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 RADIOWAVE PROPAGATION This chapter is a presentation of the basic principles and algorithms related to radiowave propagation used in radio-relay transmission. Both loss and attenuation algorithms as well as fade prediction models for different fading mechanisms are presented and discussed. The chapter also includes a presentation of the basic concepts of main propagation mechanisms, Fresnel zone, equivalent and true Earth radii and the decibel scale. Diversity, hardware failure and passive repeaters are also presented. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 The decibel 1 1.1 A relative comparison 1 1.2 Some motivations for using decibels 1 1.3 Absolute comparisons 1 1.4 The comparison of field quantities 2 1.5 Power and field quantity ratios 3 2 The main propagation mechanisms 3 2.1 Propagation along the earthís surface 4 3 The Fresnel zone and clearance 4 3.1 Definition 4 3.2 The Fresnel ellipsoid 4 3.3 Clearance 5 4 Equivalent and true earth radii 6 4.1 Earth-radius factor 6 4.2 Comparing the equivalent and true Earth surface 7 5 Prediction models 7 6 The prediction cycle 8 7 The loss/attenuation block 8 7.1 Free-space loss 8 7.1.1 Definition 8 7.1.2 Free-space loss between two isotropic antennas 9 7.2 Atmospheric gases 10 7.2.1 Definition 10 7.2.2 The troposphere 11 7.2.3 Chemical composition 11 7.2.4 Absorption peaks 11 7.2.5 Calculating total gas attenuation 11 7.2.5.1 Oxygen (dry air) 12 7.2.5.2 Water vapor 13 7.2.5.3 Total gas attenuation 15 7.3 Reflection 16 7.3.1 Ground reflection interference 16 7.3.2 The problems of handling reflection 17 7.3.3 Reflection coefficient 18 7.3.4 The Fresnel reflection coefficient 18 7.3.5 Divergence factor 18 7.3.6 Correction factor 19 7.3.7 Rough estimation of the total reflection coefficient 19 7.3.8 Calculation of the position of the reflection point 20 7.3.9 Optimum height difference 22 I IV 1
The decibel
1.1
A relative comparison
It is usual in radio technique that two different values or entities are
compared with one another. The comparison between two levels
(expressed in power) by taking the ratio is a classical example. The
decibel is a measure of the relationship between two power levels.
Decibel is abbreviated as dB and is defined as follows
P
A
[
dB
]
1
=
10.log
(1)
10
P
2
where P 1 and P 2 are the power levels being compared.
Note that the decibel is a measure of a relationship and has no actual
physical significance. The decibel is therefore not a measure of a
physical entity.
One decibel corresponds approximately to the smallest variation in
sound volume that can be discerned by the human ear.
1.2
Some motivations for using decibels
Some of the motivations behind the widespread use of the decibel are:
• The decibel is convenient to use since the direct relationship
between radio-related power levels covers a wide range of
numerical values. The logarithmic nature of the relationship
between two power-levels results in values that is easy to handle.
• Addition or subtraction operations can be easily performed on
logarithmic values, simplifying the handling of amplification and
attenuation.
• The manner in which human sensory organs perceive differences in
the sensory impressions of varying intensity that they receive is in
fact logarithmic.
1.3
Absolute comparisons
The decibel concept defined above is related to the quotient of two
values, and provides no information as to the absolute value of these
entities. An absolute comparison between two power levels can
however be performed if a reference value is employed, for example the
W (Watt) or mW (milliWatt), referred to respectively as dBW and
dBm.
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1
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RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING

P

1 Watt

where P is the power in Watt.

P

1 milliWatt

where P is the power in milliWatt.

Since, dBW
P
= 10
10
1W

And

P

1mW

= 10

dBm

10

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

the result obtained following division is

Or

 1 mW   dBW-dBm   = 10  10  1W

(6)

 1 − 3 W 10  dBW-dBm     10  (7) =

1W

Giving

3 =

dBW - dBm

10

Or

dBm = dBW + 30

(8)

(9)

1.4 The comparison of field quantities

The decibel concept can be generalized to also include the comparison between field magnitudes. The term field quantity refers to a quantity whose square is proportional to power. Examples of field quantities are electrical voltages, currents and field strengths.

