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LESSON 1

LINEAR
MOTION
Introduction

Linear motion is the motion a straight


line and
the movement in a direction where Distance = Length of the road
forwards is positive Displacement = Length of the line AB
and backwards is negative.
Kinematics is the section of physics If the motion in a straight line and in one
which studies the direction , the magnitude of distance is
motions of objects without considering same as the magnitude of
the effects that produce the motion. The displacement .
study generally involves the analysis of
the position of an object in relation to
time.
Dynamics is the section of physics
which studies the
causes of motion of an object. Speed and Velocity ,v

Distance ,d and Displacement, s Speed is the rate of change of distance.


Speed = distance travelled
Distance ,d is how far a body travels time taken
during a motion
without considering any particular Average speed = total distance traveled
direction or the length total time taken
of the path of an object. Speed is a scalar quantity and the value
Distance is a scalar quantity and the always positive.
value always positive. The unif of speed is metre per second (m
The unif of distance is metre (m) s-1)

Displacement , s is distance traveled in


a particular direction. Velocity is the rate of change of
Displacement ,s = final position – initial displacement.
position Velocity = displacement
Displacement is a vector quantity and time taken
the value can be positive and negative v=s
depend on their directions. t
The unif of dispacement is metre (m) Average velocity = total displacement
total time taken
Diagram below shows the difference
between distance Velocity is a vector quantity and the
and displacement. value can be positive and negative
depend on their directions.
The unif of velocity is metre per second
(m s-1)

If an object moves in a circle with


constant speed , it has different
velocities at different points along the
1
circle because the direction and hence
the velocity of the object is always
changing as shown in the following
diagram.

Find
(a) total dinstance traveled
(b) displacement

Solution
Acceleration,a and
Decelaration(Retardation)

Acceleration is the rate of change of


velocity.
Acceleration = change in velocity Example 2
time taken
Acceleration = final velocity – initial
velocity
time taken
a = v - u
t
Negative acceleration is called as
deceleration (retardation)
Acceleration is a vector quantity
The unif of acceleration or deceleration is
metre per second per second (ms-2)

Figure above shows runner runs 500 m


Extra notes
towards east in 2 minutes and 1200m
towards north in 4 minutes.
1 uniform = constant = same
Calculate his
2 increasing velocity =
(a) average speed
acceleration
(b) average velocity
3 decreasing velocity (slow down)
= deceleration
Solution
4 zero velocity = the object is
stationary (at rest)
Example 3
5 negative velocity = the object
moves in opposite
An object accelerates uniformly along a
direction
straight line from a velocity of 10 m s-1
6 uniform velocity = zero
until 25 m s-1 in 5 s.
acceleration
Calculate
7 negative acceleration =
(a) the acceleration of the object
deceleration
(b) the velocity of the object during the
(retardation)
first 10 s of motion
(c) the time taken to reach a final
velocity 50 ms-1
Example 1

A boy walks finish the following path


Solution
AB.
2
Based on the figure above, calculate the
acceleration .

Using a ticker timer to analysing the


motion

A ticker timer is connected to an Solution


alternating electricity supply (a.c.) and
uses the mains electricity frequency of
50 Hz to make 50 ticks or vibrations
every second.
1 tick is the time interval between one Example 6
dot and the next dot on the tape.
50 ticks = 1 s
1 tick = 0.02s

Example 4

The figure above shows a ticker tape


contains 5 ticks for every interval
AB.BC.CD and DE .Calculate the
acceleration.

Solution
Based on the ticker tape above
calculate
(a) time taken
(b) average volocity
Example 7
Solution
The following figure shows a tape chart.

Example 5

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(c)

Calcluate
(a) the acceleration
(b) the average velocity

Solution

The type of motion is


velocity acceleration
The type of motion based on ticker tape
or tape chart
(a)

The type of motion is (d)


velocity acceleration

(b)

The type of motion is

velocity acceleration

The type of motion is

velocity acceleration

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or f = np

(ii) Electronic stroboscope ( multiflash


stroboscope )

(e)
Stroboscopic fotograph frequency
= light flashes frequency

Example 8

The following figure a stroboscopic


photograph shows a metal ball moves
along a horizontal plane. The photograph
is taken by by using a camera and a
mechanical stroboscope rotates with
frequency 5 Hz.
The type of motion is
velocity acceleration

