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Graduation Project I: Recycling

Under the supervision of: Prof. Adel Mahmood Hasan

Content

Chapter 1: Introduction …………2

1.1 Waste collection for recycling .….………3


1.2 Recycling benefits ……………4

Chapter 2: Glass Recycling …………5

2.1 Why Recycling Glass ……………7


2.2 Types of Glass ……………8
2.3 Collecting .….………8
2.4 Sorting …………..9
2.5 Processing ………..10
2.6 Time Line for Project 2 ……..….15

Conclusion …………16

References …………17

Prepared by: Sohail Abu Hasera Firas Moh. Hussein Hussam Ali Deeb . .
. 20042029008 20050029021 20052029034 1
Graduation Project I: Recycling
Under the supervision of: Prof. Adel Mahmood Hasan

Chapter I:
Introduction

Recycling turns waste materials into valuable resources. Collecting used


bottles, cans, and newspapers and taking them to the curb or to a collection
facility is just the first in a series of steps that generates a host of financial,
environmental, and social returns. Some of these benefits accrue locally as well
as globally.

Waste may be conveniently defined as a material that is considered by the


producer to have no value. Familiar examples include household refuse, used
lubricating oil and gaseous combustion products from coal. ‘ Scrape’, ‘residues’,
‘by product’, ’effluents’, are terms often used synonymously with waste, but which
have different meanings according to the originating industry. Waste is
associated with dirt, nuisance, lack of value and cost of disposal. It forms a label
that is not easily lost even when the material is employed as feedstock for a
recovery process.

The choice between recovery of valuable materials from waste and


disposal of waste depends mainly on three factors: technology, economics and
attitude. Generalization is difficult because so much depends on the detailed
circumstances of individual cases. However, technology is not usually a problem
as there are adequate chemical and physical methods available to treat, dispose
of or recover values from most wastes.

Prepared by: Sohail Abu Hasera Firas Moh. Hussein Hussam Ali Deeb . .
. 20042029008 20050029021 20052029034 2
Graduation Project I: Recycling
Under the supervision of: Prof. Adel Mahmood Hasan

The options for dealing with our wastes are described in the "waste
hierarchy" - with those towards the top of the list more desirable than those
towards the bottom.

Fig (1.1) waste hierarchy

1.1 Waste collection for recycling:


Waste collection is an initial stage of recycling process Waste from our
homes is generally collected by our local authorities through regular waste
collection, or by special collections for recycling. It can also collect, if requested,
commercial and industrial wastes from the private sector. There are many
reasons for selecting a particular type of collection infrastructure which may
include the method and place of disposal used by the authority, the physical
layout for the collection and the current system in place. In addition demographic
and cultural factors relating to the population served may be of importance.

Prepared by: Sohail Abu Hasera Firas Moh. Hussein Hussam Ali Deeb . .
. 20042029008 20050029021 20052029034 3
Graduation Project I: Recycling
Under the supervision of: Prof. Adel Mahmood Hasan

Although it would appear that the method used to collect residual waste also
affects the quantity of waste produced and the participation in recycling schemes,
other factors such as the size of households in particular areas may also be of
importance.

1.2 Recycling benefits:

When we recycle wastes, used materials are converted into new products,
reducing the need to consume natural resources. If used materials are not
recycled, new products are made by extracting fresh, raw material from the
Earth, through mining and forestry.
Recycling helps conserve important raw materials and protects natural
habitats for the future. The benefits of recycling can be summarized as follow:

- Recycling saves energy.


Using recycled materials in the manufacturing process uses considerably
less energy than that required for producing new products from raw materials
even when comparing all associated costs including transport etc. Plus there are
extra energy savings because more energy is required to extract, refine,
transport and process raw materials ready for industry compared with providing
industry-ready materials. For example: in total about (30.0 to 38.0 MJ) of energy
saved by recycling 1 Kg of plastics.

- Recycling helps protect the environment.


Recycling reduces the need for extracting (mining, quarrying and logging),
refining and processing raw materials all of which create substantial air and water
pollution.
As recycling saves energy it also reduces greenhouse gas emissions,
which helps to tackle climate change. For example: current UK recycling is
estimated to save more than 18 million tonnes of C02 a year – the equivalent to
taking 5 million cars off the road.

- Recycling reduces landfill.


