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# SFT 3023 CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION

Chapter Objectives

## • Describe simple harmonic motion.

• Solve problems related to SHM.
• Recognize and describe how energy and speed
vary in such motion and solve related problems.
CHAPTER 1: • Describe model of simple pendulum and explain
PERIODIC MOTION phenomenon of resonance.
• Derive equation describing the damped oscillations
and solve related problems.

WZA

## CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION

Chapter Outline 1.1 Introduction
1. Introduction • The figures shows a model for periodic motion.
2. Simple Harmonic Motion
3. Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
4. The Simple Pendulum
5. Damped Oscillations
6. Forces Oscillations
7. Resonance

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CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION
1.1 Introduction 1.1 Introduction

• Figure (a) is when at the equilibrium position the • Amplitude of the motion, A, is the maximum
spring exerts zero force. magnitude of displacement, which is, the
• When the body is displaced from equilibrium, the maximum value of x .
spring exerts a restoring force back toward the • The SI unit of A is meters.
equilibrium position. • A cycle is one complete round trip.
• Figure (b) is the free body diagrams for the 3 • The period T is the time for one cycle. The
positions. SI unit is seconds.
• The frequency, f, is the number of cycles in
a unit of time. The SI unit is hertz.

1 hertz = 1 Hz = 1 cycles/s = 1 s -1

## CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION

1.1 Introduction Example 1.1 Period, frequency and angular frequency

• The angular frequency, ω, is 2π times the frequency: An ultrasonic transducer used for medical
ω = 2π f diagnosis oscillates at a frequency 6.7 MHz = 6.7 x
• The relationships between frequency and period is 106 Hz. How much time does each oscillation take,
and what is the angular frequency?
1 1
f = T= (13.1)
T f
• From the definition of ω,

w = 2π f = (13.2)
T

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CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION
1.2 Simple Harmonic Motion 1.2 Simple Harmonic Motion

## • Almost any systems that are displaced from a Hooke’s Law

position of stable equilibrium exhibits oscillations.
• If the oscillation is small, the oscillations are almost • A mass on the end of a spring that obeys Hooke’s
always of the type called simple harmonic motion law executes oscillations of the type that we call
(SHM). simple harmonic
• Example: • Hooke’s law asserts that the force exerted by a
– The first reliable clocks used a pendulum spring on a mass has the form
– Modern watches use the oscillations of a quartz crystal
• Where k is positive spring constant and x is
displacement of the spring from its equilibrium length

## CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION

1.2 Simple Harmonic Motion 1.2 Simple Harmonic Motion
• The scalar equation of motion for a cart with mass m
that is displaced from the equilibrium position is

## • The minus sign means the acceleration and

displacement always have opposite signs.
• This acceleration is not constant.
• A body that undergoes simple harmonic motion is
called harmonic oscillator.

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CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION
1.2 Simple Harmonic Motion 1.2 Simple Harmonic Motion
Equations of Simple Harmonic Motion
• Figure shows the ball at point Q rotates
counterclockwise in uniform circular motion. Its
shadow at point P moves in a simple harmonic
motion, exactly like a body oscillating on an ideal
spring.
• Simple harmonic motion is the projection of uniform
circular motion onto a diameter.
• The circle in which the ball moves so that its
projection matches the motion of the oscillating body
is called the circle of reference.

## CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION

1.2 Simple Harmonic Motion 1.2 Simple Harmonic Motion
Equations of Simple Harmonic Motion Equations of Simple Harmonic Motion
• As the point Q moves around the reference circle
with constant angular speed w, the vector OQ rotates
with the same angular speed, the vector is called
phasor.
• The x-component of the phasor at time t is just the x-
coordinate of the point Q:

## • Its acceleration is always constant and given by the

angular velocity squared times the radius of the circle

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CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION
1.2 Simple Harmonic Motion 1.2 Simple Harmonic Motion
Equations of Simple Harmonic Motion Equations of Simple Harmonic Motion

• Its acceleration a Q is always constant and given by • The acceleration of a harmonic oscillator is related to
the angular velocity squared times the radius of the the force constant k and mass m of the oscillating
circle body by

## • Combining this with Eqs. (13.5) and (13.6), we get

the acceleration of point P is • The angular frequency of simple harmonic motion for
a body of mass m, acted on by a restoring force with
force constant k:

## CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION

1.2 Simple Harmonic Motion 1.2 Simple Harmonic Motion

## Equations of Simple Harmonic Motion Equations of Simple Harmonic Motion

• The unit of force constant k are N/m or kg/s2. • Frequency tells you how many cycles of oscillation
• The frequency and period are occur per second.
• Angular frequency tells you how many radians per
second this corresponds to on the reference circle.
• In simple harmonic motion the period and frequency do
not depend on the amplitude A.

