” In contrast, the Ku Klux Klan
experienced its greatest growth during this time period and drew its members primarily from
small towns and rural areas in the south. The organization claimed 4 million members in 1924
and terrorized Catholics, Jews, African Americans, and foreigners.

In addition to cultural conflicts, the 1920s experienced political tensions and public
policy disputes. Controversy erupted over the 18 amendment, which prohibited the manufacture,
sale, and consumption of alcohol. The first Prohibition commissioner promised to enforce the
amendment, but Prohibition succeeded only in stimulating organized crime. Led by notorious
gangsters such as Al Capone, the bootleg alcohol industry produced large profits for many
criminals, but also led to bloody gang wars and violent deaths. Crime was not just limited to
gangsters: early in the decade, members of President Harding’s administration were involved• in
a shady scheme that came to be known as the Teapot Dome Scandal, and encouraged distrust of
the Republican party. Harding himself suffered two heart attacks and died in office; Calvin
Coolidge, a taciturn New Englander with a squeaky-clean record and a reputation for honesty,
succeeded Harding and was able to restore faith in the administration.

The Roaring Twenties, as this new era is often referred to, hoped to embrace “normalcy,”
in the words of Harding. But the decade turned out to be anything but “normal” and was marked
by dramatic social, intellectual, and economic change. Many felt that economic prosperity would
last forever, and no one thought that the good times would virtually end overnight. However, in
October, 1929, the crash of the stock market sparked off a series of events that plunged the
nation into a severe economic depression, ending a decade of prolonged growth and a period of
unprecedented social reform.

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OVERVIEW: IMPACT OF THE DEPRESSION

“I pledge you I pledge myself to a new deal for the American people”
-Franklin D. Roosevelt, acceptance speech, Democratic National Convention, Chicago, 1932

The 1920s had been characterized by exceptional economic growth, the development of a
consumer society, an expansion of the middle class, a rapid social change. However, danger
signs began to emerge near the end of the decade. Too much of the economic expansion had
been based on “buying on margin” in the stock market and buying on credit in the marketplace.
As a result, people were creating enormous personal debt. When stock prices began to fall,
brokers began calling in “margin” debts, and people responded by selling their stocks at a rapid
pace. On Tuesday October 29, 1929, the stock market experienced what has come to be called
“The Great Crash.” Losses exceeded $30 billion. Many people were ruined financially. This
signaled the beginning of the Great Depression.

Not all of the impact of the Depression was the result of business and consumer practices
—weather was also a factor. The Midwest was hit by dust storms in the early 30s, then drought
combined with the wind to turn these once fertile plains into what became known as the “Dust
Bowl.” Farmers watched helplessly as their crops withered away, then found themselves unable
to pay off their debts since they had nothing to sell. Many lost their land to foreclosure and
effectively became refugees in their own country. Among the hardest hit were the fanners from
Oklahoma, many of whom traveled west to California in search of work, but often found more
hardship. John Steinbeck immortalized the plight of the “Okies” in his classic novel The Grapes
of Wrath.

When Franklin Roosevelt assumed the presidency in 1933, the United States and the rest
of the western world was in a deep economic depression. He immediately began to implement
the “three R’s” that would characterize the collection of programs and measures that came to be
known as the New Deal: relief, recovery, and reform. In his first hundred days in office,
Roosevelt pushed program after program through Congress. He closed the banks, had Congress
pass the Emergency Banking Act, and established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

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(FDIC) and the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA). To familiarize Americans
with his plans, he initiated a series of “fireside chats” that were broadcast over the radio. These
chats became one of the hallmarks of his presidency, and helped add to his already substantial
nationwide popularity.

In 1933 Congress passed the National Industrial Recovery Act. This legislation
established the National Recovery Administration (NRA) and had the broad goal of bringing
about economic stability through business planning, such as fair practice codes for wages,
working conditions, production, and pricing. The result was mixed, as some people felt that the
reforms were not being administered fairly and were favoring certain groups over others.
Ensuing New Deal legislation moved from specifically trying to fix problems in the economy to
creating jobs for the large numbers of unemployed. In 1935 the Works Progress Administration
(WPA) was established and charged with constructing hospitals, schools, and playgrounds. In
addition, the WPA provided significant funding for the arts, helping musicians, painters, writers,
actors, and historians to produce an outpouring of creative projects.

However, not everyone was in favor of the New Deal programs. Some believed the
government had not done enough to aid the suffering; others felt it had gone too far and imposed
regulation in places where it did not belong. One of the greatest sources of opposition was the
Supreme Court, who frustrated FDR to no end by questioning the constitutionality of and
delaying the implementation of key pieces of legislation. To get around the “nine old men” who
he felt were keeping the country mired in the throes of the Depression, Roosevelt proposed a
constitutional amendment that would add up to six new judges to the Supreme Court and up to
44 judges to lower federal tribunals. He claimed that the Court was overworked and that the new
justices would help the existing ones clear the backlog of cases, but many people were skeptical.
The controversy over this “court-packing” plan (as it came to be known) was one of the largest
that FOR had to face.

Ironically, America came out of the Depression primarily as the result of having to face a
larger threat: the looming specter of World War II. Preparing for war required increased
production, which provided a boost to the economy that lasted through the war and laid the basis

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for the boom of the 1950s. The New Deal’s impact nonetheless was huge and still continues to
affect America today: key government programs such as Social Security, the FDIC, the Federal
Housing Administration, and others originated in the I 930s. Whether or not the New Deal was a
“success” remains a matter for debate. No definitive evidence exists proving that the New Deal
pulled the country out of the Depression; however, it did break new ground in terms of social
legislation and centralized control of the economy, and it changed the way in which people
conceptualized what the role of federal government should be—all legacies which persist to this
day.

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Unit 9: World War II

Tested Information:
I. World War II
A. Movement away from isolationism
1. Neutral in European Affairs in the late 1930’s
2. Lend-Lease Act: allowed U.S. to “sell, transfer, exchange, lend or lease”
defense materials to the Allied nations
3. Embargo placed on scrap metal and fuel oil to end Japanese aggression
4. Atlantic Charter: Allied agreement affirming right of people to choose their
own government and be free of foreign aggression
B. Economic recovery from the Great Depression
1. Conversion of factories from consumer to war production
2. Jobs were created for
a. Minorities
b. Women
c. Men in military
C. Home front transformations and the role of women and minorities:
1. Civilian contribution to the war effort included:
a. scrap metal and rubber drives
b. war bond drives
c. victory gardens
d. rationing
e. New job opportunities for women and minorities in defense plants
f. Hollywood created propaganda, and used movie stars to promote it, to
encourage Americans to support the war by buying bonds, following the rules of
rationing, etc.
D. Executive Order 9066:
1. Japanese internment camps located in isolated parts of west and southwest
(Arizona camps in Poston and on Gila Reservation) created to prevent
Japanese immigrants and Japanese-Americans from aiding Japan’s war effort
E. War mobilization
1. Native American Code Talkers helped maintain military security in the Pacific
theater by transmitting orders in their native language
2. Military included African-American, Hispanic and Native American soldiers
however African-Americans served in segregated military units
F. Turning points (D-Day, Midway, Yalta Conference)
1. Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor ends U.S. isolationism, U.S. declares war on
Japan December 8th, 1941(Attack on Pearl Harbor December 7th, 1941)
2. Operation Overlord/D-Day, June 6, 1944, Allied invasion to liberate France
3. Manhattan Project develops the atomic bomb, controversy later arose about
the use of the bomb at Hiroshima and Nagasaki
4. Yalta Conference in 1945 meeting of Allied leaders to make plans for postwar
Germany and Eastern Europe and where the Soviets agree to enter war against
Japan

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People
• Big Three- the Allied leaders: Franklin Roosevelt (US President), Winston
Churchill (British Prime Minister), Joseph Stalin (Soviet leader)
• Dwight D. Eisenhower - Supreme Allied Commander in European theater
• Douglas MacArthur-Allied Commander in Pacific theater
• Navajo Code Talkers-Native-Americans who helped maintain military security in
the Pacific Theater by transmitting orders in their native language
• Rosie the Riveter - Symbol of women’s role in the war effort
• Hideki Tojo - General and Prime Minister that led Japan to war with the U.S.
• Harry S. Truman - U.S. President who made the decision to use the atomic bomb
to end the war

Vocabulary
• Allied Powers - U.S., Britain, Soviet Union, and others
• Axis Powers - Germany, Italy, Japan
• Isolationism - Foreign policy avoiding interaction with other countries except
for trade.
• Neutrality - Not taking sides in a conflict.
• Propaganda - Persuasive techniques used by governments to raise support for their
war effort.
• Rationing - Limiting the use of food and materials used for war effort by the civilian
population.
• V-E Day - Victory in Europe (5-8-45)
• V-J Day - Victory in Japan on (8-15-45)

State Standards covered in Unit 9


I. World War II
Concept World War II
Performance Objectives: Describe the impact of American Involvement in World War II
State Standard Code: US 8-2

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Unit 9 Reading
World War II

The World War I experience helped generate an anti-foreign and isolationist mood in
America. To many Americans, U.S. involvement in that "European war" had been a costly
mistake and a tragic waste of human life. American idealism gave way to feelings of
disillusionment and betrayal. Anti-foreign feelings increased when European nations, with the
exception of Finland, failed to repay their war debts to America. Postwar bitterness made many
Americans determined to avoid future European entanglements.

This isolationist mood surfaced in several ways. First and most important, the U.S. rejected
the Treaty of Versailles and membership in its League of Nations. Later, in the 1930s, Congress
strengthened U.S. isolation by passing strict neutrality laws. Meanwhile, Congress restricted
immigration from foreign nations with laws such as the Quota Act of 1921 and the National
Origins Act of 1924.

Despite America's isolationist mood during the 1920s and 1930s, events slowly pulled the
U.S. toward an internationalist foreign policy. The first signs of this came in the 1920s with an
international agreement at the Washington Conference to limit warship building. Another sign
of interest in world affairs was the Kellogg-Briand Pact, in which 62 nations, including the U.S.,
signed a pledge outlawing war.

The U.S. also moved toward cooperation with Latin America. The Coolidge and Hoover
administrations were more willing to negotiate solutions to problems with Latin American
nations than were earlier administrations. President Franklin Roosevelt was also eager to
improve U.S. Latin American relations. He promised the U.S. would adopt the policy of "a good
neighbor." In what came to be known as the Good Neighbor Policy, the U.S. pledged that it
would end its past policy of interventionism in the internal affairs of Latin American nations.

Meanwhile, major developments abroad eventually caused America to become more


involved in the affairs of the rest of the world. Postwar problems in Italy led to the rise in 1922
of the Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini. Economic problems in Germany, as well as resentment
over the Treaty of Versailles, led to the rise in 1933 of the Nazi dictator Adolf Hitler. At first the
aggressive demands of these dictators were appeased by League of Nations members such as
Britain and France. But the appeasement ended when Hitler invaded Poland in September 1939.
Great Britain and France declared war on Germany -- World War II began.

When war broke out in Europe, the U.S. reaffirmed its policy of neutrality. But this policy
began to change when the Allies seemed unable to stop the advance of the Axis Powers
(Germany, Italy, and Japan). In November 1939, the U.S. abolished its arms embargo and
allowed any country to buy weapons and military supplies from the U.S. This law helped the
Allies more than the Axis. In March 1941, the U.S. gave the Allies even more help by lending
them military equipment through the lend-lease program. After Germany invaded the U.S.S.R.
in June of 1941, this new member of the Allies also received lend-lease aid. In August of 1941,

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F.D.R. and Prime Minister Winston Churchill of Great Britain drew up a statement of war aims
called the Atlantic Charter. In it, the U.S. and Great Britain (and later the U.S.S.R.) agreed to
work for a world free from aggression. Meanwhile, the U.S. showed its disapproval of Japanese
aggression in Asia. The U.S. placed an embargo on the shipment of gasoline, scrap iron, and
other commodities to Japan. The U.S. also began lend-lease aid to China, which was a victim of
Japanese aggression.

America's final step away from isolation towards full-fledged international participation
came immediately after Japan's attack on the U.S. navy base at Pearl Harbor on December 7,
1941. With America's declaration of war on Japan, Japan's Axis allies (Germany and Italy)
declared war on the U.S. America became a full partner in the Allied effort to defeat the Axis.

Japan's surprise attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, quickly led to full American
involvement in World War II. One day later the U.S. declared war on Japan. Germany and Italy,
Japan's Axis allies, then declared war on America. The U.S. reciprocated by declaring war on
the Axis. The U.S. then joined in a full military partnership with Great Britain, the Soviet Union,
and other members of the Allies.

Although Japan pulled America into the war, the U.S. decided to send most of its military
force against Hitler's Germany. Germany was considered far more dangerous than Japan.
Germany had to be stopped before it could defeat the Soviet Union. Germany also had to be
defeated before its scientists could complete development of an atomic bomb.

In November, 1942, America sent its troops against the German forces in North Africa.
After the Allied victory in Africa, U.S. forces attacked German forces in Italy. Then on D-Day
(June 6, 1944), the Allies mounted a huge amphibious attack on Hitler's forces along the northern
coast of France. Despite heavy casualties, the Allies established a beachhead and then battled
their way inland. Allied troops liberated France and other western European nations from Nazi
control while pushing eastward toward Germany. Meanwhile, the Red Army of the Soviet
Union, at a cost of millions of lives, stopped the Nazi advance into Soviet territory. In 1943, the
Soviets started to push the Nazis back towards Germany. By early 1945, Allied armies were
marching into Germany. On May 7, 1945, Germany surrendered. During these final days, Hitler
committed suicide.

As the Allies closed in on Germany, they revealed the horrible fact that Hitler had carried
his racist beliefs to their "logical" conclusion. At places such as the death camp at Auschwitz,
the Nazis systematically carried out Hitler's "final solution" to the "Jewish problem." By the
time the Allies had arrived to stop the genocide, the Nazis had murdered over six million Jews.
The Nazis also engaged in the mass murder of Gypsies, and mistreated prisoners of war,
especially Russians.

Meanwhile, the U.S. also fought a war on the other side of the world against Japan.
Brilliant tactical moves by the U.S. navy led to a major Japanese defeat in the Battle of Midway
in 1942. The U.S. then pursued an island-hopping campaign across the Pacific. U.S. forces
seized strategically important islands in the Pacific and then "leapfrogged" over less important
islands to the next strategic locations. Using this strategy, American forces moved closer to

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Japan without needless loss of men and materiel. Finally, by 1945, the U.S. forces had "hopped"
to islands so close to Japan that direct bombing raids on Japan were launched. Two such raids
occurred in August 1945 when American B-29 bombers dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese
cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japan soon surrendered, and World War II ended. A new era,
however, the nuclear age, was just beginning.

The Axis' defeat was impossible without the participation of America's civilian population.
Men and women worked overtime to produce huge quantities of war materials. To conserve on
resources needed for the war, the country rationed gasoline, rubber, and other commodities. Few
people complained. Support for the war was high. There was, however, at least one unfortunate
wartime development within the U.S. American citizens of Japanese ancestry were considered
potentially disloyal and thus sent to internment camps. This action, as well as seizing Japanese-
American's property, was in direct violation of their rights as U.S. citizens.

Long before the end of the war, the Allies began working on plans for postwar peace. In
1941 F.D.R. and Churchill drew up the Atlantic Charter which stated the Allies' war aims.
Among them was restoring self-government to all conquered nations and establishing a new
world organization to replace the League of Nations. In February 1945, Churchill, Stalin, and an
ailing Roosevelt -- he died two months later -- met at Yalta (in the U.S.S.R). At the Yalta
Conference, the leaders agreed that nations liberated from the Axis would be allowed to establish
independent, democratically elected governments. They also agreed that Germany and its capital,
Berlin, would be divided into four zones and occupied by the Allies. Also, a special military
court would be created to try Axis leaders charged with war crimes such as the mass murder of
Jews. Finally, the Allied leaders agreed to begin writing a charter (constitution) for a new world
organization to be called the United Nations.

When the war ended, the Allies fulfilled several peace agreements. They established a
new world organization, the United Nations, and this time the U.S. Senate voted in favor of U.S.
membership. They set up a special war-crimes court in Nuremberg, where the judges found
nineteen Nazi leaders guilty and ordered them punished. The Allies established additional courts
to try lower-ranking Nazis. They divided Germany and its capital into four zones and occupied
it. Unfortunately, not all nations liberated from the Nazis were set free. The Soviet Union
imposed communist rule on East European nations that it "freed" from the Nazis. Anger over
this Soviet violation of the Yalta Agreement caused a new conflict called the "cold war."

The U.S. Home front

Millions of Americans were concerned about jobs, prices, and the stock market; there were
too many problems at home for them to worry about events in Europe and in Asia. However,
with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December, 1941, American isolation ended and the
Second World War began to affect nearly every household.

While GIs fought at places such as Guadalcanal, Iwo Jima, Normandy, and Anzio, millions
of ordinary Americans back on the “home front” assisted in the “Great Crusade.” Millions of
women worked in industrial plants helping to create an “arsenal of democracy,” while nearly
250,000 women enlisted in various military “auxiliary” units during the war.

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The war also affected many minority groups. Native-born Americans of Japanese ancestry
(the Nisei) were considered to be a danger to national security and were placed into “internment”
camps, where their civil liberties were greatly restricted. While African Americans were drafted
into military service and fought for human rights around the world, back at home they still lived
in a segregated society. Nearly 25,000 Native Americans also enlisted during the war years.

