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INDEX

SR NO.

DESCRIPTION PAGE NO.

  • 1 Introduction

05

  • 2 Need

06

  • 3 Construction

10

  • 4 Working

28

  • 5 Parts & cost

29

  • 6 Application

30

  • 7 Analysis

38

  • 8 Advantages

41

  • 9 Conclusion

10

42

References

43

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(1) Introduction

Sun tracking system is the system in which the solar radiation is tracking on collector which is always kept in front of sun.

In other type’s collectors, the collector is steady so it can collect energy in varying form where in this collector the energy stored approximately at same rate. (Varying of temperature is due to atmospheric effect.)

Generally use of energy is best if it is getting constant rate that is not possible in ordinary system so we go to the tracking.

Electric energy from p-v cell is stored in battery, initially collector is posioned 30 ° with horizontal, shortly at 8:00 a.m. and the system is running with sync- motor.

We can also use electric supply directly so there is no need of above.

At 4:00 p.m. the connection of circuit is open and sync-motor is stop and D.C. motor is running and put collector to its initial position.

P-V cell also angularly move with collector.

(1) Introduction Sun tracking system is the system in which the solar radiation is tracking on

Fig. 1.1 parabolic movable collector

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(2)

Need

Need of solar tracking system

(1)

We need energy in constant form like constant temperature or heat energy, but in other system it cannot get because at morning the sun is placed at higher angle so radiation from sun is less compare to afternoon. This is also happened in evening. Figure shows the position and energy collection.

(2) Need Need of solar tracking system (1) We need energy in constant form like constant

Fig. 1.2 flat plat collector

Generally flat plate collector placed as above shows but, you see the tracking system collector it moves same angular speed of sun and collect energy.

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Slide 1.1 flat plat collector Figure shows the position of collector with sun in sun tracking

Slide 1.1 flat plat collector

Figure shows the position of collector with sun in sun tracking system,

Slide 1.1 flat plat collector Figure shows the position of collector with sun in sun tracking

Fig. 1.3 Parabolic collector

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In sun tracking system as its name indicate the radiation tracking from sun in constant form so we can use in different form like heating, cooling, power plant, distillation plant etc.

(2).

Some time sun radiation is tracking on CPC (computed parabolic collector) but there are some complications which are follows,

o

Complicated design

o

Does not give constant temperature

o

Lower temperature compare to this system

o

Large in size (vertical size is higher which created complication in arrangement)

CPC

Fig. 1.2.1 Compounded parabolic collector

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In sun tracking system as its name indicate the radiation tracking from sun in constant form

Our system covered all the possible applications that not covered in above like Constant temperature during the period (avoided atmospheric losses) higher temperature compare to all other possible think

o

Compaq in size at same output

o

Low cost (35% more than simple flat plat collector and 11 % more than CPC)

Our system covered all the possible applications that not covered in above like Constant temperature during
Our system covered all the possible applications that not covered in above like Constant temperature during
Our system covered all the possible applications that not covered in above like Constant temperature during

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Slides (sun tracking system)

(3)

Constructions

There are no complications in this collector. The parts which requires in system are listed below.

SR NO.

NAME OF PARTS

PAGE NO.

  • 1 Synchronous motor

11

  • 2 Speed reduce gear mechanism

12

  • 3 Chain drive

16

  • 4 Parabolic collector

16

  • 5 D.C. motor with speed reducer

17

  • 6 Power system

19

  • 7 Automatic stop switch

21

  • 8 Absorber

23

  • 9 Supporting system

24

We are taking all parts detail respectively,

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(3.1)

Synchronous motor

This is the motor which is rotating at constant speed at any condition. Any condition means it not change its speed during variation on load.

Like during working, due to dust or lost in lubrication, increase in friction between gears so motor take more load and take more current from battery but not change its speed.

In some case load on motor is reduce due to self weight but this time motor take low current or reduce in current input but speed is remains constant.

