Anda di halaman 1dari 7

Writing
the
Formal
Research
Paper


Learning
Experience
Final
Draft


Learning
Context:
The
overall
purpose
of
this
Learning
Experience
is
to
introduce,
and
successfully
complete,
the
formal
research
paper.

This
research
paper
will
be
based
upon
a
topic
chosen
by
the
student,
with
peer
guidance
and
on
collaborative
ideas
as
well
as
guidance

from
the
instructor.
The
goals
of
this
LE
include:
having
students
effectively
pick
a
relevant
and
arguable
topic
to
research,
introducing

students
to
correct
MLA
citation
and
to
the
importance
of
giving
credit
where
credit
is
due.
Students
will
become
comfortable
with

conducting
research,
writing
for
a
formal
audience,
and
producing
an
expository
piece
of
writing
‐
in
which
they
argue
a
point
using

outside
information
through
synthesis
of
ideas
and
sources.
The
students
will
need
prior
knowledge
of
developing
and
organizing
a

simple
essay,
but
we
will
also
check
for
understanding
by
including
lessons
on
ways
to
effectively
organize
a
research‐based
essay
as
well

as
what
an
effective
and
valid
source
looks
like,
how
to
write
in
a
formal/expository
voice,
etc.



Standards:
p.
45
Common
Core
State
Standards


2.
Write
informative/explanatory
texts
to
examine
and
convey
complex
ideas,
concepts,
and
information
clearly
and
accurately
through

the
effective
selection,
organization,
and
analysis
of
content.

a.
Introduce
a
topic;
organize
complex
ideas,
concepts,
and
information
to
make
important
connections
and
distinctions;
include

formatting
(e.g.,headings),
graphics
(e.g.,
figures,
tables),
and
multimedia
when
useful
to
aiding
comprehension.

b.
Develop
the
topic
with
well‐chosen,
relevant,
and
sufficient
facts,
extended
definitions,
concrete
details,
quotations,
or
other

information
and
examples
appropriate
to
the
audience’s
knowledge
of
the
topic.


e.
Establish
and
maintain
a
formal
style
and
objective
tone
while
attending
to
the
norms
and
conventions
of
the
discipline
in
which
they

are
writing.


9.
Draw
evidence
from
literary
or
informational
texts
to
support
analysis,
reflection,
and
research.


p.
46
Common
Core
State
Standards:
Research
to
Build
and
Present
Knowledge


8.
Gather
relevant
information
from
multiple
authoritative
print
and
digital
sources,
using
advanced
searches
effectively;
assess
the

usefulness
of
each
source
in
answering
the
research
question;
integrate
information
into
the
text
selectively
to
maintain
the
flow
of
ideas,

avoiding
plagiarism
and
following
a
standard
format
for
citation.


Assessment
Plan:
The
assessments
will
be
tied
directly
to
the
Performance
Indicators
because
there
will
be
formative
assessments

throughout
this
LE
that
will
gauge
students’
abilities
to
effectively
draw
evidence
from
sources
and
synthesize
this
evidence
through
the

use
of
formal
voice
in
writing.
Many
rough
drafts
will
be
produced,
and
students
will
also
be
formatively
assessed
based
on
the

introductory
tasks
of
finding
valid
sources
and
citing
those
sources
correctly
in
MLA
format.
Essentially,
each
step
of
the
research
paper

process
will
be
formatively
assessed
in
order
to
measure
student
growth
throughout
the
LE.
I
will
do
this
by
using
a
checklist
and

collecting
student
work
to
briefly
review
for
any
challenges
or
confusions
that
students
might
face.
I
will
also
use
small
rubrics
to
assess

each
step
of
the
learning
experience,
so
that
students
are
clear
on
expectations,
goals,
and
objectives.
Each
assessment
will
be
individual,

but
students
will
engage
in
brainstorming
and
small
group
activities
in
order
to
gain
support
and
ideas
from
their
peers.
Student
progress

will
be
supported
and
monitored
through
the
teacher
reaching
out
to
each
student
during
in‐class
work
time
to
gauge
understanding
and

progress.
The
teacher
will
keep
track
of
certain
checkpoints
in
the
LE
and
note
when
a
student
is
struggling
or
has
not
met
a
checkpoint.

In
this
case,
the
teacher
will
provide
some
additional
instruction
and
guidance
to
that
student,
as
needed.