In the war years, scientific development and research also continued, and civilians
benefited from medical and scientific advancements made by scientists employed by the U.S.
government. Radar and sonar turned out to have valuable non-military uses, DDT was used not
only to keep soldiers from being harassed by insects but also to keep insects away from crops,
and “miracle drugs” such as penicillin became common.

Hollywood also became involved in the war effort. Directors made films (such as Frank
Capra’s “Why We Fight” series) which were used to build morale and rally public support
against the Axis nations. Entertainers such as Bob Hope, Bing Crosby, Jack Benny, and others
led efforts to entertain troops and sell war bonds. Many “greats” in the entertainment field
enlisted in the service and became role models, including Henry Fonda, James Stewart, and
Clark Gable. Journalists such as Ernie Pyle, Edward R. Murrow, and William L. Shirer became
household names as millions of Americans came to depend upon their stories to let them know
what was happening in the war.

Sports heroes of the I 940s also enlisted in the armed forces, including Joe Louis, Ted
Williams, and Joe DiMaggio. Although many major leaguers left for war, President Roosevelt
requested that professional baseball continue in order to maintain morale at home. Depleted
rosters altered the traditional balance of power in baseball and allowed teams that were perennial
losers to become winners, such as the St. Louis Browns, who won their only league pennant
during the war years. Women also found opportunities in sports when Chicago Cubs owner
Philip Wrigley created a women’s professional baseball league. Most sports teams also began
playing the National Anthem prior to contests during the war years in an effort to promote
patriotism.

The U.S. government, which had already become a daily part of citizens’ lives during the
New Deal, further increased its control through various federal agencies that attempted to
maintain supplies of needed materials for the war effort. Agencies such as the Office of Price
Administration froze wages, prices, and rents in order to reduce inflation. The OPA also rationed
scarce food items such as meat, butter, cheese, vegetables, sugar, and coffee The War Production
Board played a crucial role by strictly allocating fuel and materials considered vital to the war
effort, including heating oil, gasoline, metals, rubber, and plastics. Millions of ordinary
Americans assisted in the war effort by conserving scarce goods and organizing “scrap drives” to
provide needed materials. Ration “stamps” became common, and people found themselves not
only having to budget their finances, but also having to keep track of how many stamps it took to
buy scarce items.

In order to provide funds for the war millions bought war bonds, while thousands of
Americans found themselves doing what they had never done before—paying income taxes. For

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many people, the new tax rates took a bigger portion of their incomes, and most lower- and
middle-income Americans for the first time became subject to tax withholding and tax liability.

Many Americans also became involved in civil defense, concerned about a possible
invasion of the United States. Ordinary citizens found themselves ensuring that blackout
conditions were maintained, running draft boards, ensuring that rationing was smooth, and
scanning the skies for enemy aircraft.

The combined strength of the Allies (the U.S., Great Britain, and Russia) eventually forced
Axis surrenders in Europe and Asia. The world entered the “atomic age” with detonation of
nuclear devices at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Veterans returned home to find that the country had
changed greatly, and also found a wealth of new opportunities open to them. Members of what
Tom Brokaw would later call “The Greatest Generation” benefited from the GI Bill and attended
college, bought homes, started businesses, and in general began to build prosperous new lives for
themselves. Many veterans also married and became parents, beginning the “Baby Boom” of the
1950s and 1960s.

While the war cost billions of dollars and thousands of American lives, it also changed
American society and government forever, Though the Axis threat had been defeated, Americans
who believed they could resume their normal lives found that the country now faced new threats
from communism in the Cold War, and some veterans found themselves being called back into
military service to fight communist aggression in Korea.

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World War II Vocabulary
Allies: the name given to the alliance of Great Britain, France, the United States and Russia.

Appeasement: the action of giving in to the demands of the powerful in order to please or pacify
them.

Atlantic Charter (August 1941): a statement signed by President Franklin Roosevelt and Prime
Minister Winston Churchill pledging that both the U.S. and Great Britain would work for a
world free of aggression.

Axis: name given to the alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan before and during World War II.

Big Three: allied leaders: Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin.

Cash-and-Carry Plan: a policy established by the Neutrality Act of 1939 which allowed nations
at war to buy weapons from the U.S. provided foreign ships transported those weapons from the
U.S. (The law was intended to help Great Britain and France obtain weapons for their fight
against the Axis.)

D-Day (June 6, 1944): the day on which a large, Allied amphibious force attacked Axis military
positions on the coast of northern France.

Douglas MacArthur: Allied Commander in the Pacific Theater

Dwight Eisenhower: Allied Commander in the European Theater

Embargo: a ban on trading with another country.

Executive Order 9066: authorized the creation of relocation camps in which many Japanese-
Americans were placed during World War II

Fascism: a political system, led by a dictator, that glorifies the power of the state, advocates
private ownership of businesses, and suppresses any opposition to that power.

Genocide: the destruction or extermination of an entire group of people. The word was first
applied to the attempted extermination of Jews by Nazi Germany.

Harry Truman: U.S. president who made the decision to use the atomic bomb at the end of
WWII.

Lend-Lease Act (1941): a law allowing nations fighting against the Axis, such as Great Britain,
to borrow or lease military equipment from the U.S.

Manhattan Project: America's program which built the world's first atomic bomb in 1945.

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Navajo Code Talkers: helped maintain military security in the Pacific by transmitting orders in
their native language.

Neutrality: not taking sides in a conflict

Nuremberg Trials (1945-1946): trials at which Nazi leaders were judged for war crimes,
including crimes against humanity.

Propaganda: persuading views for the war and against the enemy through the use of movie and
posters

Rationing: limiting the use of food and materials used for war

Rosie the Riveter: symbol of the role women assumed during the war effort

V-E Day: the day when the war ended in Europe (May 5, 1941). It is also known as Victory in
Europe Day.

V-J Day: the day when the war against the Japanese ended thus ending World War II (August
15, 1941). It is also known as Victory in Japan Day.

Victory gardens: vegetables, fruit, and herbs grown by individuals to reduce demand on the
public food supply in order to support the war effort.

Yalta Conference (1945): a meeting at Yalta where Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin agreed on
post-war policy, such as the treatment of Germany, its occupied nations, and the creation of the
United Nations.

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Unit 10: Cold War and Foreign Policy Post WWII

Tested Information:
I. International Activism
A. Membership in the United Nations
1. to maintain international peace and security
2. further international cooperation in solving economic, social, cultural and
humanitarian problems throughout the world.
B. Marshall Plan: Economic aid to Western Europe
C. NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)- military alliance between U.S. and
Western European nations formed to stop the spread of communism
II. Cold War
A. Berlin Airlift
1. American reaction to Soviet blockade of divided Berlin in 1948-49
B. Truman Doctrine
1. policy that stated the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey and free people
anywhere in the world resisting communism (containment)
C. Expanding and strengthening of communism (in 1949)
1. Communist regime in China
2. Soviet nuclear weapons
D. Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)
1. Arms Race
2. Civil defense: citizens prepared for a possible nuclear attack by building bomb
shelters and having students practice “duck and cover” drills at school
3. Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty (SALT)-series of treaties where the US and
USSR agreed to begin limiting the number of nuclear weapons their country
held
4. Sputnik
5. Military Industrial Complex
6. Nuclear-Test ban Treaty
E. Korean War
1. Caused by Domino Theory and containment policy
2. Country remains divided at the 38th parallel
3. UN Police Action
4. Called the “Forgotten War” because it comes in between WWII and Vietnam
F. Cuba
1. Bay of Pigs invasion
a. failed attempt to overthrow Fidel Castro
b. led to massive Cuban migration to Florida
2. Cuban Missile Crisis
a. example of brinkmanship
b. closest the US and USSR came to direct war
G. Vietnam War
1. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution-alleged attack by North Vietnam against a US ship;
Following this event, Congress provides LBJ a “blank check”, escalating American
military involvement in Vietnam
2. Tet offensive-turning point following this North Vietnamese offensive, public
support for the war declined
3. Vietnamization-Nixon’s plan to gradually withdraw US combat troops and
return fighting to the South Vietnamese army

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4. Anti-war protest
a. originated on college campuses, but participants came from many parts of
American society as the war dragged on
b. Kent State became one of the most controversial conflicts when National
Guard troops fired on anti-war demonstrators and four students were killed
5. War Powers Act (1975)
a. limits executive branch on its ability to commit U.S. forces overseas and requires
president to inform Congress before involving U.S. forces in foreign wars

People
• Harry Truman - U.S. president during Berlin Airlift and who called for UN
support of South Korea in 1950
• General Douglas MacArthur - General who led U.S. and UN troops in the
Korea War. He wanted to use Atomic bombs against China and Korea’s neighboring
countries to end the conflict. He was fired by Truman.
• Dwight D. Eisenhower - U.S. president at the end of the Korean conflict;
ordered CIA to begin planning secret invasion of Cuba to overthrow Fidel Castro, leading
to Bay of Pigs disaster
• John F. Kennedy - U.S. president during Bay of Pigs invasion and
missile crisis in Cuba; sent military advisors to aid South Vietnam in their conflict
with North Vietnam
• Lyndon B. Johnson - U.S. president that escalated American
military involvement in Vietnam
• Richard M. Nixon - U.S. president who ended U.S. involvement in
Vietnam; established détente with China and the Soviet Union
• Mao Zedong - won control of China in a civil war in 1949; communist
leader of China 1949-76
• Ho Chi Minh - Communist leader of Vietnam 1954-69: his
government aided the rebels in South Vietnam who were trying to overthrow the
anti-communist government there
• Vietcong - South Vietnamese rebels who supported communist
government of North Vietnam
• Fidel Castro - communist leader of Cuba 1959- ; allowed the Soviet
Union to place nuclear weapons on the island in 1962 leading to the Cuban Missile
Crisis
• Nikita Khrushchev - Soviet leader during construction of Berlin Wall
and the Cuban Missile Crisis

Vocabulary
• Cold War - conflict between the Soviet Union and the U.S. carried on by
political and economic means instead of direct military confrontation
• Containment - U.S. policy to stop the spread of communism
• Mutually Assured Destruction - a philosophy that kept the super powers
from bombing each other because each side had the ability to annihilate the other
• Military Industrial Complex - term coined by Eisenhower to describe the informal
alliance between key military, governmental and corporate decision makers in the
profitable weapons procurement and military-support system; Eisenhower warned of
their influence in his presidential farewell address

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• Satellites - country dominated politically and economically by the Soviet Union
during the Cold War
• Iron Curtain - term coined by Winston Churchill to describe the division between
communist and non-communist live
• Police Action - a local military action without declaration of war; against
violators of international peace and order
• Domino Theory - Eisenhower’s theory that allowing one country in a region
to fall under communist control would cause the others in that region to do the
same thing
• Vietnamization - Nixon’s policy to gradually withdraw U.S. troops from
Vietnam while training the South Vietnamese to take more responsibility for their
own defense
• Détente-the easing of tensions between the US and a communist nation

State Standards tested in Unit 10


I. International Activism
Concept: Postwar United States
Performance Objective: Analyze aspects of America’s post World War II foreign policy.
State Standard Code: US 9-1

II. Cold War


Concept: Postwar United States
Performance Objective: Analyze aspects of America’s post World War II foreign policy.
State Standard Code: US 9-1

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Unit 10 Reading
During World War II, the Allies hoped to prepare a postwar peace which would endure for
generations. The cornerstone of that peace would be the United Nations.

But this peaceful world order did not come to be. Instead, hostility between the Soviet Union
and the United States erupted and threatened to bring about a third world war. This period of
hostility became known as the cold war. Most Americans claimed that the Soviet Union started
the cold war by violating the Yalta Agreement of 1945. Instead of granting freedom to those
East European nations that it liberated from the Nazis, the Soviet Union imposed communist rule
on them. In addition, the Soviet Union closed the border between Soviet-dominated Eastern
Europe and Western Europe. This border, and the restrictions on movement and thought that it
represented, became known as the "iron curtain." Meanwhile, the Soviets as well as a few others
blamed cold war hostility on "anti-communist" hysteria in the U.S. and other western capitalist
countries.

Cold war tension increased when the Soviet Union attempted to extend communism through
so-called "wars of national liberation." In carrying out this policy, the Soviet Union encouraged
rebellions in other nations. One such revolt was fomented in Greece in 1946.

Under the leadership of President Truman, the U.S. responded quickly to these Soviet actions.
In 1947, the President proclaimed the Truman Doctrine. In it, the U.S. promised to help other
nations resist threats to their "free institutions and national integrity." Acting on this promise,
the U.S. sent military supplies to Greece. The communist-led revolt failed. The U.S. also
established the Marshall Plan (1948) which helped European nations rebuild their war-torn
economies. The U.S. established the Point Four program in 1950 to help the needy in other parts
of the world. In addition to being humanitarian, these programs attempted to make countries less
vulnerable to communist-led insurgencies. The N.A.T.O. alliance further strengthened European
security. Under this alliance the U.S., Canada, Iceland, and nine Western European nations
pledged to help each other if any were attacked.

Communist expansion in Asia presented a more difficult challenge to the U.S. After World
War II, Chinese communists resumed their efforts to control China. Despite the shipment of
U.S. military supplies to the non-communist government of China, the communists won (1949).
In 1950, North Korea (under a communist government) invaded South Korea. Heretofore, the
United Nations Security Council had been unable to block such aggression because of Soviet
Union vetoes. But in June 1950 the Soviet Union was boycotting the Security Council. Taking
advantage of this unique opportunity, the Security Council voted to request member nations to
create a United Nations force and block further conquest of South Korea.

In foreign affairs, the Eisenhower years (1953-1961) got off to a good start. In June of 1953,
an armistice ended the fighting in Korea. Meanwhile, in March of 1953, the Soviet dictator,
Stalin, died. Many hoped that new Soviet leadership would lead to better U.S. Soviet relations.
But hopes for peaceful coexistence between the two super powers did not materialize. Americans

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were angered at Khrushchev's brutal crushing of a democratic reform movement in Hungary in
1956. The U.S. was also angry over continued Soviet support for communist revolts in places
such as Vietnam. Meanwhile, the Soviets blamed the U.S. for deepening the cold war. They
criticized the U.S. for its support of repressive leaders such as Ngo Dinh Diem of South
Vietnam. The Soviets also blamed America's spy-plane flights over the Soviet Union for
deepening cold war suspicions. Cold war distrust intensified when Fidel Castro established
communist rule in Cuba. Despite American efforts to remove him from power, Castro, with the
help of the Soviets, kept his grip on Cuba.

In 1957 the U.S.S.R. scored two major technological breakthroughs. In October, it launched
"Sputnik," the world's first artificial satellite, into orbit. Later the Soviet Union successfully
tested the first intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). Americans were shocked that the U.S.
seemed to be losing the arms and space race with the Soviet Union.

When the Eisenhower years closed, many Americans were unsure about the nation's security.
In the national elections of 1960, Democrats blamed the Republicans for America's failure to
keep the U.S. military strong. In a close election, the voters rejected the Republican presidential
candidate, then Vice-President Richard M. Nixon, and instead elected the Democratic candidate,
Senator John F. Kennedy.

When Kennedy took office in 1961, America's major foreign policy challenge was the
removal of Cuba's communist dictator, Fidel Castro. To accomplish this, Kennedy approved a
plan to help Cuban exiles invade Cuba and reestablish non-communist rule. Despite U.S.
training and equipment, the exile's attack on Cuba, known as the Bay of Pigs Invasion, failed.

The failure of the Bay of Pigs Invasion made people think Kennedy was weak. Future
developments would change that perception. After learning that the Soviets were building
guided-missile bases in Cuba, Kennedy ordered a naval blockade of Cuba. The Soviet leader,
Nikita Khrushchev, claimed that the blockade was illegal and constituted an act of war. But
Kennedy refused to lift the blockade. Furthermore, he stated that an attack on the U.S. by Cuba
would be interpreted as an attack by the Soviet Union. Rather than risk war with the U.S., the
Soviet Union agreed to remove its missiles. Most Americans hailed Kennedy as a hero for his
handling of the Cuban missile crisis.

After Kennedy’s Assassination in 1963, LBJ, as President Lyndon B. Johnson was often
called, hoped to apply his power abroad as effectively as he was able to do at home. He asked for
and received, with the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution of 1964, Congressional authority to send troops
into South Vietnam. Johnson was determined to stop the communist advances in that country.
Despite a massive escalation of combat missions and bombing raids, the communists refused to
give up. Meanwhile many Americans began to protest U.S. involvement in the war. They
became impatient with America's failure to quickly defeat the Viet Cong (South Vietnamese
communists) and their North Vietnamese allies. Many people were also embarrassed over the
failure of South Vietnamese leaders to gain the loyalty and active support of many South
Vietnamese. Rather than serve in the Vietnam War, some American men resisted the draft. Anti-
war demonstrations increased.

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The once-popular LBJ became the constant target of anti-war feelings. Faced with almost
certain defeat in the 1968 presidential elections, LBJ decided not to seek reelection. In his place,
the Democratic Party nominated Hubert Humphrey. But many voters turned away from the
once-popular Humphrey because of his long support of Johnson's war policies. Instead, the
voters turned to the Republican candidate, Richard Nixon, who promised to bring an honorable
end to the war in Vietnam.

