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NATIONAL TRAINING MATERIALS

CONSTRUCTION STUDIES

AUSTRALIAN
NATIONAL TRAINING
AUTHORITY

NFF3101 TIMBER FLOOR,


WALL
AND CEILING FRAMING

DEVELOPED IN COLLABORATION BETWEEN INDUSTRY AND TAFE QUEENSLAND WITH THE


SUPPORT OF THE AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL TRAINING AUTHORITY
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Produced by the Construction Curriculum Consortium, TAFE Queensland.

Managing Agent : Recognition Directorate, Vocational Education, Training And


Employment Commission (VETEC)

© Australian National Training Authority (ANTA) 1997

All rights reserved. This work has been produced initially with the assistance of funding provided by the
Commonwealth Government through ANTA. This work is copyright, but permission is given to trainers
and teachers to make copies by photocopying or other duplicating processes for use within their own
training organisation or in a workplace where the training is being conducted. This permission does not
extend to the making of copies for use outside the immediate training environment for which they are
made, nor the making of copies for hire or resale to third parties. For permission outside these
guidelines, apply in writing to Australian Training Products Ltd.(formerly ACTRAC Products Ltd).

The views expressed in this version of the work do not necessarily represent the views of ANTA. ANTA
does not give warranty nor accept any liability in relation to the content of this work.

Published by Australian Training Products Pty (formerly ACTRAC Products Ltd),


Australian National Training Authority.
GPO Box 5347BB, MELBOURNE, Victoria 3001, Australia
Telephone +61 03 9630 9836 or 9630 9837;
Facsimile +61 03 9639 4684

First Published October 1997

DP21203N45LRG

Printed by Document Printing Australia


NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION STUDIES

RESOURCE PROJECT

STAGE 3

FIELD OF WORK SKILLS

LEARNING PACKAGE

NFF3101 TIMBER FLOOR, WALL


AND CEILING FRAMING
PUBLISHED: 1998

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS:

AUTHOR:

Barry Oliver
Northern Melbourne Institute of TAFE

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGNER:

Construction Curriculum Consortium


Yeronga Institute of TAFE

This learning package was developed as part of the AVTS Training Program in
Construction Studies.

This project was managed by the Construction Curriculum Consortium, TAFE


Queensland.

For further details contact:

Noel Ryan
Manager
Construction Curriculum Consortium
Yeronga Institute of TAFE
PO Box 6045
FAIRFIELD GARDENS QLD 4103

Telephone: (07) 3892 0457


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................ 11
OVERVIEW .................................................................................................................. 13
WHAT IS PROVIDED?............................................................................................... 14
WHAT YOU PROVIDE? ............................................................................................ 14
HOW TO USE THIS PACKAGE............................................................................... 15
GETTING TO “KNOW THE PACKAGE”.......................................................................... 16
KEY TO SYMBOLS .............................................................................................................. 17
MODULE INFORMATION: FROM THE TRAINING SPECIFICATION ....... 19
ASSESSMENT INFORMATION............................................................................... 21
ASSESSMENT SPECIFICATION............................................................................. 22
ASSESSMENT TASKS................................................................................................ 24
ASSESSMENT TASK 1:........................................................................................................ 24
ASSESSMENT TASK 2:........................................................................................................ 26
ASSESSMENT TASK 3:........................................................................................................ 27
ASSESSMENT TASK 4:........................................................................................................ 29
SECTION 1 - FLOOR FRAME CONSTRUCTION ............................................... 31
INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................... 31
IDENTIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL TIMBERS, COMMERCIAL SIZES,
QUANTITIES AND COSTING............................................................................................. 33
1. IDENTIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL TIMBER SPECIES......................................... 33
2. COMMERCIAL SIZES ................................................................................................... 34
3. CALCULATING TIMBER QUANTITIES AND COSTING ........................................... 35
TIMBER DEFECTS AND PRESERVATION TREATMENT ............................................ 40
4. IDENTIFYING TIMBER DEFECTS .............................................................................. 40
5. APPLICATION OF PRESERVATION TREATMENT ................................................... 41
TERMITE, VERMIN AND DAMP-PROOF BARRIERS.................................................... 42
6. TERMITE PROTECTION............................................................................................... 42
7. VERMIN PROOFING..................................................................................................... 44
8. DAMP-PROOFING........................................................................................................ 45
SUB-FLOOR CONSTRUCTION........................................................................................... 46
9. POSITIONING, JOINING AND FIXING BEARERS .................................................... 46
10. FLOOR JOISTS ............................................................................................................ 46
11. CONSTRUCTING THE FLOOR FRAMING............................................................... 50
SUMMARY........................................................................................................................ ..... 51
EXERCISE 1: FLOOR STRUCTURE................................................................................... 54
ACTIVITY 1: POSITIONING AND FIXING BEARERS ONTO CONCRETE STUMPS 55
DEMONSTRATION .............................................................................................................. 61
ACTIVITY 2: CONSTRUCTION OF FLOOR FRAMING - INSTALL JOISTS TO SKILL
DEVELOPMENT UNIT......................................................................................................... 62
SECTION 2 - STRUCTURAL STRIP AND STRUCTURAL SHEET
FLOORING ...................................................................................................................65
INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................65
STRUCTURAL STRIP AND STRUCTURAL SHEET FLOORING ..................................66
1. SAFETY............................................................................................................................66
2. STRIP FLOORING REQUIREMENTS OF AS1684 CLAUSE 3.9.4. ............................66
3. SHEET FLOORING REQUIREMENTS OF AS1684 CLAUSE 3.9.5............................67
4. STRIP FLOORING QUANTITIES AND COST..............................................................67
5. TYPES AND SIZES OF STRIP FLOORING ..................................................................71
6. LAYING PROCEDURE FOR STRIP FLOORING.........................................................71
7. TYPES AND SIZES OF STRUCTURAL SHEET FLOORING.......................................73
8. LAYING REQUIREMENTS FOR SHEET FLOORING.................................................73
SUMMARY .............................................................................................................................75
EXERCISE 2: STRUCTURAL STRIP AND STRUCTURAL SHEET FLOORING..........77
DEMONSTRATION ...............................................................................................................78
ACTIVITY 3: INSTALLATION OF SHEET FLOORING...................................................79
SECTION 3 - WALL FRAMING FOR A “T” OF “L” SHAPED BUILDING ....81
INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................81
TIMBER WALL FRAME CONSTRUCTION AND ERECTION .......................................82
1. HEALTH AND SAFETY ..................................................................................................82
2. TIMBER SPECIES AND COMMERCIAL SIZES...........................................................82
3. WALL FRAME COMPONENTS .....................................................................................83
4. CALCULATE AND COST MATERIALS ........................................................................85
5. SELECTING MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS.........................................................88
6. SETTING OUT, MARKING OUT AND CUTTING........................................................88
7. FABRICATE AND ERECT WALL FRAMES..................................................................89
SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................ .....90
EXERCISE 3: WALL FRAMING ..........................................................................................92
DEMONSTRATION ...............................................................................................................94
ACTIVITY 4 CONSTRUCT AND ERECT EXTERNAL WALLS.....................................95
SECTION 4 - CEILING FRAMING FOR A “T” OR “L” SHAPED BUILDING97
INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................97
1. HEALTH AND SAFETY ..................................................................................................98
2. CEILING FRAME COMPONENTS................................................................................99
3. CALCULATE AND COST MATERIALS ........................................................................99
4. MARK OUT, CUT AND CONSTRUCT CEILING FRAME.........................................100
SUMMARY ...........................................................................................................................101
EXERCISE 4: CEILINGS .....................................................................................................102
DEMONSTRATION .............................................................................................................103
ACTIVITY 5: CONSTRUCT THE CEILING FRAME ......................................................104
CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................................... .105
ANSWERS ...................................................................................................................107
EXERCISE 1: FLOOR STRUCTURE .................................................................................107
EXERCISE 2: STRUCTURAL STRIP AND STRUCTURAL SHEET FLOORING........109
EXERCISE 3: WALL FRAMING ........................................................................................111
EXERCISE 4: CEILINGS .....................................................................................................113
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Page

Figure 1 BASIC WORKING DRAWING ..................................................................... 36


Figure 2 STUMP WITH ANT CAP ............................................................................... 43
Figure 3 MASONRY PIER WITH ANT CAP .............................................................. 43
Figure 4 PERIMETER TERMITE SHIELD.................................................................. 44
Figure 5 VERMIN PROOF MESH INSTALLATION.................................................. 45
Figure 6 JOIST STRUTTING AND BLOCKING METHODS.................................... 48
Figure 7 TRIMMED FLOOR OPENING ...................................................................... 49
Figure 8 BEARER POSITIONS..................................................................................... 50
Figure 9 INTERNAL ROW OF BEARERS .................................................................. 58
Figure 10 HALVING JOINT.......................................................................................... 59
Figure 11 BUTT JOINT.................................................................................................. 59
Figure 12 SPLAYED JOINT .......................................................................................... 60
Figure 13 INCOMPRESSIBLE CORROSION-RESISTANT PACKING ................... 60
Figure 14 SECTIONAL VIEW OF TYPICAL FLOORING BOARD ......................... 67
Figure 15 PLAN OF FLOOR.......................................................................................... 68
Figure 16 SEPARATED FLOOR PLAN ....................................................................... 69
Figure 17 POSITION OF FIRST BOARD..................................................................... 72
Figure 18 FLOOR BOARDS SQUEEZED.................................................................... 72
Figure 19 SHEET INSTALLATION AND NAILING.................................................. 74
Figure 20 WALL AND CEILING FRAMING .............................................................. 84
Figure 21 WALL PLATE LENGTHS............................................................................ 86
Figure 22 PLAN OF PROPOSED STUD POSITIONS ................................................ 87
CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY COMPETENCY FRAMEWORK

ALL STREAMS

STAGE 4 (& BEYOND) SPECIALISED SKILLS


• Advanced Technical Skills
• Supervisory Skills
• Management Skills
• Para-professional Skills
• Professional Skills

(Currently under development)

BASE TRADE Õ × × ×
FIELD OF WORK SKILLS
CIVIL OPERATIONS STRUCTURES FITOUT AND FINISH SERVICES
(NON-TRADE)
z z z z z
z z z z z z z SERVICE OFF-SITE
z z z z z
z TRADES

×
BASIC STREAM SKILLS
CIVIL OPERATIONS STRUCTURES FITOUT & FINISH SERVICES

Currently
× ××× Under
BASIC INDUSTRY SKILLS Development
CIVIL OPERATIONS STRUCTURES FITOUT & FINISH SERVICES

INCORPORATING INDUSTRY INDUCTION


Every stage produces a range of practical skills

Endorsed by Standards Committee 13/12/95


NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing is a module intended for use by
those completing Stage 3 of a specific, FIELD OF WORK within a SKILL STREAM of
the National Construction Industry Competency Framework

The theoretical components of this package will enable you to complete the practical
requirements of this module All set tasks, including the activities and demonstrations,
will show how the theory or content can be applied in a practical manner in on-site or
simulated on-site conditions

Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing is a module which deals with the
knowledge and skills required to construct and erect a timber building structure and so
includes specific details on:

• Identification and selection of structural timber;


• Quantities and cost of materials;
• Defect identification;
• Preservation treatment application;
• Termite, vermin and damp-proof barriers;
• Bearer installation;
• Floor joist installation and erection; and
• Ceiling frame construction

Four Assessment Tasks meet the requirements of the six Learning Outcomes:

Assessment Task 1

• Select and calculate the type, sizes, amount and cost of timber required to
construct sub-floor framing for a T or L shaped building.
• Prepare timber for use by identifying defects and applying preservative
treatments.
• Construct an area of bearers and floor joists of at least 10 square metres.

Assessment Task 2

• Calculate the quantity and cost of strip and sheet flooring required for a T
or L shaped building.
• Lay both strip and sheet flooring.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing INTRODUCTION

Assessment Task 3

• Construct and erect external walls for a T or L shaped building.


• Join walls at right angles and provide a door opening in one wall and a
window in another wall.
• Show two methods of bracing each wall.

Assessment Task 4

• Identify components of ceiling frames, and of skillion and simple gable


roofs.
• Construct a ceiling frame for a T or L shaped building.
• Construct a gable and skillions roof over a T and L shaped building.

This learning package has therefore been developed with four sequential sections, each
section being closely aligned with one of the four Assessment Tasks:

SECTION 1: This contains learning resource material, self-checks and practical


exercises required for the successful completion of the Assessment
Criteria as shown in the Assessment Specifications for Task 1

SECTION 2: In a similar manner, this section contains the information as well as


practical work that will help you successfully complete Task 2

SECTION 3: This section contains learning resource material, self-checks and


practical exercises required for the successful completion of the
Assessment Criteria as shown in the Assessment Specification for
Task 3.