Rating of motor

Power input Voltage required Speed of motor Current input

1.2 – 2 watt, 12 v A.C., 5 r.p.m., variable (depended on load)

(3.1) Synchronous motor  This is the motor which is rotating at constant speed at any
(3.1) Synchronous motor  This is the motor which is rotating at constant speed at any

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Slide 3.1.1 (Synchronous motor)

Slide 3.1.2 (Synchronous motor)

Slide 3.1.1 (Synchronous motor) Slide 3.1.2 (Synchronous motor) Slide 3.1.3 (Synchronous motor) (3.2) Speed reducer gear

Slide 3.1.3 (Synchronous motor)

(3.2) Speed reducer gear mechanism

The sun speed from east to west is 15 degree per hour but motor speed is 5 r.p.m. so required speed reducer up to 15 D.P.H (degree per hour).

The mechanism which is used in system is shown in figure.

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Slide 3.2.1(Speed reducer gear mechanism) Slide 3.2.2(Speed reducer gear mechanism) It is used for reducing speed

Slide 3.2.1(Speed reducer gear mechanism)

Slide 3.2.1(Speed reducer gear mechanism) Slide 3.2.2(Speed reducer gear mechanism) It is used for reducing speed

Slide 3.2.2(Speed reducer gear mechanism) It is used for reducing speed of motor and increase the torque of motor.

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The reduction in speed is done by this, There is mathematics of reducer

N1/N10=(T2*T4*T6*T8*T10)/(T1*T3*T4*T5*T7*T9)

Where

The N1 = 5rpm, T2=T4=44 no of teeth, T6 = 66 no. of teeth, T8 = 86 no. of teeth, T1 = T3 = T5 = T7 = 8 no. of teeth, and T9 & T10 is used to drive chain, T9 = 15 no. of teeth T10 = 45 no. of teeth.

Below shows line diagram of arrangement of gears,

The reduction in speed is done by this, There is mathematics of reducer N1/N10=(T2*T4*T6*T8*T10)/(T1*T3*T4*T5*T7*T9) Where The

Fig. 3.2.1 (Speed reducer gear mechanism)

Finally We get the out put speed of 15 degree. And get higher torque output.

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(3.3) Chain drive

This is used to rotate collector wheel.

The motion is transmitted from gear to the collector and also the reduction of speed which shows above.

Chain is joints the wheel,

  • 1. Collector wheel,

  • 2. Low speed wheel,

  • 3. Reverse wheel.

Below shows line diagram of arrangement of chain drive,

15

Fig. 3.2.2 (Chain drive)

(3. 4) Parabolic collector

Its function is to reflect the radiation toward the vertex. At vertex line one absorber is there. Below shows line diagram of parabolic collector,

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Fig. 3.4.1 (Parabolic collector) The construction of parabola is doing by tangent method that is shown

Fig. 3.4.1 (Parabolic collector)

The construction of parabola is doing by tangent method that is shown below

Fig. 3.4.2 (Method to construct parabola)

Material used in collector is stainless steel 16 gauge

(3. 5) D.C. motor with speed reducer

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Fig. 3.4.1 (Parabolic collector) The construction of parabola is doing by tangent method that is shown

It is used to put collector at its initial position. At the during working collector is moved at 15 d.p.h. with sun when it reached at 120 ° from its initial position the system is automatically stop and this motor mechanism put the collector to its initial position for working on next day.

It is also connected with speed reduction gear mechanism to increase the torque because it has low power so reducing speed by gear mechanism we can improve the torque of the motor.

It takes 30 – 40 sec to put the connector to its initial position.

Rating of this motor

Voltage

12 V D.C.

Speed

1500 RPM

It is used to put collector at its initial position. At the during working collector is

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Fig. 3.5.1 (D.C. motor with speed reducer)

Fig. 3.5.1 (D.C. motor with speed reducer) Slide 3.5.1 (D.C. motor) 19

Slide 3.5.1 (D.C. motor)

Fig. 3.5.1 (D.C. motor with speed reducer) Slide 3.5.1 (D.C. motor) 19

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Slide 3.5.1 (D.C. motor)

(3. 6) Power system This consist of two system

  • 1. Using photo voltaic sell

  • 2. Using electric supply (3.6.1)Using photo voltaic sell

It consist following parts 1.Photo voltaic sell (P.V sell)

It is used to provide electric power for running the system. System require power to run synchronous motor as well as D.C. motor that is provided from sun radiation which directly converted in electric power using silicon P.V. sell.