The Vietnam War


“I knew from the start that I was bound to be crucified either way I moved. If left the
woman I really loved—the Great Society—in order to get involved with that bitch of a
war on the other side of the world, then I would lose everything at home. . . But if I left
that war and let the Communists take over South Vietnam, then I would be seen as a
coward and my nation would be seen as an appeaser and we would both find it
impossible to accomplish anything for anybody anywhere on the entire globe.”4
- President Lyndon B. Johnson

The roots of the conflict between the United States and the North Vietnamese went all the
way back to when French authorities and military personnel arrived on Vietnamese soil during
the second half of the nineteenth century. The French conquest of Indochina was part of a larger
pattern of European imperialism, as the French took advantage of the Vietnamese land and
people to export rice, rubber, and coal. During the early 20th century, however, resentment of
French rule helped spur the rise of Vietnamese nationalism. It was during this time that Ho Chi
Minh, who would later lead the North Vietnamese in the war against the United States, became a
committed Communist revolutionary.5
In 1945, at the end of World War II and Japanese/French occupation, Ho Chi Minh declared
Vietnam to be an independent country, free of imperial rule, Years of fighting between the
French and Vietnamese followed. The U.S. sent aid, committing money and resources to support
the French in the hopes of preventing the spread of communism. Ultimately, however, the
French were dealt a devastating defeat at Dien Bien Phu; shortly afterward at the Geneva
Conference, they formally withdrew from Vietnam, and a treaty divided the country at the 17
parallel. The northern half of Vietnam, ruled by Ho Chi Mirth, was committed to communism
and the southern half of Vietnam was committed to democracy. The Kennedy and Johnson
administrations, in the wake of the Cold War, felt it necessary to prevent the spread of
communism into South Vietnam at all costs. The “Domino theory,” subscribed to by Secretary of
Defense Robert McNamara and other Johnson advisers, maintained that if one country became
communist, neighboring countries would themselves become communist, falling like dominoes.
In 1964, after a skirmish between North Vietnamese ships and U.S. destroyers in the Tonkin
Gulf just off Vietnam, Johnson presented Congress with what came to be known as the Gulf of
Tonkin resolution. The resolution essentially gave Johnson the power to increase the American
military presence in Southeast Asia, and marked the beginning of full-scale U.S. involvement in
the conflict between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. It would take roughly fifteen years for
the United States to find peace both at home and abroad. The fighting in Vietnam was
4
3 “Vietnam, An American Ordeal" by George Donelson Moss pg. 157.
54
Please note that it is difficult to summarize the entirety of the Vietnam War in two pages or less. I recommend,
“Vietnam, An American Ordeal’ by George Donelson Moss as all excellent resource on the U.S./Vietnam Conflict.

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characterized by “search and destroy” missions, often leading frustrated U.S. soldiers into poor
and/or unoccupied villages. Troops neither spoke the language, nor could they easily identify the
enemy. The Vietcong—familiar with the climate, terrain, and seasons—engaged the United
States in guerilla warfare on their own territory. The U.S. engaged in massive bombing
campaigns that often spilled over into neighboring Laos or Cambodia. Atrocities occurred on
both sides; the most famous case involved American soldiers occurred in 1968 and came to be
known as the My Lai Massacre. In the Quang Ngai Province U.S. troops killed roughly 300 to
400 innocent civilians while searching for Vietcong guerrillas. The incident received widespread
media attention, and provoked both shock and outrage back home. Lt. William Calley became
the public face of the massacre, and was the first American to be court-martialed for committing
atrocities during war.
Antiwar protests became more and more prevalent as the U.S. commitment in Vietnam
escalated. They were fueled by and joined with many of the social movements going on at the
same time such as the civil rights movement, the Women’s Liberation movement, and I 960s
counterculture, and “flower power.” Protesters engaged in acts of civil disobedience, and
although most rallies were peaceful, some turned violent, leading to beatings, arrests, and even
the deaths of some antiwar advocates. Students rioted on university campuses, conscientious
objectors rose in numbers, and draft dodgers fled to Canada or Mexico.
The war finally came to an end for the U.S. in 1973, when Secretary of State Henry Kissinger
and President Nixon agreed to sign the Paris Accords, ending U.S. involvement and bringing
soldiers (and prisoners of war) home. Two years later, North Vietnamese troops captured Saigon,
the South Vietnamese capital, bringing the war to an end and unifying the country under
communist rule. Although the American War in Vietnam ended in 1973, the United States did
not normalize its relations with the Vietnamese government until the 1990s.

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1950s Cold War Vocabulary
Bay of Pigs Invasion (1961): a failed attempt by CIA-trained, anti-communist Cuban exiles to
invade Cuba and overthrow Castro.

Berlin Airlift (1948-1948): American reaction to the Soviet blockade of divided Berlin,
Germany

Berlin Wall (1961-1989): barrier surrounding West Berlin that prevented East Germans access
to West Berlin and served as a symbol of the Cold War

Brinkmanship: pushing negotiations to the point just before war breaks out in order to protect
national interests

Civil Defense: citizen preparation for a possible nuclear attack on the United States. Examples
include building a bomb shelter and students practicing “duck and cover” drills in school.

Cold War: conflict between the Soviet Union and the United States carried on by political and
economic means instead of direct military confrontation.

Communism: government theory promoting the elimination of classes and equal distribution of
wealth within society

Containment: rigid anti- soviet policies formulated by the American government to check
Soviet expansion.

Cuban Missile Crisis (1962): a time of confrontation between the U.S. and the Soviet Union
when the U.S. threatened to use force to remove Soviet guided missiles from Cuba. The Soviets
finally agreed to remove the missiles.

Domino theory: the belief that if one country in a region, such as Southeast Asia, fell to
communists, neighboring countries would also fall.

Douglas MacArthur: General who led U.S. and UN troops in the Korea War. He wanted to use
the atomic bomb against China and Korea’s neighboring countries in order to end the conflict.
He was fired by Truman.

Dwight Eisenhower: U.S. president at the end of the Korean conflict and ordered the CIA to
begin planning a secret invasion of Cuba to overthrow Fidel Castro which lead to the Bay of Pigs
disaster

Fidel Castro: communist leader of Cuba after 1959 who allowed the Soviet Union to place
nuclear weapons on the island in 1962.

Harry Truman: U.S. president during Berlin Airlift and who called for UN support of South
Korea in 1950

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Iron curtain: a term referred to a restrictive Soviet-made barrier placed around the Soviet Union
and other countries it dominates. These barriers have begun to disappear starting in 1989.

John F. Kennedy: U.S. President during the Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis
and also sent U.S. military advisors to South Vietnam

Mao Zedong: won control of China in a civil war in 1949and became the first communist leader
of China from 1949-1976

Marshall Plan (1948): U.S. aid to help Western European countries rebuild their war-torn
economies after World War II.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): a western military alliance formed in 1949 to
defend against possible Soviet aggression in Europe.

Nikita Khrushchev: Soviet leader during the construction of the Berlin Wall and the Cuban
Missile Crisis

Police action: a military action without a declaration of war; against violators of international
peace and order.

SEATO (Southeast Asia Treaty Organization): military alliance formed in 1954 by the United
States, Australia, France, New Zealand, Philippine Republic, Thailand, and the United Kingdom.

Sputnik (1957): first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite launched by the Soviet Union and led to
the space race and an increased emphasis on science and math education within the United States

Thirty-eighth Parallel: dividing line between North and South Korea.

Truman Doctrine (1947): statement promising aid to nations threatened by aggression or


subversion.

United Nations: international peacekeeping organization established after World War II which
works to solve economic, social, cultural, and humanitarian problems throughout the world

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1960s and 1970s Cold War Vocabulary
Agent Orange: code name for the U.S. military’s use of herbicides and defoliants to destroy the
jungles in Vietnam

Arms Race: competition for supremacy in nuclear warfare between the United States and the
Soviet Union during the Cold War

Civil Defense: citizen preparation for a possible nuclear attack on the United States. Examples
include building a bomb shelter and students practicing “duck and cover” drills in school.

Détente: relaxation of tensions between the U.S. and a communist nation

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (1964): Congressional authorization for the use of U.S. military
forces to protect American lives and interests in Vietnam.

Ho Chi Minh: Communist leader of Vietnam and his government aided the rebels in South
Vietnam

Kent State Massacre: controversial incident that occurred on a college campus when the
National Guard opened fire on anti-war demonstrators and killed 4 students

Lyndon B. Johnson: U.S. President that escalated American military involvement in Vietnam

Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD): belief that the U.S. could deter potential Soviet attacks
by having enough nuclear weapons to destroy the Soviet Union even if it attacked first.

Napalm: highly explosive gelatinized gasoline used by the United States in the Vietnam War

Ngo Dinh Diem: U.S. backed President of South Vietnam whose murder destabilized South
Vietnam

North Vietnamese Army (NVA): communist forces that wished to unify Vietnam and opposed
American presence in Vietnam

Operation Rolling Thunder: code name for the sustained bombing of North Vietnam by the
United States Air Force

Richard Nixon: U.S. President who ended U.S. involvement in Vietnam and first president to
visit communist China.

Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty (SALT): series of treaties where the U.S. and the USSR
agreed to begin limiting the number of nuclear weapons their country held

Tet Offensive: turning point in the Vietnam War and convinced Americans that the U.S. was not
winning the war despite positive reports from U.S. generals

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Viet Cong: communist rebels, native to southern parts of Vietnam, who fought against the anti-
communist government of South Vietnam between 1956 and 1975.

Vietnamization: President Nixon's policy of gradually replacing U.S. combat troops in Vietnam
with South-Vietnamese soldiers.

William Westmoreland: commanding general of U.S. forces in Vietnam

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Unit 11: 50s and 60s Domestic Society

Tested Information:
I. 1950s and 1960s Domestic Society
A. McCarthyism
1. 2nd Red Scare and fear of communism
2. House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) held hearings to root out
possible communists in government and society
B. Postwar prosperity and growth
1. Growth of suburbs
a. FHA loans made buying a house easier for average Americans
b. interstate highways connected the US and created the American
automobile culture
2. Baby boom
a. population boom following WWII
b. massive numbers born in this generation had a huge impact on American
society, government and culture
3. GI Bill: veterans benefits (direct result of what had happened with the Bonus Army
in the 1930s) leads to an increase in college enrollment and an expanding
middle class
C. Popular Culture
1. Conformity v. counterculture
a. traditional values vs. “drugs, sex, rock n’ roll” (ex: Elvis Presley and
others)
2. lead to radical political activism
3. Mass media: music, television and movies create a common culture and serve
as a way for the “counterculture” to deliver its message
D. Protest Movements (covered in 9-1 and 9-3)
E. Assassination of political leaders
a. 1960s was a period of violence where national leaders were assassinated
(there will be NO questions specifically about the assassinations of the leaders listed
below)
- examples: John F. Kennedy (1963), Malcolm X (1965), Robert Kennedy (1968),
Martin Luther King Jr. (1968)
F. Social Reforms
1. Great Society and the War on Poverty- President Johnson’s legislative agenda
that sought to:
a. reduce poverty
b. increase educational opportunities (ex: Headstart)
c. provide social and economic assistance to poor Americans (examples
include Medicare and Medicaid)
2. Protection of consumers and the environment; Earth Day and creation of the EPA
G. Space race and technological developments
1. Sputnik
a. Increased spending in education, especially for math and science,
following the Soviet Union’s launch of the Sputnik satellite
b. Led to the space race between the US and the USSR
2. NASA created in reaction to Sputnik and to beat the Soviets in landing a
manned spacecraft on the moon, which happened in 1969

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People
• Counterculture - young Americans in the 1960s who rejected mainstream
American life; members included hippies and anti-war activists
• Lyndon B. Johnson - President involved who created the Great Society
programs and who took over after Kennedy was assassinated
• John F. Kennedy - president involved with Civil Rights movement and the space
race; assassinated in 1963.
• Robert Kennedy - served as Attorney General under JFK and actively supported
the Civil Rights movement; ran for President, and was assassinated, in 1968
• Martin Luther King Jr. - Civil rights leader assassinated in 1968.
• Malcolm X - Member of the Nation of Islam who preached separation of the
races; assassinated in 1965.

Vocabulary
• Baby Boomers - Name given to the generation born between 1946 and 1964
• Consumerism - Americans buying products, much of it on credit, to improve
standard of living, following WWII.
• Sunbelt - Growth of suburbs in the southwestern states, causing a
significant shift in population away from the Northeast and Midwest.
• War on Poverty/ Great Society - Government programs that sought to reduce
poverty, increase educational opportunities and provide social and economic assistance
to poor Americans.

State Standards covered in Unit 11


I.A. McCarthyism
Concept: Postwar United States
Performance Objective: Describe aspects of post World War II domestic policy
State Standard Code: US 9-2

I.B-E. Domestic Society


Concept: Postwar United States
Performance Objective: Describe aspects of post World War II American society
State Standard Code: US 9-3

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Unit 11 Reading
America readjusted to peace-time life after World War II. But the transition was not easy.
Since the economy was still geared toward wartime production, consumer products, such as
automobiles, were scarce. The demand for scarce products caused prices to rise. Workers
demanded pay increases to match the rising cost of living. When employers granted raises, the
costs of production went up, causing even more inflation -- a phenomenon called the wage-price
spiral. When employers rejected wage requests, as they increasingly did, unions often retaliated
by calling strikes.

The growing labor problem as well as cold war concerns created an atmosphere which helped
political conservatives. Led by conservative Republicans, Congress passed the Taft-Hartley Act
in 1947 over President Truman's veto. This law weakened the power of labor unions. One
clause of the act outlawed closed-shop agreements. Another clause allowed states to ban union-
shop agreements. The conservative mood of the postwar period also frustrated Truman's efforts
at economic and civil rights reforms.

In addition, by 1952, the difficulties of the cold war began to affect the American mood.
Charges of communist subversion by people such as Senator Joseph McCarthy convinced many
Americans that the Soviet Union had planted its agents in high U.S. government positions.
Meanwhile, America's military action in Korea resulted in a growing number of American
casualties. Many Americans blamed the nation's Democratic leaders for America's difficulties.
In the national elections of 1952, American voters rejected the Democratic Party which had
controlled the federal government for twenty years. The voters elected a Republican Congress
and Republican President, Dwight D. Eisenhower.

In economic affairs, President Eisenhower adopted a middle-of-the-road approach to


government involvement in the economy. Despite urgings by some conservative Republicans,
he did not want to abandon all New Deal regulations and return to the laissez-faire policies of the
1920s. But at the same time, Eisenhower did not want to restrict America's free-enterprise
system with further regulations. This moderate approach to government involvement in the
economy was called "Modern Republicanism."

Modern Republicanism seemed well suited to the America of the 1950s. During these years,
the economy functioned well. Government intervention seemed unnecessary. The ever-
increasing demand for new cars, TV's, home appliances, and other products spurred economic
growth. In part, the postwar "baby boom" fueled this growth. Increased family size led to a
housing-construction boom, especially in city suburbs. Child-oriented industries flourished.
Meanwhile, construction of a massive interstate highway system spurred economic growth even
more.

In the early 1960s, Kennedy had only moderate success in his attempts to solve America's
domestic problems. One success was a Kennedy initiated tax cut which stimulated the economy
and pulled America out of a recession. But Kennedy was able to accomplish little in the area of

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civil rights reform. A reluctant Congress blocked his legislative reforms. Had Kennedy more
time, he might have prevailed. An assassin's bullet ended the Kennedy presidency in 1963.

Kennedy's successor, Lyndon Johnson, was more effective in dealing with Congress. In a
program called the Great Society, President Johnson and the Democratic controlled Congress
created a great body of laws aimed at improving the quality of American life. The Congress
passed civil rights laws outlawing segregation and ending literacy tests for voting. Another
phase of the Great Society program, called the War on Poverty, tried to eliminate poverty and its
related problems. Programs such as the Job Corps, Head Start, Medicaid, and Medicare were but
a few of the major efforts to apply liberal solutions to economic problems.

1950s and 1960s Domestic Society Vocabulary


Baby Boomers: name given to the generation born between 1946 and 1964. This group has had
a huge impact on American society, government, and culture

Conformity: the process by which an individual's attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors change in
order to fit in with societies norms

Consumerism: buying products, mostly on credit, to improve the standard of living in the
United States following World War II.

Counterculture: individuals or groups who rejected mainstream American life or norms. This
idea was especially popular in the 1960s.

Dwight Eisenhower: U.S President responsible for the creation of the Interstate Highway
System

Elvis Presley: one of the first rock idols of the rock and roll era

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): created in December 1970 in order to regulate air
pollution, water pollution, and other environmental problems in the U.S.

Earth Day (April 22nd): designed to inspire awareness and appreciation for the Earth’s
environment. It was first celebrated in 1970.

Fair Deal: President Truman's program to broaden some New Deal programs such as increasing
the minimum wage for interstate businesses.

FHA Loans: made buying a house easier for average Americans

G.I. Bill of Rights (1944): a law formally known as the Servicemen's Readjustment Act which
provided low-interest loans or other benefits to World War II veterans seeking education,
business opportunities, and homes.

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Great Society: government programs proposed that sought to reduce poverty and increase
opportunity for poor Americans

House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC): held hearings headed by Senator


McCarthy to root put possible communists in the government and society.

Interstate Highway System: created for defense purposes but eventually connected the U.S. and
created the American automobile culture.

John F. Kennedy: President involved with the Civil Rights movement and the space race. He
was assassinated in 1963.

Lyndon B. Johnson: President involved in the creating the Great Society programs and who
took over after JFK’s assassination.

Malcolm X: member of the Nation of Islam who preached about separation of the races and was
assassinated in 1965.

Martin Luther King Jr.: Civil rights leader assassinated in April of 1968 in Memphis,
Tennessee.

Mass Media: music, television, and movies used to create a common culture. It also served as a
way for the counterculture to deliver its message

McCarthyism: a making of unjustified accusations against people and intimidating would-be


defenders of the innocent by threatening similar accusations against them

NASA: created in reaction to Soviet space exploration. The first goal of this program was to
land the first manned spacecraft on the moon

Robert Kennedy: actively supported the Civil Rights movement, ran for president, and was
assassinated in 1968.