Using a stroboscopic photograph to (a) State the type of motion of the metal
analysing the motion ball.
(b) What is the stroboscopic fotograph
Stroboscopic photograph is the taking of frequency
very short –exposure pictures of moving (c) What is the time intervals between
objects using a camera and a one image and the next.
stroboscope. (d) What is the number of images in 30
A stroboscope is a device for making a seconds.
moving body intermittently visible in (e) Calculate the average velocity of the
order to make appear stationary. metal ball
The moving object appear ‘freeze’ when
the stroboscope frequency at the same
frequency of moving object. Solution
There are two types of stroboscopes:
(i) Mechanical stroboscope

Stroboscopic fotograph frequency =


stroboscope
frequency x
number of slits

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Example 9

The following figure a stroboscopic Using Equations of Linear Motion


photograph shows a trolley down an inclined with Uniform Acceleration
plane. The photograph is taken by by using a
camera and an electronic stroboscope The various equations of linear
produces 20 flashes per second. motions of an object with uniform
acceleration are given as follows:

v = u + at
……………………….(1)

s= u+v t
………………………..(2)
2

s = ut + ½ at2
………………………..(3)

v2 = u2 + 2as
(a) State the type of motion of the trolly. ………………………..(4)
(b) What is the stroboscopic fotograph
frequency Where s :
(c) What is the time intervals between …………………………………
one image and the next. u:
(d) Calculate ………………………………...
(i) the initial velocity v:
(ii) the final velocity ………………………………...
(iii) the acceleration a:
…………………………………
t:
Solution …………………………………

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Extra notes:

moves from rest :


………………………
finally it stops/brakes:
…………………..
released from a height / fall
freely from
rest :…………………………
thrown vertically upwards: Example 12
……………..
at maximum height : A construction worker accidentally knocks a
……………………. brick from a building so that it falls in 4 s to
the ground. Calculate
(a) the velocity of the brick as it hits the
Example 10 ground
(b) the distance fallen of the brick
A car accelerates from rest to 25 m s-1 in
4 s. Solution
Find the acceleration of the car.

Solution

Example 1

A bus accelerates uniformly along a


straight line from a velocity 20 ms-1 until
30 ms-1 in 5 s.
Calculate,
(a) the acceleration
(b) the total displacement travelled by
the bus

Solution

TUTORIAL
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1 A car moves with a constant velocity.
The acceleration of the car is

A increased B decreased
C zero D uniformly

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2 Deceleration means the velocity of an
object is 6 A tick on the ticker tapes is

A negative B positive A the speed of the ticker timer


C increased D decreased
B the frequency of the ticker timer
3 The following figure shows an object C the dinstace between two
moves with a constant speed 5 m s-1 in a consecutive dots
circle. D the time interval between two
consecutive dots

7 The frequency of a ticker timer is 50 Hz.


The time interval between two
consecutive dots is

A 0.60 s B 0.44 s
The object is also moves with C 0.32 s D 0.30 s
E 0.20 s
A an acceleration
B zero acceleration 8 Figure shows the ticker tape for the
C constant velocity motion of a trolly.

4 The figure shows a path of a moving


object.

Which of the following statement is true?

A The volcity between in region DE is


same as the velocity in region A B
B Frequency in region BC is greater
than frekuency in region DE
C The time in region AB is same as
If AB = 5m , BC = 5m and CD = 7m the time in region DE
,find the total displacement of the object D The velocity between in region CD is
if it moves from A to D. low

A 3m B 7m 9
C 13 m D 17 m
E 20 m

5 Ali rides a motocycle with a constant


speed 30 km j-1 . Bakar runs at a
dinstace 100 m in 15 s. Chan rides a
bicycle at dinstance 240 km in 10 hours.
Which comparison is true? Based on the figure above , calculate the
average velocity.
A Speed of Ali = speed of Bakar
B Speed of Ali = speed of Bakar = A 0.2 ms-1 B 0.3 ms-1
speed of Chan C 0.4 ms-1 D 0.5 ms-1
C Speed of Ali > speed of Bakar E 0.5 ms-1
D Speed of Ali =speed of Chan > speed
of Bakar 10 What is the average velocity between PQ
E Speed of Bakar = Speed of Chan < in the above figure ?
speed of Ali
A 85 cms-1 B 170 cms-1
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B 200 cms-1 C 240 cms-1
Based on figure , which of the following
E 500 cms-1 is true?