SECTION 4: In a similar manner, this section contains the information and


practical work that will help you successfully complete Task 4.

As well as self-check exercises and practical activities, your instructor will schedule
additional oral and/or written tests which may be similar to the self-check exercises.
These tests will satisfy specific Assessment Criteria in the Assessment Tasks and will
apply to your work environment.

When you have achieved all the Assessment Criteria in Assessment Tasks 1, 2, 3 and 4
and your work has been checked and certified by your instructor, you will have
successfully completed the six Learning Outcomes which make up the total off-the-job
component of the whole module NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling
Framing.

12 Australian National Training Authority


NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing INTRODUCTION

OVERVIEW

NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing - A Stage 3 Module

The overall competencies for this module are summed up in the purpose statement:

PURPOSE: To develop the skills and knowledge required to set out,


construct and erect timber floor, wall and ceiling framing.

In the next section on Module Details, you will find specific details about the Training
Specification and how you will be assessed

In general terms, Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing covers:

The Skills/Competencies The Theory/Content required


required for this module to achieve these skills/competencies
• Identification of framing members • Timber frame component
identification
• Selecting structural timber
• Calculating the quantities of the • Spacing and sizes of members
required building materials • Calculating material quantities
• Identification of timber defects and • Types of timber defects
preservative application • Applying preservative
• Termite and vermin protection
• Damp proofing the sub-floor
• Construct the floor frame • OH&S Requirements
• Bearer installation and fixing
• Floor joist installation and fixing
• Lay strip and sheet flooring • Strip and sheet flooring
installation
• Construct and erect wall framing • Laying and setting out wall plates
• Wall bracing requirements
• Openings in wall framing
• Wall frame construction
• Wall frame erection
• Plumbing, straightening and
temporary bracing of wall
framing
• Construct ceiling framing • Ceiling joist installation
• Installation of hanging beams

When you have successfully achieved all the Assessment Criteria for the four
Assessment Tasks, you will have completed the requirements for this module.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing INTRODUCTION

WHAT IS PROVIDED?

You will be provided with the essentials to successfully complete this module,
including:

• a learning package;
• sets of relevant plans and specifications;
• materials, tools and equipment;
• access to work sites; and
• appropriate protective equipment.

WHAT YOU PROVIDE?

• appropriate personal protective equipment


• appropriate personal protective clothing - to be advised by your instructor;
• writing and measuring equipment;
• electronic calculator; and
• personal tools and equipment.

14 Australian National Training Authority


NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing INTRODUCTION

HOW TO USE THIS PACKAGE

This package has been designed so that you can work and learn at your own pace,
incorporating into your own learning program.

• demonstrations of practical skills by your instructor or experienced


tradesperson;
• planned and supervised practical application of your knowledge and skills;
• instruction in, and application of, safe working practices; and
• personal progress indicators through self-check exercises and practical
activities.

It is suggested that you work through the four sections as they are presented.

At times, you will find an illustration on a facing page opposite the text. Such
illustrations will be referred to in the text.

By all means, fast-track any aspects/areas where you feel confident.

Self-Check Exercises have been included so that you can measure your own progress.
These exercises, however, are not part of the formal assessment of competency.

The module, Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing has a nominal duration of 60
hours, but you may take more or less time working at your own pace.

Australian National Training Authority 15


NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing INTRODUCTION

GETTING TO “KNOW THE PACKAGE”

Here is a strategy which may help you become familiar with the contents of this
package.

• Survey Scan the whole package


Read the contents page and the introduction, then flip through
the pages - glance at the headings.
Note that there are set tasks to be completed. The content
relates to these tasks.

• Ask Ask about any topics, terms or details that are not clear to you at
this stage.

• Read Read through the material, but do it actively. Jot down points,
underline or highlight.
Link the information with what you know already.
Let the headings and sub-headings help you organise
information.
Remember that you will need the content to complete the tasks.

• Review At various stages, you will be directed to review the main points
or complete a Self-Check Exercise to indicate how you are
progressing.
Make your own notes as well.
• Instructor Throughout this package, you will be required to attend
practical demonstrations and receive instruction in the use of
materials, tools and equipment.
Ask your instructor if you have any problems with:
 interpretation of content;
 procedures or processes; or
 availability of resources.

16 Australian National Training Authority


NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing INTRODUCTION

KEY TO SYMBOLS

Symbols are placed in the left hand margin to draw attention to the type of information
commencing at that point.

The symbols used in this package are:

Read This is the essential


READ information for the module.

Instructor At times, your instructor will


DEMONSTRATION Demonstration give practical advice and
demonstrate the use of
tool/equipment.

SELF-CHECK Self-Check Exercise These are your progress


indicators. Typical answers
are also included.

PRACTICAL Practical Activity The four activities allow for


ACTIVITY the application of the theory
components.

SITE VISIT Site Visit Your instructor will schedule


visits to appropriate sites

Australian National Training Authority 17


NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing MODULE DETAILS

MODULE INFORMATION: from the Training Specification

MODULE TITLE TIMBER FLOOR, WALL AND CEILING


FRAMING

Nominal Duration 60 Hours

Module Number NFF3101

Purpose To develop the skills and knowledge required to set


out, construct and erect timber floor, wall and ceiling
framing.

Relationship to National Building and Construction Industry


Competency Standards Competency Standards:

• FF/ST3084 Install Sub-Floor Framing


• FF/ST3080 Construct and Erect Timber Wall
Framing
• FF/ST3081 Erect Ceiling Framing (Pitched
Roof)
• FF/ST3085 Install Timber and Sheet Flooring

Pre-requisites • Basic Stream Skills - Fitout and Finish/Structures

A trainee may seek recognition through the R.P.L.


process for competencies already held.

Summary of Content • Timber as a building material - commercial sizes


• Timber preparation
• Bearers and floor joist installation
• Timber and sheet flooring
• Wall frames - fabrication and on site erection
• Roof and ceiling structures - introduction

Delivery Delivery methods must provide for the demonstration


of competence in skills specified in all learning
outcomes, either in on-site or simulated on-site
conditions.

Australian National Training Authority 19


NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing MODULE DETAILS

Suggested Learning • Building a House (1995)


Resources Framing Practices
Chapter 1
Simpson and Hodgson
IBSN 0 7329 29148

• Practical Carpentry (1986)


Book L Chap 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10
Barrington, Mylins, Arden
IBSN 0 07 45281 4
• AS1684 - 1992 Timber Framing Code
• Building Code of Australia
• Queensland Timber Framing Manual
• New South Wales Timber Framing Manual
• Victoria Timber Framing Manual
• S.A. Housing Code
• Western Australian Timber Framing Manual

• Basic Training Manual Carpentry & Joinery


(1980)
Timber Preparation, Timber Joints. National
Building and Construction Industry Training
Committee.
ISBN 0 642 051933

• Basic Training Manual Carpentry & Joinery


(1982) 14.5 Walls and Floors. National Building
and Construction Industry Training Committee.
ISBN 0 644 00444 4

• Basic Training Manual Carpentry & Joinery


(1982) 14.6 Timber Framing - Roofing, National
Building and Construction industry Training
Committee.
ISBN 0 644 004509

20 Australian National Training Authority


NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing MODULE DETAILS

ASSESSMENT INFORMATION

NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing is a module in the National
Construction Industry Competency Framework.

The program focuses on the achievement of learning outcomes measured against


assessment criteria based on National Competency Standards.

All learning outcomes must be successfully achieved if you are to be awarded


competence in this module.

Your assessment will be recorded as:

• Competent; or
• Not Yet Competent

You will have completed the learning outcomes when you have successfully achieved
all the Assessment Criteria in Assessment Tasks 1, 2, 3 and 4,. One or more of the
following assessment methods will be used:

• supervised assessment in the demonstration of techniques;


• a number of written and/or oral assessments; and
• practical activities, allowing for demonstrations of your ability in setting out,
constructing and erecting timber floor, wall and ceiling framing.

All projects are to be carried out on-site or in simulated on-site conditions.

Australian National Training Authority 21


NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing MODULE DETAILS

ASSESSMENT SPECIFICATION

MODULE TITLE TIMBER FLOOR, WALL AND CEILING


FRAMING
Module Number NFF3101

Purpose of the Assessment To demonstrate the skills and knowledge required to


set out, construct and erect timber floor, wall and
ceiling framing.
Instructions for the The following procedures could be carried out in
Assessee one or more projects:

Assessment Task 1

• Select and calculate the type, sizes, amount


and cost of timber required to construct a sub
floor for a T or L shaped building.
• Prepare timber for use by identifying defects
and applying preservative treatments.
• Construct an area of bearers and floor joists of
at least 10 square metres.

Assessment Task 2

• Calculate the quantity and cost of strip and


sheet flooring required for a T or L shaped
building.
• Lay both strip and sheet flooring.

Assessment Task 3

• Construct and erect two external walls for a T


or L shaped building
• Join walls at right angles and provide a door
opening in one wall and a window in the other.
• Show two methods of bracing each wall.

Assessment Task 4

• Identify components of ceiling frames, and of


skillion and simple gable roofs.
• Construct a ceiling frame for a T or L shaped
building.
• Construct a gable and skillion roof over a T or
L shaped building

22 Australian National Training Authority


NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing MODULE DETAILS

Guidelines for the Assessor This is a supervised assessment.

This is an assessment of the final product however


some observation of the process will be involved,
this is detailed on the checklist.

Learning Outcome Assessment Assessment Assessment Assessment


Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Task 4
NFF3101.1 Yes Yes Yes Yes
NFF3101.2 Yes
NFF3101.3 Yes
NFF3101.4 Yes
NFF3101.5 Yes
NFF3101.6 Yes

Australian National Training Authority 23


NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing MODULE DETAILS

ASSESSMENT TASKS

ASSESSMENT TASK 1:

• Select and calculate the type, sizes, amount and cost of timber
required to construct sub-floor framing for a T or L shaped
building.
• Prepare timber for use by identifying defects and applying
preservative treatments.
• Construct an area of bearers and floor joists of at least 10 square
metres.

To procedure above could be carried out in one or more projects.

Assessment Task 1 incorporates Learning Outcomes:

1. Timber as a Building Material - Commercial Sizes


2. Timber Preparation
3. Bearers and Floor Joist Installation

Item Assessment Criteria Achieved


1. Materials selected and checked against
specifications/instructions.
2. Tools and equipment selected in accordance with the
requirements of the project and checked for safe operation.
3. Personal protective equipment correctly selected and used safely.
4. Safety hazards identified and correct procedures adopted to
reduce hazards to self and others.
5. Bearer and floor joist quantities calculated to within + 5%.
6. Costing, no error
7. Defects in timber recognised.
8. Preservation treatments applied to manufacturer’s instructions.
9. Termite, vermin, DPC, and damp-proof barriers correctly
positioned.
10. Bearers are correctly positioned according to plans within 
2mm.
11. Bearers in a straight line, joined with a scarfed joint or butted
with a nail plate with top of bearers flush, in accordance with
AS1684 clause 3.5.
12. Tie down rod/bolt hole positions within  2mm of plan and

24 Australian National Training Authority


NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing MODULE DETAILS

specification requirements.
13. Floor joist positions set out to plans and specifications within 
2mm.
14. Floor joists fitted and fixed according to plans and specifications
and AS 1684, clause 3.6.
15. Block or herring-bone strutting installed to deep floor joists in
accordance with AS1684 clause 3.6.2.
16. Trimmed openings constructed so as to comply with AS1684
clause 3.8.
17. All fixings to comply with plans, specifications and AS 1684.

All work practices must ensure that current OH&S requirements are adopted.
• Items 1 to 4 must be performed fully.
• Items 5 to 17 must be performed within the given tolerances.

Australian National Training Authority 25


NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing MODULE DETAILS

ASSESSMENT TASK 2:

• Calculate the quantity and cost of strip and sheet flooring required
for a T or L shaped building.
• Lay both strip and sheet flooring.