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CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION
Example 1.2 Angular frequency, frequency and period in SHM Example 1.2 Angular frequency, frequency and period in SHM

## A spring is mounted horizontally, with its left end held

stationary. By attaching a spring balance to the free
end and pulling toward the right, we determine that
the stretching force is proportional to the
displacement and that a force of 6.0N causes a
displacement 0.03m. We removed the spring balance
and attach a 0.50 kg body to the end, pull it a
distance of 0.02 m, release it, and watch it oscillate.
a)Find the force constant of the spring.
b)Find the angular frequency, frequency and period of
the oscillation.

## CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION

1.2 Simple Harmonic Motion 1.2 Simple Harmonic Motion

Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration in SHM Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration in SHM
• At any later time, the angle in Eq. (13.5) is θ = wt + φ • In simple harmonic motion the position is a periodic,
and the displacement in SHM is sinusoidal function of time.
• The figures below show the variation of simple
harmonic motion. All cases shown have φ = 0 .
• The figure shows the graph x versus t.
• Figure (a) shows amplitude A increases from curve 1
to 2 to 3. Changing A alone has no effect on the
period.

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CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION
1.2 Simple Harmonic Motion 1.2 Simple Harmonic Motion

## • Figure (b) shows mass m Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration in SHM

increases 1 to 2 to 3. • Figure indicate that these 3 curves show SHM with
Increasing m alone the same period and amplitude but with different
increases the period. phase angle φ .

## • Figure (c) shows the force

constant k increases from 1
to 2 to 3. Increasing k alone
decreases the period

## CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION

1.2 Simple Harmonic Motion 1.2 Simple Harmonic Motion

## Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration in SHM Problem Solving Strategy: SHM I

• The amplitude is Set Up
• Identify the unknowns, known and target variables.
v02x • Distinguished between basic properties and properties
A = xo2 + (13.19)
w2 of the motion.
• Define an x-axis if necessary.
Problem Solving Strategy: SHM I
Execute
Identify
• Use the equations given in Section 13.1 and 13.2 to
• An oscillating system under goes simple harmonic
solve for target variables.
motion only if the restoring force is directly
proportional to the displacement. • Express φ in radians.
• Use Eqs. (13.11), (13.15) and (13.16) to find x, vx and
ax.

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CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION
Example 1.3 Describing SHM 1.3 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion

Let’s return to the system of mass and horizontal • The total mechanical energy E = K + U is conserved
spring we considered in Eg. 13.2 with k = 200N/m
and m = 0.5 kg. this time we give the body an initial
displacement of +0.1015 m and an initial velocity of
• As E is constant, this quantity equals E at any point.
+0.40 m/s. a) Find the period, amplitude and phase
angle of the motion. B) Write equations for the
displacement, velocity, and acceleration as
functions of time.

## CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION

1.3 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion 1.3 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion

• We can verify this equation by substituting x and vx • We can use Eq. (13.21) to solve for the velocity of the
from Eq. (13.13) and (13.15) and using w2 = k / m from body at a given displacement:
Eq. (13.9):

## • For example, when x = ± A / 2

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CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION
1.3 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion 1.3 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion

## • The figure shows that kinetic energy, potential energy,

and total mechanical energy as a function of position
of SHM.
• At each value of x the sum of the values of K and U
equals the constant value of E.

## CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION

1.3 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion Example 1.4 Velocity, acceleration and energy in SHM

Problem Solving Strategy: Simple Harmonic Motion II In the oscillation described in Example 13.2, k =
• The energy equation Eq. (13.21) is a useful relation 200 N/m, m = 0.5 kg, and the oscillating mass is
between velocity and position, especially when energy released from rest at x = 0.02 m. a) Find the
quantities are also required. maximum and minimum velocities attained by the
oscillating body. b) Compute the maximum
acceleration. c) Determine the velocity and
acceleration when the body has moved halfway to
the center from its original position. d) Find the total
energy, potential energy, and kinetic energy at this
position.

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CHAPTER 1: PERIODIC MOTION
Example 1.4 (SOLN)
Set Up

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