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At the beginning of motion At


the end of motion

A the velocity the


acceleration
unchanged
What is the final velocity as shown in
increases
figure above?
B the velocity the
acceleration
A 40 cms-1 B 120 cms-1
increases
C 150 cms-1 D 267 cms-1
increases
E 420 cms-1
C the velocity the
acceleration
increases
unchanged
D the velocity the
acceleration unchanged
unchanged

16 Which of the following shows an object


13 Based on the figure above , calculate the moving with decreasing acceleration ?
acceleration.

A 2 ms-2 B 4 ms-2
C 5 ms-2 D 8 ms-2
E 10 ms-2

14 Based on the figure above , calculate the


acceleration.

A -5 ms-2 B - 50 ms-2 17 The following figure is a stroboscopic


C - 500 ms-2 D 50 ms-2 photograph shows a ball moves on a
E 500 ms-2 smooth table.

15 The following figure shows a tape chart. Which of the following is true?

A The acceleration is constant


B The velocity is increasing
C The acceleration is zero
D The velocity is zero

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18 A stroboscope has 4 slits and rotates 21 The following figure a stroboscopic
with frequency 5 Hz. The time intervals photograph shows a a boy down an
between two successive images inclined plane. The photograph is taken
is by by using a camera and an electronic
stroboscope produces 4 flashes per
A 40.0 s B 2.0 s second.
C 1.0 s D 0.4 s
E 0.05 s

19 The following figure a stroboscopic


photograph shows an ice cube moves
along a horizontal plane. The photograph
is taken by using a camera and a
mechanical stroboscope has 2 slits and The acceleration of the boy is
rotates with frequency 25 Hz.
A 6ms-2 B 12 ms-2
C 24 ms-2 D 32 ms-2
E 48 ms-2

22 A cyclist riding at a velocity 8 ms-1 and


is accelerating with 4 ms-2 . What is the
What is the velocity of the ice cube? velocity of the cyclist after 5 s .

A 5 cms-1 B 25 cms-1 A 16 ms-1 B 20ms-1


C 24 ms-1 D 28 ms-1
C 100 cms-1 D 250 cms- E 32 ms-1
1
E 500 cms-1 23 A rocket starts at velocity 2500 ms-1 and
accelerates uniformly upwards at 20
20 The following figure a stroboscopic ms-2 . What is the velocity of the rocket
photograph shows a ball moves along a after 4 minutes.
horizontal plane. The photograph is
taken by by using a camera and an
A 4800 ms-1 B 5000 ms-1
electronic
stroboscope produces 50 flashes per C 6800 ms-1 D 7300 ms-1
second. E 7500 ms-1

24 A trolley starts from rest and is


uniformly accelerated to speed of 12
cms-1 in 5 . What is the distance
travelled by the trolley?

A 16 cm B 24 cm
Calculate the average velocity of the C 28 cm D 30 cm
ball. E 42 cm

A 0. 5 ms-1 B 1.0 ms-1 25 A car starts from rest and accelerates


C 1.5 ms-1 D 2.0 ms-1 uniformly and after travels at distance
E 3.0 ms-1 45m the velocity of the car is 20 ms-1 .
What is the time taken?

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A 4.5 s B 9.0 s to rest. What is the time taken before it
C 13.5 s D 18.0 s stops?
E 22.4 s
A 10 s B 8s
26 A aeroplane accelerates at 40 ms-2 in C 6s D 4s
10 s to take off. What is the minimum E 2s
length of the runway on the
airfield ? 32 A stone fall freely from rest through a
height of 5 m. What is the velocity of the
A 1000 m B 2000 m stone when it hits the ground.
C 3000 m D 4000 m
E 5000 m A 5 ms-1 B 10 ms-1
C 15 ms-1 D 20ms-1
27 A car starts from rest and accelerates E 30 ms-1
uniformly . If the distance reached is 900
m after travels in 30 s, calculate the
acceleration of the car. 33 A coconut falls vertically to the ground. If
the coconut takes 1.5 s to fall to the
A 5 ms -2 B 4 ms-2 ground, calculate the height from which
C 3 ms-2 D 2 ms-2 it fell.
E 1 ms-2
A 8.45 m B 11.25 m
28 A lorry start from rest and accelerates C 15.00 m D 22.50 m
at 10 ms-2. What is the velocity of the
lorry after travels for a distance
20m ?