Rating of p-v cell

12 v,

6w.

2.Battery

20

It is used to store electric power. Some time P.V. sell cannot give proper power due to cloudy atmosphere or any other situation but at this time system use battery power. Battery is charged time to time by P.V. sell because system take maximum 2w where P.V. sell provide 6w power so remaining 4 w is charged.

Rating of battery

Voltage

12 v

(3)

Inverter

We know that synchronous motor run on A.C. power but battery supply only D.C. power this time we need to convert D.C. power to A.C. power at require frequency and rated power.

Inverter has group of diodes, resisters, capacitors and inductors. Which solves this problem.

Rating and its system

It converts 12 vD.C. Power to 12 A.C. power.

It put 50 Hz frequency on system.

It has also fuse system to provide protection to over load system

21

Fig. 3.10.1 (Invertor) (3.6.2)Using electric supply In this method electric supply (230 V) is converting in

Fig. 3.10.1 (Invertor)

(3.6.2)Using electric supply

In this method electric supply (230 V) is converting in to two form 12 v D.C. and 12 V A.C. and it is used as above.

This conversation is done by transformers.

(3.7)

Automatic stop start mechanism

22

At morning 8 A.M. system is start to run using clock or sensor, when it cover 120° the synchronous motor is stop this is done by automatic switch which is shown in figure.

At morning 8 A.M. system is start to run using clock or sensor, when it cover

Fig.3.8.1 (Automatic stop start mechanism)

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Fig.3.8.1 (Automatic stop start mechanism) As in figure shown when collector cover 120° collector during this

Fig.3.8.1 (Automatic stop start mechanism)

As in figure shown when collector cover 120° collector during this period the wire is closed for synchronous motor and run it, while it covers this connection will brake and another connection is joint for D.C. motor and it is run.

Fig.3.8.1 (Automatic stop start mechanism) As in figure shown when collector cover 120° collector during this

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Slide 3.8.1 (Automatic stop start mechanism)

Slide 3.8.1 (Automatic stop start mechanism) Slide 3.8.1 (Automatic stop start mechanism) (3.8) Absorber It contain

Slide 3.8.1 (Automatic stop start mechanism)

(3.8)

Absorber

It contain group of pipes which is placed on collecor where maximum radiation is come after reflection.

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Fig. 3.9.1(Absorber) The material of pipe genarlly keep as maximum heat can be tranfer like copper

Fig. 3.9.1(Absorber)

The material of pipe genarlly keep as maximum heat can be tranfer like copper and alluminium.in this system we use the alluminium pipe sets.

The absorbor is blacked coloured so can collect maximum radiation from sun.

Fig. 3.9.1(Absorber) The material of pipe genarlly keep as maximum heat can be tranfer like copper

Slide 3.8.1 (Automatic stop start mechanism)

(3.9) Supporting system

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This system include provide support to the parabolic collector. The sun is changing their position during change of season. During winter the sun position is towards south and maximum angle between sun rays and vertical line. So for tracking and get higher benefit we also change collector angle as per season.

In some system collector is placed as latitude angle that’s why all season change it is steady and get average radiation from sun, but in over system we put collector is not steady but changeable its angle from change of season.

Fig shows the arrangement

This system include provide support to the parabolic collector. The sun is changing their position during

Fig. 3.11.1 (Supporting system)

27

There are two pipes of different diameter. the small diameter pipes inserted in big one and there are different location angle key hole are there on the pipe as we fix the key in the hole we can set the angle at different angle and track maximum radiation from sun.