When we recycle, recyclable materials are reprocessed into new products,
and as a result the amount of wastes sent to landfill sites reduces. For example:
there are over 1,500 landfill sites in the UK, and in 2001, these sites produced a
quarter of the UK’s emissions of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas.

Prepared by: Sohail Abu Hasera Firas Moh. Hussein Hussam Ali Deeb . .
. 20042029008 20050029021 20052029034 4
Graduation Project I: Recycling
Under the supervision of: Prof. Adel Mahmood Hasan

Chapter II:
Glass Recycling
The glass industry is an important industry in
Jordan because of their significant role in the coverage
of a large volume need of different types of glass
products so it has important role in the development of
social and economic aspects.
Most the remnants of broken glass can be re-
used as very useful products. It is worth mentioning
that this waste is considered a core subject in the
recycling of glass, yielding excellent. Therefore, the
idea of recycling broken glass is economically and
financially productive.
Glass is a valuable and popular packaging
material for food, drink and many other everyday and
luxury items. Glass is also one of the few materials Fig (2.1) Recycling Glass
that retain all its qualities no matter how often it is
Recycled. Flat glass, used in buildings and vehicles,
can also be recycled.
Making Glass of sand is one of the industries that use energy significantly.
The manufacturing process requires ovens-temperatures up to 1600 degrees
Celsius, while the recycling of glass would need 40% less energy. (Cullet
requires a lower heating temperature than glass from raw materials, thus
requiring 40 percent less energy).
In addition to the many environmental benefits for the integrated
management of solid wastes, there are significant economic benefits from the
retrieval and recycling of this solid waste.

Prepared by: Sohail Abu Hasera Firas Moh. Hussein Hussam Ali Deeb . .
. 20042029008 20050029021 20052029034 5
Graduation Project I: Recycling
Under the supervision of: Prof. Adel Mahmood Hasan

‫المجموع‬
The Jordan population % ‫عدد‬ ‫إناث‬ ‫ذكور‬ ‫المحافظة‬
census was about 5350000
38.8 2074000 1007360 1066640 ‫العاصمة‬
people, This Statistical was in
2004 and in 2009 about 6.7 356000 171200 184800 ‫البلقاء‬
5980000 people, the 14.9 799000 385620 413380 ‫الزرقاء‬
population is increased, so 2.5 135000 65450 69550 ‫مادبا‬
the waste is increased, then
17.8 952000 464440 487560 ‫إربد‬
the landfills is not enough for
that so we need to recycle 4.7 250000 120405 129595 ‫المفرق‬
waste. 3.0 161000 78160 82840 ‫جرش‬
2.3 123000 60295 62705 ‫عجلون‬
3.9 211000 104165 106835 ‫الكرك‬
1.4 77000 37730 39270 ‫الطفيلة‬
1.9 102000 48540 53460 ‫معان‬
2.1 110000 48935 61065 ‫العقبة‬
100.0 5350000 2592300 2757700 ‫المجموع‬
Table (2.1) Population by province and sex in the end of 2004

‫المجموع‬
% ‫عدد‬ ‫إناث‬ ‫ذكور‬ ‫المحافظة‬
38.7 2315600 1125200 1190400 ‫العاصمة‬
6.7 400600 192600 208000 ‫البلقاء‬
14.9 891000 430100 460900 ‫الزرقاء‬
2.5 149500 72500 77000 ‫مادبا‬
17.8 1064400 519400 545000 ‫إربد‬
4.7 281100 135500 145600 ‫المفرق‬
3.0 179400 87100 92300 ‫جرش‬
2.3 137500 67500 70000 ‫عجلون‬
3.9 233200 115100 118100 ‫الكرك‬
1.4 83700 41100 42600 ‫الطفيلة‬
1.9 113700 54100 59600 ‫معان‬
2.2 130300 57800 72500 ‫العقبة‬
100.0 5980000 2898000 3082000 ‫المجموع‬
Table (2.2) Population by province and sex in the end of 2009

Prepared by: Sohail Abu Hasera Firas Moh. Hussein Hussam Ali Deeb . .
. 20042029008 20050029021 20052029034 6
Graduation Project I: Recycling
Under the supervision of: Prof. Adel Mahmood Hasan

The average production of individual for household solid waste in Jordan


about (1 kg / day) and the estimated amount of domestic solid waste generated
in Jordan about 4000 tons per day and the glass have a proportion of 2.8%.
Raw materials are collected from broken and damaged glass throne by
glass factories. We will recycle this broken glass instead of throwing it.

