Anda di halaman 1dari 407




By PHI LIP a L I ill I?Q !? (.1 "/
Profeflor of Divinity amongft the REMONSTRANTS.

Tranflared into Englijh

By S.A M U E L C H A J.V 'J) L E R.

In Two VOL U M E S.

To whicll is prefixed)
A large I N T ROD 1J C T ION concerning the Rife and
Progrefs of PER SEC UTI 0 N, and the real and
pretended Caufes of it.

crheir1!td run tf),Evil, and they make hajle tafbed innocent Bloo1:
fJ"he,: 'Tho.ugh!s are Thoughts of Iniquity; W'!fting and DeJiruBlOll
are in tbeir Paths.
He goes a!J9ut as a roaring Lion, fleking whom. he may deuour.

Sold by}. G RAY) at the Croft-Keys in the. Poultry.:


1\1: A DA M~
~~l~l, Should never 'have entertained the
Ieall; Thought of prefenting to Your
Majefly the HISTOR Y OF THE IN-
QUISITION, but that it afforded
me an Opportunity of expreffing my fiocere
joy, in that which .is the common HappinefS'<Jf
- A . - there
iv D E DIe .A T 10 N.
there Nations; Your Majef1:y's juftAbhorrence
of all the Frauds and Cruelties authorized and
praclifed by that infamous Tribunal, and Your
generous Concern for the civil and religious
Liberties of Mankind.

In the earliefl Part of Your Majefly's I~ife,

when worldly Honours and Dignities mull ha ve
appeared with theirgreatefi Charms, You be-
came an illuflrious Example of Steadinefs in the
Protefiant Faith. Your Refolution and Piety
triumphed over the ftrongefl: Temptations.
God referved Your Majefty asa Bleffing to the
Kingdoms now under Your Guardianfhip. As
a Reward of Your conflant Adherence to Truth
and V irtue, he hath made Y au the beloved
Queen of a free and powerful Nation, whore
Loyal ty is the E.fFeCl: of the man: voluntary
Choice, and flows from the two ftrongeft Mo-
tives in the World, the Senfe both of their In-
rerefl and Duty.

Under the InfpeCl:ion of fuch a Queen and

Mother, the Briti./h Nation is in no Pain for
the Royal Progeny, but looks 011 them with
2 Pka-
Pleafiire, as the Sources of their future Happi-
nefs, Your Majefly's Example will infpire
them with Zeal for the Protefiant I{eligion,
and Your difinterefied Purfuit of Truth form
them into a Love of Liberty, and teach them
the true Notion and proper U fe of it.

'Tis Your Majefty's happy Lot to live in an

Age, and be the Guardian of a Narion, in which
the Principles of all Religion undergo the mafl:
exacland critical Inquiry; and 'cis the peculiar
Glory of His Majefiy's Government, that all
Men are permitted to make Iuch Inquiries with
Safety. As Superflition and Error can never
"beeffeClually difcover'd and deftroy'd, nor Re-
ligion maintain its native Purity and Dignity
without the freefr U fe of this invaluable Privi-
lege, 'tis impoffible that the Ends of Govern-
men t can require, or that true Religion can ever
prefcribe or jufiify the leall Invafion or Abridg-
ment of it.
The Revelation of the Gofpel, fixed immo-
vable upon its own Foundation of eternal Truth,
needs no Methods of Fraud and Violence for
Jl 2 its
vi D E DIe A T ION.
its Support. The great Author of it appealed
to the Reafon and Confciences of Men concern-
ing the Proofs of his di vine Minion, a.nd the
Nature of the Doclriues he taught. .HIs A po..
Illes after him claimed no Submiflion to their
heavenly Dictates, without reafonable Convi-
ctions, founded in the Demonfrration of the
Spirit and of Truth. Happy had it been for
the Chriftian Church, had the Examples of the
Son of God and his A pofl:les been, in this Re-
fpeel as well as others, counted worthy of Imi-
tation !