Space Race: race between the USSR and the U.S. over who could be the first to land a manned
spacecraft on the moon.

Sputnik (1957): first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite launched by the Soviet Union and led to
the space race and an increased emphasis on science and math education within the United States

Sunbelt: growth of the suburbs of the southwestern states and showed a population shift away
from the Northeast and Midwest

Twenty- second Amendment: constitutional amendment limiting a President to two terms.

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Unit 12: Civil Rights Movements

Tested Information:
I. African-American Civil Rights Movement
A. Montgomery Bus Boycott-
1. Rosa Parks- refused to give up her seat to a white man and was arrested. This act
of civil disobedience jump started the modern Civil Rights movement
2. Martin Luther King, Jr. serves a leader of the protest. First involvement in the
Civil Rights Movement
3. established the precedent of using non-violent protest
B. Central High School
1. First school in the South to be desegregated because of Brown v. Board of
Education ruling
2. Little Rock 9- nine African- American black students that
3. example of state’s rights vs. the power of the federal government
a. Eisenhower used federal troops to protect the 9 African-American students
who were integrating the high school
C. Birmingham Demonstrations
1. King changes some previous strategy using direct non-violent confrontation
like sit-ins and school age student marches to desegregate facilities in
Birmingham, AL
2. King was arrested, placed in solitary confinement, and wrote one his most
famous works, Letter from a Birmingham Jail
3. Media images of fire hoses being used against demonstrators gained
worldwide sympathy for the Civil Rights movement
D. March on Washington
1. Massive demonstration to put pressure on President Kennedy to pass a
comprehensive Civil Rights bill
2. “I Have a Dream” speech given by Martin Luther King, Jr.
3. After the March on Washington, the movement will split into sectors: SNCC/SCLC
remaining nonviolent, the Black Power Movement and the Nation of Islam promoting
violence/ a quicker response.
E. Black Power Movement
1. Formed by younger African Americans who felt that the strategies of leaders
like King were not creating change fast enough
2. Black Panthers were the most prominent of these groups and felt that equality
for African Americans could be achieved only through their efforts-believed in
equality AND segregation
F. Legislation and Constitutional Amendments
1. Civil Rights Act 1964
a. Desegregated all public facilities
b. Created equal employment opportunity through the Equal Employment
Opportunities Commission (EEOC)
2. Voting Rights Act 1965
a. federal law protecting voting rights
b. violent attack on protesters in Selma, Alabama (marching for voting rights)
persuaded President Johnson and Congress to pass
c. banned the use of literacy tests

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d. created Federal oversight on voter registration and elections
3. 24th Amendment- banned the use of poll taxes
II. Latino Civil Rights Movement
A. Cesar Chavez
1. considered the leader of the Latino Civil Rights Movement
2. help form the United Farm Workers union
B. United Farm Workers
1. worked to improve the lives and working conditions of migrant farm workers
2. used non-violent protests, especially boycotts, to achieve their goals
C. La Raza Unida
1. Political Party formed in the 1960s to promote Hispanic issues at the local, state and
federal government levels.
2. chief goal of La Raza was to end work, housing, and education discrimination of
Hispanic Americans.
III. Women’s Rights Movement
A. National Organization for Women (NOW)
1. formed to eliminate discrimination and harassment in the workplace, schools,
the justice system, and all other sectors of society
B. Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
1. Constitutional amendment that stated “Equality of rights under the law shall
not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of
sex”
2. The Amendment was not passed. It was defeated by the states
C. Title IX
1. federal law that gave female students equal opportunity to participate in
athletics
D. Roe v Wade
1. Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion
IV. Supreme Court Decisions
A. Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
1. overturned separate but equal decision from Plessy v Ferguson
B. Warren Court (1953-1969)
1. Decisions protected the rights of the accused
a. Miranda v Arizona (1966)
C. Burger Court (1969-1986)
1. Roe v. Wade (1973)- legalizes abortion in the United States
2. New York Times Co. v. U.S. (1971)- the government must prove that publication of
information will create a clear and present danger before they can use prior
restraint on U.S. media

People
• Black Panthers - militant political party that created by Huey Newton and
Bobby Seale who wanted African-Americans to lead their own communities;
directly confronted the police; preached Black Power
• Stokely Carmichael- member and leader of SNCC who would become a founder
of the Black Power Movement after becoming frustrated over the lack of progress under
the nonviolence movement.
• Cesar Chavez - Leader of the United Farm Workers and migrant farmers
who fought for farm laborers rights using non-violence

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• Betty Friedan - Wrote the book “Feminine Mystique”, published in the early
1960s, which advocated for women equality in the society and the workplace.
• Lyndon B. Johnson - president who passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and
the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Great Society programs
• Robert Kennedy – served as the Attorney General during JFK’s administration
and used Federal Marshals to protect civil rights activists, especially the Freedom Riders
• Martin Luther King Jr. - Civil rights leader who used non-violence; one of
the founders of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference; involved in
Montgomery Bus Boycott, Birmingham, March on Washington, Selma March
• Thurgood Marshall - NAACP lawyer involved with the Brown v. Board of Ed.
decision and later appointed as the first African-American to the Supreme Court
• Rosa Parks - Civil Rights activist associated with the Montgomery Bus
Boycott
• Gloria Steinem- leading feminist spokeswoman starting in the 1970s and
founder of Ms. magazine
• Malcolm X - Member of the Nation of Islam who preached separation of the
races

Vocabulary
• Black Power - African-American movement seeking unity and self-reliance
• CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE-breaking an unjust law in order to have it changed or
overturned through the court system
• Defacto Segregation - Segregation by fact, people segregate by choice
• Dejure Segregation - Segregation by law (legal segregation based on race) It is
illegal today
• Desegregation/integration - Ending segregated in schools and public
facilities
• Feminism – belief in the political, economic, and social equality of men and
women
• Literacy Test/ Poll Tax/Grandfather Clause - Methods used by Southern states
to keep African-Americans from voting
• NAACP - National Association Advancement of Colored People, first organization
dedicated to improve civil rights for African Americans
• Nation of Islam- A religious and political organization that encouraged black
pride, separation and self sufficiency among Blacks. Its noted spokesperson during the
Civil Rights Movement was Malcolm X. Under Malcolm X, the Nation of Islam created
their own schools, restaurants, and a newspaper.
• Nonviolence Resistance - Protest technique that breaks segregation laws
and provokes violence from law enforcement officials.
• Separate but equal - Phrase used to describe the decision in the 1896 Plessy vs.
Ferguson case that legalized segregation in schools and all public accommodations
• SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference)- non violent civil rights
organization led by Martin Luther King, Jr. This organization began as the Montgomery
Improvement Association to support the Montgomery Bus Boycotts and then morphed to
a regional organization to plan protests throughout the South.
• SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee)- non violent civil rights
organization created and led by college students. The original goal of SNCC was to

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desegregate lunch counters. Later SNCC would create over 30 Freedom Schools
throughout the South.

State Standards covered in Unit 12


I. African- America Civil Rights Movement
Concept: Postwar United States
Performance Objectives: Describe aspects of post World War II domestic policy
State Standard Code: US 9-2
II. Latino Civil Rights Movement
Concept: Postwar United States
Performance Objectives: Describe aspects of post World War II American Society
State Standard Code: US 9-3

III. Women’s Rights Movement


Concept: Postwar United States
Performance Objectives: Describe aspects of post World War II American Society
State Standard Code: US 9-3

IV. Supreme Court Decisions


Concept: Postwar United States
Performance Objectives: Describe aspects of post World War II domestic policy
State Standard Code: US 9-2

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Unit 12 Reading
The beginning of the Reconstruction era brought new hope to many African Americans in
the South. Slavery had been abolished, and the newly instituted 13 14 and 15 amendments
promised legal equality for blacks. However, Reconstruction came to an end in the middle of the
1870s, and in the subsequent “Redemption” period blacks in the South saw many of the civil
rights gains they had made gradually eliminated. “Black Codes” and Jim Crow laws were set up
to limit the movement and rights of African Americans. Poll taxes were imposed to deter blacks
from registering to vote, and literacy tests were often required at the polls to prevent illiterate
blacks from voting; illiterate whites were exempted from the tests by so-called “grandfather
clauses.” In addition, racist organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan used threats and strong-arm
tactics such as burning and lynching to subjugate and oppress blacks.

In 1896, the Supreme Court’s “separate but equal” decision in the case of Plessy v.
Ferguson confirmed the legality of segregation in the South and led to an increase in separate
facilities for blacks and whites. Churches, schools, restaurants, buses and trains, and even public
restrooms were segregated, and were rarely even “equal” in terms of quality. In addition,
segregation was not just confined to the South: up through World War II military troops were
segregated even though they were fighting against a common enemy.

The landmark 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka,
Kansas put an end to legal segregation. The Court overturned Plessy v. Ferguson, tossing out the
“separate but equal” doctrine by ruling that separation itself was inherently unequal.

The Movement and Its Leaders

The civil rights movement in the United States was a political, legal, and social struggle to
gain full citizenship rights and to achieve racial equality for African Americans. The movement
was a challenge both to segregation laws and to customs separating blacks and whites. The
movement encompassed a wide range of individuals and organizations, challenging segregation
and discrimination with a variety of activities including protest marches, boycotts, and a refusal
to abide by segregation laws.

Many believe that the movement effectively began with the Montgomery bus boycott in
1955. On Dec. 1, 1955, a black woman named Rosa Parks had refused to surrender her bus seat
to a white passenger and as a consequence had been arrested for violating city laws. The black
community responded by forming the Montgomery Improvement Association to boycott the
transit system and chose as their leader a local minister named Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. The
bus boycott represented the first real organized challenge to segregation law in the South.

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The bus boycott raised Dr. King to national prominence, and he formed a strategy of
nonviolent confrontation that was used by many who protested segregation, from the black
college students who staged “sit-ins” to protest segregated lunch counters to young whites from
the North who ventured south to take part in such as the 1961 Freedom Rides protesting
segregation on buses and in bus stations. Organizations such as the Congress of Racial Equality
(CORE), the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating
Committee (SNCC) also played key roles in orchestrating protests and training protesters in the
tactics of nonviolence.

However, peaceful protests often met violent resistance, and participants were sometimes
beaten up by angry mobs. Even the police used their nightsticks on protesters, turned high-power
fire hoses on them, and fired tear gas at them. Many died as well: the Ku Klux Klan bombed
several black churches, NAACP leader Medgar Evers was assassinated in 1963, and in 1964
three young civil rights workers in Mississippi (an African American and two whites from the
North) were brutally murdered. However, rather than slowing the movement, these attempts at
intimidation only strengthened the resolve of those fighting for civil rights. The movement
continued to gain steam and reached a milestone in the 1963 March on Washington. A racially
mixed crowd of more than 200,000 people took part in a peaceful march, then gathered around
the Reflecting Pool to hear Dr. King give his famous “1 Have a Dream” speech.

Other participants in the civil rights movement advocated different tactics than Dr. King’s
strategy of nonviolence. The “black pride” and black nationalist movements took a much more
strident approach to gaining equality, and many took their cue from Malcolm X, a Black Muslim
minister who had stated a willingness to gain freedom and equality for African Americans “by
any means necessary.” This brand of civil rights appealed to many blacks who thought that Dr.
King and his supporters were moving too slowly and wasting their time by working within “the
system.” Though tensions existed between those who followed Dr. King and those who followed
Malcolm X. they both realized that many of their goals were the same, and they consequently
devoted their energies to fighting discrimination rather than to fighting each other.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964

By the mid-1960s, civil rights protests had begun to make an impression on the country as
a whole, and pressure mounted on Congress to pass a measure that would eradicate many forms
of discrimination. The result was the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964, which addressed
specific problems such as literacy tests used to abridge black voting rights, segregation of public
facilities, and equal opportunity for employment, laying down a ban on discrimination based on
“race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.” The Act was the greatest political achievement of
the civil rights movement, and continues to shape American life to this day.

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Civil Rights Movement Vocabulary
Black Panthers: militant political party who wanted blacks to lead their own communities;
directly confronted police; and preached Black Power

Black Power: African-American movement seeking unity and self-reliance

Brown v. Board of Education (1954): a case in which the Supreme Court declared that laws
requiring racial segregation in public schools were unconstitutional.

Cesar Chavez: leader of the United Farmer Workers and fought for farm laborers rights using
non-violence

Civil disobedience: resistance to governmental authority aimed at forcing that authority to


change policies believed to be wrong.

Civil Rights Act of 1964: an act which banned discrimination in voting requirements and by
employers and businesses engaged in interstate commerce.

Desegregation/ integration: ending segregation in schools and public facilities

Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) (1982): constitutional amendment that declared that equality
under the law would not be denied or infringed upon by the United States or any state based on
the account of sex

Feminism: theory of favoring the political, economic, and social equality of men and women

Gloria Steinem: leading feminist spokeswoman starting in the 1970s and founder of Ms.
magazine

Literacy Test/ Poll Tax: methods used by southern states to keep blacks from voting.

Lyndon B. Johnson: President who signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights
Act of 1965

Malcolm X: member of the Nation of Islam who preached separation of the races

Martin Luther King Jr.: Civil Rights leader who used non-violence

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Modern Civil Rights Movement: a renewed effort, especially during the 1950s and the 1960s,
by blacks and their supporters to gain for blacks’ equality under the law.

Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955): the refusal by blacks in Montgomery, Alabama to ride city
buses until city ordinances which discriminated against black bus passengers was repealed.

NAACP: the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909,
whose goal was to work for black people’s civil rights.

National Organization for Women (NOW): formed to eliminate discrimination and harassment
in the workplace, schools, the justice system, and all other sectors of society

Robert Kennedy: served as U.S. Attorney General under President John F Kennedy and used
federal marshals to protect civil rights activists

Roe v. Wade (1972): Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion in the United States

Rosa Parks: civil rights activist associated with the Montgomery Bus Boycott

“Separate but Equal”: used to describe the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson case that legalized
segregation in schools and public accommodations

Thurgood Marshall: NAACP lawyer involved with the Brown v. Board of Education decision
and later became the first African-American Supreme Court Justice.

Title IX (1972): federal law that gave female students equal opportunity to participate in
athletics

Voting Rights Act of 1965: federal law protecting the voting rights of all U.S. citizens including
blacks

Warren Court: time in Supreme Court history that is responsible for expanding civil liberties,
civil rights, and other decisions that protected the rights of the accused

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164
165
Unit 13: Contemporary U.S. History

Tested Information:
I. Contemporary U.S. History
A. 1970s
1. Watergate
2. OPEC/oil crisis
3. Middle East
4. Camp David Accords
5. Iran Hostage Crisis
B. 1980s
1. Afghanistan
2. Iran/Contra
3. HIV/AIDS
4. Conservative Revolution
5. Graying of America
6. End of Cold War
7. Environmental Movement
8. Black Monday (Oct. 1987)
C. 1990s- present
1. Contract with America
2. “Desert Storm”- First War in Iraq
3. Domestic and International Terrorism
a. World Trade Center bombing
b. Oklahoma City
c. September 11, 2001/ Post 9/11
d. “War on Terror”
e. Patriot Act
f. Afghanistan
g. Iraq War- “Operation Iraqi Freedom”
4. Impeachment of Bill Clinton
5. Technology Revolution
a. Personal computers
b. Internet
c. Cell phones
6. 2000 Presidential Election

People
• Jimmy Carter - U.S. president who brokered peace between Israel and Egypt
under the Camp David Accords; during his administration Iranian militants seized the
U.S. embassy in Iran and held 52 Americans hostage for over a year
• Ronald Reagan - stepped up efforts to end communism in the Soviet Union by
arms build up, support for the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI); used military and
economic aid to aid anticommunist forces in Latin America
• Mikhail Gorbachev - Soviet leader who introduced the reforms of glasnost
(openness) and peristoika (restructuring) that eventually led to the collapse of the Soviet
Union starting in 1990
• George H.W. Bush – 41st President; President during the First Gulf War
• Bill Clinton – 42nd President; advocated economic reform

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• Al Gore – Clinton’s Vice-President and Democratic Party candidate in 2000
election
• George W. Bush – 43rd President; President during Sept. 11 and start of
Afghanistan and Iraq Wars
• Saddam Hussein – Sunni Muslim and Bathist Party dictator of Iraq from 1979-
2003
• Al-Qaeda – radical Islamic fundamentalists that declared US an enemy in its
jihad; responsible for the bombing of the World Trade Center on Sept. 11

Vocabulary
• Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) “Star Wars”
• Jihad – “holy war”
• Glasnost - openness
• Peristoika – restructuring (used to refer to economic reforms)
• Terrorism / terrorist - violence or the threat of violence, especially bombing, kidnapping,
and assassination, carried out for political purposes
• War on Terror - the U.S. response to the September 11, 2001 attacks by Islamic
• terrorists on the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and other targets, involving
coordinated action domestically and internationally by the armed forces, the intelligence
community, law enforcement, the criminal justice system, and the banking community

State Standards covered in Unit 13


I. Contemporary United States
Concept Contemporary United States
Performance Objective: Describe how key political, social, environmental, and economic events of
the late 20th century and early 21st century affected and continue to affect
the United States
State Standard Code: US10-3

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Unit 13 Reading
The America of 1968 seemed to be a country in crisis. Riots, demonstrations, and
assassinations plagued the nation. Many blamed America's problems on President Johnson's
leadership and the war in Vietnam. On Election Day in 1968, Americans turned to Richard
Nixon for new leadership.