Fig (2.2) waste percentage.

2.1 Why Recycling Glass:

1- Most the remnants of broken glass can be re-used as very useful products. It is worth
mentioning that this waste is considered a core subject in the recycling of glass, yielding
excellent. Therefore, the idea of recycling broken glass is economically and financially
productive.
2- In addition to the many environmental benefits for the integrated management of solid
wastes, there are significant economic benefits from the retrieval and recycling of this
solid waste. The most important of these benefits:
• Reducing the depletion of natural resources and raw materials
• Obtain good quality products which can be traded in the market
• Provide cheap products available to low-income consumer
• Creation of new job opportunities for workers in the collection, processing,
marketing and recycling of recycled materials
• Save in sizes and construction costs of landfills.

3- Making Glass of sand is one of the industries that use energy significantly. The
manufacturing process requires ovens-temperatures up to 1600 degrees Celsius, while
the recycling of glass would need 30% less energy.

Prepared by: Sohail Abu Hasera Firas Moh. Hussein Hussam Ali Deeb . .
. 20042029008 20050029021 20052029034 7
Graduation Project I: Recycling
Under the supervision of: Prof. Adel Mahmood Hasan

2.2 Types of Glass:


There are many different types of glass with different chemical and
physical properties. Each can be made by a suitable adjustment to chemical
compositions, but the main types of glass are:

 Commercial Glass also known as Soda-lime glass.


 Lead Glass.
 Borosilicate Glass.
 Glass Fiber.

Glasses may be devised to meet almost any imaginable requirement. For


many specialized applications in chemistry, pharmacy, the electrical and
electronics industries, optics, the construction and lighting industries, glass, or
the comparatively new family of materials known as glass ceramics.

Types of special glass:

 Vitreous silica
 Aluminosilicate glass
 Alkali-barium silicate glass
 Technical Glass
 Glass Ceramics
 Optical glass
 Sealing glass

2.3 Collecting:

Fig (2.3) Collecting Glass.

Prepared by: Sohail Abu Hasera Firas Moh. Hussein Hussam Ali Deeb . .
. 20042029008 20050029021 20052029034 8
Graduation Project I: Recycling
Under the supervision of: Prof. Adel Mahmood Hasan

Bottle Banks commonly stand beside collection points for other recyclable
waste like paper, metals and plastics. Local, municipal waste collectors usually
have one central point for all types of waste in which large glass containers are
located, or they go to Glass recycling Manufactures to sell it to them.

Most collection points have separate bins for clear, green and red/brown
glass. Glass re-processors require separation by color as the different colors of
glass are usually chemically incompatible. Heat-resistant glass like Pyrex or
borosilicate glass should not be disposed of in the glass container as even a
single piece of such material will alter the viscosity of the fluid in the furnace at
re-melt.

2.4 Sorting:

Fig (2.4) Sorting Glass.

Most collection points have separate bins for clear, green and red/brown
glass. Glass re-processors require separation by color as the different colors of
glass are usually chemically incompatible. Heat-resistant glass like Pyrex or
borosilicate glass should not be disposed of in the glass container as even a
single piece of such material will alter the viscosity of the fluid in the furnace at
re-melt.

We should have a bin for each color of glass that we recycle. In the glass
recycling process the color cannot be removed from the glass, so if green glass
got mixed with red glass there would chemical and color contamination of the
glass. Clear glass goes into one bin, while red goes into another, brown into
another bin and so on.

Prepared by: Sohail Abu Hasera Firas Moh. Hussein Hussam Ali Deeb . .
. 20042029008 20050029021 20052029034 9
Graduation Project I: Recycling
Under the supervision of: Prof. Adel Mahmood Hasan

2.5 Processing:

First we need to know the materials used in glass recycling.

Materials:
1- All kinds and forms of broken glass are available at glass factories free
of charge.
2- Sand (silicon dioxide) is available in Jordan in large quantities and good
quality with high purity, and transparent (The grains of sand are small).
3- Limestone (calcium carbonate) is available also in commercial
quantities. It is characterized by bright, white-and low iron in it.
4- Dolomite (carbonate of calcium and magnesium) is available also. It is
characterized by oblique, turquoise, white and low iron.
5- Soda ash (sodium carbonate).
6- Special Chemical materials used to improve the degree of purity of the
glass.

