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Compound Microscope

A simple microscope is used to observe small objects. However it cannot be used to

see very minute objects like blood corpuscles, plant and animal cells, micro
organisms like bacteria etc. For observing these objects, we use an optical
instrument called a compound microscope.

It consists of two convex lenses called objective (lens system of smaller focal length
and smaller aperture placed near the object) and eye piece (lens system of
comparatively larger focal length and larger aperture placed near the eye). Larger
magnification is possible by compounding the effects of the two lenses; magnification
of the image of the object is produced in two stages, the image formed by one lens
serves as an object for the second lens. Both lenses are kept inside a tube such that
they have a common axis. The distance between the two lenses can be adjusted.

The object PQ is placed just beyond the focus of the objective O, as shown in Fig.
11.26. A real, inverted and magnified image P'Q'of the object is formed on the other
side of the O. This image acts as an object for the eye piece fr-The eye piece is so
adjusted that P1 Q1 is within its focal length. The' ejyfe piece then acts as a simple
microscope' and1 oduces further magnified and virtual image ,P" Q" on the sairje
side as P'Q1. The objective O is slightly adjusted so that a sharp image is forrped
that can be seen by keeping the eye close to the eye piece, The final image P" Q" is
highly magnified, virtual and inverted with respect to the object.
The magnification m of the compound microscope is,-the, angular magnification,
obtained as a product of two magnifications,, the lateral magnification produced by
the objective and the angular magnification produced by the eyepiece, and is given

m = D(L - /e) / (fJJ « (DL) / (/o./c) '. v.

Here f0 and ft are the focal lengths of the objective and the eye pifece respectively. L
is the distance between the objective and the eyepiece, which is quite large as
compared to'/e The angular magnification js increased by using objective and
eyepiece of smaller focal' lengths.
Astronomical Telescope

We cannot observe the details of a distant objects In order to see such an object
clearly and in a magnified form, we use an optical instrument called a telescope.
Telescopes are used to 'bring near' very distant objects. Telescopes designed to
observe the astronomical objects like stars, comets etc., are astronomical
telescopes. They are of two types : (a) a refracting telescope in which lenses are
used (ii) a reflecting telescope in which a combination of lenses and mirror are used.

The optical system of a refracting telescope, is similar to that of the compound

microscope. In both of them, the image formed by the objective serves as an object
for the eyepiece, through which the final image is observed. But the key difference is
that a telescope is used to view large objects very far away e.g stars, planets, comets
and other stellar bodies while a microscope is used to see small objects close to the

A simple refracting telescope consists of two convex lenses called objective and
eyepiece. The objective has a large focal length/, and large aperture to gather more
light to form bright image of a distant object, while the eyepiece has a short focal
length/e and small aperture so that whole light inside the telescope tube may enter
into the eye for distinct visibility. Both the lenses are arranged coaxially in a metal
tube in such a way that the distance between them can be changed.

The formation of an image by the telescope is shown in Fig. 11. 27. The rays coming
from a distant object are parallel to each other. These are incident on the objective O
which forms areal, inverted and diminished image P Q1 in the focal plane of the
objective. The position of the eyepiece E is now so adjusted that the image P'Q1 falls
just within the focal length of the eyepiece. The image P1 Q1 therefore serves as an
object for the eyepiece and it acts like a simple microscope giving a magnified and
virtual image P" Q" on the same side as P1 Q1. This image is observed by keeping
an eye close to the eyepiece. The final magnified image is thus inverted with respect
to the original object. Usually the distance between the objective and the eyepiece is
so adjusted that the image P'Q1 falls at the focus of the eyepiece and the final image
P"Q" is formed at infinity for normal vision by the eye. In such a position, the angular
magnification of the telescope is given by:
™ = ~/0 //e,

with the distance d between the eyepiece and objective given by:

L=/0+/e- ' ,

The negative sign indicates that the image is inverted with respect to the object. To
have a large angular magnification, the objective should ave a large focal length (and
also large diameter) and the eyepiece should have short focal length. Normally a
telescope with same objective is used with different eyepieces (of different focal
lengths) to have telescopes of different magnifications.

In a reflecting telescope, the objective lens is replaced by a concave mirror. Mirrors

are free from chromatic aberration and have minimum spherical aberrations. We
have seen that during refraction, white light gets dispersed in component colours so
that a-coloured image isj formed for a white object. This is chromatic aberration.