Zeal for Religion, both in Princes and their

Subjecls, is unquelbionably a Duty. But Your
Majefty underflands too well the Kreat Obliga-
tions to Chriftian Charity, and feels too great
a Pleafure in the Exercife of this facredVirtue,
ever to fuffer Your own Zeal for Religion to
lead You into a cruel perfecuting Warmth, or
to encourage others in the ufe of any Methods
for the Defence of Religion, which are not only
contrary to the genuine Spirit and Deiign of it,
but in the Confequences deflructive of the HOe
nour, Succefs, and even Being of it.
2 The

The Succeflion of the illuflrious Haufe of

Hanover to the Throne of there Kingdoms, was
a Blefiing of long Expectation. The Severities
which were exercifed upon Proteflant Diffenters former Reigns, upon the Account of Reli-
gion, made them caib their Eyes upon that Au-
gull Family. From thence, Madam, the Afflict·
ed hoped for Relief: From thence the Sufferers
for Confcience-fake expected, under God, their
Salvation from the Yoak of Civil and Ecclelia-
ftical Oppreflion, .

The Happinefs they both pray'd and longed

for, but were allowed to fee oaly afar off. we,
their Pof1:erity, now enjoy. The all-merciful
God hath abundantly anfwer"d their Prayers,
and blefled us with the Fruits of their Expecta-
tions. When our Liberties were unrighteoully
invaded, and farther Difficulties and Sufferings
were intended us, for our Fidelity to the prelenr
Royal Family, by an almofl miraculous Provi-
dence, His late Majeity came into our Relief:
and will ever be.... remembered
- with Honour Gand
viii D E DIe A T ION.
Gratitude by us, as our Rellorer and Deliverer,
and as the common Prelerver of thele Nations
from that Defbruclion which fo nearly threaten-
ed them.

His preterit Majefty, the Inheritor of His

Royal Father's Virtues, as well as Kingdoms,
will be reverenced for His impartial Protection
of all His SubjcCl:s, for the \Vifdom of His
Counfels, the Steadineis of His Mcafures, and
the gloriJus Succefs which bath crowned Them,
in the Settlement of the different; and al-
111ofl: contrary Interells of Europe, and the
Prelervation of the invaluable Bleffings of

Your Majefty will be admired for all thofe

excellent Endowments, and amiable Virtues,
which render You the greatef1:0rnament to
publick and private Life. Your Regency of
thefe Kingdoms, conducted with fuch Wifdom
and Goodnefs, fhews Y au fit for the Weight
of Government, and the Dignities of a Crown.
Your Condefcenfion and Freedom in converting
with Perfons of Learning and Virtue, difcovers
Your Love of Truth, and YOU1 Knowledge how

to reconcile the Pleafures of Converfation .and

Friendfhip with the Reverence due to Majefiy
and Power. Your Love to true Religion, and
Your Impartiality in fearcbing into the Nature
of it, is the fullef]; Evidence that Your Ma-
jelly's Piety, as well as the Benevolence of Your
natural Difpolition, mull neceflarily excite in
Your Breaft a juft Averfion to all Methods of
Violence for the Conviction and Converlion of
others. Your Affeclion to the Proteflanr Re ...
ligion and Liberties in general, and Your Heady
Regard to the Welfare of there Kingdoms in
particular, indear Your Majefl:y to the prefent
Generation, and will be Ipoken of with Pleafure
by thofe to come.

That God filay long continue Your Majefiy

a Blefiing in every Relation in which his Provi-
dence hath fixed You, and, after a full Enjoy-
ment of the highefl: Honour and Profperity,
which this World can afford You, receive You
to the more Iubflantial and durable. Bleffings of
<- < -- - - the
x D E D 1 CA T ION.
the eternal World, is the fincere and fervent
Prayer of,