The procedures above could be carried out in one or more projects:

Assessment Task 2 incorporates Learning Outcomes:

1. Timber as a Building Material - Commercial Sizes


4. Timber and Sheet Flooring

Item Assessment Criteria Achieved


1. Materials selected and checked against specifications/instructions
2. Tools and equipment selected in accordance with the
requirements of the project and checked for safe operation.
3. Personal protective equipment correctly selected and used safely.
4. Safety hazards identified and correct procedures adopted to
reduce hazards to self and others.
5. Strip flooring quantities calculated to within + 5%.
6. Sheet flooring quantities calculated to within + 5%.
7. Cost materials, no error.
8. Blocking/trimmers fixed in doorways as required by plans and
specifications.
9. Strip flooring laid, cramped and nailed so as to comply with
requirements of AS1684, clause 3.9.4.
10. External decking laid in a straight line with spacing between
boards, to comply with specification.
11. Trimmers to support joints in sheet flooring fixed as required by
manufacturer’s specifications.
12. Sheet flooring layout designed with joints staggered with long
dimensions at right angles to floor joists.
13. Sheets cut, fitted and fixed so as to comply with manufacturer’s
specifications and AS1684, clauses 3.9.5 and 3.9.6.
14. Unused materials stacked and stored safely.
15. Work site cleaned up and waste materials disposed of in a safe
and environmentally sound manner.
16. Equipment and tools safely and correctly cleaned, maintained and
stored.
All work practices must ensure that current OH&S requirements are adopted.
• Items 1 to 4 and 14 to 16 must be performed fully.
• Items 5 to 13 must be performed within the given tolerances.

26 Australian National Training Authority


NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing MODULE DETAILS

ASSESSMENT TASK 3:

• Construct and erect two external walls for a T or L building.


• Join walls at right angles and provide a door opening in one wall
and a window in the other wall.
• Show two methods of bracing each wall.

The procedures above could be carried out in one or more projects:

Assessment Task 3 incorporates Learning Outcomes :

1. Timber as a Building Material - Commercial Sizes


5. Wall Frames: Fabrication and On-Site Erection

Item Assessment Criteria Achieved


1. Project procedures listed sequentially before commencement.
2. Materials selected and checked against specifications/instructions.
3. Tools and equipment selected in accordance with the
requirements of the project an checked for safe operation.
4. Personal protective equipment correctly selected and used safely.
5. Safety hazards identified and correct procedures adopted to
reduce hazards to self and others.
6. Wall frame quantities calculated to within + 5%.
7. Cost materials, no error.
8. Framing members identified in accordance with AS 1684, section
1.
9. Wall positions set out on floor within  2mm of plan
requirements.
10. Wall plates, set out in accordance with plans, specifications and
AS 1684, clause 4.2.
− wall junctions are positioned within  2mm.
− opening studs are positioned within  2mm.
− intermediate/common studs are at no more than
maximum spacing specified.

11. Stud length determined to within + 2mm.


12. Opening and common studs selected and cut to length within 
2mm.

Australian National Training Authority 27


NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing MODULE DETAILS

13. Wall frames constructed using nominal nailing and framing


anchors in accordance with plans, specifications and AS1684,
clauses 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4:
− all joints are tight with minimal movement.
− temporary bracing holds frames square with diagonals
equal within  2mm.
− trimmer heights positioned without error.
− lintel heights positioned without error.
− spacing of nogging is at maximum of 1350mm.
14. Wall frames erected so that:
− fixings and tie downs comply with plans,
specifications and AS 1684, section 4.
− bottom and top wall plates are straight within  2mm
over 2 m.
− external top plates fixed flush without error.
− external corners plumb within 4mm.
− partition walls plumb within 4mm.

15. Permanent bracing fixed so that:


− timber angle bracing complies with AS 1684, clause
4.9.
− metal angle bracing, strap and sheet bracing complies
with manufacturer’s specifications and AS 1684,
clause 4.9.
16. Blocking to corners and wall junctions fixed to comply with AS
1684, clause 4.3.4.
17. Reusable materials stacked/stored safely.
18. Waste materials disposed of in a safe and environmentally sound
manner.
19. Tools and equipment cleaned, maintained and stored correctly.

All work practices must ensure that current OH&S requirements are adopted.
• Items 1 to 6 and 17 to 19 must be performed fully.
• Items 7 to 16 must be performed within the given tolerances.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing MODULE DETAILS

ASSESSMENT TASK 4:

• Identify components of ceiling frames, and of skillion and simple


gable roofs.
• Construct a ceiling frame for a T or L shaped building.
• Construct a gable and skillion roof over a T or L shaped building

The procedures above could be carried out in one or more projects.

Assessment Task 4 incorporates Learning Outcomes:

1. Timber as a Building Material - Commercial sizes


6. Roof and Ceiling Structure - Introduction

Item Assessment Criteria Achieved


1. Materials selected are checked against
specifications/instructions.
2. Tools and equipment selected in accordance with the
requirements of the project and checked for safe operation.
3. Personal protective equipment correctly selected and used
safely.
4. Safety hazards identified and current procedures adopted to
reduce hazards to self and others.
5. Ceiling frame quantities calculated to within + 5%.
6. Cost materials, no error.
7. Ceiling skillion and gable roof components identified in
accordance with AS1684 section 1.
8. Wall plates for masonry walls cut to length within  2mm of
plan requirements.
9. Wall plates to masonry walls fixed to comply with plans and
specifications.
10. Ceiling joist/rafter positions set out on wall plates to within 
3mm of plan and specification requirements
11. Ceiling joists fixed to wall plates to comply with specification
requirements and AS 1684.
12. Ceiling trimmer joists fixed as required by plan specifications
and to comply with AS1684, clause 5.3.2.
13. Hanging beams installed and ceiling joists fixed to them to
comply with AS1684, clause 5.3.3.
14. Ceiling battens fixed to provide a flat ceiling surface and
spaced according to specification requirements.
15. Rafter positions for a gable roof set out within  3mm of
required position.
16. Rafter length calculated within  3mm.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing MODULE DETAILS

17. Pattern rafter set out so as:


− rafter length is within  3mm.
− plumb cut within  2mm.
− rafter depth above birdsmouth is 2/3 rafter width
within + 2mm.
18. Procedures for the erection of skillion and gable roof framing
demonstrated.

All work practices must ensure that current OH&S requirements are adopted.
• Items 1 to 5 must be performed fully.
• Items 6 to 18 must be performed within the given tolerances.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

SECTION 1 - FLOOR FRAME CONSTRUCTION

READ

INTRODUCTION

NOTE: Trainees and Instructors should ensure that the CYCLONE CODES
relative to their specific area must be identified and used in conjunction
with this learning package.

Should it be necessary to determine sizes of structural members reference


should be made to Timber Member Sizes Supplements of AS1684.

This first section of this package looks at four areas of Floor Frame Construction::

• identification of structural timbers, commercial sizes, quantities and


costing;
• timber defects, and preservation treatment;
• termite, vermin and damp proof barriers; and
• sub-floor construction.

These four areas include the required information needed to complete Assessment Task
1 which addresses the first three learning outcomes:

1. Identify timber species and list the commercially available sizes and
demonstrate a method of calculating and costing material quantities.

2. Prepare timber for use by:


− selection from the various species;
− identifying defects; and
− applying preservation treatments.

3. Select materials and fix timber floor bearers and joists.

The information presented in this section will enable you to cover the three specific
operations:

• The identification and calculation of the quantities and cost of timber.


• The preparation of the timber ready for use.
• The actual construction of the floor frame for a T or L shaped building.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

The details required for the selection, calculation and preparation of the timber along
with the floor frame construction will be presented under eleven topics:

• Identification of Structural Timber species


• Commercial Sizes
• Calculating Timber Quantities and Costing
• Identifying Timber Defects
• Application of Preservation Treatment
• Termite Protection
• Vermin Proofing
• Damp Proofing
• Positioning, Joining and Fixing Bearers
• Floor Joists
• Constructing Floor Framing

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

IDENTIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL TIMBERS,


COMMERCIAL SIZES, QUANTITIES AND COSTING

1. IDENTIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL TIMBER SPECIES

The identifying process for structural timber species normally starts by looking at the
colour of the timber, the type of grain, visual characteristics, amount of knots and other
imperfections contained in the timber. Density, odour and the colour of the heartwood
are also indicators assisting with identification.

The following table will assist you in identifying the various species of structural
timber.

SPECIES STRENGTH DURABILITY USES COLOUR TYPE STRESS


GRADE
Red Gum Very strong in Very durable Suitable for stumps, Red Hardwood F7 to F17
compression. posts etc. or other
Unreliable across uses where contact
grain with the ground is
necessary
Jarrah Very Strong Very durable As for Red Gum, also Reddish Brown Hardwood F11 to F22
for fire escape, stairs,
floors, heavy
construction work
O.F. Strong Not durable General framing and Light Yellow to Hardwood F8
Hardwood (Ironbark is an construction work light brown
exception)
Mountain Ash Very Strong Not durable As for hardwood. Pale Brown Hardwood F17 - F22
Better quality is kiln
dried and used for
joinery and cabinet
making.
Oregon Strong Not durable in Structural framework Reddish brown Softwood F7
contact with ground roof trusses, kiln to yellow
dried for joinery.
High strength/weight
ratio
Messmate Very Strong Not durable General construction Pale Brown Hardwood F27
furniture, flooring,
panelling
Radiata Pine Strong Low durability but Used extensively for Light Yellow Softwood F5
takes preservatives flooring and
easily weatherboards,
joinery, shelving, wall
framing and roof
trusses
Tallow Wood Very Strong Durable Construction work, Light Yellow Hardwood F11 to F34
general framing, brown to brown
flooring, weather
boards
Cypress Pine Strong Very durable General framing Light brown Softwood F4 to F7
(White) weather boards, streaked with
fencing, flooring, dark brown
furniture

The above listed timbers are not available in all areas. You could inquire from your
local timber supplier/s as to the timber species and their stress grades available in your
area/district.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

2. COMMERCIAL SIZES

Ordering Lengths

Generally the shortest ordering length of timber is 1.2 metres. The ordering lengths
increase by 300 millimetres from there on. Therefore 1.2m + 0.300m = 1.5m which is
the next available ordering length. From 1.5m all you need to do is keep on adding
0.300m or multiples of 0.300m to obtain the desired ordering length.

Lengths of timber up to 5.4m are available without the extra cost of an over length
surcharge applying.

Timber Yard Lengths

1.2m 1.5m 1.8m 2.1m 2.4m

2.7m 3.0m 3.3m 3.6m 3.9m

4.2m 4.5m 4.8m 5.1m 5.4m

Structural Sizes

The finished size of timber will depend on it being rough sawn, fine sawn or dressed
all round (D.A.R.) If the timber is D.A.R. there will be a 5mm reduction across the
face width and a 5mm reduction in the thickness. Normally only seasoned timber is
dressed for use.

The following list gives an indication of standard sizes available. Other non-standard
sizes are available on special order.

Unseasoned Hardwood Sizes

50 x 38 75 x 38 100 x 38 125 x 38 150 x 38 175 x 38


200 x 38 225 x 38 250 x 38 300 x 38

50 x 50 75 x 50 100 x 50 125 x 50 200 x 50 225 x 50


250 x 50 300 x 50

75 x 75 100 x 75 125 x 75 150 x 75 200 x 75

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

Seasoned Hardwood Sizes

70 x 35 90 x 35 120 x 35 140 x 35 170 x 35 190 x 35


220 x 35 240 x 35

70 x 45 90 x 45 120 x 45 140 x 45 170 x 45 190 x 45


220 x 45 240 x 45 290 x 45

Seasoned Stress Grade Radiata Pine Sizes

42 x 35 70 x 35 90 x 35 120 x 35 140 x 35 190 x 35 240 x 35 290 x 35

42 x 45 70 x 45 90 x 45 120 x 45 140 x 45 190 x 45 240 x 45 290 x 45

70 x 70 90 x 70 120 x 70 140 x 70 190 x 70 240 x 70 290 x 70


90 x 90

3. CALCULATING TIMBER QUANTITIES AND COSTING

Specification and Plan

Before attempting to calculate any framing quantities it is advisable to read through the
framing specification to determine the member spacing and their sizes. Failure to
check through the specification could result in under ordering of materials. The
spacing of framing members (excluding bearers) could be 450mm centres, 500mm
centres or 600mm centres.

For calculation purposes in this package the 450mm centres spacing will be used.

The floor framing member specification will be as follows:

MEMBER STRESS SPECIES SIZE SPACING


GUIDE
Bearers F8 Hardwood 100 x 75 1800mm
Unseasoned Centres

Floor Joists F5 Radiata Pine 90 x 45 450mm Centres

Other materials required for the sub-floor are:

• Perimeter termite barrier


• Ant caps
• Damp - proofing material
• Timber fasteners (nails)

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

The following basic working drawing gives the job dimensions plus some material
sizes and spacings. Your instructor will require you to complete a full working drawing
for the training exercise.

90 x 35 F5
Studs

Figure 1 BASIC WORKING DRAWING

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

Quantity Calculations

There are a number of ways to calculate the number of pieces of timber required for a
particular part of a job. The two following methods are quick and easy to use. Your
instructor may show you some alternative methods.

Scale Off Method

By knowing the scale of the working drawing you are using for quantity calculation you
can scale off the number of timber pieces required.

Step 1 Draw a line close to the edge of a piece of paper.