Richard Nixon won the election in 1968 largely on his promise to achieve "peace with honor"
in Vietnam. Soon after taking office, Nixon instituted his policy of Vietnamization, which called
for the gradual replacement of U.S. combat troops with South Vietnamese soldiers. Nixon also
increased bombing attacks on North Vietnam. He believed these attacks would hinder
communist attacks on the South and persuade North Vietnam to seek a negotiated peace.
Despite the bombings, the communists were not quick to negotiate. The war dragged on, the
bombings increased, and the anti-war demonstrations in America became larger and violent.
Finally, in early 1973, the two sides negotiated a treaty. North Vietnam agreed to halt its attacks
on the South, and the U.S. agreed to pull its forces out of South Vietnam. But soon after the U.S.
withdrawal, the communists resumed their attacks. In 1975, South Vietnam fell. The North and
South reunited as a single, communist state called the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

Despite its failed attempts to contain communism in Vietnam, the U.S. had some foreign
policy achievements during the Nixon years. Seeking to improve relations between the U.S. and
China, President Nixon recognized the legitimacy of China's communist government. He
proposed that the United Nations grant China a seat on the Security Council. President Nixon
also tried to improve relations with the Soviet Union. In 1972, Nixon and the Soviet leader,
Leonid Brezhnev, signed the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I), which limited each
country's production of certain strategic weapons. This effort to ease cold war tensions between
the U.S. and the communist powers was called detente.

In domestic affairs Nixon's policies caused controversy. On taking office, Nixon tried to cut
former-President Johnson's War on Poverty programs. In bitter battles with the President,
Democrats in Congress attempted to block Nixon's efforts. Intense, even underhanded, rivalry
between Nixon and the Democrats developed. This climate of hostility and suspicion led Nixon
supporters to attempt to steal secrets from the Democratic Party Headquarters in the Watergate
office complex. During the following months, investigations revealed that Nixon and/or his staff
tried to cover up their role in the Watergate break-in. Faced with what appeared to be eventual
impeachment, Nixon resigned. This was the first time in U.S. history that a President was forced
from office.

Vice-President Gerald Ford replaced Nixon. Claiming that it was in America's interest to put
an end to the Watergate ordeal, Ford pardoned Nixon of any crimes he might have committed.
Many people faulted Ford for granting Nixon a pardon. In the 1976 presidential election, the
Democratic nominee, Jimmy Carter defeated Ford.

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Carter hoped to use his presidency to make a better, more humane world. In what came to be
known as his human rights policy, Carter announced that the U.S. would not support the
government of any country, even those of military allies, which violated the human rights of its
people. As a part of his quest for a better world, Carter led peace talks which resulted in a treaty
between two arch enemies, Israel and Egypt.

But other problems plagued the Carter presidency. Led by Arab oil producers, an oil cartel
called the Organization of Oil Exporting Countries (OPEC) repeatedly raised the price of their
oil. This, in turn, led to price inflation in the U.S. Meanwhile, unemployment increased, despite
a massive government program of education and training for the unemployed. In 1979 the U.S.
suffered another setback when Iranians took more than 50 Americans as hostages. Carter's
failure to gain their release accentuated his image as a weak leader.

In the presidential contest of 1980, Americans showed their disapproval of Carter and elected
instead the conservative Republican candidate, Ronald Reagan.

REAGAN VOWS TO MAKE AMERICA STRONG AGAIN

The Republican nominee in the 1980 presidential election was the former actor and governor
of California, Ronald Reagan. He campaigned for the presidency on a largely conservative
platform. Reagan claimed that past "liberal" policies of excessive taxation and governmental
regulation by Democrats had stifled businesses as well as individuals. He also claimed that
"liberal, big-government" policies of Democrats had contributed to the unemployment and
inflation problems of the 1970s. Reagan promised that, if elected, he would "get the government
off the backs of the people" and restore economic freedom. Reagan also attacked President
Carter's defense policies. Claiming that Carter's return of the Panama Canal and the national
humiliation of the Iran hostage crisis demonstrated America's growing weakness -- candidate
Reagan promised to make America strong again. Many Americans were attracted to Reagan's
conservative message. He defeated Carter by a wide margin.

Once in office, Reagan was true to his campaign promises. With the support of Republicans
and conservative Democrats in Congress, he eased some regulations on businesses and cut taxes.
Some federal social programs were also cut. Military expenditures, however, were not cut.
Instead, Reagan led the most expensive peacetime military buildup in the nation's history.

President Reagan was also determined to halt and, if possible, reverse the spread of
communism. Early in his administration, he ordered a military invasion of the Caribbean island
nation of Grenada. This resulted in the toppling of that nation's communist government. Reagan
also successfully increased military aid to El Salvador in an effort to halt the communist
rebellion in that nation. Meanwhile, the Reagan administration sought to end communist rule in
Nicaragua by financing anti-communist rebels, called Contras. But Congress ended this pro-
Contra effort when it learned of illegal efforts by the CIA and others to assist the Contras.

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REAGAN AND GORBACHEV BEGIN TALKS TO REDUCE NUCLEAR WEAPONS
STOCKPILES IN THE U.S. AND U.S.S.R.

Meanwhile, President Reagan's hard-line attitude toward the Soviet Union produced some
important results. In 1983 he proposed that the U.S. build a system of space satellites that would
protect America from a guided-missile attack by the Soviet Union or any other enemy. Though
this program, called the Strategic Defense Initiative ("Star Wars"), would be one of the most
complex and expensive programs ever attempted by the U.S., many Americans supported the
idea. The Soviets, however, were alarmed by Reagan's Star Wars proposal. In 1985 the new
Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, found himself in a dilemma. If the Soviet Union tried to build
its own expensive Star Wars system, it would put an unbearable strain on the country's already
weak economy. But if the Soviets did not build its own anti-missile defenses, the American Star
Wars system would give the U.S. a tremendous advantage in any war. Gorbachev decided to
solve this problem by proposing a bold plan.

He suggested that the U.S. and U.S.S.R. drastically reduce their stockpiles of nuclear
weapons. This would make the building of a Star Wars system unnecessary. President Reagan,
who also wanted to reduce the number of offensive weapons, began to negotiate with Gorbachev
towards a reduction of both U.S. and U.S.S.R. nuclear weapons. Meanwhile, Gorbachev
announced that the Soviet government would end its strict control over its people. Gorbachev
said that Soviet citizens would be given greater economic and personal freedom. Americans
were pleasantly surprised at Gorbachev's ideas. He was greeted by cheering crowds when he
visited the U.S. Many hoped that the cold war was finally coming to an end. Many Americans
gave Reagan's policies credit for forcing changes within the Soviet Union.

BUSH CONTINUES THE POLICIES OF REAGAN

America's initial judgment of the Reagan years was revealed in the results of the presidential
election of 1988. The Republican nominee, George Bush (who had been vice-president under
Reagan), promised that he would continue the conservative policies of the Reagan years. Bush
easily defeated his Democratic opponent, Michael Dukakis, who the Republicans labeled as a
big-spending liberal. Many observers also saw the election as a sign that Reagan had made
conservatism the dominant force in America.

During his presidency (1989-1993), George Bush's domestic policies were quite conservative.
Like Reagan, Bush rejected a call for "big-government" solutions to social problems, and he tried
to further reduce government regulations on businesses. When the U.S. slid into an economic
recession in 1992, Bush did not take strong federal actions to revive the economy.

Though President Bush followed a rather "hands-off" approach to domestic problems, he was
extremely active when it came to foreign affairs. In late 1989 he ordered U.S. forces to invade
Panama and arrest its dictatorial ruler, Manuel Noriega. Bush claimed Noriega violated U.S. law
by conspiring with others to smuggle drugs into the United States. In 1990 Bush again
responded with action after Iraq launched a surprise attack on its oil-rich neighbor, Kuwait.
Fearing that Iraq's leader, Saddam Hussein, might also try to conquer Saudi Arabia, Bush sent

170
troops there to block any further attacks. Bush then played a leading role in convincing the
United Nations to authorize member nations to use military power, if necessary, to liberate
Kuwait from Iraqi control. In early 1991 a United Nations force, composed mainly of American
units, quickly drove the Iraqis out of Kuwait.

THE COLD WAR COMES TO AN END

Meanwhile, the Bush years witnessed one of the most important developments of the 20th
century -- communist governments in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union collapsed and the
cold war came to an end. During the late 1980s people in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union
used their newly granted freedom of speech (a freedom granted by Gorbachev) to speak out
against communist rule. Soon anti-communist demonstrations became so large that communist
authorities could no longer control them. Communist governments gave into the demonstrators'
demand for democratic elections. In one Eastern European country after another, communist
governments were voted out of power and replaced with people who promised democratic and
free-market reforms. Anti-communists gained control of East Germany and then cooperated
with West Germans to reunite the two parts into a single nation in 1990. Both the U.S. and the
U.S.S.R. gave the reunification of Germany their blessing. This cooperation, as well as friendly
negotiations between the U.S. and Soviet Union during 1990, caused many people to regard that
year as the end of the cold war.

The following year, communist rule ended in the Soviet Union as anti-communist leaders in
several republics (like Russia's Boris Yeltsin) called upon their republics to secede from the
Soviet Union. By late 1991 it became clear that most, if not all, of the Soviet republics were
going to leave the Soviet Union. Mikhail Gorbachev resigned as leader of the rapidly collapsing
Soviet Union. By the end of 1991 the Soviet Union has ceased to exist.

BUSH LOSES THE 1992 ELECTION TO CLINTON AS A RESULT OF GROWING


DOMESTIC PROBLEMS

Americans gave President Bush high marks for his handling of foreign affairs. But during
1991 and 1992 many people began to criticize Bush for his handling of domestic problems.
During the presidential campaign of 1992 the nominee of the Democratic Party, Bill Clinton,
claimed that Bush had ignored the needs of average Americans. Meanwhile, an independent
presidential candidate, Ross Perot, charged that both Bush and his predecessor, Ronald Reagan,
had allowed the government's debt to rise from $1 trillion to $4 trillion. These charges caused
Bush's popularity to drop even more.

Meanwhile, Clinton proposed a plan to pay off the national debt by raising taxes on the rich.
He also promised voters that he would reform the nation's health-care system so that all
Americans would be covered. Bush claimed that Clinton's ideas were far too liberal and that his
"tax-and-spend" proposals would lead to high taxes for all and greater government regulation of
businesses. But Americans were ready for a change. In November 1992 voters elected Bill
Clinton as America's 42nd president.

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CONSERVATIVE OPPOSITION FORCES CLINTON TO RETHINK SOME OF HIS
DOMESTIC GOALS

When Clinton took office in January 1993, he promised America a "New Direction." Many
people thought changes would come thick and fast. But this was not to be. Republicans in
Congress, as well as conservative Democrats, resisted some of Clinton's "liberal" proposals.
Congress refused to enact Clinton's national health-insurance plan claiming that it was too
expensive and that it gave government too much control over people's personal medical
decisions. Clinton's difficulties with Congress caused many people to view him as a weak
leader.

The public's growing lack of confidence in Clinton's leadership became strikingly clear during
the mid-term congressional elections of 1994. For the first time in nearly 50 years, Americans
elected a conservative Republican majority to both the House of Representatives and the Senate.
The new Republican-controlled Congress then promised to provide the leadership which Clinton
seemed unable to give. It began to draft laws to balance the budget and cut back "expensive"
social programs.

Congressional Republicans were particularly eager to scrap the nation's welfare system. They
claimed that it weakened traditional values such as individualism and self-reliance. At first
Clinton opposed deep cuts in welfare programs. But the stunning Republican victory in the 1994
Congressional elections, as well as the failure of his national health-insurance plan, convinced
Clinton that he would have to rethink his position on welfare. The result was the Welfare
Reform Act of 1996. It authorized each state to create its own welfare program. The federal
government would help states finance these programs as long as states required most adults on
welfare to find work within two years. States would also have to limit a welfare recipient to no
more than a total of five years of benefits. The law also ended the Aid to Families with
Dependent Children (AFDC) program. This meant that large numbers of people would no
longer be entitled to federal aid.

CLINTON'S FOREIGN POLICY EXPERIENCES SUCCESS ABROAD

On taking office in January of 1993, Clinton inherited a difficult foreign-policy problem.


Hundreds of Haitians were fleeing by boat to Florida and other southern states in order to escape
the dictator, General Cedras, who had seized power from Haiti's democratically elected
president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide. Concern by many native Floridians over the sudden
immigration into their state, plus news reports that many Haitian boat people drowned in rough
seas, forced Clinton to take action. At the urging of the U.S. and other nations, on January 31,
1994 the United Nations authorized U.N. members to use force, if necessary, to remove the
dictator Cedras from power. Fearing an attack from the U.S., Cedras agreed to step down and
allow Aristide to return to power. Many people praised Clinton for resolving the problem in
Haiti without bloodshed.

Another foreign-policy difficulty which Clinton inherited was the ongoing civil war in Bosnia
between Bosnian Muslims and Bosnian Serbs. The mass murder of civilians and other horrific
atrocities, particularly at the hands of the Bosnian Serbs, reminded people of the Nazi policy of

172
genocide during World War II. United Nations peacekeepers were unable to halt the fighting,
particularly because of continued hostility by Bosnian Serbs. The U.S. and other NATO (North
Atlantic Treaty Organization) members then began bombing raids against Serb military
positions. This action convinced Serb leaders to accept a U.S. invitation to meet with Bosnian
Muslims at an air force base near Dayton, Ohio. There the warring parties agreed that Bosnia
would be divided into two sections, one for the Bosnian Serbs and the other for Bosnian Muslims
and Bosnian Croats. (The Croats were another ethnic minority which lived in northern and
western parts of Bosnia.) The agreement also called for 60,000 NATO peacekeeping troops to
be sent to Bosnia, one-third of which would come from the U.S. Many people praised Clinton
and American diplomats for providing leadership which helped end the bloodshed in Bosnia.

Yugoslavia again became the focus of world attention in 1999. Beginning in March 1998,
ethnic Albanians in the Yugoslav province of Kosovo came under attack from the Serbian
nationals of Yugoslavia. In an effort to stop "ethnic cleansing," NATO began air strikes in
March 1999. After 10 weeks of bombing, Yugoslav leader Milosevic indicated a willingness to
settle the conflict. But by this point hundreds of thousands of ethnic Albanians had been forced
from their homes into neighboring countries.

Meanwhile, American foreign policy in the Middle East also saw positive results. Clinton,
like previous presidents of the post-World War II period, urged Israelis and Palestinians to settle
their differences with some kind of compromise. Leaders of other nations did the same. Against
this backdrop, in 1993 Norwegian diplomats invited Israeli and Palestinian negotiators to a series
of meetings near Oslo, Norway. As a result of these negotiations, the Palestinians agreed to
recognize Israel's right to exist. For its part, Israel agreed to recognize the Palestinian Liberation
Organization (PLO) to be the legal representative of the Palestinian people. Understandings
reached at Oslo led to further agreements. The important issue of land-ownership was partly
resolved when Israel agreed to pull its troops out of Gaza and large parts of the West Bank
region and to grant Palestinians limited self-rule in these areas. One of the treaties was signed at
a White House ceremony on September 28, 1995. On this occasion President Clinton
successfully urged the leaders of Israel and the Palestinians to shake hands in peace -- a
handshake which became the symbol of long-awaited peace between the two ancient enemies.

TERRORISM AND OTHER ACTS OF VIOLENCE DISRUPT AMERICA DURING


CLINTON'S FIRST TERM

On February 26, 1993, just weeks after Clinton assumed office, Americans were alarmed by
reports that terrorists had detonated a massive bomb near the base of the New York City's World
Trade Center (Twin Towers). The FBI began a swift and intensive investigation which quickly
led to the arrests and conviction of Arab terrorists. This, as well as the arrest of other Arabs who
had plotted to blow up the United Nations building, caused many Americans to fear that more
terrorist bombings would be forthcoming.

However, the next major act of violence in the U.S. was not committed by foreign terrorists,
but by Americans themselves. On April 19, 1993, a fire broke out while federal agents raided
the compound of the Branch Davidian cult in Waco, Texas, where the cult allegedly stored
illegal weapons. The fire killed 72 cult members, including their leader, David Koresh. Though

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there was evidence that the raid was justified and that cult members had started the fire
themselves, the federal government was criticized for its handling of the crisis.

Then on April 19, 1995, exactly two years after the Waco incident, a massive truck bomb was
detonated outside the federal building in Oklahoma City, killing 169 people (including one
rescue worker). Though some Americans jumped to the conclusion that the bombing was the
work of foreign terrorists, they later learned that two former U.S. soldiers, Timothy McVeigh
and Terry Nichols, were arrested and charged with the crime. According to reports, McVeigh
and Nichols were seeking revenge on the U.S. government for its raid on the Branch Davidian
cult two years earlier.

Meanwhile, another form of violence was dominating the news -- that of violence toward
women. This problem was highlighted by the tragic story of Nicole Brown Simpson. On June
12, 1994, Nicole's mutilated body, along with that of her friend, Ron Goldman, was discovered.
A long history of physical abuse against Nicole at the hands of her then-husband, O.J. Simpson,
caused many to suspect that he had abused Nicole in the most extreme way -- by murdering her.
This history of abuse, as well as the discovery of physical evidence, led to Simpson's arrest on
the charge of murder. The trial took nearly a year but the jury was quick to find Simpson "not
guilty." Simpson's defense attorneys had convinced the jury that there was a possibility that
police had "planted evidence" in an effort to "get" Simpson. Many people, including the
Goldman and Brown families, were outraged at the verdict. Since Simpson could not be retried
for the same crime (double jeopardy is unconstitutional), the Brown and Goldman families
decided to sue Simpson in civil court for the "wrongful deaths" of Nicole and Ron. This time
Simpson lost. The civil jury found him liable and ordered him to pay $33.5 million in damages.
The case of Nicole Brown led other women to speak out against those who abused them. For
example, several female soldiers in the U.S. military services complained that they had been
abused by servicemen. Subsequently, President Clinton and the heads of the military services
declared a policy of "zero tolerance" of abuse towards servicewomen.