The
summative
assessment
will

be
the
final
draft
of
the
research
paper,
submitted
in
the
form
of
a
portfolio,
including
the
formative
steps
in
the
writing
process
(See

rubric,
which
highlights
the
writing
process
aspect
of
the
research
paper
in
the
final
portfolio).

All
rubrics
and
instructions
for
each
step

of
the
process
will
be
provided
to
students
in
paper
form
and
online
for
constant
reference.
In
this
way,
students
can
track
their
own

progress
while
referring
to
the
expectations.



Criteria
 Master
Researcher
 Developing
Researcher
 Lacking
in
Comprehension
 Back
to
the
Drawing
Board

Topic
Choice
 Topic
is
arguable
and
 Topic
is
arguable
and
 Topic
is
minimally
 Topic
is
vague
and

objective.

The
student
 objective,
but
the
student
 arguable,
but
lacks
enough
 subjective.
It
does
not

remains
on
topic
for
the
 makes
minimal
reference
to
substance
to
provide
the
 support
analysis
or
inquiry,

entirety
of
the
research
 the
topic
throughout
the
 opportunity
for
analysis
 and
is
not
arguable.

paper.

 research
paper
and/or
 and
reflection.
The
student



 strays
off‐topic
at
times.
 strays
off‐topic
for
at
least

half
of
the
paper.

Research
Process
 The
student
has
included
 The
student
has
included
 The
annotated
bibliography
The
student
has
neglected
to

his
or
her
annotated
 his
or
her
annotated
 is
incomplete.
3‐4
sources
 include
his
or
her
annotated

bibliography,
which
has
 bibliography.

1‐2
sources
 cited
in‐text
are
not
 bibliography.
5
or
more

been
approved
by
the
 cited
in‐text
are
not
 reflected
on
the
Works
 sources
cited
in‐text
are
not

teacher
and
used
in
the
 reflected
on
the
Works
 Cited
page,
or
3‐4
sources
 reflected
on
the
Works
Cited

final
draft.
The
works
cited
 Cited
page,
or
1‐2
sources
 on
the
Works
Cited
page
 page,
or
5
or
more
sources

page
reflects
the
sources
 on
the
Works
Cited
page
 are
not
reflected
in
the
 on
the
Works
Cited
page
are

used
in
the
final
draft.
 are
not
reflected
in
the
 paper.
 not
reflected
in
the
paper.

paper.

Argument
Development
 The
student
has
developed
 The
topic
is
partially
 The
topic
is
 The
topic
is
undeveloped

(Body
Paragraphs)
 the
topic
with
well‐chosen,
 lacking
in
relevant
and
 underdeveloped
with
 with
irrelevant
facts,

relevant,
and
sufficient
 sufficient
facts,
concrete
 minimally
relevant
facts
 definitions,
and
few
to
no

facts,
extended
definitions,
 details,
extended
 and
vague
details
&
 concrete
details.
The
student

concrete
details,
and
 definitions,
and
relevant
 definitions.
The
quotations
 has
provided
few
to
no

quotations
appropriate
to
 quotations,
which
are
 are
inappropriate
to
the
 quotations,
and
the

the
audience’s
knowledge
 mostly
appropriate
to
the
 audience’s
knowledge
of
 argument
is
not
suited
for
a

of
the
topic.
 audience’s
knowledge
of
 the
topic.
 formal
audience.

the
topic.

Writing
Style
 The
student
establishes
and
The
student
usually
 The
student
rarely
 The
student
maintains
an

maintains
a
formal
style
 maintains
a
formal
style
 maintains
a
formal
style
 informal
style
and
a

and
objective
tone
while
 and
objective
tone
while
 and
objective
tone
while
 subjective
tone,
while

attending
to
the
norms
and
 mostly
attending
to
the
 usually
ignoring
the
norms
 ignoring
the
norms
and

conventions
of
the
research
norms
and
conventions
of
 and
conventions
of
the
 conventions
of
the
research

paper.
 the
research
paper.
 research
paper.
 paper.

Textual
Evidence
 The
student
draws
 The
student
draws
some
 The
student
makes
minimal
The
paper
lacks
research‐
evidence
from
 evidence
from
 evidence‐based
analyses
of
 based
evidence.


informational
texts
to
 informational
texts
to
 the
text.

 

support
analysis,
reflection,
somewhat
support
analysis,

and
research.
 reflection,
and
research.