There are two pipes of different diameter. the small diameter pipes inserted in big one and

Fig. 3.11.1 (Supporting system)

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Fig. 3.11.1 (Supporting system) Fig. 3.11.1 (Supporting system) Construction of whole circuit The figure shows arrangements
Fig. 3.11.1 (Supporting system) Fig. 3.11.1 (Supporting system) Construction of whole circuit The figure shows arrangements

Fig. 3.11.1 (Supporting system)

Fig. 3.11.1 (Supporting system)

Construction of whole circuit

The figure shows arrangements of system

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P.V. sell is also move angularly with collector which covor maximum radiation from sun and get

P.V. sell is also move angularly with collector which covor maximum radiation from sun and get maximum power to battery.

(4) Working

30

Electric energy from p-v cell is stored in battery, initially collector is posioned 30 ° with horizontal, shortly at 8:00 a.m. and the system is running with syn- motor.

System can also start automatically but it require some extra attechment like clock or sensor system.

At

4:00

p.m.

the

connection

of

circuit

is open because of swiching

arrengement shown above in constuction and syn-motor is stop and d.c. motor is running and put collector to its initial position.

P-V cell also angularly move with collector.which provides maximum power to battery.

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(4) Material and cost of parts

PARTS

DEFINATION AND COST

SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR SPEED REDUCER D.C. MOTOR ARRANGEMENT POWER SYSTEM 1.DIRECT FROM SUPPLY 2.USING SUN ENERGY SUPPORTING SYSTEM

ELECTRONIC DIVIE -250 GEAR ARRANGEMENT-110

D.C.MOTOR&GEARS-75

USE TRANSFORMER-95 P-V SELL,BETTARY-1700 WOOD AND PVC PIPES-350

(5) Application

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Water heating Water heating Water distilation plant Air heating system Solar electric system for domestic use by solar tracking system Solar cooling system Solar power plant Solar lighting system

WE TAKE ALL APPLICATION AS FOLLOWS

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(5.1)

Water heating

This system consists the sets of pipes in which water is flow and we get increase in temparature.the change in temparature is directly proposion to the flow of water.

We can take 90° temparature or above itat applicable flowrate. But in flate collector it take much more time and the max temp is 65° at summer and there no flow we can just waiting for application and this is done in4 hours.

The apllication of water heating is shown infigure

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Fig. 6.1 (Water heating system)

(5.2) Water distilation plant

We know that in this system the temparature is increase up to 110° so it converted on steam whichis go to upward and stay on the angular plate

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where it it cooled and converted into water and finally water collect on other tank which is in

pour form and finally the dust partical are stay down to system and finally we can pour the water.

Figure shown the arrangements of water distillationplant.

Fig. 6.2 (Water distillation plant)

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(5.3) Air heating system

As same to the water heating ,in this system instead of water we flow the air in pipes which is heated.

Fig shows line dia gram ofair heating system

(5.3) Air heating system As same to the water heating ,in this system instead of water

Fig. 6.3 (Air heating system)

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(5.4)

Solar electric system for domestic use by solar tracking system.

In this system big P.V. sell is put on the collector support which is turn with same speed of sun so it collect maximum radiation from sun and get maximum power from sun.

In ordinary electric system P.V. sell is steady so it cannot collect more power at morning and evening but in this system it moves with sun so it collect constant and maximum radiation from sun.

Figure shows the system

(5.4) Solar electric system for domestic use by solar tracking system. In this system big P.V.

Fig. 6.4 (P.V.sell)

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(5.5) Solar cooling system

Generaly in solar cooling system V.A.R. (vapour absorption system) is use .in this system one vapourgenerator is there which generate higher temparture. The generatureis like flate plate collector or CPC but using this syetm at super heating we get higher temparture and get higher efficincy of cooling system.

Figure shows solar cooling system diagram.