A 10 ms-1 B 20ms-1
C 40 ms -1
D 80 ms-1
-1
E 100 ms
E 31.25m
29 A car travels with a velocity 15 ms-1 . It
then accelerates uniformly and travels a
34 A metal sphere falls 125m vertically to
distance of 12.5 m. If the velocity
the ground. What is the time the metal
reached is 10 ms-1 find the acceleration sphere takes to reach the ground?
of the car.
A 2s B 4s
A –5.0 ms-2 B –2.5 ms-2 C 5s D 8s
C 2.5 ms-2 D 5.0 ms-2 E 10 s
E 7.5 ms-2
35 A ball is thrown vertically upwards from
30 A car moves with a velocity 40 ms-1 . the ground with a velocity of 20 ms-1.
After the brakes of the car is applied ,it Calculate the maximum height reached.
moves 100 m more before coming to
rest. Calculate the deceleration of the A 60 m B 40 m
car. C 30 m D 20 m
E 10 m
A 4 ms-2 B 8 ms-2 36 The table (a) and (b) shows the distances
C 12 ms-2 D 16 ms-2 travelled and the times taken for four
E 20 ms-2 students in a competition
Student Distance/ Time/ s
31 A lorry moves with a velocity 20 ms-1. m
After the brakes of the car is applied it P 100 20
moves for a distance 4 m before coming Q 120 20
Table (a)
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Student Distance/ Time/ s images on the stroboscopic
m photograph.
R 100 20
S 100 15
Table (b) …………………………………………………………
………
(a) Compare the speeds of the

(i) student P dan student Q …………………………………………………………


………
……………………………………………… (b) Relate the similarities in (a) to
….............. explain a concept of
(ii) student R dan student S motion.

………………………………………………
….............. ……………………………………………………
(b) State the relationship between ……………
(i) the speed and the distance in
table (a)
……………………………………………… …………………………………………………………
….............. ………
(c) What will happen to the ticker timer
………………………………..................... if it is connected to a d.c. supply ?
...................
(ii) the speed and the distance in
table (b) …………………………………………………………
………
……………………………………………… (d) What will happen to the motion of
….............. the glider if the slope of the
declined plane is increased?
……………………………….....................
.................. ……………………………………………………
(c) Based on the relationship in ……………
(b),state the definition of speed. 38 The following figure shows a tape chart .
The chart is produced by the motion of a
……………………………………………… trolly.The ticker timer used a supply
… voltage 12 V a.c. at 50 Hz.

37 Figure (a) shows a ticker tape for the


motion of a trolly .
Figure (b) shows a stroboscopic
photograph for the motion of a glider .

(b
)
(a) Describe the type of motion is shown
(a) Observe the figure (a) and (b) and in the tape chart.
state two
similarities between the postions of .................................................................
the ticks on the ticker tape and the ..........................

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……………………………………………………….....
................................................................. ..
.......................... (ii) Calculate the velocity of the
(b) What ishe time interval between stone when it hits the ground.
two consecutive dots ?
40 Each figure below shows two positions of
................................................................. a student on a swing. The initial position
.......................... in each figure is different.
(c) Calculate
(i) the minimum velocity

(ii) the maximum velocity

(iii) the average velocity.


Observe the positions of each of the
swing in each diagram and the
(iv) the acceleration. appearance of the student when she
swings.
Based on the observations:

39 The following equation shows the (a) State one suitable inference that
equations of linear motion of an object can be made.
with uniform acceleration. (b) State one apporopriate hypothesis
v = u + at for an investigation.
(a) (i) What is meant by the symbol of (c) With the use of apparatus such as
‘a’ trolley, ticker timer and other
apparatus , describe an experimental
framework to test your hypothesis.
…………………………………………………… In your description , state clearly the
…...... following:
(ii) Give the definition of the symbol (i) Aim of the experiment
of ‘a’ (ii) Variables in the experiment
(iii) List of apparatus and materials
.......................................................... (iv) Arrangement of the apparatus
....................... (v) The procedure of the
(b) (i) What is the information can you experiment which
get from include the method of controlling
the term of ‘at’ the manipulated variable and the
method of measuring the
responding variable.
(vi) Way you wouldtabulate the
………………………………………………………..... data
.. (vii)Way you would analysis the data
(ii) What is the S.I. units for the
term of ‘at’

(c) The above equation can also be used


for an object in state of free-fall. A
stone fall freely to the ground from
rest in 4 s.
(i) What is meant by ‘fall freely’?

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