2 Ericsson AB

4/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev B, June 2003  A

[

dBW

]

=

10.log 10

A

[

dBm

]

=

10.log 10

The application of the decibel concept results in

[

A dB

]

 = 20 ⋅ log    ( Field quantity ) 1    10 ( Field quantity ) 2

(10)

 1.5 Power and field quantity ratios Power and field quantities, lying between 10 3 and 10 -3 are expressed in their equivalent decibel values in Table 1. Power dB Field quantity dB ratios ratios 1 000=10 3 30 1 000=10 3 60 100=10 2 20 100=10 2 40 10=10 1 10 10=10 1 20 9 9.5 9 19 8 9 8 18 7 8.5 7 17 6 8 6 16 5 7 5 14 4 6 4 12 3 5 3 9.5 2 3 2 6 1 0 1 0 1/2 -3 1/2 -6 1/4 -6 1/4 -12 1/8 -9 1/8 -18 1/10=10 -1 -10 1/10=10 -1 -20 1/100=10 -2 -20 1/100=10 -2 -40 1/1000=10 -3 -30 1/1000=10 -3 -60 Table 1: Power and field ratios. 2 The main propagation mechanisms

Most of the propagation mechanisms are affected by climactic conditions. When calculating the transmission quality and availability of radio networks, the significance of the various mechanisms varies as a function of the radio spectrum. The following propagation mechanisms may however be considered as the most notable:

Free-space

Diffraction

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3   RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING • Refraction • Absorption • Scattering • Reflection 2.1 Propagation along the earthís surface An electromagnetic wave traveling close to and along the surface of the earth is affected by the following factors: • Electrical properties of the earthís surface • Earthís curvature • Atmosphere • Earthís topography • Vegetation 3 The Fresnel zone and clearance Expressions for the calculation of the earth bulge, the height of the line- of-sight, the clearance of the line of sight, the antenna heights and obstacle penetration are given in section 7.5.9. 3.1 Definition Fresnel zones are specified employing an ordinal number that corresponds to the number of half-wavelength multiples that represents the difference in radio wave propagation path from the direct path. The first Fresnel zone is therefore an ellipsoid whose surface corresponds to one half-wavelength path difference and represents the smallest volume of all the other Fresnel zones. The first Fresnel zone contains almost all the energy that is transmitted between the antennas and is therefore of great significance in the calculation of the attenuation caused by obstructing bodies. 3.2 The Fresnel ellipsoid The Fresnel zone is an ellipsoid having its focal points at the antenna points A and B as illustrated in Figure 1. The radius of the first Fresnel zone, R, is a function of the distance between A and B, the distance between any point M on the ellipsoid and the frequency. The radius of the first Fresnel zone is indirectly proportional to frequency and the higher the frequency the narrower the Fresnel zones. 4  Ericsson AB 4/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev B, June 2003 A
M
B
d
d B
A
R
d
(
d
d
)
d
(
d
d
)
A
A
A
A
R
= 547 ⋅
R
= 17 .32 ⋅
f
d
f
d
GHz
!
d A = Distance from antenna A to point M, km
!
d B = Distance from antenna B to point M, km
!
d A + d B = d = Distance between antennas A and B, km
!
R = Radius of the Fresnel zone at point M, m
! f = Frequency, MHz

Figure 1: Fresnel zone between two stations located on an equivalent earth surface (the ray beam is straight).

3.3

Clearance

The refractive properties of the atmosphere are not constant. The variations of the refraction index in the atmosphere (expressed by the earth-radius factor k) may force terrain irregularities to totally or partially intercept the Fresnel zone. Clearance can be described as any criterion to insure that the antenna heights are sufficient so that in the worst case of refraction (for which k is minimum!) the receiver antenna is not placed in the diffraction region. h c = LOS-clearance
h
c

Figure 2: The clearance of the line of sight.