Now we will discuss the glass recycling process.

2.5.1 in the short way:

Production at the plant done through several phases, namely:

1- Purification of glass break


from impurities and other
non-glass materials by using
(Magnets, Air Suction, Laser
Sorters…etc.
2- Melting the mixture in
special ovens.
3- Transfer the melted mixture
to forming machines.
4- Transfer it to cooling-out
machines.
5- Packaging and mobilization
of the final product.
Fig (2.5) Glass Cycle.

Prepared by: Sohail Abu Hasera Firas Moh. Hussein Hussam Ali Deeb . .
. 20042029008 20050029021 20052029034 10
Graduation Project I: Recycling
Under the supervision of: Prof. Adel Mahmood Hasan

2.5.2 in the long way:

1- Put the glass in the Crusher machine to break it to small pieces called
(Cullet).

Fig (2.6) Crusher.

2- Removing contaminants: Purification of glass


break (Cullet) from impurities and other non-
glass materials by using (Magnets, Air Suction,
Laser Sorters…etc.
The glass cullet is passed through a
magnetic field, where metal contaminants like
metal bottle caps are removed from the glass.
Other contaminants like paper and plastic are
picked up manually or through an automated
process.
Ceramic contaminants are removed from the
glass cullet via a process known as fine sizing.
The finely ground glass cullet is passed
through various screens, leaving behind
ceramic residues.
If, however, ceramic contaminants do pass Fig (2.7) Purification Cullet
through the various screens together with the glass cullet, the quality of

Prepared by: Sohail Abu Hasera Firas Moh. Hussein Hussam Ali Deeb . .
. 20042029008 20050029021 20052029034 11
Graduation Project I: Recycling
Under the supervision of: Prof. Adel Mahmood Hasan

the recycled glass will be affected. Ceramic contaminants in glass can


lead to structural defects.
3- To produce a ton of glass, 400 kg of broken glass is needed. The
broken glass should be crushed by the mill to form a powder.
4- 400 kg of sand is added after removing the dust and impurities
followed by a process of sifting the mixture in the graduated sieves to
obtain particle size suitable for the manufacture of glass.
5- 100 KG of limestone is added to the mixture after grinding and
processing.
6- 80 KG of Dolomite is added to the mixture after grinding.
7- 10 KG of Soda and 10 KG of special chemicals are added to the
mixture to improve the degree of purity of the glass. These chemicals
should be added in powder format. All added components must be
homogeneously crushed and grinded.
8- One ton of the mixture is introduced to glass melting furnace in the
degree of 1450 º C.

Fig (2.8) Glass Furnace.


9- Decolorizing and dyeing: To produce recycled glass of the desired
glass, the recycled glass has to undergo glass decolorizing in the glass
recycle process, followed by dyeing.

The first step in the decolorizing process includes oxidizing the


melted glass cullet. For green glass, the oxidation process turns the
deep dark green color to yellow-green color. A chemical known as
manganese oxide is then mixed with the glass cullet to it grey. The
grey base is usually used as the primary color to which various other

Prepared by: Sohail Abu Hasera Firas Moh. Hussein Hussam Ali Deeb . .
. 20042029008 20050029021 20052029034 12
Graduation Project I: Recycling
Under the supervision of: Prof. Adel Mahmood Hasan

coloring dyes or agents are added to develop glass of various colors.


For brown glass, zinc oxide is added to oxidize the brown glass cullet
to blue or green cullet, depending on the quantity of zinc oxide added
and the richness of the brown glass being recycled. If the clear
recycled glass is required, erbium oxide and manganese oxide are
added to the glass cullet to help clear all the colors from the glass
cullet. Some of the most commonly used coloring agents for dyeing of
recycled glass include borax, potassium permanganate, zinc oxide,
erbium oxide, cobalt carbonate, neodymium oxide, and titanium
dioxide.
10- Special machines are used to form molten glass for the production
of cups, bottles, mugs, flasks...etc.