Step 2 Scale off the spacing to or past the length required.

LENGTH OF WALL-SCALE OF SPACINGS-NUMBER OF PIECES

Step 3 Show the length in metres and number off the scale markings to give the
number of pieces.

Step 4 Lay your scaled line close to each wall on the working drawing and record
the number of pieces required on a quantity list. Remember to include an
extra member or members at wall locations where double joists are
required or for additional studs to form the wall intersection.

Calculation Using a Calculator

Refer to Figure 1 Basic Working Drawing and NOTE:

• Plan is “L” shaped.


• Floor joists run from left to right.
• There are two (2) different lengths of joists required:

 North end, Section A, of building - 3000


 South end, Section B, of building - 2000

• Double joists are required at each end of the building and at the return wall.
• Floor joist spacing is 450mm centres.
• Wall framing thickness is 90mm.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

• Formula

Number of joists for Section A = (Depth of Section A - 2 x Wall thickness) +3


Spacing

NOTE: The 3 is for the extra joist to close off the spaces and the double joists at
each end.

= (2000 - 2 x 90) +3
450

= (2000 - 180) +3
450

= 1820 +3
450

= 4.044 +3

You cannot have part of a space, therefore you must go the next whole number which,
in this case, is 5.

= 5+3
= 8 joists required for Section A.

NOTE: There is only one wall thickness to deduct for Section B as we have already
counted the double joists under the return wall in Section A calculation.

Likewise, there is only one extra joist to add on for the South end wall of
Section B.

If you have difficulty in following the above, draw a sketch of the building
and mark in the double joists and spacings, or see your instructor.

Number of joists for Section B = (Depth of Section B - 1 x Wall thickness) +1


Spacing

= (2000 - 90) +1
450

= 1910 +1
450

= 4.244 +1
= 5+1
= 6 joists required for Section B

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

Costing the Floor Joist Material:

Timber is costed by a timber supplier as follows:

• per metre or per 100 lineal metres


• per cubic metre
• per pack - containing a minimum number of metres

For small purchases the cost is usually based on a price per metre. In the situation you
would need to calculate the total number of metres of floor joist material. To do this
multiply the number of floor joists by the ordering length to obtain the total number of
lineal metres required.

Total length of joists = number x length

Section A = 8 x 3.0
= 24 metres

Section B = 6 x 2.1 (standard length)


= 12.6 metres

Total = 24 + 12.6
= 36.6 metres

Cost per metre of 90 x 45 Radiata pine is $3.00

Cost of Floor Joists = Cost per metre x number of metres


= 3.00 x 36.6
= $109.80

NOTE: There is no need to add any percentage allowance for waste as the floor
joists are to be ordered in special lengths, in this case 8/3.0 and 6/2.1.

Selecting Structural Timber from the Various Species

When selecting a particular species of structural timber for framing purposes your
selection decision may be influenced by either the availability of the timber or the cost
or both of these points.

Another consideration is whether or not to use unseasoned or kiln dried timber as one
may be more readily available than the other depending on the location of the job.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

Other features which may need to be considered when selecting a species of timber for
structural framing are as follows:

• using hardwood or softwood;


• seasoned or unseasoned timber;
• rough sawn, fine sawn or dressed timber;
• choosing a 100mm, 90mm, 75mm or 70mm wall thickness;
• the loadings and spans incorporated in the framing;
• the height of the walls;
• the wind loadings to be overcome; and
• the defects associated with a particular species.

NOTE: The specification and/or plan could indicate the species of timber to be
used and whether to be seasoned or unseasoned.

TIMBER DEFECTS AND PRESERVATION TREATMENT

4. IDENTIFYING TIMBER DEFECTS

Stress graded timber has a limited amount of defects according to the specific grading
rules for a particular species. However some defects may develop or occur after
grading or delivery. The following list of defects are the most common encountered
during construction and therefore should be eliminated if possible.

DEFECTS IN TIMBER

Bow A deviation from the flat. The timber becomes arched.


Spring A deviation edgewise. The timber remains flat.
Cup A curve across the width of the board.
Twist A spiral distortion along the length of the timber.
Warp Any variation from a flat surface, it includes each of the
above.
Shrinkage Shrinkage and careless stacking when drying are the main
causes of the above defects. Shrinkage will also cause
splitting and opening of joints if precautions are not taken to
prevent it.
Check A crack running along the grain and formed during drying.
usually not very long.
Split A crack extending from one surface to another and located at
the ends of a piece.
Shakes A complete separation from one surface to another and
located at the ends of a piece.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

Falling Shake A shake caused during the falling of the tree.


Heart Shake One extending from the pitch and existing before
conversion.
Cup Shake One occurring between two adjoining growth rings.
Knots Knots are formed where branches project from the tree.
Small knots are not always regarded as defects, in fact
they are sometimes desirable to enhance the appearance
of the timber. Large, loose knots and clusters of knots are
to be avoided because of their weakening affect on the
timber.
Gum Veins A ribbon of Gum between rings. They are brown to black
in colour, spoil the appearance of the timber and weaken
it if the gum vein is large.
Sloping or Diagonal The fibres do not run parallel with the length of the
Grain timber.
Interlocked Grain The fibres of adjacent layers are spirally inclined in
opposite directions. Queensland maple and meranti
frequently have this type of grain.

5. APPLICATION OF PRESERVATION TREATMENT


(Safe use and basic on site-application)

Full personal protection equipment is to be used.

The manufacturers container instructions and any Safety Data Sheets are to be read and
the instructions followed for maximum user safety.

The types of application methods that would normally be used on-site are either a brush
or roller.

An excess of liquid preservative is to be applied to flood brush the timber where


required.

Thoroughly clean up any split liquid preservative and use a safe disposal method for
any empty preservative containers, cleaning/absorption cloths, redundant brushes or
rollers and any contaminated personal protective equipment.

Clean thoroughly any brushes or rollers.

Seal any unused containers of preservative and store them along with any brushes
and/or rollers in a well ventilated area.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

TERMITE, VERMIN AND DAMP-PROOF BARRIERS

6. TERMITE PROTECTION

The Building Code of Australia stipulates that if there is a possibility of termite


infestation all new buildings must be provided with termite protection. The type of
termite protection provided may be made from a package of protective barriers all of
which should be approved methods. Some of these methods may require maintenance
or inspection at specified intervals and therefore access to the under-floor space may
be necessary.

All waste timber, off-cuts and scraps must be removed prior to laying of the flooring
material.

The Australian Standard AS 3660.1 1195 Termite Control in new buildings gives
guidance on the systems of termite barriers that will satisfy the BCA.

Once installed these termite barriers must not be breached therefore when alterations
or extensions are carried out on a protected building the termite barriers must be intact
and remain intact during and after any modifications.

Floor frame construction in termite prone areas will normally require the installation of
a termite barrier on the inside of the sub-floor perimeter for brick veneer construction
as well as ant caps over stumps or ant caps only for weatherboard type construction.

It may be necessary to work in with termite barrier installers during the construction
stages which may cause some inconvenience and minor time delay.

Types of Termite Barriers

• Termite shield (ant caps and edge barrier).


• Stainless steel mesh.
• Liquid chemical reticulation systems.
• Graded compacted stone barriers.
• Preservative - treated timber.

The following diagrams show the positioning for perimeter termite shielding, ant caps
on stumps and brick piers. It is advisable to provide a damp-proofing barrier under the
ant caps on concrete stumps and brick piers to prevent corrosion.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

Figure 2 STUMP WITH ANT CAP

Figure 3 MASONRY PIER WITH ANT CAP

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

Figure 4 PERIMETER TERMITE SHIELD

7. VERMIN PROOFING

Some states in Australia require the installation of a vermin proof barrier. Depending
on the type of construction method which determines where the vermin barrier is to be
placed, the barrier material itself normally consists of a galvanised or stainless steel
mesh with holes or apertures small enough to prevent mice from penetrating the mesh.
The following diagram shows where vermin proofing is located at floor frame level in
brick veneer construction.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

Figure 5 VERMIN PROOF MESH INSTALLATION

8. DAMP-PROOFING

Where timber floor or wall frames are positioned on concrete or masonry it is necessary
to provide a damp-proof barrier between the concrete or masonry and the timber to
prevent rising moisture entering the timber.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

SUB-FLOOR CONSTRUCTION

9. POSITIONING, JOINING AND FIXING BEARERS

Identification of House Frame Members

Prior to actually constructing the various framing exercises it is necessary to be familiar


with the framing components you will encounter during construction. You will
therefore need to study the relevant section on framing members in the timber framing
manual applicable to your state to familiarise yourself with the various components.

Bearers

Sub-floor framing consists of timber bearers positioned on stumps, steel columns


and/or masonry piers.

Tie-down requirements can be a metal spike on the top of a concrete stump or a


cranked bolt. For a masonry pier a galvanised metal strap will be built in or under the
pier and fixed over the top of the bearer. For steel stumps a steel bracket at the top of
the stump may require bolts or heavy screws to fix the bearer in place.

Bearer joins will occur over the top of supporting stumps. Refer to figures 9, 10 and
11.

NOTE: The type, number and size of tie downs will depend on the design of the
building and the area in which it is being built. For example: Buildings
exposed to high winds require more tie downs than buildings constructed
in sheltered or protected areas.

10. FLOOR JOISTS

The position of floor joists will have to be set out onto the bearers from the
measurements taken from the floor plan. The walls running at right angles or 90° to the
bearers will require double supporting joists underneath them. It is these double joist
positions which will have to be set out onto the bearers first at each end of the bearers
and under wall positions. Once all of the double joist positions have been set out
correctly the intermediate floor joists can be set out onto the bearers to the required
spacings.

It may also be necessary to set out the intermediate floor joists to suit and provide end
support for sheet flooring. Heavy floor loading support for items such as pianos,
waterbeds, spa baths, etc. may require additional floor joists at much closer spacings.

Fixing the floor joists to the bearers is normally done by skew nailing a 75mm nail
through each side of the floor joist and into the bearer. In extremely high wind areas
the use of galvanised metal brackets or tie-down straps may be required also.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

Splitting of the timber at the end of the floor joists, caused by poor nailing, must not
occur so as to avoid the replacing of damaged floor joists. The butt joining of floor
joists should only occur where necessary, the floor joists should be lapped joined by at
least 300mm and nailed securely together.

Offset and Cantilevered Floor Joists and Bearers

• Under Offset Walls

Floor joists or bearers which are required to act as cantilevers, supporting at their free
end a single-storey external load-bearing wall or required to support offset load-bearing
internal walls, shall be located in accordance with Clause 3.7 AS1684 in which the
maximum cantilevers and offsets are given, or they shall have been designed in
accordance with engineering principles.

Deep Floor Joists

The use of large size floor joists is becoming more widely encountered to overcome the
use of numerous rows of stumps and bearers where problem soils occur on-site. In
areas where moderately or highly reactive soils are encountered a sub-floor system may
be incorporated in the overall footing design to reduce or eliminate the problems
associated with settlement and heaving of the foundation soil.

You may find that bearers are of heavy steel or light gauge ‘C’ section upon which are
fixed large size/large span floor joists. In this situation additional techniques and
requirements will be encountered and more thought is required as construction
proceeds.

Large size floor joists could be a product from the following list.

• large size seasoned hardwood or softwood;


• laminated plywood;
• open web joist with timber top and bottom chord;
• ‘H’ section plywood beam/joist;
• laminated timber; or
• built up nail plated timber joist.

• Layout Diagram

Some of the above products will be used in a designed floor frame system which will
require a joist numbering system to be followed from a joist layout diagram.

The structural design of large size joist floor systems is occurring much more these
days and it may be necessary to allow for and work in with other tradespeople such as
plumbers, electricians and heating appliance installers.

The size of large span joists starts at about 175 x 38 and increases to 400 x 75. Sizes of
200 x 50 and 250 x 50 are most commonly used.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

The following diagram, Figure 6, shows blocking and strutting techniques and gives an
example of deep/large floor joists.

Figure 6 JOIST STRUTTING AND BLOCKING METHODS

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

Trimming Floor Frame Openings

• Openings in Floors

Where openings are required in floor frames, including deep joisted floors, the
requirements of AS1684-1992 or the timber framing manual must be followed to
provide adequate support for the floor frame opening members.

Any timber joints formed or metal support brackets used must adequately transfer the
opening loads without weakening the opening structural members.

Types of Opening Joists

Timber joints such as a half housing or mortice and tenon joint are quite suitable.
Alternatively patented galvanised steel support brackets or saddles may be used. When
using such brackets or saddles it is important to follow the installation instructions for
maximum
support.

The following diagram, Figure 7, shows a trimmed floor frame opening.