May it pleaJe Tour Maje{iy,

Tour Majefly's mtd/ Obedient,

Moft Devoted, and

Mojl Humhle Ser'V(/nt,

11'!~~1'H E Introdu8ion to J.'Wr.Limborch'r Hiflory of
the lnquijition hatb run out tofueb a Length, that
.~ I have hut little Room for any 'Preface. That
ilitri;vi~Cl?iC4 Hiftory needs notbing that I can fay to recommend
it. Wbe1z it firfl came over to England, it was
'received with great Approhation by many of the priucipal Nobility
and Clergy. Mr. Lock, that incomparableJudge of Me'll and
B06ks, gives it the bighefl Characler, and commends it for its
Melhod andPerJpieuity, and the Authorities by which it is ft
ahundantly confirmed, and pronounces it a "lVork in its Kind all...
Jolutely perfeCl. He taas particularlyplea[cd that Mr. Lim-
borch uJedthe very Words oj the Authors which be cites; and.,
Jhough tbie may make the readirf, of the Hiflory tedt~ustofom~,
~et it was neceffary, Jbat the Inquifitors might he convi8cd lly the
J B' .~ Tefli-
xu•• .../
Teflimony of tbeir OTI'n Writers, of thoJe villal10USFrauds and
Cruelties, with which they are cbarged. In a Letter 10 ~lr.
Limborch bz"mfelf, be tells him, that he had ft [ully e~pqfed
their Jccret Arts of Wickednefs and Cruel~, that, if tbey bad
any Remains of Humanity in tbem, tbey muft he ajl;amed of
that horrid Trihunal, in which every Thing tbat was jufl and
righteoU&Wa5 (o monflroufly perverted; and tbat 'twas fit to he
tranJlatcd into the vulgar Language of every Nation, that the
meanefl People might underfland the Anti ..cbriftian Prallices of
that execrable Court. The P apifls apprehenfive of the
Prejudices that might arife to their CauJe hy the 'Publication of
this Book, that the Cardinals, InquiJitors General at Rome, con-
demn'd it by an Edi8, and forbad the reading it, under the fe'
vere./l Penalties. '
Mr. Lock often mentions; in his Letters; JC'JJeralAdditions
wbich Mr. Limborch had prepared, and promifed to tranJmit
to him, that be might infert tbem in their proper Places in tbe
Margin. I know not whether be ever bad the 'Pleafure of feeing
them; 'tis certain the Publick bub never bitherto heen!avour'd
with them. TVhen I firfl began rt9 Tranflation of tbeftiflory,
tbe late ingenious Anthony ,Collins, EfiJ; informtfd me, tbat be
had fame M. S. Papers of Mr. Lirnborch relating to it, and
generoufly lent them to me for my'PeruJal. After tb~, IlP45
informed hy a worth) Friend, that tbere as. a Gentleman in