 




Textual
Evaluation
 The
student
evaluates
the
 The
student
somewhat
 The
student
only
minimally
 The
student
does
not
assess

informational
texts
to
 evaluated
the
informational
evaluates
the
validity
and
 the
validity
or
relevance
of

support
analysis,
reflection,
texts.

 relevance
of
the
texts,
 the
texts.

and
research.

 
 doing
so
in
a
manner

irrelevant
to
the
research‐
based
task
at
hand.

Research
Effectiveness
 The
student
gathers
 The
student
gathers
mostly
 The
student
gathers
little
 The
student
gathers
no

relevant
information
from
 relevant
information
from
 relevant
information
from
 relevant
information
from

multiple
authoritative
print
multiple
authoritative
print
 few
authoritative
print
and
 few
authoritative
print
and

and
digital
sources,
using
 and
digital
sources,
 digital
sources,
rarely
using
 digital
sources,
never
using

advanced
searches
 sometimes
using
advanced
 advanced
searches
 advanced
searches

effectively;
assesses
the
 searches
effectively;
 effectively;
seldom
assesses
 effectively;
barely
assesses

usefulness
of
each
source
in
 sometimes
assesses
the
 the
usefulness
of
each
 the
usefulness
of
each

answering
the
research
 usefulness
of
each
source
in
 source
in
answering
the
 source
in
answering
the

question;
integrates
 answering
the
research
 research
question;
seldom
 research
question;
does
not

information
into
the
text
 question;
sometimes
 integrates
information
into
 integrate
information
into

selectively
to
maintain
the
 integrates
information
into
 the
text
selectively,
barely
 the
text
selectively,
barely

flow
of
ideas,
avoiding
 the
text
selectively,
avoids
 avoids
plagiarism
and
 avoids
plagiarism
and

plagiarism
and
follows
MLA
plagiarism
and
follows
MLA
 minimally
follows
MLA
 minimally
follows
MLA

format
for
citation
with
 format
for
citation
with
1‐3
 format
for
citation
with
4‐6
 format
for
citation
greater

zero
mistakes.
 mistakes.
 mistakes.
 than
6
mistakes.



Procedure:



Day
One
–
The
instructor
begins
by
introducing
online
and
textual
sources,
giving
a
brief
spoken
introduction
to
the
LE
and
explaining

that
the
students
will
be
conducting
research.
The
instructor
will
also
point
out
characteristics
of
an
effective
research
text,
as
well
as

characteristics
of
a
valid
source.
This
will
be
merely
an
introduction,
to
be
expanded
upon
at
the
end
of
this
lesson.
The
instructor
will

draw
upon
prior
experiences
of
the
students
in
order
to
base
instruction
on
student
opinions
and
understandings
of
research.

The

students
will
then
work
together
in
groups
to
analyze
these
textual
and
online
examples
(as
identified
in
the
Resource
section)
and

determine
whether
or
not
they
are
valid.
The
class
will
then
come
together,
and,
guided
by
the
instructor,
will
further
discuss
what
makes

a
valid
source,
wrapping
up
with
ways
to
look
for
these
sources.



Day
Two
–
The
next
lesson
will
begin
with
the
instructor
reviewing
the
content
from
the
previous
lesson,
and
introducing
how
to
properly

cite
research
materials,
both
on
the
works
cited
page
and
in‐text.
Students
will
again
practice
this
in
small
groups,
while
the
teacher

checks
for
understanding
by
walking
around
and
speaking
to
groups.
At
the
end
of
the
class,
the
teacher
will
hand
out
many
articles
and

have
each
student
cite
one
of
them
to
hand
in
as
an
exit
slip.
In
this
way,
the
teacher
will
be
able
to
gauge
the
students’
understandings
of

the
complexities
of
properly
citing
sources.
This
will
not
be
the
last
time
that
finding
valid
sources
or
citing
will
be
addressed!


Day
Three
–
In
the
third
lesson,
students
will
review
examples
of
expository
research
papers.
The
teacher
will
project
some
text
onto
the

board
to
read
and
review
as
a
class,
and
the
teacher
will
also
provide
speeches
that
prove
a
point
(as
identified
in
the
Resource
section).

In
this
way,
the
lesson
can
be
broken
up
and
can
also
appeal
to
auditory
as
well
as
visual
learners.
Following
the
class’
analysis
and

discussion
of
the
example
papers,
the
teacher
will
introduce
possible
topic
choices.
Student
will
then
do
a
think‐pair‐share
activity
to

brainstorm
some
topic
ideas.
The
lesson
will
wrap‐up
with
students
working
alone
to
narrow
down
topics.
Following
this
general
pattern

of
teacher
introduction/class
discussion,
small
group
sharing,
and
individual
brainstorming,
the
LE
will
continue
on
to
the
point
where

the
students
are
researching,
citing,
analyzing
sources,
drafting,
and
drafting
again.
Following
this
lesson,
students
would
refine
their

research
topic
for
homework
and
write
a
thesis
and
an
introduction
to
be
worked
on
and
polished
in
the
next
class.