Figure 7 TRIMMED FLOOR OPENING

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

11. CONSTRUCTING THE FLOOR FRAMING

To construct the floor framing a sequence of procedural steps should be followed, this
provides for an easy system of construction and a safe system of working.

When installing and fixing bearers in position the following step procedure and
diagrams indicate how you should go about installing and fixing bearers.

Instruction

1. You are required to understand the methods of locating bearers on the top of the
stumps.

 External bearers can be fixed flush with the external face of the stump, or
in from the external face of the stump a distance equal to the thickness of
the external cladding.
 Internal bearers must be fixed in the centre of the stump.

Figure 8 BEARER POSITIONS

2. When selecting bearer material sight along the edge to test for straightness.

 The straightest lengths are to be used for the external bearers.


 Spring in the width of the bearer is to be placed on the stump with the
rounded face up

3. Remember the following factors regarding the selection of bearers:

 Select long lengths.


 If joins are required to make up a length of bearer, the joins must be over a
stump.
 Round edge should face up.
 Straightest timber lengths are to be used for external bearers.
 The 75mm edge of the bearer is located on the top of the stump.
 Allow sufficient overhang at each end and at each joint for final trimming.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

SUMMARY

So far you have covered procedures for identifying and construction of sub-floor
framing and also gained an overview of protection methods against termites.

The knowledge you have gained so far will be used each time you begin work on a
building site. The importance of this information will become more evident when you
begin the practical activities later in this package.

Self-Check Exercises in this package are on yellow pages. This first exercise has been
designed to test your understanding of the information you have covered so far.
Remember that the self-check exercises are not part of the formal assessment of
competency for this module.

Answers to the self-check questions are on the blue pages at the end of the package.

You may find it useful to make your own brief summary/notes on the eleven topics in
Floor Frame Construction.

Identification of Structural Timber Species:

Commercial Sizes:

Calculating Timber Quantities and Costing:

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

Identifying Timber Defects:

Application of Preservation Treatment:

Termite Protection:

Vermin Proofing:

Damp Proofing:

Positioning, Joining and Fixing Bearers:

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

Floor Joists:

Constructing the Floor Framing:

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

SELF-CHECK

EXERCISE 1: FLOOR STRUCTURE

1. When considering the strength of the member we take into consideration what
distance the member can span. How is span defined?

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

2. Define the following span terms.

(a) Single span ______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

(b) Continuous span __________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

3. If packing is required between the underside of a bearer and the top of the
supporting stump what type of packing material is allowable?

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

4. What is the maximum depth of checking out that can be made in the underneath
side of a bearer over a stump at the point of support?

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

5. What is the standard/nominal fixing requirements for floor joists to bearers for
wind speeds up to 41m/s?

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

PRACTICAL
ACTIVITY

ACTIVITY 1: POSITIONING AND FIXING BEARERS ONTO


CONCRETE STUMPS

After you have selected the appropriate bearers for the job, lay the bearers beside the
stumps in the position they will be used.

Positioning and fixing bearers onto Concrete Stumps.

Step 1 Position the bearer onto the row of stumps and temporarily secure it by
bending a nail around the stump rod (as shown), and mark the rod position
on the bottom edge of the bearer.

Step 2 Drill a 12mm hole for the 10mm rods from the bottom edge of the bearer.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

Step 3 Install a bituminous felt damp-proof barrier and/or termite shield.

Step 4 Chisel the recess slot for the bent over portion of the rod through the bearer
on alternate sides.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

Step 5 Place the bearers in position bending all rods to fix them in place.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

READ

Positioning and Fixing Bearers onto Timber Stumps

Follow the same procedure as for concrete stumps but with the steel rod and damp-
proofing on the stump deleted. Fixing the bearer to the stump will normally be by
nailing, straps or anchor rods depending on tie down requirements. Refer to the
specification.

Joining Bearers Over Stumps

The requirements for joints in bearers in the Timber Framing Manual and AS1684 -
1992 are somewhat brief when stating the type of joint to be used.

Types of bearer joints

The type of joints most commonly used for joining bearers are:

• Halving joint
• Butt joint
• Splayed joint

Additional nail plates (one to each side), are required on the bearer for the butt joint and
the splayed joint. The minimum bearing a bearer should have on a stump is at least
25mm therefore careful measuring is necessary.

The following procedures can be used when joining bearers on concrete or timber
stumps:

• Halving Joint

Figure 9 INTERNAL ROW OF BEARERS

Typical method of joining bearers on Concrete Stumps. Use nails to hold the bearers in
position as previously described.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

Figure 10 HALVING JOINT

Mark out the position of the halving joints and the position of the holes for the tie down
rods in the manner shown above.

Figure 11 BUTT JOINT

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

Figure 12 SPLAYED JOINT


Packing and Checking Out Bearers

Due to slight variations in the line of stump heights and/or timber width variations it
may be necessary to pack under the bearer with an incompressible, corrosion-resistant
sheet material over the full area of the stump.

Packing up to a thickness of 15mm should be acceptable providing there is no chance


of dislodgment of the packing.

Bearers having minor excesses in depth should be brought to the required level by
checking out of their undersides over supports up to a suggested 10mm maximum.

Figure 13 indicates acceptable packing and checking out of the bearer underside.

Figure 13 INCOMPRESSIBLE CORROSION-RESISTANT PACKING

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

DEMONSTRATION

Your instructor will determine the nature and type of demonstration before you begin
the practical activities.

Example 1:

Positioning and fixing the outside double floor joists which should be the straightest of
the floor joist material.

The outer face of the outside double floor joists need to be kept flush with the end or
end positional mark of the bearer.

Skew nailing of the outside double floor joists should be done toward the inside face of
the bearer to avoid splitting the end of the floor joist material.

Join the outside double joists over the internal bearers will be achieved by using mitred,
splayed or square butt joints.

Example 2:

Positioning and fixing the internal double floor joists. Your instructor may advise you
to allow the ends of these double joists to run past the outside face of the external
bearer and cut them off later to a straight chalk line mark.

Skew nail the ends of the double joists so as to avoid end splitting and in their correct
position.

Join over internal bearers, if required, using mitred, splayed or square butt joints.

Example 3:

Positioning, fixing and lap joining the intermediate floor joists. Sighting the joists for
straightness in their mid length prior to fixing the centre of the joists over internal
bearers.

The three demonstration examples above have to be achieved to meet the assembly
requirements of the relevant Timber Framing Manual for floor joist installation.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

PRACTICAL
ACTIVITY

ACTIVITY 2: CONSTRUCTION OF FLOOR FRAMING -


INSTALL JOISTS TO SKILL DEVELOPMENT UNIT

Introduction

When fixing the floor joists it is important that they are laid over the bearers in straight
and parallel lines with their top surface set accurately to a common top surface level to
receive the flooring.

Each floor joist is fixed at each bearer crossing by two 75mm nails skew nailed from
the sides, or as specified.

The floor joists are 90 x 45, Seasoned Pine, F5.

There are a number of different ways that floor joists can be laid to a level top surface,
your instructor will discuss some of the methods with you.

Your instructor will also require you to read some of the relevant requirements of floor
joists which can be obtained from the Basic Training Manual 14.5.

Instruction

1. Your instructor will select a method of fixing floor joists. He will also select the
joist material specification.

2. Your instructor will demonstrate:

• How the joists are selected and laid in position.


• How they are nailed in position to a reasonably level top surface.
• How their ends are marked to a line.
• How they are checked for dimensions and square.
• How they are cut off.

Task

Install all floor joists to the skill development unit.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

Standard

All floor joists to be:

• Straight within ± 4mm.


• Parallel within ± 2mm.
• Bottom edge to be hard against the bearer.
• Tops to be in alignment with each other within ± 2mm

NOTE: If packing is used the packing must not be able to be moved by the hand
and must meet the Timber Framing Manual Specifications.

SETTING OUT FLOOR JOIST POSITIONS

Setting out Internal Double Joists

• Measure 25mm each side of wall marks


• Square all lines across the top of bearer

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

Setting out Internal Joists Between Walls

• Floor joists between walls are 90 x 45, Seasoned Pine, F5.


• Spacing for this project is 450 c-c maximum.
• Only one side of the joist is set out.
• The joist is positional to cover the tick.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 2

SECTION 2 - STRUCTURAL STRIP AND STRUCTURAL


SHEET FLOORING

READ

INTRODUCTION

In Section 1 you completed the steps required to properly construct floor framing.

This section follows on in the normal sequence of building operation. However, the on-
going practical activities you will complete need not necessarily be carried out on the
same project..

In general terms, Section 2 deals with strip flooring and sheet flooring.

More specifically, it covers theory, quantities and practical procedures for:

• requirements of AS1684 for strip and sheet flooring;


• type and sizes of strip and sheet flooring; and
• laying procedures for strip and sheet flooring

These three components include the essential information you will need to complete
Assessment Task 2 which addresses the learning outcomes:

1. Identify timber species and list the commercially available sizes and
demonstrate a method of calculating and costing material quantities.

2. Select materials and install timber strip flooring and sheet flooring.

The information relating to strip and sheet flooring will be presented under eight topics:

• Safety
• Strip Flooring Requirements of AS1684 Clause 3.9.4
• Sheet Flooring Requirements of AS1684 Clause 3.9.5
• Strip Flooring Quantities and Cost
• Types and Sizes of Strip Flooring
• Laying Procedure for Strip Flooring
• Types and Sizes of Sheet Flooring
• Laying Requirements for Sheet Flooring

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 2

STRUCTURAL STRIP AND STRUCTURAL SHEET FLOORING

1. SAFETY

When installing structural flooring a safe and healthy system of work should be used to
avoid any minor or major accidents.

Because a considerable amount of cutting and nailing is normally required there is a


potential for bodily injury to occur.

The use of electric saws, electric planers and air operated nailing guns create areas of
danger that should not be overlooked.

Common areas of danger are:

• Electric saw guard malfunctioning.


• Wood particles ejected from the electric saw.
• Excessive noise.
• Injury from electric planer.
• Misfired and flying nails from nailing gun.
• Electric leads being damaged - risk of electrocution.

The use of personal protection equipment must be of paramount importance if the


installation procedure is to be carried out in a safe manner by yourself and others that
may be required to assist you.

2. STRIP FLOORING REQUIREMENTS OF AS1684 CLAUSE 3.9.4.

The term structural strip flooring indicates there is a structural load to be carried by the
floor. The Australian Standard AS 1170.1-1989 specifies a minimum uniformly
distributed load of 1.5 kPa for general house floors is required. The thickness of the
strip flooring combined with the floor joist spacing achieve the required load rating.

The requirements for structural strip flooring in AS1684 - 1992 Clauses 3.9.3 and
3.9.4.2. sub clauses (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) cover the following areas:

• (a) laying and fitting


• (b) cutting
• (c) joining
• (d) fitting clearance at walls
• (e) fixing and fastening
• (f) double nail fastening
• (g) nail punching
• (h) secret nailing

The floor joist spacing for the type and thickness of strip flooring is covered in Table
3.1 of AS1684 - 1992.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 2

3. SHEET FLOORING REQUIREMENTS OF AS1684 CLAUSE 3.9.5

For structural sheet flooring the same loading requirements apply as for structural strip
flooring. AS1684 - 1992 Clause 3.9.5.2 sub clauses (a) (b) (c) and (d) cover the
following areas:

• (a) laying and fitting


• (b) cutting
• (c) type of fasteners
• (d) spacing of fasteners

NOTE: For particle board flooring see AS1860 - 1992

4. STRIP FLOORING QUANTITIES AND COST

To calculate the amount of strip flooring for a house or building you will need to follow
the steps listed below:

• Use the area calculation formulae length x width = metres2


• Calculate the area of the building.
• Divide the area by the cover width of one board.
• The answer obtained will be the quantity in lineal metres of strip flooring
required.
• Allowance for waste in cutting in the floor, eg 5%.

Figure 14 SECTIONAL VIEW OF TYPICAL FLOORING BOARD

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EXAMPLE:

Figure 15 PLAN OF FLOOR

FORMULAE

Area in m2 = Length x Width


Quantity of Strip Flooring = Area ÷ Cover width of one board
Allowance for cutting = 5% (For example)

Quantity of Strip Flooring = L x W x 105


cover width x 100

Cost of Strip Flooring = Quantity in metres x Cost per metre

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 2

Figure 16 SEPARATED FLOOR PLAN

Area in m2 of building. Because of the “L” shape split the building into two rectangles.

Total Area of Building = (L x W) + (L x W)


= (3 x 2) + (2 x 2)
= 6+4
= 10 m2

Quantity of Flooring = Area


Cover width

= 10 m2
90mm

= 10
0.09

= 111.111m

Allowance for wastage = 111.111 x 105


100

= 116.67m
= 117m

Cost of flooring = Quantity x Cost per metre


= 117 x $4.60
= $538.20

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 2

The above could also be worked out in a one step formula for the quantity then
applying the costing.