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5    RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING
The direct path between the transmitter and the receiver needs a
clearance above the ground or any obstruction of at least 60% of the
radius of the Fresnel zone in order to insure free-space propagation.
Clearance values have to fit the local climate conditions.
Clearance can be considered by applying ìclearance criteriaî that are
climate dependent or by properly handling diffraction-diffraction fading
1) The higher the frequency the smaller the Fresnel zone and
consequently more vulnerable to non-LOS effects (object attenuation).
2) Low k-values lower the LOS (demand higher antenna heights) but
offer better protection against interference from other stations. Higher
k-values give higher LOS (demand lower antenna heights) but expose
the link to interference from other stations.
3) The most common discrepancy arises when the radius of the first
Fresnel zone is not compensated for its vertical projection. The more
inclined the path is the more correction is required.
4
4.1
In simple terms, one can describe the ray beam between two antennas
by employing an imagined propagation path that directly links the two
antennas. In free-space this path would describe a straight line, a so-
called optical line-of-sight.
If instead, the antennas are placed on a spherical body surrounded by an
atmosphere (as in the case for the earth), wave propagation will be
affected by variations in atmospheric refractive index as the wave
travels through the various atmospheric layers. The ray beam will now
not follow the optical line-of-sight, but will describe a curved line
between the two antennas. The form of the curve will vary as a function
of variations in the refractive index of the atmosphere traversed by the
wave.
To simplify the description of this curved ray beam, the concept of
equivalent earth surface having an equivalent earth radius, R e , has been
introduced. Defined as follows:
R
k
R
e =
(11)
6
 Ericsson AB
4/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev B, June 2003 where
k
R
= True earth radius (6.37 10 6 m)
The earth-radius factor is a function of the refractive index gradient. For
normal atmosphere (i.e., atmosphere in which the refractive index
gradient decreases linearly with altitude), the k-value is 4/3 if the
refractive index gradient is -39 N-units/km.
NOTE: k-values are determined by employing the diagram in
Chapter 15-2 after selecting the appropriate value of the refractive
4.2
Comparing the equivalent and true Earth surface
The equivalent earth surface is that earth surface that would be required
for the ray beam between the antennas to lie along a straight line, see
Figure 3. A beam that travels outside of the optical line-of-sight must
bend downwards in order to become a straight line, which is equivalent
to enlarging the earthís radius, i.e. reducing the curvature of the earth.
The earth-radius factor, k, describes exactly the degree to which the
earthís radius would have to be changed in order that the ray beam
describe a straight line.
True ray beam
Optical line-of-sight
Equivalent ray beam
Optical line-of-sight
True earth surface
Equivalent earth surface
R
R e = k R
Figure 3: The equivalent and the true earth surface.
5
Prediction models
Prediction models for the purpose of performing fading prognoses are
almost always empirical (comes from the Greek word empeiria
considerations but are only built upon observation and experience.
 Ericsson AB
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4/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev B, June 2003
 RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING Empirical models are arrived as the result of the application of mathematical regression techniques on measurement data and therefore result in a relationship that describes a variableís dependency under certain given conditions. Empirical prediction models often provide a fair description of the fading process for distances and frequencies that lie within the data- ranges for which measurements have actually been collected. Their application to other distances and frequency ranges may, on the other hand, result in significant error. 6 The prediction cycle Figure 4 of Chapter 2 (Radio-Relay Transmission Overview) illustrates the four blocks of the prediction cycle: loss/attenuation, fading, frequency planning and quality and availability. In this chapter, two blocks will be studied, namely the loss/attenuation and the fading blocks. 7 The loss/attenuation block The loss/attenuation block is composed of three main contributions: branching, propagation, and ìothersî. The branching contribution comes from the hardware required to delivery the transmitter/receiver output to the antenna, for instance, wave-guides as well as splitters and attenuators. The propagation contribution comes from the losses due to the Earth atmosphere and the terrain, for instance, free-space as well as gas, precipitation (mainly rain), ground reflection, and obstacle. The ìothersî contribution has a somewhat unpredictable and sporadic character, for instance, sandstorm as well as fog, clouds, smoke, and moving objects crossing the path. In addition, poor equipment installation and unsuccessful antenna alignment may give rise to unpredictable losses. The ìothersî contribution is normally not calculated but it can be accounted in the planning process as an additional loss and then being part of the fade margin. 7.1 Free-space loss Definition 7.1.1 Free-space wave propagation implies that the effects caused by disturbing objects and other obstacles that are located at sufficiently long distances are assumed to be negligible. 8  Ericsson AB 4/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev B, June 2003

7.1.2 Free-space loss between two isotropic antennas

Electromagnetic waves are attenuated when propagating between two points geometrically separated from each other. The attenuation is inversely proportional to the square of distance and gives the free-space loss that stands for most of the total attenuation caused by wave propagation effects. Free-space loss is always present and it is dependent on distance and frequency. The free-space loss between two isotropic antennas is currently derived from the relationship between the total output power from a transmitter and the received power at the receiver. Its value is illustrated in. The resulting expression is

 A bf = 20 log ⋅ 4 ⋅ π ⋅ d λ (12) where A bf = Free-space loss, dB d = Distance from the transmitting antenna, km λ = Wavelength, m Following the transformation of wavelength into frequency (c=2.99792500 10 8 m/s) and entering of the actual units, the following expression is attained A bf = 92.5 + 20 ⋅ log d + 20 ⋅ log f (13)

where

 A bf = Free-space loss, dB d = Distance from the transmitting antenna, km f = Frequency, GHz

The free-space loss (dB) as a function of distance (km) is illustrated in Figure 4 in the frequency range 1 to 50 GHz. -80
-90
-100
-110
-120
1GHz
-130
-140
5
10
-150
15
20
30
40
-160
50
-170
0
10
20
30
40
50
Distance, km
Free-space loss, dB

Figure 4: The free-space loss as a function of distance for eight different frequencies.