Holland who bad a large Numher of Correllions and Additions •

and, upon my Application tf),bim, be very kindly ordered tbe~
to he tranJcrihed out of tb« Copy Mr. Limborch kept /;y him
which be .bad correiied and enlarged n:itb bid own !W,
and tranfmttted tbem to me from the Hague. His Name is
Francis a Limborch, a wortby Relation of the learned Author's.
to wbom I take tim Opportunity rf returning my fincere Thank;
~. JfOr
• ••
fir fo valuable a 'Prefent. The Reader will find them included
within theft Hookr [J. I have added alfo a firtJ marginal
Notes, to e~plain [ame of tbe Terms made uJe of, and to confirm
the Hiflo~y it (elf.
As to the Introdu~qion, 1 thought it necefJary to trace tho
Bifiory ofPer{ecutionfrom its firfl Beginnings, and tbus to con-
ne8 it with tbe Account of the Inquifition. T'hough it he long, it
might bave been greatly enlarged, ejpecial!J with Jeveral remark-
able Inflances oj it amongll the Pagans. I cannot help inferting
here one very e~traordinary PalJage from Livy, tbe Roman
Hiflorian, though it he a little out of its Place. He tells us *",
~(, 'That Juch a foreign Religion Jpread it Jelf over the Ciry, fhatLib.25.
CoCo either Men or the Gods' feemed entirery changed; that tbe c. 10.
" Roman Rites were not onh'forJaken in private, and within the
U HouJes, hut that even pubJickly, in the Forum and Capitol,
," great Numbers of Women flocked together, who neither facrificed
" nor pray'd to the Gods 'I according to the manner of their Anceflorr.
" - Tbi6 firft excited the private Indignation of good Men, till
" at length it 'reached tbe'Fatbers, and became tI publickComplaint.
" The Senate great!) blamed the .!Ediles and capital J Yium-
-" virs; tbat they did not prohilJit tbem, and when they endea-
* Tanta re1igio, et ea magna ex parte externa, civitatem inceflit, ut aut homines,
aut Dii repente alii viderentur faCti; nee jam in fecreto modo atq; intra parietes abo.
:lebantur Romani ritus, fed in publico eriam ac foro Capitalioq; mulierum turba erat,
nee facrificantium nee precantlum Deos patrio more._Primo fecrere bonorum in-
di~riones exaudiebantur, deinde ad ~tres etiam, et ad publicam querimoniam e~-
cdlit !F& _ lncufati graviter ab Senatu JEdiles Triumviriq; capitales, quod non prohi-
berent : quum emOvere eam multitudinema foro, ac disjicere apparatus facrorum
conati ~~»t, haud p'r~l afuit qui!1 violarentur. Ubi pote~t.ius jam ~l.fe i~ malum,
appat'Ult qumu \it mlnores per Maglihatus fedaretur, M. Atl!to, prretorl \lrblS nego.,
UUtil ab Senatu datum ~ft,. ut his re.ligionibus P?pulum ~iberaret •.·. Is et in ,:oncione
Sem'ltus confu~tum ~ecltaV1t?et edlxlt, Dt qU1~umq; hbros .vatlcInos precatlonefve,
aut artern facnficandt confcnptam haberet, eos ltbros omnes hterafq; ad fe ante Ca-
lendas Aprili& deferret; nelolquiS'in publico fa.crove loco, nuvo aut extenlQ.ritu facti-'
:ncarer. ' .
B 1 " flOured
xiv f PRE F A C· E.
" fJOured to drive away tb« Multitude from the Formn; and to
l' throw down tbe Things they had provided hr performing their
" faci-ed Rites, tbey were like to he torn in Pieces. And when
" the Evil grew too great to he cured hy inferior Magiflrates,
" the Senate order'd M, Atilius tDe Pre tor of the Ci~y,to pre ...
" vent the Peoples v..fing thefe Religions.'" He accordingly puh,
lifh'd tb» 'Decree of the Senate, that whoever had any For-
tune-telling Books, or Prayers, or Ceremonies about Sacri...
fices written down, they fhould bring all fuch Books and
Writings to him, before the Calends ·of April, and that no
one Ihould ufe any new or foreign Rite of facrificing in
any publick or facred Place.
Ar d
l: Mecenas, in his Advice to Auguftus, Jays to him: Perform
~~~{:~m, di vine Worlhip in all Things exactly according to the
t 5'" Cuflom of your Anceftors,antl compel others to do (0
a1fo; and as to thofe who make any Innovations in Reli-
gion, hate and punifh them; and that not only for the
fake of the Gods, but becaufe thole who introduce new
Deities, excite others to .make Changes in Civil Affairs.