Quantity of Flooring = Area of Building + % for


waste
cover width

= (L x W) + (L x W) + 5%
90mm

= (3 x 2) + (2 x 2) x 1.05
0.09

= 116.67m
= 117m

Costing would then be applied as shown above.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 2

5. TYPES AND SIZES OF STRIP FLOORING

SPECIES AUSTRALIAN VISUAL THICKNESS


STANDARD GRADE MM
Australian 2796 Standard 19
Hardwoods Select 19

Other 2796 Standard 19


Hardwoods 35

Australian 1782 20
Softwoods

Cypress Pine 1810 Seasoned Grade 20

Radiata Pine 1492 Merchantable 19/30


Standard

The above table gives a brief outline of structural strip flooring. The three gradings list,
merchantable, standard and select are from lowest quality to best quality respectively.

The width of strip floorings range from 160mm, 140mm, 120mm, 100mm, 90mm and
70mm. Other special sizes are available.

6. LAYING PROCEDURE FOR STRIP FLOORING

Cutting Down

The boards selected with sound tongues and grooves are cut to lengths to make end
joints over the centres of joists. Boards run through doorways from room to room with
the board ends cut accurately to form neat joints. These joints should not be close
together but staggered as much as possible. At fireplaces and hearths, full surround or
return margins are often laid. Allowances for these margins must be made when cutting
down the boards.

Cramping and Nailing Down

A straight board is selected and nailed down with the tongue 10mm from the wall. One
nail is driven home about 32mm from the wall at each floor joist, and a second nail is
driven almost home 15mm from the grooved edge. The slackness of the second nail
allows a little freedom for the tongue of the second board to slip into the groove. Three
or four boards are then laid, making sure that the tongue of one fits into the groove of
the adjacent board in preparation for cramping.

A straight piece of timber that has square edges is laid on the joists beside the outside
board, and floor cramps are used to squeeze boards tightly together as in Figure 18.

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Figure 17 POSITION OF FIRST BOARD

Figure 18 FLOOR BOARDS SQUEEZED


TOGETHER BY CRAMP

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 2

Closing Joints

When cramping the boards, hammer on their face with a loose block to help jar them
into position. Make sure the tongue fits the groove for the full length of the board. A
pinch-bar or heavy chisel is sometimes used as a lever to assist in making the end to
end joints tight. Double nail the board to all the joists at approximately 15mm from the
edges, leaving the nail at the outer edge only partly driven, as in the case o the first
board. The cramps are then removed and the process repeated.

A greater number of boards, not exceeding 900mm measured across the flooring boards
with pressure suited to the moisture content of the flooring, may be cramped together in
the remaining rows. The smaller number of boards used at the beginning is to ensure a
straight line across the joists.

Laying the Last Board

The floor cramps cannot be used on the last three or four rows, so these are forced
tightly together using a chisel, pinch-bar, or length of timber as a lever.

7. TYPES AND SIZES OF STRUCTURAL SHEET FLOORING

For tongue and grooved plywood sheet flooring the thickness of the sheets combined
with the stress grading will determine the spacing of the floor joists. Refer to table 3.2
in Australian Standard AS1684-1992.

The sheet sizes range from 2700 x 1200, 2400 x 1200, 1800 x 1200, 2400 x 900 to
1800 x 900 with other sizes available.

8. LAYING REQUIREMENTS FOR SHEET FLOORING

Installation

When installing structural tongue and grooved sheet plywood flooring it is mandatory
that the requirements of AS1684, clause 3.9.5.2 and sub clauses (a), (b), (c), and (d) be
followed.

The following step procedure outline those requirements:

• Lay the sheet with the top ply grain at right angles to the floor joists.
• Unless tongued and grooved, ends and edges of sheets are to be jointed
over joists or noggings not less than 75 x 38, flush with the top of the joists.
• The minimum nail length should be 50mm, preferably with a deformed
shank and a shank diameter of 2.8mm.
• Nail spacing of 150mm centres along sheet edges and ends and 300mm
centres over the rest of the sheet.
• Joins at ends of sheets should be staggered.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 2

Figure 19 SHEET INSTALLATION AND NAILING

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 2

SUMMARY

So far you have covered the theory of laying strip and sheet flooring as well as the
quantity and cost of strip flooring.

You should now be able to:

• lay strip and sheet flooring;


• measure the quantity of strip flooring required for a project; and
• cost strip flooring.

You may find it useful to make your own brief summary/notes on the eight topics in
Strip and Sheet Flooring.

Safety:

Strip Flooring Requirements of AS1684 Clause 3.9.4:

Sheet Flooring Requirements of AS1684 Clause 3.9.5:

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 2

Strip Flooring Quantities and Cost:

Types and Sizes of Strip Flooring:

Laying Procedure for Strip Flooring:

Types and Sizes of Sheet Flooring:

Laying Requirements for Sheet Flooring:

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 2

SELF-CHECK

EXERCISE 2: STRUCTURAL STRIP AND STRUCTURAL


SHEET FLOORING

1. What is meant by the term fitted floor?

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

2. What is meant by the term platform floor?

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

3. For a fitted floor what is the minimum clearance distance between the bottom
wall plate and the flooring running parallel to the wall?

_______________________________________________________________

4. For sheet flooring what are the standard sheet nail spacing requirements for the
following?

(a) edges of the flooring sheet: _________________________________________

(b) centre of the flooring sheet:_________________________________________

5. Should the joins at the end of floor sheets be staggered? __________________

6. What type of adhesive should be used between the flooring sheets and the floor
joists?

_______________________________________________________________

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 2

DEMONSTRATION

Your instructor will determine the nature and type of demonstration before you begin
the practical activities.

Example 1:

A preliminary check of the top surface of the floor joists will be required before
commencing to install the sheet flooring. Your instructor will demonstrate the
straightening technique and indicate where packing or planing of the floor joists is
required.

Example 2:

Correct application of the flooring adhesive is an important part of the installation


procedure therefore it may be advisable to have your instructor demonstrate how the
flooring adhesive should be applied to the top surface of the floor joists.

Example 3:

As you proceed with the installation of the sheet flooring you may have difficulty in
getting the joints of the sheet flooring to fit together without any gaps. Your instructor
will demonstrate how to apply controlled moderate pressure to the sheet being laid
without dislodging previously laid flooring sheets.

Although it is not difficult to install sheet flooring, care must be taken to ensure tight
fitting joins without gaps, correct application of adhesive and correct nailing of the
sheet flooring. Failure to take sufficient care during installation may result in the sheets
lifting at the joins and squeaking occurring where the flooring sheets are not fixed to
the floor joists.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 2

PRACTICAL
ACTIVITY

ACTIVITY 3: INSTALLATION OF SHEET FLOORING


To carry out this activity you will need to use correct manual handling techniques when
lifting and carrying flooring sheets. Seek assistance if required.

There are three components in Activity 3.

• Installing the first row of sheets to a string line.


• Stagger the sheet end joints.
• Correct nailing around the edges and in the centre of flooring sheets.

You will find it useful to refer back to Figure 19 while carrying out this activity.

Follow the steps set out below:

• Measure and mark the floor sheet width at each end of the floor frame
where the first row of sheets are to be laid.

• String a line through where the first and second row will join.

• Lay the first sheet into position and ensure the sheet lines up with the joist
at the end and with the string line, then tack into position.

• Lay the second sheet in the first row, tap the end joint together carefully by
using a short length of timber at the sheet end and tapping with a small
sledge hammer. After closing join and aligning with string line tack the
second sheet into position.

• Repeat the process described above for the remainder of the first row sheets
while ensuring a straight line along the string line edge. Any waste may be
cut off at this point or when all floor sheets have been laid.

• Commence laying the second row of floor sheets by cutting the first,
second row sheet in half or lay the sheet and cut the sheet after laying
(check with your instructor). Tap the edge join together carefully so as not
to move or dislodged any of the first row sheets, then tack nail the sheet
into position.

• Proceed laying the remainder of the floor sheets and tack nail as
instructions require.
• Cut off any waste at end to a line. Remove all waste and clean up floor
area.

NOTE: If permanent fixing of the floor sheets is required use the floor adhesive as
per fixing instructions, drive nails home and punch below sheet surface if
required.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 3

SECTION 3 - WALL FRAMING FOR A “T” OF “L” SHAPED


BUILDING

READ

INTRODUCTION

In Section 1 and 2 you completed all of the steps required to construct a floor frame
and install structural flooring materials.

This section follows on in the sequence of building operations however the practical
activities you will complete need not necessarily be carried out on the same site or
project.

In general terms, Section 3 deals with timber wall frame construction and erection.

More specifically, it covers the theory and procedures for:

• the setting out at various stages of the wall construction process;


• the construction of the wall frames; and
• plumbing of wall corners, wall straightening and temporary bracing.

These three components include the essential information you require to complete
Assessment Task 3 which addresses learning outcomes:

1. Identify timber species and list the commercially available sizes and
demonstrate a method of calculating and costing material quantities.

5. Select materials and components, mark out, cut, fabricate and erect a
wall frame. Straighten and prepare necessary frames for truss
loading.

The information relating to timber wall framing will be presented under seven topics:

• Health and Safety


• Timber Species and Commercial Sizes
• Wall Frame Components
• Calculate and Cost Materials
• Selecting Materials and Components
• Setting out, Marking Out and Cutting
• Fabricate and Erect Wall Frames

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 3

TIMBER WALL FRAME CONSTRUCTION AND ERECTION

1. HEALTH AND SAFETY

It is necessary to consider Health and Safety and safe system of work requirements
encompassing timber wall framing. The areas for consideration are listed below:

• air operated framing type nailing guns;


• fixed electric drop/table saws and portable electric saws;
• erecting walls in string wind weather;
• dislodgment and/or slipping wall frames; and
• safety for yourself and fellow workers.

From the list above the two most dangerous considerations should be the framing type
nailing guns and the electric saws.

The maintenance necessary to keep this equipment in good working order should never
be overlooked, otherwise there is potential for a very serious accident.

If fabricating and erecting wall frames in weather conditions with strong winds
prevailing you must be aware there is a possibility of the erected walls being blown as
well as being erected becoming dislodged and slipping off the floor frame or flooring
surface.

Always be aware of fellow workers because your safety may depend on them,
alternatively their safety could depend on you.

If you are using any temporary scaffolding, erect and use the correct scaffolding safely.

2. TIMBER SPECIES AND COMMERCIAL SIZES

For wall framing purposes the type of timber used will either be a hardwood or a pine
species. Throughout Australia the location of the building site will determine the type
and species used due to local availability unless a particular species specified.

In termite prone areas a durable, termite resistant species should be used. Durable
hardwood species such as Tallow Wood, Gympie Messmate or Turpentine would be
quite suitable. A durable Australian softwood, White Cypress Pine, is quite suitable as
well as being readily available and reasonably priced.

Commercial Sizes Available

As building practices vary slightly from state to state throughout Australia the
commercial timber sizes available vary ever so slightly to meet the local builders needs.
However, due to the use by builders of AS1684-1992 the elimination of state
differences is almost complete. A preference for a timber wall thickness of 70mm or
90mm still occurs as some builders prefer the 20mm gained by a thinner wall size.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 3

The common wall stud sizes range from 70 x 35, 70 x 45, 90 x 35, 90 x 45, 75 x 38, 75
x 50, 100 x 38 to 100 x 50. Both seasoned and unseasoned timbers are used.

3. WALL FRAME COMPONENTS

During the cutting and fabrication process for wall framing it is important to avoid any
delays in production. It is therefore necessary that you are fully familiar with the
component terminology to avoid asking repetitive questions about which member is
this, where does it fit in the frame or what size should it be.

In the exploded diagram, Figure 20, the most common wall and ceiling framing
members are shown and labelled. You are required to know all of these components,
their common required size and where they fit into the wall and ceiling framing.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 3

Figure 20 WALL AND CEILING FRAMING

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 3

4. CALCULATE AND COST MATERIALS

Before attempting to calculate and cost the wall framing components it is extremely
useful to list the wall frame components in a format that saves time and avoids any
components being inadvertently omitted.

The collecting list below is an example of how to list the wall frame components along
with other information necessary for ordering purposes.