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9   RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING Advices: 1) If the distance is doubled while maintaining constant frequency, the free-space loss is increased by 20 log 2= 6 dB. The same applies to a doubling of the frequency while maintaining a constant distance. In other words, an additional attenuation of 6 dB will be caused for every doubling of either the distance or the frequency. 2) Comparing to other kind of loss, free-space loss gives the major contribution. Expressed in the GHz range, the free-space loss has a minimum of approximately 92 dB. If it is expressed in the MHz range the minimum is 92 dB ñ 60 dB = 32 dB (1 GHz = 1000 MHz → 20 log 1000 = 60 dB). 3) This relatively small increase of free-space attenuation by only 6 dB with increased distance might give the impression that long paths can easily be obtained by simply increasing the transmitter output power, or the receiver sensitivity or the antenna gain. This is not so easy to accomplish because the total path attenuation is also determined by other negative contributions, for example gas attenuation. 4) Cell-planners commonly refer to half-wave dipole antenna gains. Comparing to the above presentation for which the gain of an ìidealî isotropic antenna is 1 (0 dB), the gain of a half-wave dipole antenna is 1.64 (2.15 dB). Considering both stations of a radio link, the difference between free-space loss comparison using isotropic and half-wave dipole antennas is about 4.30 dB. 7.2 Atmospheric gases Definition 7.2.1 The atmosphere, up to an altitude of 30-40 km, consists of two layers: • Troposphere • Stratosphere An often sharply demarcated transition layer referred to as the tropopause separates the troposphere and stratosphere. It is within this troposphere in which all weather-related processes (precipitation, cloud formation, electrical storms, etc.) arise. The troposphere lies at an altitude of 10 km over the earthís medium latitudes and somewhat less over its poles. At the equator, the troposphere lies at an altitude varying between 16 and 18 km above the earthís surface. 10  Ericsson AB 4/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev B, June 2003

7.2.2 The troposphere

The troposphere consists of approximately 9/10 of the earthís atmospheric mass, and aside from variations in moisture content, density and temperature, its constitution is more or less constant throughout its volume. This layer contains just a few notable elements and their compounds, which are of significance in the propagation of radio waves.

7.2.3 Chemical composition

Nitrogen and oxygen molecules account for approximately 99% of the total volume. From the propagation point of view, it is suitable to consider the atmosphere as being a mixture of two gases, dry air and water vapor.

The chemical composition of the earthís atmosphere is illustrated in Table 2.

 Chemical Composition of the Earthís Atmosphere, % N 2 O 2 Ar CO 2 Ne He Kr Xe H 2 78.09 20.93 0.93 0.03 0.00018 5.2⋅10 -4 1.0⋅10 -4 8.0⋅0 -6 <5⋅10 -5

Table 2: The chemical composition of the earthís atmosphere.

7.2.4 Absorption peaks

Water and dry air (oxygen) result in the following absorption peaks:

Water (H 2 O) displays absorption peaks at the following radio frequencies: 22,235 GHz, 183,310 GHz and at 323.8 GHz. In addition, even greater absorption occurs at higher frequencies, where the propagation of IR and visible light transmission are primarily affected.

Oxygen molecules (O 2 ) displays absorption peaks at the following radio frequencies: 50-70 GHz (a complex system of absorption peaks lie in this frequency band), 118.75 GHz and at 367 GHz.

7.2.5 Calculating total gas attenuation

In what follows, the algorithms for the calculation of the specific attenuation due to oxygen (dry air) and water vapor will be described step-by-step.

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11    RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING
7.2.5.1
Oxygen (dry air)
Two atmospheric parameters are involved in the calculation of the
specific attenuation of oxygen: the atmospheric pressure and the
temperature.
The atmospheric pressure is normalized to the value at see level (1013
hPa) by
p
r p =
(14)
1013
where r p is the normalization factor and p (hPa) the pressure of the
atmosphere at a certain altitude. A ìnormal atmosphereî is the
atmosphere where the pressure at the see level is 760 mmHg, which
corresponds to 1 atm or 1013.25 hPa. The non-SI unity is bar (100
kPa).
The temperature is normalized to a mean value of 15 °C by
288
=
r t
(15)
(
273
+
t)
where r t is the normalization factor and t is the temperature (°C).
The following parameters are determined:
− 0.5050
0.5106
[1.5663 (1
r
) 1]
η
=
6.7665
r
r
e
t
(16)
1
p
t
0.4908
0.8491
[0.5496 (1
r
) 1]
η
=
27.8843
r
r
e
t
(17)
2
p
t
η
2
ln
η
(18)
1
a
=
ln(3.5)
a
4
b =
(19)
η
1
'
(
)
1.4954
1.6032
[
2.5280 1
(
− r
)]
γ
54
=
2.128
r
r
e
t
(20)
O
p
t
Finally, the specific attenuation due to oxygen for frequencies equal or
lower than 54 GHz is given by
12
 Ericsson AB
4/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev B, June 2003 2
3
7.34
r
r
0.3429
b
γ
'
(
54
)
p
t
O
2
3
γ
= 
+
f
10
(21)
O
2
2
2
a
f
+
0.36
r
r
(
54
f
)
+
b
p
t
where f is the frequency and the other parameters are defined earlier.
7.2.5.2
Water vapor
In the calculation of the specific attenuation due to water vapor, one
more atmospheric parameter is required: water vapor content (g/m 3 ).
NOTE: Water vapor content can be selected from the charts
included in Chapter 15-6.
However, in combination with a given temperature, the water-vapor
content selected from the charts might not be physically consistent with
the appropriate value correspondent to the vapor saturation pressure. In
other words, the water-vapor pressure cannot exceed the vapor
saturation pressure at the temperature considered. To avoid this
common mistake, one more atmospheric parameter has been introduced
in the step-by-step calculation: relative humidity (%).
The vapor saturation pressure, p s , is solely dependent on the
temperature and is given by
 17.502 ⋅ t 
(22)
t + 240.97
p
=
6.1121 e
s
The relative humidity of the atmosphere, RH, is given as the ratio
between the water vapor pressure in the atmosphere, p H2O , and the
vapor saturation pressure, p s .
p
H
2
O
RH =
⋅ 100
(23)
p
s
Solving the above expression for the vapor pressure it is obtained
RH
p
=
⋅ p
(24)
H
2
O
s
100
The water vapor content (water-vapor density) can be derived from the
general gas equation. It is given by
 Ericsson AB
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RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING

ρ

=

216.7

p H

2

O

t + 273.15

(25)

The following parameters are determined

ξ

w1

+ 0.0061ρ

(26)

ξ

w2

+ 0.0067 ρ

(27)

ξ

w3

+ 0.0059 ρ

(28)

ξ

w4

+ 0.0061ρ

(29)

ξ

w5

+ 0.006 ρ

(30)

g

22

=

1

+

)

2

) 2

(31)

g

557

=

1

+

)

2

) 2

(32)

g

557

=

1

+

)

2

) 2

(33)

g

752

=

1

+

)

2

) 2

(34)

Finally, the specific attenuation of water vapor for frequencies equal or lower than 50 GHz is given by {
2
8.5
2.5
]}
2
4
=
3.13 10
⋅r
⋅r
2 +
1.76 10
3 ⋅ ρ ⋅r
+ r
[
A+ B + C + D + E
⋅ f
⋅ ρ ⋅
10
γ w
p
t
t
t

where

 3.84 ξ w 1 ( 2.23 ( 1 − r t )) ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ e A = g 22 ( f − 22.235 ) 2 + 9.42 ⋅ ξ w 1 2

(35)

(36)

14 Ericsson AB

4/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev B, June 2003   (
0.7
(
1 −
))
(
6.4385 1
(
− r
))
10.48
e
r t
0.078
e
t
ξ w 2
ξ w 3
B =

(

f 325.153

)

2 +

9.22

ξ w 4

2

( f 380

) 2

 D = 17.87 ⋅ ξ w 5 ⋅ e ( 1.46 ( 1 − r t )) + 883.7 ⋅ ξ w 5 ⋅ g 557 ⋅ e ( ( 0.17 1 − r t )) ( f − 448 ) 2 ( f − 557 ) 2 (
0.41
(
1 − r
))
302.6
e
t
ξ w 5
g 752
E =
(
f − 752
) 2

7.2.5.3 Total gas attenuation

(37)

(38)

(39)

(40)

Specific attenuation (dB/km) for water vapor and oxygen (dry air) are separately calculated and then added together to give the total specific attenuation.

A G

= (

γ

O

+ γ

w

)

d

where

(41)

A G = Total gas attenuation, dB

γ w = Specific absorption due to the effects of water vapor, dB/km

γ o = Specific absorption due to the effects of oxygen (dry air), dB/km

d = Path length, km

The specific attenuation is strongly dependent of frequency, temperature and absolute or relative humidity of the atmosphere as is illustrated in Figure 5. Figure 5: The total specific atmospheric attenuation.

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15   (

f

183.31

)

2 +

9.48

ξ w 2

2

+

(

f

321.226

)

2 +

6.29

ξ w

3

2

C =

3.76

ξ w 4

e

(

1.6 (

1

r t

))

+

26.36

ξ w 5

e

(

(

1.09 1

r

t

))

 RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING Advices: 1) If gas absorption is calculated as a function of relative humidity and temperature, be aware both parameters are reciprocally consistent. 2) If local values of temperature are available, select the average summer temperature. 3) For tropic climate nearby large bodies of water, annual temperature charts can be employed for the selection of temperature. 4) Frequency bands located close to the strong features of water vapor (23 GHz) and oxygen (50-60 GHz) are strongly affected by attenuation. Depending on the values of temperature and humidity, the specific attenuation can be as much as 1 or 2 dB/km. This gives a large negative contribution to the fade margin, then making the quality and availability objectives harder to be accomplished. On the other hand, such high values of specific attenuation are also of benefit because it provides valuable shielding to co-channel interference. 5) Considering the ìatmospheric isolationî described above as a positive contribution, the use of high frequency systems will improve the efficiency of spectrum utilization through the enhanced opportunity for multiple frequency re-use for short-distance communication systems operating within the same part of the frequency band. 7.3 Reflection Reflection on the earth surface may give rise to multipath propagation. Depending on the path geometry, the direct ray at the receiver may be interfered with the ground-reflected ray and the ìreflection lossî can be significant. Since the refraction properties of the atmosphere are constantly changing (k-value changes), the reflection loss varies (fading). Due to its fading characteristics, reflection loss is normally not included in the link-budget because it may lead to heavy over or under dimensioning. Some rough estimations of reflection loss as a function of the total reflection coefficient is described below. 7.3.1 Ground reflection interference The respective field strength components of the direct and reflected waves interfere with one another at the receiver. Receiver interference due to ground reflection is the result of the reception of the resultant field strength, i.e., the vector addition of the field components. 16  Ericsson AB 4/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev B, June 2003

Signal strength is dependent on the total reflection coefficient (resulting from dielectric constant, conductivity and polarization) and the total phase shift (resulting from antenna height, path length, earth-radius factor, frequency and the phase angle of the reflection coefficient).

Generally, Figure 6 illustrates two extreme cases:

1) How the highest value of signal strength, A MAX , varies with the total reflection coefficient. This case illustrates amplification, i.e., the field strength components have the exact same direction, a phase angle of 0°.

2) How the lowest value of signal strength, A MIN , varies with the total reflection coefficient. This case illustrates a loss, i.e., the field strength components are directed opposite to one another, a phase angle of 180°. Figure 6: The signal strength as a function of the total reflection coefficient. The highest value of signal strength is obtained for a phase angle of 0 and the lowest value for a phase angle of 180 .

7.3.2 The problems of handling reflection

The handling of reflection is difficult and complicated, particularly due to the uncertainties and measurements of the following parameters:

High frequencies mean short wavelengths (at 23 GHz, the wavelength 1.3 cm)

Terrain data accuracy can affect the total reflection coefficient which in effect, consists of three factors, of which one is directly coupled to the degree of irregularity of the terrain

Antenna height cannot be determined with sufficient accuracy since the height database has its limitations

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17   RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING

7.3.3 Reflection coefficient

The total reflection coefficient for a smooth spherical surface consists of three elements: Fresnel reflection coefficient, divergence factor and correction factor.

7.3.4 The Fresnel reflection coefficient

The Fresnel reflection coefficient for a smooth flat surface is dependent on frequency, grazing angle, polarization and ground characteristics (from the dielectric and conductivity constant). Figure 7 shows the Fresnel reflection coefficientís absolute value for sea water as a function of grazing angle, two different frequencies and both horizontal and vertical polarization. Figure 7: The Fresnel reflection coefficient as a function of the grazing angle for seawater.

7.3.5 Divergence factor

The divergence factor is applied to the Fresnel reflection coefficient when approximating the earthís surface as being spherical. Its value is a function of antenna height, earth radius factor and the path length.

The divergence factor increases as both the difference in antenna heights, transmitter-receiver, and the value of the earth radius factor increase - it decreases with hop length (longer distances along the earthís surface must be considered as being an arc).

18 Ericsson AB

4/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev B, June 2003  7.3.6 Correction factor

The correction factor accounts for the surface irregularities (roughness) in different types of ground formations. Table 3 illustrates the approximate values of the correction factor for different ground surfaces at two different frequencies, 1 and 10 GHz.

 Ground-surface types ρ s 1 GHz ρ s 10 GHz Sea, lake, mirror-face ice field 0.95-1 0.90-1 Snow & ice field, frozen soil, naked damp ground 0.85-0.95 0.80-0.90 Damp field, flat and large scale agricultural and cattle breeding land 0.75-0.85 0.65-0.80 Flat grass land, flat field with thin bush, desert 0.55-0.75 0.45-0.65 Gently rolling terrain, savanna, partitioned plowed fields and pasture 0.35-0.55 0.25-0.45 Rolling terrain, forest, thick forest against sandy wind, wind break, medium or small city area, area where a bank or a high way transverses the radio path near the reflection point 0.18-0.35 0.09-0.25 Terrain with outstanding undulation, undulated forest, medium or small city with high rise buildings, area with large factories, stadiums located to transverses the radio path near the reflection point 0.08-0.18 0.04-0.09 Mountainous area, area with a deep ridge to shield the reflected area 0.04-0.18 <0.04

Table 3: Approximate values of the correction factor for different ground surface types.

7.3.7 Rough estimation of the total reflection coefficient

The Fresnel reflection coefficient is very close to 1 for small grazing angles, regardless of frequency and polarization. Ordinarily, grazing angles, in connection with radio links, lie between 1 and 10 mrad which is equivalent to 1/1000 and 1/100, respectively, of the relationship between the antenna height and the hop length (both are to be specified in the same units). The Fresnel reflection coefficient for a surface having good reflective characteristics may lie in the vicinity of 0.90.