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Fig. 6.5 (Cooling system circuit) (5.6) Solar power plant Solar power plant is used as big

Fig. 6.5 (Cooling system circuit)

(5.6) Solar power plant

Solar power plant is used as big application. It needed moch more land for solar pond. Figure shows solar power plant diagram

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Fig. 6.6 (Solar power plant circuit) In symple solar system solar pond get 110° c temparture,but

Fig. 6.6 (Solar power plant circuit)

In symple solar system solar pond get 110° c temparture,but use of solar super heating using solar tracking system we improove efficincy of power plant.and also reduce the area of place.

(5.7) Solar lighting system

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In this system the tracking of light from sun is reflect on require placeusing mirror. With moving sun the mirror also move and reflect light at same place during whole of day.

Fig shows the solar lighting system.

In this system the tracking of light from sun is reflect on require placeusing mirror. With

Fig. 6.7 (Solar lighting system)

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(7) Analysis

In this system we compare this system with flate plate collector and C.P.C.,here we get some data for flate plate collector parabolic collector and solar traching with parabolic collector.

(7) Analysis In this system we compare this system with flate plate collector and C.P.C.,here we

Fig. 6.7 (Graph temp/time)

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above graph shows the different temprature at different time and compare flate plate collector with solar tracking.

At date 3 rd May 7, 2010 /12:30 time radiation from sun is 665 w/m*m and collector focus radiation is 989 w/m*m,

Than collector rati o = area of collector/ area of absobor

Than collector ratio= 989/665=1.4872563=1.5(appro)

Belowe table shows data collect on tracking system

SR NO.

FLOW RATE (WATER)

TEMP(C°)

  • 1 100

55.7

  • 2 200

54.1

  • 3 300

51.0

  • 4 400

47.2

  • 5 500

44.7

Table 6.1.1

(Temp/flow rater)

From above data we draw graph than it is,

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Fig. 6.7 (Temp / flow rate)

Below data take for thermo-syphon system for flate plate collector and solar tracking.

SR NO

FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR

TRACKING

(different time)

(temp)

(temp)

1

66.7

68

2

68

69.2

3

67.2

71.1

Table 6.7.2 (Comparison))

CONCLUSION :

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Fig. 6.7 (Temp / flow rate) Below data take for thermo-syphon system for flate plate collector

From above data we conclude that like in electric circuit higher voltage or E.M.F. get higher electric current flow and higher temparature difference get higher heat flow. So for better efficiency and maximum benefit we use concentic collector on solar tracking system.some system has series pipes set in absorbor it get some what higher tempareture in system instead of parallel set of pipes.

(7)

Addvantages

As we know it is simple in construction ,there is no complication in system,

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Compare to other system it provides higher temparature at likely constant rate at different time,

Lower cost 135% of C.P.C,

Most of all possible applicable,

No exeternal power require,

We can use it daily as automatic start and stop using clock system or sensor. (No manualy start or stop )

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(8) Conclusion

From this system we are conclude that in genaral way if we replace this system from flat plate collector or from C.P.C., we can get maximum benefits as well as get higher efficincy.

In the future way we can replace all other system

from this system

because it has no more costly but highly effectively. In the future all domestic water heating air heating and also other which well known in application are used.because they are being more and more effectively and efficintely. Now a days many reseach is taking on solar system because mainly it is non-convensional sources of power and how can find the better ways to get maximum power from it ? Today we are there in some industries and big application solar systems are used as different allication but in future we can replace this by tracking system and reduce the area of collector and making it simple not in bigger size. Government also support to buy or make this system because these is very helpful to reduce powerdamand from power plant. So why we are not go to this system for higher effect and efficiency ?

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(9) Referances

(1) Solar energy utilisation

G.D.Rai

(2) Solar energy (Principles and thermal collection and storage)

Suhas P Sukhatme

(3)A text book of electrical technology volume -2 AC & DC machines

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B.L.Theraja A.K.Theraja (4)Solar energy fundamentals and applications HP gerg J Prakash 50
B.L.Theraja
A.K.Theraja
(4)Solar energy fundamentals and applications
HP gerg
J Prakash
50