Day
Four
‐
Lesson
four
will
consist
of
a
writing
workshop
where
students
can
continue
to
hone
in
on
their
research
topic
and
search
for

sources
to
support
their
thesis.

The
focus
of
this
workshop
will
be
the
thesis
and
developing
the
introduction.
Students
can
peer

conference
or
conference
with
the
instructor.
The
teacher
will
provide
some
guiding
suggestions
to
students
in
the
form
of
handouts.

These
handouts
will
include
a
checklist
for
developing
a
strong
thesis.




Day
Five
–
Students
will
have
the
opportunity
to
convey
challenges
and
questions
to
the
class
and
to
the
instructor.
The
instructor
will

field
questions
and
concerns.
The
students
will
then
be
provided
with
more
time
to
work
on
their
research.
Now
that
they
have
a
thesis

and
the
beginnings
of
an
introduction,
students
can
effectively
research
and
find
arguments
for
and
against
their
thesis.
The
teacher
will

facilitate
time
in
the
library
and
computer
lab.
Students
will
receive
a
similar
checklist
to
the
one
provided
for
constructing
a
thesis.
This

checklist
will
outline
the
important
steps
to
conducting
effective
research
and
obtaining
all
proper
resources
for
citing
and
arguing

sources.



Day
Six
–
On
the
last
day
of
the
Learning
Experience,
students
will
peer
review
their
first
drafts
–
complete
with
thesis,
cited
sources,
a

Works
Cited
page,
developed
analysis
for
each
source,
and
a
strong
developed
argument.
Students
will
again
be
able
to
convey
challenges,

concerns
and
questions
to
the
class
and
to
the
teacher.
While
this
Learning
Experience
will
continue
on
as
students
re‐write
and
re‐draft

to
work
toward
their
final
piece,
the
class
will
cover
new
material
while
reviewing
and
revisiting
the
research
paper
in
order
to
support

students
in
this
ongoing
assignment.
The
first
draft
will
be
due
on
the
class
after
the
sixth
day,
the
second
draft
will
be
due
the
following

week,
and
the
third
and
final
draft
will
be
due
the
following
week.



Resources:



The
Purdue
OWL
Family
of
Sites.
The
Writing
Lab
and
OWL
at
Purdue
and
Purdue
U,
2008.
Web.
5
December
2010.


This
comprehensive
family
of
sites
provides
valuable
examples,
tips,
and
formats
for
citing
sources
for
research
papers
written
in
MLA

style.
The
information
can
either
be
printed
out
and
given
to
students,
or
students
may
use
the
entire
site
to
reference
throughout
the

research
and
writing
process.



Persuasive
Speech.
Voice
Masters,
2006.
Web.
5
December
2010.



This
website
provides
examples
of
persuasive
speeches
as
well
as
techniques
to
achieve
a
persuasive
speech.
Students
can
listen
to
these

speeches
to
evaluate
what
creates
a
persuasive
argument.
While
the
site
focuses
on
speech,
students
will
learn
different
dimensions
of

communicating
an
argument
effectively.
The
homepage
states,
“One
must
always
be
aware
that
what
may
seem
important
to
you,
may
be

irrelevant
to
your
audience”
(Persuasive
Speech).

Students
can
see
how
learning
how
to
convey
an
effective
argument
correlates
to
many

real
–
life
careers,
such
as
acting,
presenting
to
a
group,
and
many
other
options.
Through
engaging
in
this
site,
students
will
make

connections
between
their
own
research
question
and
thesis
and
real
–
world
arguments
that
have
been
proven
or
disproven.



Prusa,
Andrea
Romana.
“Expressing
cells
in
human
amniotic
fluid:
a
new
source
for
stem
cell
research?”
Oxford
Journals:
Human


Reproduction
(2003):

n.
pag.
Web.
5
December
2010.



This
article
comes
from
an
online
journal,
and
there
is
an
abstract
provided.
This
site
serves
as
a
reliable
source,
and
students
can
peruse

other
articles
from
this
online
journal.
The
teacher
will
show
this
as
an
example
of
a
scholarly
source,
and
will
point
out
the
elements
of

the
site
that
prove
it
as
such.