Ericsson AB

4/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev B, June 2003

19   RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING The value of the divergence factor may also lie around 0.90. For example the divergence factor is 0.91, for a 30 kilometer hop and a height difference of 30 m between the antennas and k=1.33. If the height difference is increased to 330 m, the divergence factor increases to 0.97 for the same k value. If the hop length is decreased to 15 km, the divergence factor increases to 0.99 for a height difference of 30 m and a k value of 1.33. The value of the correction factor varies with frequency and ground surface type in accordance with the Table 3. For very smooth surfaces, e.g., the surface of a body of water, the correction factor is approximately 0.90. The total reflection coefficient for a spherical and very smooth surface can be approximated to 0.90⋅0.90⋅0.90 ≅ 0.73. From the diagram in Figure 6, the reflection loss is approximately 12 dB. Estimations can be easily performed if one assumes that the values of both the Fresnel reflection coefficient and divergence factor lie close to 0.90 and then apply the correction factor value given in the Table 3 for the different ground surface types. 7.3.8 Calculation of the position of the reflection point The calculation of the position of the reflection point is primarily a geometric problem and the result is therefore presented in connection with the presentation of the path profile. The ground-reflected beam path and the reflection pointís position are clarified. There are two different methods available for the calculation of the reflection pointís position. The simplest algorithm avoids the numerical solution of third-degree equation and is therefore employed in here. The following intermediate parameters are calculated initially: Intermediate parameter c h − ' ' A h B c = h ' A h + ' B (42) where c = Intermediate parameter m h′ A = Antenna height at station A, m h′ B = Antenna height at station B, m Intermediate parameter m 20  Ericsson AB 4/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev B, June 2003 2
d
m
=
(43)
4
R
(
3
h
'
+
h
'
)
10 −
e
A
B
where
m = Intermediate parameter
d
= Distance between stations A and B, km
R
e = Equivalent earth radius, km
h′
A = Antenna height at station A, m
h′
B = Antenna height at station B, m
Intermediate parameter b
m
+
1
π
1
3
c
3
m
b
=
2
cos
+
acos
(44)
(
)
3
3
m
3
3
2
m
+
1
The position of the reflection point is calculated from
d
d A =
⋅ 1+
(
b)
(45)
2
and
d
= d − d
(46)
B
A
where
d A = The distance between station A and the reflection point, km
d B = The distance between station B and the reflection point, km
d
= The distance between stations A and B, km
b
= The intermediate parameter as above
1) The grazing angle of radio-relay paths is normally very small,
currently lower than 1 degree.
2) It is strongly recommended to avoid ground reflection. This can be
achieved by ìshieldingî the path against the indirect ray.
3) Vertical polarization gives less loss. For large grazing angles the
difference between vertical and horizontal polarization is substantial.
 Ericsson AB
21
4/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev B, June 2003
 RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING 4) Changing the antenna heights can move the location of the reflection point. This approach, usually known as the ìHi-Lo techniqueî, force the reflection point to move closer to the lowest antenna by affecting the height of the higher antenna. The grazing angle increases and the path becomes less sensitive to k-value variations. 5) Space diversity normally provides good protection against reflection. It is currently applied for paths over open water surfaces. 6) The contribution due to ìreflection lossî is NOT automatically included in the link budget, but in the case reflection cannot be avoided the fade margin may be adjusted by including this contribution as ìadditional lossî in the link budget. 7.3.9 Optimum height difference To calculate the optimum height difference between the diversity antennas, one first calculates the height difference between two adjacent points along the mast, at which signal strength is a minimum (or a maximum). This calculation is naturally performed for both stations, A and B. For example, assume that an antenna is mounted on a mast at a given position, i.e., at a given height. As the antenna is moved from this starting position, the resultant signal strength (the sum of the signal strengths of the direct and the phase-shifted reflected waves) will either increase to a maximum or decrease to a minimum depending on the direction of movement. The distance between the points in which minimum (or maximum) signal strength is measured is the distance referred to above. δ h ' A   =   0.3 2 ⋅ d ⋅ f h 1     ⋅ 10 3 ' − d 2 B (47)   B 12.74  ⋅ k  δ h ' B   =   0.3 2 ⋅ d ⋅ f h 1     ⋅ 10 3 ' − d 2 A (48)   A 12.74  ⋅ k  where δh¥ A = Height difference between the two maximum/minimums at station A, m 22  Ericsson AB 4/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev B, June 2003