CLINTON WINS REELECTION IN 1996 AND SETS GOALS FOR A SECOND TERM

Midway through President Clinton's first term in office, few people thought he could win
reelection to a second term. His failure to achieve his plan for health-insurance reform and the
smashing Republican victory in the Congressional elections of 1994, seemed to demonstrate
Clinton's loss of public support. To make matters worse, Clinton's name was associated with a
number of so-called scandals. One of these involved accusations that Clinton, while governor of
Arkansas, was involved in an illegal use of money to pay for his campaigns and property in
Arkansas. Then, just weeks before the election, news stories reported accusations that Clinton
and the Democratic Party had used questionable methods to finance his 1996 presidential
campaign.

But during the campaign, Clinton was able to draw attention to some of his accomplishments.
The tax increase that he had pushed for in 1993, though unpopular, had led to a significant
decrease in the federal deficit. Clinton claimed that the lowering of the deficit and his other
economic policies had strengthened the nation's economy and created more jobs. He also
pointed to other accomplishments, such as enactment of stricter gun-control laws and a

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significant increase in the minimum wage. Clinton also reminded voters of his record of
protecting a woman's right to have an abortion, something his Republican opponent, Robert Dole
of Kansas, opposed. Meanwhile, many Americans continued to praise Clinton for his foreign
policy accomplishments in Haiti and Bosnia.

On Election Day, 1996, Clinton earned a second term in office by winning a substantial
majority of electoral votes. But the popular vote count revealed that still Clinton lacked wide
support -- he won only 49% of the ballots cast. Dole received 41%. Ross Perot, nominee of the
Reform Party, got 8%. The remaining 2% of the vote was split between other minor-party
candidates.

CLINTON'S SECOND TERM

In the first two years of his second term, President Clinton continued to benefit politically
from an exceptionally strong economy that was characterized by the lowest unemployment, the
lowest rate of inflation, and the lowest federal deficit in more than 20 years. Public opinion polls
showed strong approval for his conduct of the presidency, which was even further strengthened
when, in 1997, he arrived at a ground-breaking agreement with Congress to balance the federal
budget by 2002.

Nonetheless, significant problems for the president included charges left over from the 1996
presidential campaign that he, Vice-President Gore, and the Democratic Party had engaged in
illegal fundraising practices. In 1997 a Senate committee headed by Fred Thompson of
Tennessee looked into those issues, with inconclusive results. Democrats argued that
Republicans had engaged in similar or even worse practices but that the Republican Congress
was not interested in investigating those. Charges that China had acquired secret U.S. missile
technology as the result of technology-transfer waivers granted by the White House were tied to
the claim that the president of the U.S. company that might have transferred that technology was
a large contributor of campaign funds to the Democratic Party. When President Clinton
announced that he would be the first U.S. president in a decade to visit China, some members of
Congress urged him to cancel his trip until that issue had been investigated and resolved.
Clinton, however, chose to continue to pursue closer relations with China.

The President also faced potential difficulties resulting from a Supreme Court decision
permitting Paula Jones to pursue a lawsuit charging him with sexual harassment. The president's
attorneys had argued that such a suit should be postponed until the president left office, but the
Supreme Court rejected those arguments. The president did win a victory, however, when some
months later, a federal district judge dismissed the suit on the grounds that even if they were true,
the allegations made against the president did not rise to the level of sexual harassment as
defined by law.

One result of the initial decision to allow the lawsuit to proceed, however, was an
investigation by independent counsel Kenneth Starr into matters surrounding legal depositions
earlier made in the Jones case. Questions arose as to whether, in claiming there had been no
sexual relationship between them, President Clinton and a former White House intern, Monica
Lewinsky, had perjured themselves under oath. Also under investigation was whether the

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president had sought to obstruct justice by helping Ms. Lewinsky find a private sector job in
order to buy her silence about their relationship. In September Starr sent the results of his
investigation to Congress. A month later the House of Representatives opened impeachment
hearings. In December, the House voted to impeach President Bill Clinton on two charges: lying
under oath to a grand jury about his relationship with Ms. Lewinsky and obstruction of justice
for coaching his secretary to lie about this relationship. After a 37-day trial -- largely dominated
by partisan politics -- the Senate voted to acquit the President on both charges.

The Republican Party continued to face internal divisions of various sorts. A group of
Republican House members, concerned that Speaker Gingrich's ethical problems and strategic
political errors had severely undermined his ability to present the Republican viewpoint to the
American people, plotted secretly to remove him from the Speakership. When their plan became
known prematurely, however, it was quickly aborted. Nevertheless, Gingrich resigned both his
Speakership and his Congressional seat following Republican loses in the 1998 mid-term
elections. In the Senate, the chair of the Foreign Relations Committee, Jesse Helms, a staunchly
conservative Republican, succeeded in blocking the nomination of Governor William Weld of
Massachusetts, a moderate Republican, to be the U.S. ambassador to Mexico.

The U.S. faced a crisis when Saddam Hussein, the president of Iraq, refused to allow U.N.
inspectors to examine certain facilities suspected of being sites for the preparation of nuclear,
chemical, and biological weapons. The U.S. threatened the use of military force if inspections
were not allowed, and seemed to go the brink of war, at which point Iraq suddenly acceded to the
U.S. demands.

U.S. involvement in global affairs continued to grow on several fronts. Regarding the civil
war in the former Yugoslavia, President Clinton announced that U.S. peacekeeping troops would
remain in Bosnia indefinitely, a change from his previous policy that had announced a set time
for the troops' return. In Northern Ireland, President Clinton's emissary, former Senator George
Mitchell, helped to negotiate a settlement for a peace plan that was ultimately overwhelmingly
supported in a referendum voted on by the people of that land. Nuclear testing by India, which
prompted retaliatory testing by Pakistan, her longtime foe, generated concern in the U.S.
regarding potential political and military destabilization in that part of the world. Finally,
economic instability in Asia, Brazil and Russia aroused anxiety that the American economy
would be adversely affected. However, after a brief drop, the stock market continued to soar --
with the Dow Jones Industrial Average eventually breaking the 11,000 mark late in the summer
of 1999.

Domestically, the U.S. found Congress unwilling or unable to deal with some of the issues at
the top of the nation's agenda. Campaign finance reform failed when it was found that
insufficient votes were available to break a Senate filibuster preventing a vote on the reform.
Also failing to pass Congress was a settlement between the U.S. government and the tobacco
industry whereby that industry would give the government billions of dollars to help pay for the
medical costs of the illnesses caused by cigarette smoking. With the American economy still
growing, the national government finds itself with a budget surplus running into the hundreds of
billions of dollars. A budget debate now developed over what to do with the surplus: whether to

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enact tax cuts, put the money into social security, pay down the national debt, or expand
spending.

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APPENDIX

178
THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
Action of Second Continental Congress, July 4, 1776

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America

WHEN in the Course of human Events,


it becomes necessary for one People to dissolve the Political Bands which have connected them
with another, and to assume among the Powers of the Earth, the separate and equal Station to
which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent Respect to the Opinions of
Mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the Separation.

WE hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by
their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit
of Happiness -- That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving
their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed, that whenever any Form of Government
becomes destructive of these Ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to
institute new Government, laying its Foundation on such Principles, and organizing its Powers in
such Form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence,
indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and
transient Causes; and accordingly all Experience hath shewn, that Mankind are more disposed to
suffer, while Evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the Forms to which they
are accustomed. But when a long Train of Abuses and Usurpations, pursuing invariably the same
Object, evinces a Design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their Right, it is their
Duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future Security. Such
has been the patient Sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the Necessity which
constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The History of the present King of
Great- Britain is a History of repeated Injuries and Usurpations, all having in direct Object the
Establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a
candid World.

HE has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public Good.
HE has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing Importance, unless
suspended in their Operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has
utterly neglected to attend to them.

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HE has refused to pass other Laws for the Accommodation of large Districts of People, unless
those People would relinquish the Right of Representation in the Legislature, a Right inestimable
to them, and formidable to Tyrants only.
HE has called together Legislative Bodies at Places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the
Depository of their public Records, for the sole Purpose of fatiguing them into Compliance with
his Measures.
HE has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly Firmness his
Invasions on the Rights of the People.
HE has refused for a long Time, after such Dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby
the Legislative Powers, incapable of the Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for
their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the Dangers of Invasion from
without, and the Convulsions within.
HE has endeavoured to prevent the Population of these States; for that Purpose obstructing the
Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their Migrations
hither, and raising the Conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
HE has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing
Judiciary Powers.
HE has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the Tenure of their Offices, and the
Amount and Payment of their Salaries.
HE has erected a Multitude of new Offices, and sent hither Swarms of Officers to harrass our
People, and eat out their Substance.
HE has kept among us, in Times of Peace, Standing Armies, without the consent of our
Legislatures.
HE has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil Power.
HE has combined with others to subject us to a Jurisdiction foreign to our Constitution, and
unacknowledged by our Laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
FOR quartering large Bodies of Armed Troops among us;
FOR protecting them, by a mock Trial, from Punishment for any Murders which they should
commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
FOR cutting off our Trade with all Parts of the World:
FOR imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
FOR depriving us, in many Cases, of the Benefits of Trial by Jury:
FOR transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended Offences:
FOR abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing
therein an arbitrary Government, and enlarging its Boundaries, so as to render it at once an
Example and fit Instrument for introducing the same absolute Rules into these Colonies:

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FOR taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally
the Forms of our Governments:
FOR suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with Power to
legislate for us in all Cases whatsoever.
HE has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War
against us.
HE has plundered our Seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our Towns, and destroyed the Lives of our
People.
HE is, at this Time, transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the Works of
Death, Desolation, and Tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty and Perfidy,
scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous Ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized
Nation.
HE has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against
their Country, to become the Executioners of their Friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by
their Hands.
HE has excited domestic Insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the
Inhabitants of our Frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known Rule of Warfare, is an
undistinguished Destruction, of all Ages, Sexes and Conditions.
IN every stage of these Oppressions we have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble Terms:
Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated Injury. A Prince, whose Character is
thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the Ruler of a free People.
NOR have we been wanting in Attentions to our British Brethren. We have warned them from
Time to Time of Attempts by their Legislature to extend an unwarrantable Jurisdiction over us.
We have reminded them of the Circumstances of our Emigration and Settlement here. We have
appealed to their native Justice and Magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the Ties of our
common Kindred to disavow these Usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our
Connections and Correspondence. They too have been deaf to the Voice of Justice and of
Consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the Necessity, which denounces our Separation,
and hold them, as we hold the rest of Mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace, Friends.
WE, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress,
Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the World for the Rectitude of our Intentions, do,
in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly Publish and
Declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be, FREE AND INDEPENDENT
STATES; that they are absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political
Connection between them and the State of Great-Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and
that as FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES, they have full Power to levy War, conclude
Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which
INDEPENDENT STATES may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm
Reliance on the Protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our
Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.

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THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION
(See Note 1)

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice,
insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and
secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this
Constitution for the United States of America.

Article. I.
Section 1.

All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which
shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Section. 2.

Clause 1: The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second
Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the
Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

Clause 2: No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty
five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected,
be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

Clause 3: Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which
may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be
determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for
a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. (See Note 2)
The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress
of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they
shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty
Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration
shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight,
Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four,
Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South
Carolina five, and Georgia three.

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Clause 4: When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority
thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

Clause 5: The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall
have the sole Power of Impeachment.

Section. 3.

Clause 1: The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State,
chosen by the Legislature thereof, (See Note 3) for six Years; and each Senator shall have one
Vote.

Clause 2: Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they
shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first
Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration
of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third
may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during
the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary
Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.
(See Note 4)

Clause 3: No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years,
and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an
Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

Clause 4: The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have
no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

Clause 5: The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the
Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United
States.

Clause 6: The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that
Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried,
the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two
thirds of the Members present.

Clause 7: Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from
Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the
United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment,
Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

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Section. 4.

Clause 1: The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives,
shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by
Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators.

Clause 2: The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on
the first Monday in December, (See Note 5) unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

Section. 5.

Clause 1: Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own
Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller
Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of
absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

Clause 2: Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for
disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

Clause 3: Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the
same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of
the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be
entered on the Journal.

Clause 4: Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other,
adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall
be sitting.

Section. 6.

Clause 1: The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to
be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. (See Note 6) They shall
in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, beprivileged from Arrest during
their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the
same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other
Place.

Clause 2: No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be
appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been
created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person
holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his
Continuance in Office.

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Section. 7.

Clause 1: All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the
Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

Clause 2: Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall,
before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall
sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have
originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it.
If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent,
together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and
if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes
of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for
and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall
not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been
presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the
Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

Clause 3: Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of
Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to
the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by
him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of
Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

Section. 8.

Clause 1: The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises,
to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States;
but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

Clause 2: To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

Clause 3: To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with
the Indian Tribes;

Clause 4: To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of
Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

Clause 5: To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard
of Weights and Measures;

Clause 6: To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the
United States;

Clause 7: To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

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Clause 8: To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to
Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

Clause 9: To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

Clause 10: To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences
against the Law of Nations;

Clause 11: To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning
Captures on Land and Water;

Clause 12: To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for
a longer Term than two Years;

Clause 13: To provide and maintain a Navy;

Clause 14: To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

Clause 15: To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress
Insurrections and repel Invasions;

Clause 16: To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing
such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States
respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according
to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

Clause 17: To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not
exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of
Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like
Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the
Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful
Buildings;--And

Clause 18: To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the
foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the
United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

Section. 9.

Clause 1: The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall
think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand
eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding
ten dollars for each Person.

Clause 2: The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in
Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

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Clause 3: No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

Clause 4: No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or
Enumeration herein before directed to be taken. (See Note 7)

Clause 5: No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

Clause 6: No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports
of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to
enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

Clause 7: No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations
made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all
public Money shall be published from time to time.

Clause 8: No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any
Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any
present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign
State.

Section. 10.

Clause 1: No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of
Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin
a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing
the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

Clause 2: No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on
Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws:
and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be
for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the
Revision and Controul of the Congress.

Clause 3: No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep
Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another
State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent
Danger as will not admit of delay.

Article. II.
Section. 1.

Clause 1: The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He
shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President,
chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows

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Clause 2: Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a
Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the
State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an
Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

Clause 3: The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons,
of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall
make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they
shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States,
directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the
Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be
counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number
be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who
have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall
immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then
from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in
chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State
having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two
thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case,
after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors
shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the
Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President. (See Note 8)

Clause 4: The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which
they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

Clause 5: No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time
of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any
Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and
been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

Clause 6: In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or
Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, (See Note 9) the Same shall
devolve on the VicePresident, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal,
Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer
shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be
removed, or a President shall be elected.

Clause 7: The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which
shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected,
and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any
of them.

Clause 8: Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or
Affirmation:--"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of

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President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the
Constitution of the United States."

Section. 2.

Clause 1: The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United
States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United
States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive
Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall
have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in
Cases of Impeachment.

Clause 2: He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make
Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and
with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers
and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose
Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but
the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in
the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

Clause 3: The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the
Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next
Session.

Section. 3.

He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and
recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he
may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of
Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to
such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he
shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the
United States.

Section. 4.

The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from
Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and
Misdemeanors.

Article. III.
Section. 1.

The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such
inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of

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the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at
stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during
their Continuance in Office.

Section. 2.

Clause 1: The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this
Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under
their Authority;--to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;--to all
Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;--to Controversies to which the United States shall
be a Party;--to Controversies between two or more States;--between a State and Citizens of
another State; (See Note 10)--between Citizens of different States, --between Citizens of the
same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens
thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.

Clause 2: In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in
which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other
Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and
Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

Clause 3: The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such
Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not
committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by
Law have directed.

Section. 3.

Clause 1: Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in
adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of
Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in
open Court.

Clause 2: The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder
of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person
attainted.

Article. IV.
Section. 1.

Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial
Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner
in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

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Section. 2.

Clause 1: The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens
in the several States.

Clause 2: A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee
from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the
State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the
Crime.

Clause 3: No Person held to Service or Labor in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into
another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such
Service or Labor, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labor
may be due. (See Note 11)

Section. 3.

Clause 1: New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be
formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the
Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the
States concerned as well as of the Congress.

Clause 2: The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and
Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and
nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States,
or of any particular State.

Section. 4.

The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of
Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the
Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic
Violence.

Article. V.

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose
Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the
several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be
valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of
three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the
other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment
which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner
affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State,
without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

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Article. VI.

Clause 1: All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this
Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the
Confederation.

Clause 2: This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance
thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States,
shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any
Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

Clause 3: The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several
State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the
several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no
religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the
United States.

Article. VII.
The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of
this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.

done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of
September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the
Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth In witness whereof We have hereunto
subscribed our Names,

GEORGE WASHINGTON--President. and deputy from Virginia

[Signed also by the deputies of twelve States.]