“Stem
Cell
Research
Pros
and
Cons.”
Capitalist
Shrugged:
What
would
happen
if
producers
shrugged
the
world
from
their
shoulders?
(2010):


n.
pag.
Web.
5
December
2010.



This
article
comes
from
a
personal
blog.
There
is
a
lot
of
personal
bias
and
opinion
written
into
the
blog
article,
and
the
teacher
will
use

this
as
an
example
of
an
unreliable
source
for
research
writing.
While
the
blog
brings
up
some
useful
questions
to
consider
about
stem
cell

research
(a
popular
research
topic),
the
information
is
fragmented
and
inconsistent.
Students
will
examine
sources
like
this
one
and

analyze
why
a
blog
might
not
be
considered
a
scholarly
source.


We
will
need
to
use
the
school
library’s
databases
in
order
to
conduct
research.
Instructor
will
introduce
the
power
of
expository

language
in
order
to
convey
a
point
or
effectively
engage
in
an
argument.
The
students
will
utilize
computers
and
the
Internet
as
well
as

printed
resources,
and
they
will
need
to
have
ample
in‐class
workshop
time
in
order
to
produce
focused,
guided
work
that
is
peer

reviewed
and
teacher
guided
through
organized
peer
review
activities
where
students
can
work
in
effective
collaborative
environments.
I

would
also
provide
these
digital
resources
in
the
classroom
in
order
to
provide
equal
opportunities
for
students
who
may
not
have
access

to
computers
and
the
Internet
outside
of
school.

 


Instructional/Environmental
Modifications:
To
facilitate
inclusion
of
learners
with
special
needs,
I
will
pay
close
attention
to
the

checkpoints
and
formative
assessments
and
use
those
as
indicators
of
students
who
may
be
struggling
with
the
pace
or
content
of
the
LE.

I
will
also
use
regression
strategies
to
make
sure
that
before
we
continue
on
to
a
new
concept,
we
first
review
the
older
concepts
and

create
a
scaffolding
experience
where
students
can
build
their
knowledge
from
prior
knowledge.
I
will
take
careful
attention
to
support

each
student
throughout
the
process,
with
after‐school
workshop
hours
as
well
as
workshop
time
in
the
classroom.
For
students
with

potential
physical
disabilities,
I
would
make
arrangements
for
laptops
to
be
brought
into
the
classroom,
the
students
to
be
able
to
use

other
methods
of
recording
rather
than
typing
or
writing.
Blind
students
would
need
assistance
dictating
and
recording
their
findings
and

writings,
deaf
students
would
need
more
visual
aids
and
written
and
shown
instructions,
and
students
who
are
bound
to
a
wheelchair

would
benefit
from
working
on
a
laptop.



Time
Required:
For
this
LE,
I
will
create
6
lessons
based
on
a
50‐minute
block
of
time.

This
LE
will
take
between
15
and
17
hours
for
the

teacher
to
prepare
(an
hour
or
more
per
individual
lesson).



Reflection:
I
chose
to
write
this
particular
Learning
Experience,
because
I
feel
that
research
skills
and
writing
skills,
when
developed
fully

and
completely,
will
carry
the
learner
through
his
or
her
collegiate
academic
experience,
as
well
as
through
his
or
her
career
prospects

and
life
experiences.
As
a
student
who
had
strong
and
effective
instruction
in
the
realm
of
researching
and
writing
for
a
formal
audience,
I

have
witnessed
the
worth
that
these
skills
possess
in
all
disciplines.
Through
spending
a
lot
of
time
on
this
LE,
my
hope
is
that
students

will
become
confident
and
proficient
in
their
research
and
writing
skills.
My
hope
is
that
I
would
be
able
to
extend
this
unit
throughout

the
curriculum
in
a
way
that
would
support
research
and
writing
skills
long
after
the
final
draft
of
this
particular
Learning
Experience
has

been
evaluated.
This
Learning
Experience
is
important
to
me
because
I
hope
to
dispel
the
myth
that
research
papers
are
something
to
be

feared;
rather,
I
would
like
to
make
this
process
one
of
discovery
with
limited
frustrations,
valuing
the
student’s
personal
writing
process

while
introducing
strategies
to
learn
by
and
to
be
guided
by.
My
wish
is
that
students
would
carefully
choose
a
topic
that
will
keep
their

interest
and
motivate
their
research
throughout
this
Learning
Experience.