Item or Size Stress Grade Number of Order Total


member Pieces Length Length
Bottom 90 x 45 F5 2.1 2.1m
Plates
Bottom 90 x 45 F5 4 4.8 19.2m
Plates
Top Plates 90 x 45 F5 2.1 2.1m
Top Plates 90 x 45 F5 4 4.8 19.2m
Common 90 x 35 F5 40 2.4 96m
Studs
Jamb Studs 90 x 45 F5 6 2.4 14.4m
Head 90 x 35 F5 1 2.4 2.4m
Trimmers
Sill 90 x 45 F5 1 2.4 2.4m
Trimmers
Noggins 90 x 35 F5 4 4.8 19.2m
Steel Angle 5 3.6 5/3.6m
Wall Bracing
Plywood 2400 x 900 F11 10 10 sheets
Wall Bracing
4.5mm
Lintels 140 x 35 F27 1 1.8 1.8m
Lintels 220 x 45 F27
Temporary 90 x 35 F5 4 4.8 19.2m
Bracing
The Down 25mm wide 1 roll 20m
Galv Metal
Strap
Nails 90mm BH 5kg
Processed
Nails 75mm BH 5kg
Processed

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 3

When considering the quantities required for wall framing you need to encompass the
material quantities for the whole frame. As you progress with the quantities required it
should become apparent that some common timber sizes and lengths are recurring, for
example 90 x 35 with a length of 4.8m.

The 4.8m length readily suits ceiling joist lengths, wall plate lengths for wall frames on
concrete slabs, also two wall studs can be cut out of the 4.8m (2/2.4 = 4.8).

The waste factor is not a real consideration as there are many framing components that
can be cut from any short pieces remaining.

Another major benefit gained be having common timber sizes and lengths is that you
can order and purchase the timber in pack size allots meaning you are able to purchase
bulk quantities at a much lower cost. This means your job quotes will have lower
prices when tendering for work.

Wall Plate Quantities

To calculate the quantities for top and bottom wall plated a copy of the building plan is
used onto which the length of the wall plates are written, exactly where they are to be
located on the job. This method also assists greatly during the construction stages.

Figure 21 WALL PLATE LENGTHS


MARKED ON PLAN

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From the wall plate lengths marked on the plan in Figure 21 it can be seen that the only
wall plate length that needs to be ordered is 4.8m. Seven 4.8m lengths of plate material
would be more than sufficient, with any off cuts used for noggins and/or trimmers.

NOTE: By having all of the wall plates in long lengths selecting straight material
for top plates is made much easier. Also the time taken when sorting out
timber into the various lengths is reduced.

Wall Stud Quantities

The wall stud quantities can be calculated either by using a copy of the building plan to
scale off and mark the studs in their appropriate positions, which is of great assistance
during construction, or by the computation method and calculating the studs in each
wall separately. Top and bottom jack studs may be counted as full studs if fitted above
and below a window opening, otherwise no studs are allowed for where window and/or
door openings occur.

Scaling off and marking off stud positions is shown in Figure 22.

Figure 22 PLAN OF PROPOSED STUD POSITIONS

NOTE: From the experience you gained in costing in Sections 1 and 2 you should
be able to cost the timber for wall frames.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 3

5. SELECTING MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS

When selecting material from the timber stack to be used for wall plates and studs the
material selected should be as straight as possible. Pieces of timber with excessive
spring, bow, twist, etc are best put aside for use in less critical parts of the framing.

Wall plates, especially top wall plates must be as straight as possible to provide a
straight line for the rafters and a straight line inside the rooms, especially when
plastering will show up any deviation from straight.

Wall studs for corners both internal and external, should be straight. Jamb studs for
window and door openings are to be straight to avoid alignment problems when
installing window and door frames. Head and sill trimmers should also be as straight
as possible. Lintels should have minimum spring to avoid incorporating depressions
and rounding in the finished roof line above the walls.

6. SETTING OUT, MARKING OUT AND CUTTING

The setting out of the wall positions onto the floor joists or the floor sheeting surface
will require accurate measuring. Where possible, permanent wall position marks
should be drawn onto the sides of bearers as they will become a means of locating the
correct wall position when nailing down the bottom plates after erecting the walls.
After the initial set out of the wall positions in accordance with the floor plan and all
double checking of positions has occurred a chalk line is used to permanently mark the
wall positions.

The bottom wall plates are then laid out, marked to the required wall length and then
tacked into position. The top wall plates are laid out into position and tacked on top of
the bottom plates, forming a pair of wall plates for each wall.

The stud positions are then marked on the edge of the wall plates, outside edge on
external walls and the edge seen during assembly for internal walls. Window and door
openings are determined and marked out first followed by partition and corner stud
positions. Next, mark out the position of load bearing studs (i.e. studs that are to
support concentrated loads such as strutting beams and girder trusses) and then
intermediate studs. It is advisable to mark the room number in the middle edge of the
plates and a North, South, East or West directional mark on the top corner of the top
plates.

The rafter positions are then set out and marked onto the top face of the top plated and
the ceiling joist positions marked out, usually on the left or right hand side of the rafter
positions. This means that you will need to refer to the wall frame plan and the
roof/ceiling plan when seeing out the wall plates.

It may be necessary to consider rafter positions when setting out the floor joists as the
rafters are required to be located above the wall studs and the wall studs located above
the floor joists.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 3

Setting Out the Pattern Stud

It is advisable if not necessary to set out a pattern stud. The pattern stud length is
determined by calculating the overall wall height which incorporates the required
ceiling height inside the rooms, the ceiling lining thickness, ceiling battens if specified,
any fitted flooring thickness and wall sheet fitting clearance.

The pattern stud length, for walls located on top of a platform floor, is achieved by
deducting the top and bottom wall plate thickness from the overall wall height. The
pattern stud has various trimmer positions and heights marked on it which give the
required jack stud lengths for door and window openings. Listed below are some of the
trimmer positions and heights marked on the pattern stud.

¾ Window head trimmer (to suit eaves height)


¾ Window sill trimmer
¾ Door head
¾ Nogging height
¾ Bath, spa bath and shower check out heights.

SEE “BUILDING A HOUSE: FRAMING PRACTICES”.

Chapter 1, pages 83 to 89.

Cutting of Wall Framing Components

A list of wall framing components is made from measurements obtained from the stud
positions set out and the pattern stud airing the lengths of window head and sill
trimmers, jack studs, noggings, door head trimmers, wall studs, etc, also including the
number of components required. The wall frame components are cut to the required
length and placed in separate stacks for easy identification and availability during
assembly. This process is known as pre-cutting requiring at least two people to work
together constantly measuring, cutting, counting and checking component numbers.

7. FABRICATE AND ERECT WALL FRAMES

The wall framing components are laid out on the floor and assembled together as near
as possible to where the wall will be erected and located in its final position. Read and
follow the steps listed in Building A House Framing Practices, Chapter 1, pages 92 to
104, for details on fabricating and erecting wall frames.

To plumb the walls and straighten the top plates in readiness for the ceiling frame
installation read pages 104 to 106 also. Seek assistance from your instructor to help
clarify any points or methods you may not fully understand.

The type of bracing will type A bracing units for each of the walls to be braced. Your
instructor will determine which of the walls will have metal bracing and those to have
sheet bracing. See BUILDING A HOUSE, Pages 116 to 122.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 3

SUMMARY

In this section you have covered the theory and procedures for the construction and
erection of wall framing.

With an assistant you should now be able to:

• set out wall top and bottom plates;


• set out a pattern stud;
• assemble wall frames; and
• erect wall frames.

Self-Check Exercises in this package are on yellow pages. These exercises have been
designed to test your understanding of the information you have covered so far.
Remember that the self-check exercises are not part of the formal assessment of
competency for this module.

Answers to the self-check questions are on the blue pages at the end of the package.

You may find it useful to make your own brief summary/notes on the seven topics in
Wall Framing.

Health and Safety:

Timber Species and Commercial Sizes:

Wall Frame Components:

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 3

Calculate and Cost Materials:

Selecting Materials and Components:

Setting Out, Marking Out and Cutting:

Fabricate and Erect Wall Frames:

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 3

SELF-CHECK

EXERCISE 3: WALL FRAMING

1. What are the standard/nominal nail fixing requirements for wall plates to studs
for the following wall plate thickness?

(a) 38mm thick__________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

(b) 50mm thick__________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

2. What are the standard/nominal nail fixing requirements for noggings to wall
studs?

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

3. What are the standard/nominal nail fixing requirements for bottom plates in load
bearing walls fixed to floor joists for the following plate thickness?

(a) 38mm thick__________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

(b) 50mm thick__________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

4. What is meant by the term non-load bearing wall?

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

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5. How are top wall plates jointed at wall intersections?


________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

6. What type of joint is permitted in bottom wall plates and what is the provision
that must be achieved?
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

7. What are the fixing requirements for walls at intersections and junctions when
fixing external and internal corners together?

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

8. What is the maximum vertical spacing for closely fitted solid timber noggings?
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

9. What is the allowable angle for metal wall bracing?

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

10. What is the maximum bracing notch depth for F5 wall studs in single storey load
bearing walls?

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 3

DEMONSTRATION

Your instructor will determine the nature and type of demonstration before you begin
the practical activities.

Example 1:

Constructing wall frames is a fairly easy task providing consideration is given to the
easy nailing in of the wall frame components. For example, if three or four wall studs
are to be fixed closely together it would be advisable to install the small noggings or
corner blocks before nailing in all of the close fitting wall studs.

When fixing in window lintels, head trimmers and sill trimmers it is advisable to fix
these components in first with the secondary jamb stud before fixing in the jamb.

So as to avoid difficult mailing and or removing components from the wall frame your
instructor should explain and demonstrate how the wall frames should be constructed
to make component installation and nailing as easy as possible.

Example 2:

Your instructor will demonstrate how to install the wall bracing correctly to avoid over
cutting of the wall studs and proud fitting bracing which may interfere with the
installation of the dry wall plaster sheets.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 3

PRACTICAL
ACTIVITY

ACTIVITY 4 CONSTRUCT AND ERECT EXTERNAL


WALLS

To carry out this activity you will need to use correct manual handling techniques when
lifting and manoeuvring the assembled walls into position. You may also require
assistance from another person when lifting and manoeuvring the assembled walls.

Procedure for constructing and erecting timber framed external walls.

All work must be carried out according to the criteria and tolerances specified in
Assessment Task 3.

You may find it useful to refer back to relevant segments of the instructional material
while carrying out this activity.

You will need to follow the steps and diagrams in Building A House: Framing
Practices, Chapter 1, pages 92 to 103 inclusive and refer beck to relevant segments of
the text while carrying out this activity.

• Lay out the top and bottom wall plates of the wall to be constructed.

• Lay out the wall studs, noggings, trimmers, lintel, etc.

• Nail plates to end wall studs first. Nail in intermediate and jamb studs, nail
in trimmers and mark nogging height on stud edges.

• Nail in noggings, corner blocks, fit and nail in lintel.

• Square up wall frame by checking diagonal length, lay wall brace in


position, mark brace position, cut brace depth and install with tack nails.

• Carefully lift assembled wall and attach temporary bracing so as not to


interfere with other walls. Nail plate top corners together and tack bottom
plates into position.

• Once all remaining walls have been constructed and erected straighten
corner studs and nail wall corners together. Plumb external wall corners,
then straighten walls using temporary bracing or struts where required,
make ready for ceiling frame.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 4

SECTION 4 - CEILING FRAMING FOR A “T” OR “L” SHAPED


BUILDING

READ

INTRODUCTION

In Section 1 and 2 you completed all of the steps required to construct a floor frame
and install flooring materials. In Section 3 you completed all of the steps required to
construct and erect the wall frames.

This section follows on in the sequence of building operation. The practical activities
you will complete in this section will be more understood if carried out on the same site
or project.

In general terms, Section 4 deals with constructing a ceiling frame for a “T” or “L”
shaped Building.

More specifically, it covers the theory and procedures for;

• Select, calculate and cost ceiling frame quantities;


• Identify components of ceiling frames and of skillion and simple gable roofs;
and
• Construct a ceiling frame for a “T” or “L” shaped building.

These three components include the essential information you require to complete
Assessment Task 4 which address learning outcome:

6. Construct ceiling framing and demonstrate the installation


procedures for skillion and simple gable roofs.

The information relating to ceiling framing will be presented under four topics:

• Safe Working Practices


• Ceiling Frame Components
• Calculate and Cost Materials
• Mark Out, Cut and Construct Ceiling Frame

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 4

1. HEALTH AND SAFETY

It is necessary to consider the Health and Safety and safe work practice requirements
encompassing timber ceiling framing. The areas for consideration are listed below:

• Air operated framing type nail guns;


• Portable electric saws;
• Working at dangerous heights; and
• Safety for yourself and fellow workers.

When using the framing type nailing guns during construction of the ceiling frame you
should only use well maintained nailing guns that have double action safety
mechanisms. The use of single action nailing guns, which permit “bounce firing”, can
cause nail injuries to hands, any other part of the body or accidental firing of the nailing
gun and injuring other workers on site. The attachment of a metal hook onto the
nailing gun casing allows the nailing gun to be hooked over the top plate when not in
use.