Delaware William Blount


George Read Knight Dobbs
Gunning Bedford Jr. Hugh Williamson
John Dickinson
Richard Bassett South Carolina
Jacob Broom John Rutledge
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
Maryland Charles Pinckney
James McHenry Pierce Butler
Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer
Daniel Carroll Georgia
William Few
Virginia Abraham Baldwin
John Blair
James Madison Jr.
New Hampshire
North Carolina

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John Langdon William Paterson
Nicholas Gilman Jonathan Dayton
Massachusetts Pennsylvania
Nathaniel Gorham Benjamin Franklin
Rufus King Thomas Mifflin
Robert Morris
Connecticut George Clymer
William Samuel Johnson Thomas Fitzsimons
Roger Sherman Jared Ingersoll
New York James Wilson
Alexander Hamilton Gouvernuer Morris

New Jersey Attest William Jackson Secretary


William Livingston
David Brearley

NOTES
Note 1: This text of the Constitution follows the engrossed copy signed by Gen. Washington and
the deputies from 12 States. The small superior figures preceding the paragraphs designate
Clauses, and were not in the original and have no reference to footnotes.

The Constitution was adopted by a convention of the States on September 17, 1787, and was
subsequently ratified by the several States, on the following dates: Delaware, December 7, 1787;
Pennsylvania, December 12, 1787; New Jersey, December 18, 1787; Georgia, January 2, 1788;
Connecticut, January 9, 1788; Massachusetts, February 6, 1788; Maryland, April 28, 1788; South
Carolina, May 23, 1788; New Hampshire, June 21, 1788.

Ratification was completed on June 21, 1788.

The Constitution was subsequently ratified by Virginia, June 25, 1788; New York, July 26, 1788;
North Carolina, November 21, 1789; Rhode Island, May 29, 1790; and Vermont, January 10,
1791.

In May 1785, a committee of Congress made a report recommending an alteration in the Articles
of Confederation, but no action was taken on it, and it was left to the State Legislatures to
proceed in the matter. In January 1786, the Legislature of Virginia passed a resolution providing
for the appointment of five commissioners, who, or any three of them, should meet such
commissioners as might be appointed in the other States of the Union, at a time and place to be
agreed upon, to take into consideration the trade of the United States; to consider how far a
uniform system in their commercial regulations may be necessary to their common interest and
their permanent harmony; and to report to the several States such an act, relative to this great
object, as, when ratified by them, will enable the United States in Congress effectually to provide
for the same. The Virginia commissioners, after some correspondence, fixed the first Monday in
September as the time, and the city of Annapolis as the place for the meeting, but only four other

193
States were represented, viz: Delaware, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania; the
commissioners appointed by Massachusetts, New Hampshire, North Carolina, and Rhode Island
failed to attend. Under the circumstances of so partial a representation, the commissioners
present agreed upon a report, (drawn by Mr. Hamilton, of New York,) expressing their
unanimous conviction that it might essentially tend to advance the interests of the Union if the
States by which they were respectively delegated would concur, and use their endeavors to
procure the concurrence of the other States, in the appointment of commissioners to meet at
Philadelphia on the Second Monday of May following, to take into consideration the situation of
the United States; to devise such further provisions as should appear to them necessary to render
the Constitution of the Federal Government adequate to the exigencies of the Union; and to
report such an act for that purpose to the United States in Congress assembled as, when agreed to
by them and afterwards confirmed by the Legislatures of every State, would effectually provide
for the same.

Congress, on the 21st of February, 1787, adopted a resolution in favor of a convention, and the
Legislatures of those States which had not already done so (with the exception of Rhode Island)
promptly appointed delegates. On the 25th of May, seven States having convened, George
Washington, of Virginia, was unanimously elected President, and the consideration of the
proposed constitution was commenced. On the 17th of September, 1787, the Constitution as
engrossed and agreed upon was signed by all the members present, except Mr. Gerry of
Massachusetts, and Messrs. Mason and Randolph, of Virginia. The president of the convention
transmitted it to Congress, with a resolution stating how the proposed Federal Government
should be put in operation, and an explanatory letter. Congress, on the 28th of September, 1787,
directed the Constitution so framed, with the resolutions and letter concerning the same, to "be
transmitted to the several Legislatures in order to be submitted to a convention of delegates
chosen in each State by the people thereof, in conformity to the resolves of the convention."

On the 4th of March, 1789, the day which had been fixed for commencing the operations of
Government under the new Constitution, it had been ratified by the conventions chosen in each
State to consider it, as follows: Delaware, December 7, 1787; Pennsylvania, December 12, 1787;
New Jersey, December 18, 1787; Georgia, January 2, 1788; Connecticut, January 9, 1788;
Massachusetts, February 6, 1788; Maryland, April 28, 1788; South Carolina, May 23, 1788; New
Hampshire, June 21, 1788; Virginia, June 25, 1788; and New York, July 26, 1788.

The President informed Congress, on the 28th of January, 1790, that North Carolina had ratified
the Constitution November 21, 1789; and he informed Congress on the 1st of June, 1790, that
Rhode Island had ratified the Constitution May 29, 1790. Vermont, in convention, ratified the
Constitution January 10, 1791, and was, by an act of Congress approved February 18, 1791,
"received and admitted into this Union as a new and entire member of the United States."

Note 2: The part of this Clause relating to the mode of apportionment of representatives among
the several States has been affected by Section 2 of amendment XIV, and as to taxes on incomes
without apportionment by amendment XVI.

Note 3: This Clause has been affected by Clause 1 of amendment XVII.

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Note 4: This Clause has been affected by Clause 2 of amendment XVIII.

Note 5: This Clause has been affected by amendment XX.

Note 6: This Clause has been affected by amendment XXVII.

Note 7: This Clause has been affected by amendment XVI.

Note 8: This Clause has been superseded by amendment XII.

Note 9: This Clause has been affected by amendment XXV.

Note 10: This Clause has been affected by amendment XI.

Note 11: This Clause has been affected by amendment XIII.

Note 12: The first ten amendments to the Constitution of the United States (and two others, one
of which failed of ratification and the other which later became the 27th amendment) were
proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the First Congress on September 25, 1789.
The first ten amendments were ratified by the following States, and the notifications of
ratification by the Governors thereof were successively communicated by the President to
Congress: New Jersey, November 20, 1789; Maryland, December 19, 1789; North Carolina,
December 22, 1789; South Carolina, January 19, 1790; New Hampshire, January 25, 1790;
Delaware, January 28, 1790; New York, February 24, 1790; Pennsylvania, March 10, 1790;
Rhode Island, June 7, 1790; Vermont, November 3, 1791; and Virginia, December 15, 1791.

Ratification was completed on December 15, 1791.

The amendments were subsequently ratified by the legislatures of Massachusetts, March 2, 1939;
Georgia, March 18, 1939; and Connecticut, April 19, 1939.

Note 13: Only the 13th, 14th, 15th, and 16th articles of amendment had numbers assigned to
them at the time of ratification.

Note 14: This sentence has been superseded by section 3 of amendment XX.

Note 15: See amendment XIX and section 1 of amendment XXVI.

Note 16: Repealed by section 1 of amendment XXI.

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Amendments to the Constitution
ARTICLES IN ADDITION TO, AND AMENDMENTS OF, THE

Amendments to the Constitution


CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, PROPOSED BY CONGRESS,
AND RATIFIED BY THE LEGISLATURES OF THE SEVERAL STATES, PURSUANT TO
THE FIFTH ARTICLE OF THE ORIGINAL CONSTITUTION (See Note 12)

Article [I.] (See Note 13)

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free
exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people
peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

Article [II.]

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to
keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

Article [III.]

No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner,
nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

196
Article [IV.]

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against
unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon
probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be
searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Article [V.]

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a
presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or
in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be
subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in
any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property,
without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just
compensation.

Article [VI.]

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an
impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which
district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause
of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process
for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.

Article [VII.]

In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of
trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any
Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

Article [VIII.]

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual
punishments inflicted.

Article [IX.]

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage
others retained by the people.

Article [X.]

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the
States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

197
[Article XI.]

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or
equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State,
or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

Proposal and Ratification

The eleventh amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislatures
of the several States by the Third Congress, on the 4th of March 1794; and was declared in a
message from the President to Congress, dated the 8th of January, 1798, to have been ratified by
the legislatures of three-fourths of the States. The dates of ratification were: New York, March
27, 1794; Rhode Island, March 31, 1794; Connecticut, May 8, 1794; New Hampshire, June 16,
1794; Massachusetts, June 26, 1794; Vermont, between October 9, 1794 and November 9, 1794;
Virginia, November 18, 1794; Georgia, November 29, 1794; Kentucky, December 7, 1794;
Maryland, December 26, 1794; Delaware, January 23, 1795; North Carolina, February 7, 1795.

Ratification was completed on February 7, 1795.

The amendment was subsequently ratified by South Carolina on December 4, 1797. New Jersey
and Pennsylvania did not take action on the amendment.

[Article XII.]

The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-
President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves;
they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the
person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as
President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each,
which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the
United States, directed to the President of the Senate;--The President of the Senate shall, in the
presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall
then be counted;--The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the
President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no
person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding
three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose
immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by
states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist
of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be
necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever
the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then
the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional
disability of the President. (See Note 14)--The person having the greatest number of votes as
Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of
Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the
list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-

198
thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to
a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to
that of Vice-President of the United States.

Proposal and Ratification The twelfth amendment to the Constitution of the United States was
proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Eighth Congress, on the 9th of
December, 1803, in lieu of the original third paragraph of the first section of the second article;
and was declared in a proclamation of the Secretary of State, dated the 25th of September, 1804,
to have been ratified by the legislatures of 13 of the 17 States. The dates of ratification were:
North Carolina, December 21, 1803; Maryland, December 24, 1803; Kentucky, December 27,
1803; Ohio, December 30, 1803; Pennsylvania, January 5, 1804; Vermont, January 30, 1804;
Virginia, February 3, 1804; New York, February 10, 1804; New Jersey, February 22, 1804;
Rhode Island, March 12, 1804; South Carolina, May 15, 1804; Georgia, May 19, 1804; New
Hampshire, June 15, 1804.

Ratification was completed on June 15, 1804.

The amendment was subsequently ratified by Tennessee, July 27, 1804.

The amendment was rejected by Delaware, January 18, 1804; Massachusetts, February 3, 1804;
Connecticut, at its session begun May 10, 1804.

Article XIII.

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof
the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject
to their jurisdiction.

Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Proposal and Ratification

The thirteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the
legislatures of the several States by the Thirty-eighth Congress, on the 31st day of January, 1865,
and was declared, in a proclamation of the Secretary of State, dated the 18th of December, 1865,
to have been ratified by the legislatures of twenty-seven of the thirty-six States. The dates of
ratification were: Illinois, February 1, 1865; Rhode Island, February 2, 1865; Michigan, February
2, 1865; Maryland, February 3, 1865; New York, February 3, 1865; Pennsylvania, February 3,
1865; West Virginia, February 3, 1865; Missouri, February 6, 1865; Maine, February 7, 1865;
Kansas, February 7, 1865; Massachusetts, February 7, 1865; Virginia, February 9, 1865; Ohio,
February 10, 1865; Indiana, February 13, 1865; Nevada, February 16, 1865; Louisiana, February
17, 1865; Minnesota, February 23, 1865; Wisconsin, February 24, 1865; Vermont, March 9,
1865; Tennessee, April 7, 1865; Arkansas, April 14, 1865; Connecticut, May 4, 1865; New
Hampshire, July 1, 1865; South Carolina, November 13, 1865; Alabama, December 2, 1865;
North Carolina, December 4, 1865; Georgia, December 6, 1865.

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Ratification was completed on December 6, 1865.

The amendment was subsequently ratified by Oregon, December 8, 1865; California, December
19, 1865; Florida, December 28, 1865 (Florida again ratified on June 9, 1868, upon its adoption
of a new constitution); Iowa, January 15, 1866; New Jersey, January 23, 1866 (after having
rejected the amendment on March 16, 1865); Texas, February 18, 1870; Delaware, February 12,
1901 (after having rejected the amendment on February 8, 1865); Kentucky, March 18, 1976
(after having rejected it on February 24, 1865).

The amendment was rejected (and not subsequently ratified) by Mississippi, December 4, 1865.

Article XIV.

Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction
thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall
make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the
United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due
process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their
respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not
taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice
President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers
of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of
such State, being twenty-one years of age,(See Note 15) and citizens of the United States, or in
any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation
therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to
the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President


and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any
State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the
United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of
any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or
rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by
a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts
incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or
rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay
any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or
any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims
shall be held illegal and void.

Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions
of this article.

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Proposal and Ratification

The fourteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the
legislatures of the several States by the Thirty-ninth Congress, on the 13th of June, 1866. It was
declared, in a certificate of the Secretary of State dated July 28, 1868 to have been ratified by the
legislatures of 28 of the 37 States. The dates of ratification were: Connecticut, June 25, 1866;
New Hampshire, July 6, 1866; Tennessee, July 19, 1866; New Jersey, September 11, 1866
(subsequently the legislature rescinded its ratification, and on March 24, 1868, readopted its
resolution of rescission over the Governor's veto, and on Nov. 12, 1980, expressed support for
the amendment); Oregon, September 19, 1866 (and rescinded its ratification on October 15,
1868); Vermont, October 30, 1866; Ohio, January 4, 1867 (and rescinded its ratification on
January 15, 1868); New York, January 10, 1867; Kansas, January 11, 1867; Illinois, January 15,
1867; West Virginia, January 16, 1867; Michigan, January 16, 1867; Minnesota, January 16,
1867; Maine, January 19, 1867; Nevada, January 22, 1867; Indiana, January 23, 1867; Missouri,
January 25, 1867; Rhode Island, February 7, 1867; Wisconsin, February 7, 1867; Pennsylvania,
February 12, 1867; Massachusetts, March 20, 1867; Nebraska, June 15, 1867; Iowa, March 16,
1868; Arkansas, April 6, 1868; Florida, June 9, 1868; North Carolina, July 4, 1868 (after having
rejected it on December 14, 1866); Louisiana, July 9, 1868 (after having rejected it on February
6, 1867); South Carolina, July 9, 1868 (after having rejected it on December 20, 1866).

Ratification was completed on July 9, 1868.

The amendment was subsequently ratified by Alabama, July 13, 1868; Georgia, July 21, 1868
(after having rejected it on November 9, 1866); Virginia, October 8, 1869 (after having rejected
it on January 9, 1867); Mississippi, January 17, 1870; Texas, February 18, 1870 (after having
rejected it on October 27, 1866); Delaware, February 12, 1901 (after having rejected it on
February 8, 1867); Maryland, April 4, 1959 (after having rejected it on March 23, 1867);
California, May 6, 1959; Kentucky, March 18, 1976 (after having rejected it on January 8, 1867).

Article XV.

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the
United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Proposal and Ratification

The fifteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislatures
of the several States by the Fortieth Congress, on the 26th of February, 1869, and was declared,
in a proclamation of the Secretary of State, dated March 30, 1870, to have been ratified by the
legislatures of twenty-nine of the thirty-seven States. The dates of ratification were: Nevada,
March 1, 1869; West Virginia, March 3, 1869; Illinois, March 5, 1869; Louisiana, March 5,
1869; North Carolina, March 5, 1869; Michigan, March 8, 1869; Wisconsin, March 9, 1869;
Maine, March 11, 1869; Massachusetts, March 12, 1869; Arkansas, March 15, 1869; South
Carolina, March 15, 1869; Pennsylvania, March 25, 1869; New York, April 14, 1869 (and the

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legislature of the same State passed a resolution January 5, 1870, to withdraw its consent to it,
which action it rescinded on March 30, 1970); Indiana, May 14, 1869; Connecticut, May 19,
1869; Florida, June 14, 1869; New Hampshire, July 1, 1869; Virginia, October 8, 1869;
Vermont, October 20, 1869; Missouri, January 7, 1870; Minnesota, January 13, 1870;
Mississippi, January 17, 1870; Rhode Island, January 18, 1870; Kansas, January 19, 1870; Ohio,
January 27, 1870 (after having rejected it on April 30, 1869); Georgia, February 2, 1870; Iowa,
February 3, 1870.

Ratification was completed on February 3, 1870, unless the withdrawal of ratification by New
York was effective; in which event ratification was completed on February 17, 1870, when
Nebraska ratified.

The amendment was subsequently ratified by Texas, February 18, 1870; New Jersey, February
15, 1871 (after having rejected it on February 7, 1870); Delaware, February 12, 1901 (after
having rejected it on March 18, 1869); Oregon, February 24, 1959; California, April 3, 1962
(after having rejected it on January 28, 1870); Kentucky, March 18, 1976 (after having rejected it
on March 12, 1869).

The amendment was approved by the Governor of Maryland, May 7, 1973; Maryland having
previously rejected it on February 26, 1870.

The amendment was rejected (and not subsequently ratified) by Tennessee, November 16, 1869.

Article XVI.

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source
derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or
enumeration.

Proposal and Ratification

The sixteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the
legislatures of the several States by the Sixty-first Congress on the 12th of July, 1909, and was
declared, in a proclamation of the Secretary of State, dated the 25th of February, 1913, to have
been ratified by 36 of the 48 States. The dates of ratification were: Alabama, August 10, 1909;
Kentucky, February 8, 1910; South Carolina, February 19, 1910; Illinois, March 1, 1910;
Mississippi, March 7, 1910; Oklahoma, March 10, 1910; Maryland, April 8, 1910; Georgia,
August 3, 1910; Texas, August 16, 1910; Ohio, January 19, 1911; Idaho, January 20, 1911;
Oregon, January 23, 1911; Washington, January 26, 1911; Montana, January 30, 1911; Indiana,
January 30, 1911; California, January 31, 1911; Nevada, January 31, 1911; South Dakota,
February 3, 1911; Nebraska, February 9, 1911; North Carolina, February 11, 1911; Colorado,
February 15, 1911; North Dakota, February 17, 1911; Kansas, February 18, 1911; Michigan,
February 23, 1911; Iowa, February 24, 1911; Missouri, March 16, 1911; Maine, March 31, 1911;
Tennessee, April 7, 1911; Arkansas, April 22, 1911 (after having rejected it earlier); Wisconsin,
May 26, 1911; New York, July 12, 1911; Arizona, April 6, 1912; Minnesota, June 11, 1912;
Louisiana, June 28, 1912; West Virginia, January 31, 1913; New Mexico, February 3, 1913.