Fig (2.9) Forming Glass (1)

Prepared by: Sohail Abu Hasera Firas Moh. Hussein Hussam Ali Deeb . .
. 20042029008 20050029021 20052029034 13
Graduation Project I: Recycling
Under the supervision of: Prof. Adel Mahmood Hasan

11- Using hand-smelting furnaces, glass paste taken from the area of
operation by a whistle in the form of pipe. After sticking the glass
paste to the end of the pipe, the worker blows at the other end to get
the desired shape after the final composition using the special form.
Semi-automatic pistons can be used for the production of cups and
mugs.

Fig (2.10) Forming Glass (2)

12- All products pass through special furnace for gradual cooling after the
completion of configuration.
13- Packaging and Storing.

Prepared by: Sohail Abu Hasera Firas Moh. Hussein Hussam Ali Deeb . .
. 20042029008 20050029021 20052029034 14
Graduation Project I: Recycling
Under the supervision of: Prof. Adel Mahmood Hasan

2.6 Timeline for Project 2:


First thing I would do in project 2 is studying glass very well then collect
some information about the global glass recycling industries, after that I will visit
glass recycling facilities in Jordan to collect data, then working on improvements,
then documentation the project to get ready to the discussion the project with
doctors.

Graduation project II timeline


2/6 2/13 2/20 2/27 3/6 3/13 3/20 3/27 4/3 4/10 4/17 4/24 5/1

Studying glass

Studying global glass recycling industries

visiting glass recycling facilities in Jordan

Collecting data

Working on and studing available improvements

Project documentation

Table(2.3) Time Line

Prepared by: Sohail Abu Hasera Firas Moh. Hussein Hussam Ali Deeb . .
. 20042029008 20050029021 20052029034 15
Graduation Project I: Recycling
Under the supervision of: Prof. Adel Mahmood Hasan

Conclusion:

Recycling for each of us is a matter of choice. Recycling anywhere in the


world. And yet if we consider the amount of trash that ends up in our dump sites,
I'm amazed at this vastly untapped opportunity for us - there is still so much
amount of good that we can do. We can recycle as much as 85% of our total
waste if more and more people become aware of the benefits of recycling and
take action. There's plenty that we can recycle here. But the paper scrap, or the
plastic bottle won't recycle itself. It's up to you and me to make that conscious
choice to recycle. Recycling works best if everyone contributes his or her share
in the recycling effort. If you or I make that decision and choose recycling, it
shouldn't be because politicians passed a legislation compelling us to do it. It's
because out of free will, we choose to, knowing that recycling is the right thing to
do.

Tips for customers and people about recycling:

 Recycle all paper (junk mail, boxes, magazines, envelopes), bottles and
cans (aluminum, glass, metal, and plastic).
 Buy products with little or no packaging, and buy the largest size you can
use.
 Buy reusable products such as non-disposable cameras, electric razors,
reusable lunch boxes, etc.
 Bring your own mug to the office or local coffee house for coffee; paper cups
waste both money and landfill space.
 Buy products made with recycled materials.
 Reduce your junk mail by canceling unwanted catalogs.
 Bring your own reusable grocery sacks when shopping at the local
supermarket.

We are enthusiastic to complete working on this project next


semester in Graduation project 2, under the supervision of Prof. Adel
Mahmood Hasan. Hoping to do our best.

Prepared by: Sohail Abu Hasera Firas Moh. Hussein Hussam Ali Deeb . .
. 20042029008 20050029021 20052029034 16
Graduation Project I: Recycling
Under the supervision of: Prof. Adel Mahmood Hasan

References:
- Waste recycling and pollution control handbook, A.V. Bridgewater and C. J. Mumford, George
Godwin Limited, 1979
- Solid wastes: origin, collection, processing and disposal, C. L. Mantel, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
1975.
- The leading technical association for the world wide pulp, paper and converting industry.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recycling

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glass

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glass_recycling

http://www.recyclenow.com/

http://www.quinn-glass.com/

http://www.recycling-guide.org.uk/

http://www.berrymanglassrecycling.com/

http://www.wasteonline.com/

http://www.recyclingglass.co.uk/

http://www.recycle-more.co.uk/nav/page638.aspx

http://www.vetropack.hr/htm/life_cycle_of_glass_3.htm

http://www.wisegeek.com/how-are-glass-bottles-recycled.htm

http://www.lenntech.com/glass.htm

http://www.quinn-glass.com/production_process.cfm

Prepared by: Sohail Abu Hasera Firas Moh. Hussein Hussam Ali Deeb . .
. 20042029008 20050029021 20052029034 17