Portable electric saws must have guards working properly and all safety features
attached when being used at heights where limited working platform area is available.

Working at dangerous heights, such as ceiling frame height, requires the ability to
balance oneself on narrow pieces of timber during the early construction stage.

The use of scaffolding is somewhat impractical and cost prohibitive, however once the
ceiling joists are in place timber planks should be laid out for easy access over the
ceiling frame.

Safety for yourself and fellow workers begins with knowing where your fellow workers
are, so that if you drop something from the ceiling frame or are carrying a long length
of timber they will not be injured if you become careless. Also you must ensure all
ceiling frame components are nailed securely in place as to avoid leaving traps that
someone could fall through. You would expect fellow workers to do the same for you
and others thereby eliminating the risk of an accident.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 4

2. CEILING FRAME COMPONENTS

The basic ceiling frame for a timber framed dwelling with a gable roof consists of the
following members:

• Ceiling joists
• Jack joists
• Ceiling trimmers
• Hanging beams
• Hanger blocks
• Hanger bracing
• Joist straps

Study the diagrams in BUILDING A HOUSE - Framing Procedures, Chapter 1 -


Ceiling Framing, pages 129 to 136 to clearly identify and locate the position of each of
the components.

The basic gable roof consists of a pair of rafters located along the top plates running the
length of the building, nailed at the birdsmouth ends at the top plates and the ends of
the ceiling joists. Collar ties are attached to the middle of each pair of rafters to provide
mid span rafter support for each pair.

The top or plumb cut end of each pair of rafters are fixed to a ridge board running the
full length of the building with any overhang allowance left extend beyond the end
pairs of rafters.

For a skillion roof the walls supporting the rafters are at different heights to give the
roof slope or pitch. The rafters are usually single span and have a minimum size
birdmouth at each end where they are fixed to the top wall plates. If a level ceiling is
required the ceiling joists will be positioned along side the rafters and supported by the
top plate of the lower wall and fixed to the sides of the wall studs in the high wall to a
level and straight line. Additional noggins may be incorporated into the high wall to
support the ceiling joists and provide fixing for plaster wall sheeting.

3. CALCULATE AND COST MATERIALS

Material quantities for the ceiling frame should be calculated room by room so that no
components are overlooked. A floor plan diagram copy may be used and renamed
ceiling frame plan with the number and length of ceiling joists indicated for each room,
also hanging beam length and size indicated for each room.

The ceiling frame plan is then used to write up a list of ceiling joist sizes and lengths,
also hanging beams for the whole job. A list with similar format to that shown in Topic
4 Section 3 should be drawn up with each of the rooms listed and the number of ceiling
joists and hanging beams listed also. The required number of joist straps and bracing
for hanging beams listed as well.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 4

Your instructor will assist you in drawing up the ceiling component list and in
calculating the required number of components for the ceiling frame. The costing
methods will be the same as that used in costing the floor frame components.

4. MARK OUT, CUT AND CONSTRUCT CEILING FRAME

Marking out the positions for the ceiling joists normally takes place when the wall
plates are laid out on the floor frame to avoid the difficulty of marking out after the
walls are erected. The ceiling joist positions for a gable roof are located along side the
rafter positions so that the lower end of the rafters can be securely fixed to the ceiling
joists as well as the top wall plates and therefore tying the roof frame together across
the building.

See BUILDING A HOUSE: Framing Practices, Chapter 1, page 129 to 136 for a
comprehensive description a ceiling frame component positioning and construction.

Where the ceiling joists are used for the fixing of plaster ceiling sheets and cornices the
end ceiling joists are normally positioned 50mm away from the wall position to suit
50mm cornice or 90mm for a 90mm cornice. This method reduces the required
number of cross trimmers and saves time.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 4

SUMMARY

In this section you have covered the theory and procedures for the preparation and
erection of ceiling framing.

With an assistant you should now be able to:

• set out the position of ceiling joists on top wall plates;


• place and fix the ceiling joists and trimmers in position;
• position and fix hanging beams on the appropriate sized packing on top
wall plates;
• brace hanging beams as required; and
• straighten and support ceiling joists from the hanging beam.

Self-Check Exercises in this package are on yellow pages. This exercise has been
designed to test your understanding of the information you have covered so far.
Remember that the self-check exercises are not part of the formal assessment of
competency for this module.

Answers to the self-check questions are on the blue pages at the end of the package.

You may find it useful to make your own brief summary/notes on the topics in Ceiling
Framing:

Safe Work Practices:

Ceiling Frame Components:

Calculate and Cost Materials:

Mark Out, Cut and Construct Ceiling Frame:

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 4

SELF-CHECK

EXERCISE 4: CEILINGS

1. What are the standard fixing requirements for ceiling joists to top wall plates?

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

2. What is the end bearing requirements for ceiling joists?

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

3. How are ceiling joists required to be fixed to hanging beams?

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

4. What is the end bearing requirements for hanging beams?

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 4

DEMONSTRATION

Your instructor will determine the nature and type of demonstration before you begin
the practical activities.

Example 1:

Having all of the ceiling joists up on the top of the wall frames and laid in their
appropriate position your instructor will demonstrate how to securely fix them in
position alongside the rafter marks and how to lap join the ceiling joists where splicing
is required.

Example 2:

Your instructor will explain and demonstrate how to measure and pre-cut the hanging
beams before they pulled up on the ceiling joists.

Example 3:

When all of the hanging beam support blocks are in position your instructor will
demonstrate how to skew nail the hanging beams into position, stand them up and
brace them in the vertical position.

Example 4:

The ceiling joists will have to be pulled up tight to the underside of the hanging beams
before attaching the joist straps. Your instructor will demonstrate how this process is
done in a safe manner to prevent you slipping through or falling off the ceiling frame.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 4

PRACTICAL
ACTIVITY

ACTIVITY 5: CONSTRUCT THE CEILING FRAME

To carry out this practical activity, Construct the Ceiling Frame, you may need to erect
some temporary scaffolding to provide a suitable working platform. The scaffold will
make it much safer when loading the ceiling joists onto the top wall plates, nailing
them into position and cutting off any waste.

There are three components in Activity 4.

1. Mark out the ceiling joist positions and fix the ceiling joists to the top plates.

2. Mark out the hanging beams and fix the ceiling joists to the hanging beam.

3. Brace the hanging beams and fix the joist straps to alternative sides of the
hanging beam.

All work must be carried out according to the criteria and tolerances specified in
Assessment Task 4. Follow the steps set out below:

• Mark ceiling joists positions onto top face of the top wall plates in
conjunction with rafter position at 450mm centres to suit a gable roof.
Also mark positions of additional ceiling joists required for plaster cornice
fixing. (At this point measure the cross trimmer lengths in between ceiling
joist positions at wall intersections if they are to be used in the ceiling
frame.)

• Select appropriate length ceiling joists for each room, load ceiling joists
onto wall plates and lay them in position with any spring or rounds in to
edges of the ceiling joists facing upwards. Correctly nail ceiling joists to
top wall plates.

• Fix hanger packing blocks onto top wall plates, cut and nail all ceiling
trimmers into position. Lay out timber planks for temporary support when
installing hanging beams.

• Select appropriate size, (see span tables), and length hanging beams, mark
on ceiling joists positions, lay in place and then stand up hanging beams
and fix and brace securely into position.

• Skew nail hanging beams to ceiling joists through opposite sides, ensure all
ceiling joists are pulled up tight to hanging beams, then alternatively attach
and fix joists straps to the ceiling joists and hanging beams.

• Have your instructor assess your completed activity.

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CONCLUSION

This learning package has combined the theoretical and practical components required
for Module NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing.

You have now completed Practical Activities 1, 2, 3 and 4 where you were able to
apply the theory of timber floor, wall and ceiling frame construction. The methods
shown and used are only some of those you will encounter in the building industry.
You will need to keep an open mind and be ready to adapt to the alternative method
that you will encounter in order to be more productive and more highly skilled in an
ever changing building industry.

These activities, in conjunction with the oral and/or written tests scheduled by your
instructor, will have covered all of the Assessment Criteria for the Assessment Tasks 1,
2, 3 and 4.

Having successfully completed the requirements of this module, you now understand
the provisions and procedures required for timber floor, wall and ceiling framing. In
addition, you have applied the knowledge and skills in a number of on-site situations.
These included fixing down timber bearers and floor joists, constructing and erecting
timber wall frames and constructing a basic ceiling frame.

You can expect to apply your knowledge and skills continuously on a range of building
sites. The information contained in this module will enable you to go on to more
advanced modules therefore gaining more knowledge and additional productive skills.

Those who developed this package hope that you have found its style and presentation
easy to follow.

Congratulations on having successfully completed the


Module NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling
Framing

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 1

SELF-CHECK
ANSWERS

EXERCISE 1: FLOOR STRUCTURE

1. When considering the strength of the member we take into consideration what
distance the member can span. How is span defined?

The face to face distance between points of full support.

2. Define the following span term?

(a) Single span

The span of a member supported at or near both ends with no intermediate


supports.

(b) Continuous span

A member supported at or near both ends and at one or more evenly spaced
points between the ends.

3. If packing is required between the underside of a bearer and the top of the
supporting stump what type of packing material is allowable?

Corrosion resistant and incompressible sheet material.

4. What is the maximum depth of checking out that can be made in the underneath
side of a bearer over a stump at the point of support?

10 millimetres.

5. What is the standard/nominal fixing requirements for floor joists to bearers for
wind speeds up to 41m/s?

Two 75 x 3.1mm skew nails for continuous span joists. Single span joists
require in addition to 2/75 x 3.1mm nails, a framing anchor with 3/2.8mm
diameter nails to each leg at each end of every second joist.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 2

SELF-CHECK ANSWERS

EXERCISE 2: STRUCTURAL STRIP AND STRUCTURAL


SHEET FLOORING

1. What is meant by the term fitted floor?

The flooring material is installed after the wall framing stage is completed.

2. What is meant by the term platform floor?

The flooring material is installed before the construction and erection of the
wall frames.

3. For a fitted floor what is the minimum clearance distance between the bottom
wall plate and the flooring running parallel to the wall?

10 millimetres.

4. For sheet flooring what are the standard sheet nail spacing requirements for the
following?

(a) edges of the flooring sheet:

150mm centres.

(b) centre of the flooring sheet:

300mm centres.

5. Should the joins at the end of floor sheets be staggered?

Yes

6. What type of adhesive should be used between the flooring sheets and the floor
joists?

Construction grade building adhesive.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 3

SELF-CHECK ANSWERS

EXERCISE 3: WALL FRAMING

1. What are the standard/nominal nail fixing requirements for wall plates to studs
for the following wall plate thickness?

(a) 38mm thick Two 75mm nails at each stud plus steel strap tie down
if required.

(b) 50mm thick Two 90mm nails at each stud plus steel strap tie down
if required.

2. What are the standard/nominal nail fixing requirements for noggings to wall
studs?

Two 75mm nails, through or skew nailed.

3. What are the standard/nominal nail fixing requirements for bottom plates of load
bearing walls to floor joists for the following wall plates thickness?

(a) 38mm thick Two 75mm nails at joist intersections or 600mm


centres along joists.

(b) 50mm thick Two 90mm nails at joist intersections or 600mm


centres along joists.

4. What is meant by the term non-load bearing wall?

A wall that carries ceiling loads only or no load other than itself.

5. How are top wall plates jointed at wall intersections?

By using metal nail-plates.

6. What type of joint is permitted in bottom wall plates and what is the provision
that must be achieved?

Simple butt joints provided both ends are fully supported.

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NFF3101 Timber Floor, Wall and Ceiling Framing SECTION 3

7. What are the fixing requirements for walls at intersections and junctions when
fixing external and internal corners together?

The studs are to be securely fixed with evenly spaced blocking 200mm long
and nails.

8. What is the maximum vertical spacing for closely fitted solid timber noggings?

1350mm between the face of the wall plate and nogging plate.

9. What is the allowable angle for metal wall bracing?

30° to 60°

10. What is the maximum bracing notch depth for F5 wall studs in single storey load
bearing wall?

20 millimetres, depending on section, size of stud, roof load, roof span and
wind code area.

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SELF-CHECK ANSWERS

EXERCISE 4: CEILINGS

1. What are the standard fixing requirements for ceiling joists to top wall plates?

Two 75mm skew nails.

2. What is the end bearing requirements for ceiling joists?

The full width of any wall plate on which they are supported.

3. How are ceiling joists required to be fixed to hanging beams?

Skew nailing and timber or metal hanger straps on alternating sides of the
hanging beam at each joist crossing.

4. What is the end bearing requirements for hanging beams?

The full width of any wall plate on which they are supported.

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