 RADIOWAVE PROPAGATION δh¥ B = Height difference between the two maximums/ minimums at station B, m h¥ A = Antenna height above the point of reflection at station A, m h¥ B = Antenna height above the point of reflection at station B, m d A = Distance between station A and the point of reflection, km d B = Distance between station B and the point of reflection, km d = Distance between station A and B, km f = Frequency, GHz k = Earth-radius factor The distance between the stations and the point of reflection is calculated as described in accordance to section 7.3.8. The distance required between the diversity antennas is then calculated as follows: ' δ h A δ h = A 2 (49) ' δ h B δ h = B 2 (50) where δh A = Height difference between the antennas at station A, m δh B = Height difference between the antennas at station B, m 7.4 Precipitation 7.4.1 Types of precipitation Precipitation can take the form of: • Rain • Snow • Hail • Fog and haze In common for all of the above forms of precipitation is the fact that they all consist of water particles (haze can also consist of small solid particles). Their distinctions lie in the distribution of the size and form of their water drops. Rain attenuation is, however, the main contributor in the frequency range used by commercial radio links.  Ericsson AB 23 4/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev B, June 2003 RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING Sharp demarcations between these forms of precipitation is however not always apparent. îIntermediateî states can very well occur. 7.4.2 Precipitation: now Attenuation is only caused by wet snow. The attenuation caused by dry snow can be considered as negligible for frequencies below 50 GHz. Snow cover on antennas and radomes, so-called ice coatings, can result in two problems: • Increased attenuation • Deformation of the antennaís field radiation diagram Both cases result in the reduction of the input signal strength at the receiving station. Antenna ice coating can of course be alleviated by electrically heating the antennas, however the disadvantages are unfortunately greater than the advantages. Some of the disadvantages are: • Antennas must be held warm constantly, there is otherwise the risk that melted snow forms to ice • Electrical heating may be interrupted in the event of an electrical power loss • There is no knowledge as to the impact, or its degree, on an antennaís field radiation diagram due to electrical heating 7.4.3 Precipitation: hail The effects of hail on radio connections are first apparent when hail particle sizes approach the size of radio waves, for example, 150 mm (2 GHz), 9.6 mm (31 GHz) and 6 mm (50 GHz). Hail particle sizes greater than 10 mm are however quite rare. Measurements made in Sweden show that the deepest fading lasted for just under 5 minutes and was less than 10 dB. Hailstorms can therefore not be considered as availability limiting factor, since they occur quite infrequently together with other forms of precipitation. 24  Ericsson AB 4/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev B, June 2003
 RADIOWAVE PROPAGATION 7.4.4 Precipitation: fog and haze Measurements performed in Sweden show that the deepest fading that can be related to heavy fog and haze amounted to between 4 and 7 dB. Fog and haze can therefore not be considered as availability limiting factor, since both fog and haze occur quite infrequently together with other forms of precipitation. 7.4.5 Precipitation: rain Attenuation due to rain is the generally responsible for two principal attenuation mechanisms: absorption and scattering caused by the raindrops. The extent of the attenuation due to rain is primarily a function of • Form of the rain drops • Size distribution of the rain drops The most common form of falling raindrops under the influence of air resistance is the oblate form (not exactly ellipsoidal). This causes horizontally polarized waves to attenuate more than vertically polarized waves. 7.4.6 Cumulative distribution of rain Due to the rapid time-variation of rain, the measured cumulative distribution of rain intensity is heavily dependent of the integration time selected for the measuring process. The rain intensity statistical distributions used in ITU-R reports are assumed to be the results of measurements or transformations corresponding to an integration time of 1 minute. The instantaneous rain intensity (which is extremely difficult to measure) is however more suitable from a network-planning standpoint. For the purpose of availability calculations, one is however interested in the cumulative distribution of rain intensity (rainfall rate), i.e., that percentage of time during which a given level of rain intensity is attained or exceeded. Normally, the reference level applied to rain intensity is the rain intensity that is exceeded during 0.01% of the time, which is often designated as R 0.01 . 7.4.7 Obtaining Rain Intensity (the former ITU-R model) NOTE: The former ITU-R procedure for obtaining rain intensity values employed worldwide charts of rain zones in which the world is subdivided into 15 different rain zones, see Chapter 15- 10.  Ericsson AB 25 4/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev B, June 2003 RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING

NOTE: Once the proper rain zone is geographically found, then its correspondent rain intensity expressed in mm/h for different fractions of time (%) is obtained from the table in Chapter 14-11.

For instance, three rain zones cover Sweden, C, E and G and three rain zones, K, N and P, cover Brazil.

7.4.8 Rain zones - diagram

The cumulative distributions listed in the previous table are illustrated in diagram form in Figure 8. The curves represent ITU-Rís 15 different rain zones covering the entire earth. The distribution of rain intensity (mm/h) represents a percentage of time that is equivalent to the attainment or exceeding of a given rain intensity. The Y-axis to the right shows the time percentage expressed in minutes per year. 