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Ratification was completed on February 3, 1913.

The amendment was subsequently ratified by Massachusetts, March 4, 1913; New Hampshire,
March 7, 1913 (after having rejected it on March 2, 1911).

The amendment was rejected (and not subsequently ratified) by Connecticut, Rhode Island, and
Utah.

[Article XVII.]

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by
the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State
shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State
legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority
of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of
any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people
fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen
before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

Proposal and Ratification

The seventeenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the
legislatures of the several States by the Sixty-second Congress on the 13th of May, 1912, and
was declared, in a proclamation of the Secretary of State, dated the 31st of May, 1913, to have
been ratified by the legislatures of 36 of the 48 States. The dates of ratification were:
Massachusetts, May 22, 1912; Arizona, June 3, 1912; Minnesota, June 10, 1912; New York,
January 15, 1913; Kansas, January 17, 1913; Oregon, January 23, 1913; North Carolina, January
25, 1913; California, January 28, 1913; Michigan, January 28, 1913; Iowa, January 30, 1913;
Montana, January 30, 1913; Idaho, January 31, 1913; West Virginia, February 4, 1913;
Colorado, February 5, 1913; Nevada, February 6, 1913; Texas, February 7, 1913; Washington,
February 7, 1913; Wyoming, February 8, 1913; Arkansas, February 11, 1913; Maine, February
11, 1913; Illinois, February 13, 1913; North Dakota, February 14, 1913; Wisconsin, February 18,
1913; Indiana, February 19, 1913; New Hampshire, February 19, 1913; Vermont, February 19,
1913; South Dakota, February 19, 1913; Oklahoma, February 24, 1913; Ohio, February 25,
1913; Missouri, March 7, 1913; New Mexico, March 13, 1913; Nebraska, March 14, 1913; New
Jersey, March 17, 1913; Tennessee, April 1, 1913; Pennsylvania, April 2, 1913; Connecticut,
April 8, 1913.

Ratification was completed on April 8, 1913.

The amendment was subsequently ratified by Louisiana, June 11, 1914.

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The amendment was rejected by Utah (and not subsequently ratified) on February 26, 1913.

Article [XVIII].(See Note 16)

Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or
transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation
thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage
purposes is hereby prohibited.

Section. 2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this
article by appropriate legislation.

Section. 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to
the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within
seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

Proposal and Ratification

The eighteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the
legislatures of the several States by the Sixty-fifth Congress, on the 18th of December, 1917, and
was declared, in a proclamation of the Secretary of State, dated the 29th of January, 1919, to
have been ratified by the legislatures of 36 of the 48 States. The dates of ratification were:
Mississippi, January 8, 1918; Virginia, January 11, 1918; Kentucky, January 14, 1918; North
Dakota, January 25, 1918; South Carolina, January 29, 1918; Maryland, February 13, 1918;
Montana, February 19, 1918; Texas, March 4, 1918; Delaware, March 18, 1918; South Dakota,
March 20, 1918; Massachusetts, April 2, 1918; Arizona, May 24, 1918; Georgia, June 26, 1918;
Louisiana, August 3, 1918; Florida, December 3, 1918; Michigan, January 2, 1919; Ohio,
January 7, 1919; Oklahoma, January 7, 1919; Idaho, January 8, 1919; Maine, January 8, 1919;
West Virginia, January 9, 1919; California, January 13, 1919; Tennessee, January 13, 1919;
Washington, January 13, 1919; Arkansas, January 14, 1919; Kansas, January 14, 1919; Alabama,
January 15, 1919; Colorado, January 15, 1919; Iowa, January 15, 1919; New Hampshire,
January 15, 1919; Oregon, January 15, 1919; Nebraska, January 16, 1919; North Carolina,
January 16, 1919; Utah, January 16, 1919; Missouri, January 16, 1919; Wyoming, January 16,
1919.

Ratification was completed on January 16, 1919. See Dillon v. Gloss, 256 U.S. 368, 376 (1921).

The amendment was subsequently ratified by Minnesota on January 17, 1919; Wisconsin,
January 17, 1919; New Mexico, January 20, 1919; Nevada, January 21, 1919; New York,
January 29, 1919; Vermont, January 29, 1919; Pennsylvania, February 25, 1919; Connecticut,
May 6, 1919; and New Jersey, March 9, 1922.

The amendment was rejected (and not subsequently ratified) by Rhode Island.

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Article [XIX].

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United
States or by any State on account of sex.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Proposal and Ratification

The nineteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the
legislatures of the several States by the Sixty-sixth Congress, on the 4th of June, 1919, and was
declared, in a proclamation of the Secretary of State, dated the 26th of August, 1920, to have
been ratified by the legislatures of 36 of the 48 States. The dates of ratification were: Illinois,
June 10, 1919 (and that State readopted its resolution of ratification June 17, 1919); Michigan,
June 10, 1919; Wisconsin, June 10, 1919; Kansas, June 16, 1919; New York, June 16, 1919;
Ohio, June 16, 1919; Pennsylvania, June 24, 1919; Massachusetts, June 25, 1919; Texas, June
28, 1919; Iowa, July 2, 1919; Missouri, July 3, 1919; Arkansas, July 28, 1919; Montana, August
2, 1919; Nebraska, August 2, 1919; Minnesota, September 8, 1919; New Hampshire, September
10, 1919; Utah, October 2, 1919; California, November 1, 1919; Maine, November 5, 1919;
North Dakota, December 1, 1919; South Dakota, December 4, 1919; Colorado, December 15,
1919; Kentucky, January 6, 1920; Rhode Island, January 6, 1920; Oregon, January 13, 1920;
Indiana, January 16, 1920; Wyoming, January 27, 1920; Nevada, February 7, 1920; New Jersey,
February 9, 1920; Idaho, February 11, 1920; Arizona, February 12, 1920; New Mexico, February
21, 1920; Oklahoma, February 28, 1920; West Virginia, March 10, 1920; Washington, March
22, 1920; Tennessee, August 18, 1920.

Ratification was completed on August 18, 1920.

The amendment was subsequently ratified by Connecticut on September 14, 1920 (and that State
reaffirmed on September 21, 1920); Vermont, February 8, 1921; Delaware, March 6, 1923 (after
having rejected it on June 2, 1920); Maryland, March 29, 1941 (after having rejected it on
February 24, 1920, ratification certified on February 25, 1958); Virginia, February 21, 1952
(after having rejected it on February 12, 1920); Alabama, September 8, 1953 (after having
rejected it on September 22, 1919); Florida, May 13, 1969; South Carolina, July 1, 1969 (after
having rejected it on January 28, 1920, ratification certified on August 22, 1973); Georgia,
February 20, 1970 (after having rejected it on July 24, 1919); Louisiana, June 11, 1970 (after
having rejected it on July 1, 1920); North Carolina, May 6, 1971; Mississippi, March 22, 1984
(after having rejected it on March 29, 1920).

Article [XX.]

Section 1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of
January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the
years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of
their successors shall then begin.

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Section. 2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin
at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

Section. 3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect
shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have
been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall
have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall
have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President
elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or
the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly
until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.

Section. 4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from
whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall
have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the
Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon
them.

Section. 5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification
of this article.

Section. 6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to
the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from
the date of its submission.

Proposal and Ratification

The twentieth amendment to the Constitution was proposed to the legislatures of the several
states by the Seventy-Second Congress, on the 2d day of March, 1932, and was declared, in a
proclamation by the Secretary of State, dated on the 6th day of February, 1933, to have been
ratified by the legislatures of 36 of the 48 States. The dates of ratification were: Virginia, March
4, 1932; New York, March 11, 1932; Mississippi, March 16, 1932; Arkansas, March 17, 1932;
Kentucky, March 17, 1932; New Jersey, March 21, 1932; South Carolina, March 25, 1932;
Michigan, March 31, 1932; Maine, April 1, 1932; Rhode Island, April 14, 1932; Illinois, April
21, 1932; Louisiana, June 22, 1932; West Virginia, July 30, 1932; Pennsylvania, August 11,
1932; Indiana, August 15, 1932; Texas, September 7, 1932; Alabama, September 13, 1932;
California, January 4, 1933; North Carolina, January 5, 1933; North Dakota, January 9, 1933;
Minnesota, January 12, 1933; Arizona, January 13, 1933; Montana, January 13, 1933; Nebraska,
January 13, 1933; Oklahoma, January 13, 1933; Kansas, January 16, 1933; Oregon, January 16,
1933; Delaware, January 19, 1933; Washington, January 19, 1933; Wyoming, January 19, 1933;
Iowa, January 20, 1933; South Dakota, January 20, 1933; Tennessee, January 20, 1933; Idaho,
January 21, 1933; New Mexico, January 21, 1933; Georgia, January 23, 1933; Missouri, January
23, 1933; Ohio, January 23, 1933; Utah, January 23, 1933.

Ratification was completed on January 23, 1933.

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The amendment was subsequently ratified by Massachusetts on January 24, 1933; Wisconsin,
January 24, 1933; Colorado, January 24, 1933; Nevada, January 26, 1933; Connecticut, January
27, 1933; New Hampshire, January 31, 1933; Vermont, February 2, 1933; Maryland, March 24,
1933; Florida, April 26, 1933.

Article [XXI.]

Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby
repealed.

Section 2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United
States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is
hereby prohibited.

Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to
the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within
seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

Proposal and Ratification

The twenty-first amendment to the Constitution was proposed to the several states by the
Seventy-Second Congress, on the 20th day of February, 1933, and was declared, in a
proclamation by the Secretary of State, dated on the 5th day of December, 1933, to have been
ratified by 36 of the 48 States. The dates of ratification were: Michigan, April 10, 1933;
Wisconsin, April 25, 1933; Rhode Island, May 8, 1933; Wyoming, May 25, 1933; New Jersey,
June 1, 1933; Delaware, June 24, 1933; Indiana, June 26, 1933; Massachusetts, June 26, 1933;
New York, June 27, 1933; Illinois, July 10, 1933; Iowa, July

Amendment XXII

Section 1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no
person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a
term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the
President more than once. But this article shall not apply to any person holding the office of
President when this article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who
may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this
article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the
remainder of such term.

Section 2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to
the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states within seven years from
the date of its submission to the states by the Congress.

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Amendment XXIII

Section 1. The District constituting the seat of government of the United States shall appoint in
such manner as the Congress may direct:

A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and
Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a state, but in no
event more than the least populous state; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the
states, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice
President, to be electors appointed by a state; and they shall meet in the District and perform
such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment XXIV

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for
President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or
Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state by
reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment XXV

Section 1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the
Vice President shall become President.

Section 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall
nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both
Houses of Congress.

Section 3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the
Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the
powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the
contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

Section 4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the
executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the
President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their
written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office,
the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting
President.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the
Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall

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resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the
principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law
provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of
the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge
the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling
within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one
days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-
one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses
that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President
shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume
the powers and duties of his office.

Amendment XXVI

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are 18 years of age or older, to vote,
shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of age.

Section 2. The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment XXVII

No law varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives shall take
effect until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.

NOTES
Note 1: This text of the Constitution follows the engrossed copy signed by Gen. Washington and
the deputies from 12 States. The small superior figures preceding the paragraphs designate
Clauses, and were not in the original and have no reference to footnotes.

The Constitution was adopted by a convention of the States on September 17, 1787, and was
subsequently ratified by the several States, on the following dates: Delaware, December 7, 1787;
Pennsylvania, December 12, 1787; New Jersey, December 18, 1787; Georgia, January 2, 1788;
Connecticut, January 9, 1788; Massachusetts, February 6, 1788; Maryland, April 28, 1788; South
Carolina, May 23, 1788; New Hampshire, June 21, 1788.

Ratification was completed on June 21, 1788.

The Constitution was subsequently ratified by Virginia, June 25, 1788; New York, July 26, 1788;
North Carolina, November 21, 1789; Rhode Island, May 29, 1790; and Vermont, January 10,
1791.

In May 1785, a committee of Congress made a report recommending an alteration in the Articles
of Confederation, but no action was taken on it, and it was left to the State Legislatures to
proceed in the matter. In January 1786, the Legislature of Virginia passed a resolution providing

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for the appointment of five commissioners, who, or any three of them, should meet such
commissioners as might be appointed in the other States of the Union, at a time and place to be
agreed upon, to take into consideration the trade of the United States; to consider how far a
uniform system in their commercial regulations may be necessary to their common interest and
their permanent harmony; and to report to the several States such an act, relative to this great
object, as, when ratified by them, will enable the United States in Congress effectually to provide
for the same. The Virginia commissioners, after some correspondence, fixed the first Monday in
September as the time, and the city of Annapolis as the place for the meeting, but only four other
States were represented, viz: Delaware, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania; the
commissioners appointed by Massachusetts, New Hampshire, North Carolina, and Rhode Island
failed to attend. Under the circumstances of so partial a representation, the commissioners
present agreed upon a report, (drawn by Mr. Hamilton, of New York,) expressing their
unanimous conviction that it might essentially tend to advance the interests of the Union if the
States by which they were respectively delegated would concur, and use their endeavors to
procure the concurrence of the other States, in the appointment of commissioners to meet at
Philadelphia on the Second Monday of May following, to take into consideration the situation of
the United States; to devise such further provisions as should appear to them necessary to render
the Constitution of the Federal Government adequate to the exigencies of the Union; and to
report such an act for that purpose to the United States in Congress assembled as, when agreed to
by them and afterwards confirmed by the Legislatures of every State, would effectually provide
for the same.

Congress, on the 21st of February, 1787, adopted a resolution in favor of a convention, and the
Legislatures of those States which had not already done so (with the exception of Rhode Island)
promptly appointed delegates. On the 25th of May, seven States having convened, George
Washington, of Virginia, was unanimously elected President, and the consideration of the
proposed constitution was commenced. On the 17th of September, 1787, the Constitution as
engrossed and agreed upon was signed by all the members present, except Mr. Gerry of
Massachusetts, and Messrs. Mason and Randolph, of Virginia. The president of the convention
transmitted it to Congress, with a resolution stating how the proposed Federal Government
should be put in operation, and an explanatory letter. Congress, on the 28th of September, 1787,
directed the Constitution so framed, with the resolutions and letter concerning the same, to "be
transmitted to the several Legislatures in order to be submitted to a convention of delegates
chosen in each State by the people thereof, in conformity to the resolves of the convention."

On the 4th of March, 1789, the day which had been fixed for commencing the operations of
Government under the new Constitution, it had been ratified by the conventions chosen in each
State to consider it, as follows: Delaware, December 7, 1787; Pennsylvania, December 12, 1787;
New Jersey, December 18, 1787; Georgia, January 2, 1788; Connecticut, January 9, 1788;
Massachusetts, February 6, 1788; Maryland, April 28, 1788; South Carolina, May 23, 1788; New
Hampshire, June 21, 1788; Virginia, June 25, 1788; and New York, July 26, 1788.

The President informed Congress, on the 28th of January, 1790, that North Carolina had ratified
the Constitution November 21, 1789; and he informed Congress on the 1st of June, 1790, that
Rhode Island had ratified the Constitution May 29, 1790. Vermont, in convention, ratified the

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Constitution January 10, 1791, and was, by an act of Congress approved February 18, 1791,
"received and admitted into this Union as a new and entire member of the United States."

Note 2: The part of this Clause relating to the mode of apportionment of representatives among
the several States has been affected by Section 2 of amendment XIV, and as to taxes on incomes
without apportionment by amendment XVI.

Note 3: This Clause has been affected by Clause 1 of amendment XVII.

Note 4: This Clause has been affected by Clause 2 of amendment XVIII.

Note 5: This Clause has been affected by amendment XX.

Note 6: This Clause has been affected by amendment XXVII.

Note 7: This Clause has been affected by amendment XVI.

Note 8: This Clause has been superseded by amendment XII.

Note 9: This Clause has been affected by amendment XXV.

Note 10: This Clause has been affected by amendment XI.

Note 11: This Clause has been affected by amendment XIII.

Note 12: The first ten amendments to the Constitution of the United States (and two others, one
of which failed of ratification and the other which later became the 27th amendment) were
proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the First Congress on September 25, 1789.
The first ten amendments were ratified by the following States, and the notifications of
ratification by the Governors thereof were successively communicated by the President to
Congress: New Jersey, November 20, 1789; Maryland, December 19, 1789; North Carolina,
December 22, 1789; South Carolina, January 19, 1790; New Hampshire, January 25, 1790;
Delaware, January 28, 1790; New York, February 24, 1790; Pennsylvania, March 10, 1790;
Rhode Island, June 7, 1790; Vermont, November 3, 1791; and Virginia, December 15, 1791.

Ratification was completed on December 15, 1791.

The amendments were subsequently ratified by the legislatures of Massachusetts, March 2, 1939;
Georgia, March 18, 1939; and Connecticut, April 19, 1939.

Note 13: Only the 13th, 14th, 15th, and 16th articles of amendment had numbers assigned to
them at the time of ratification.

Note 14: This sentence has been superseded by section 3 of amendment XX.

Note 15: See amendment XIX and section 1 of amendment XXVI.

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Note 16: Repealed by section 1 of amendment XXI.

MAPS
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