Hence Confpiracies, Sedi tions, and Riots, Things very
Vit.Aug;dangerous to Government. Accordi~ly Suetonius, in bu
C·93· Life of tbM Prince, gives him thu CharaCler: " That tho' he
u.teligioufly ohferved tb« ancient prefcrihed Ceremrmies, jet be
" contemned all other foreign ones., and commended Cams, for
" tbatpa~g hy judea, he lPould not pay hi3 'Dewt;ons at Jeru ...
Ibid. "falem. He alfo, as tbefame Author tells us • ') made a Law,
c. 55· 'Vcry much reJemhling our 'Tefl All, /;y which he commanded,.
tbat before any of the Senators fhould take their Places in
* ~o aut.em-religiouus Seuatoriamunera fungerentur, fanxit ut priufquam
con6.dclICt'lwfquc, lhurc ac.mero fupplkaret apud aram ejQSDei, in.cujus templo ,oj..
lCUU. .

P' R E It' ACE. xv
Council, they' Ihould offer Frankincenfe and Wine upon
the Altar of that God in whore Temple they met.
I'here and other PafJagcs that may be mention'd; abund"ntly
prove tba~ the Heathens were as muc~ i~ 'Principle" ~nd as reaDy
in Pra8tce, 'PerJecutors as tbe Chrtfltanr; and ItS therefore
very unfair and unreaJonahle to make it an ObjeClion againfl Chri ...
flianity, that Jo rnany of tb« 'Proftffors of it have, in all Ages,
given into tbeJe ungodly and wicked lVleafures. If it proves any
Thing, it will prove as much againfl natural ReaJon and Religion,
as it doth ag,ainft the Religion of JeJU5. And if tbe Vices of Men,
who have had no other Guide hut the former, prove nothing againft',
the Sufficiency and Goodnejs of them, Chriflians alfo may be very
wicked Men, and Jet the Religion they proft Js he a very excellent
and divine one.
If a'J?)'f/;ould aJk, why I trouhle the lVorld with the Accounts'
of the PerJecutions that Cbriflians have raifed agaiuft each other,
at this Time, now that the Clergy of all Venominations Jeem to
he entering into more moderate MeaJures;' 1anfwer, to give
the little A./fiftance I am abl« towards promoting a truly catbo...
lick anrIcharitable 'DiJpofition; there hei'i}{!"as I apprehend, no
way fo proper to e~pq,rethe 'Doctrine and Pra"qice 'if 'PerJecution,
~. hy a fair RepreJentlltion of the unfpeakahleMiJcbiefj that hav~
been occajioned hy it ; nor, a'f!Y other Method fa like!J to render
it the univerJal Abhorrence of Mankind, as to let them fee, hy
paft &amples, what MiJeries they muft eNpell, if God /lould'
ever, for our Sins, J~je8 U6 again to the Toak of Ecclefiafti;
cal ';JJJhicb, rPber~'lJC"r'tlo not kept under ftrill Re./lraintj'
wilt ujf/YP upon tbe AUJbority and 'Dignity of Princes,
and trample Under Foot all the t"ivil and religiotM LilJerties of
Mankind. 'Tis therefore high!J incumhent upon all PC1'Jons
in their leveral Sta~ions; 'tio what 1be Gentlemett of England,
- - - - w'"

'luho are born to ~/tates and Honours, and know the
true Value 0/' Liberty and Property, are more efpe-
cially concernd in, to do all tbry can to p:~tVent !he
Encroachments and gradual Increa]es 0/JP~rttual r,-
ranny it betng much more eafj to do ibis, than to

free tbemfehses j'rom it, when once they have tame!!

(ubmitted to the Ufurpaiions if it.
. If the per.(ecutirtg, Spirit declirt~s, 'tis .far ,from
being 7v1:Jollyextittguijhed. The Clanns of tbe Church,
tbat n07/Jlie dormant, want nothing but a fair Op-
portunity to reoioe. And for the Truib Of tbis, [
appeal to tbe late lamous C01ttr(}l()erjjabou» L"":Jt~rch
'Potaer and Authorzty. Mt(j' God Alllltghty,f!j hPs
it!Jlnit~ MerC)', il~/pire a:llRanks and 'Pegrees oj Men
witb [ucha Love to J..Jberty, and wtlh"juch a Senfe
0/' tbe Greatne(s of tbeir Prioilego, in being free as
to their C0fl:rciences~Religion, Per.fons, and E;jtates,
as flall.(ecure us jr01ttal1 Attempts to depri1Je 1M 0/'
it, or, at leqfl, asjhall render all.Juch Attempts from"
'U!arm d¢gning Bigots wholly inejfec1ual .
.'TIs, indeed, i'f!Zpoffib!e to.prevent all Abufes of Li-
berty: But thejeare z1ffintte{7 more tfJ/erabJe than
the E'ViJs.tbaz mu:finccejJariJy flow from &clefia-
jli"al !yran11:J',which .isdejiruCli'Ve to Kf~o7Ulcdge,
Learning; 'Ptety and Virtue, and every ThIng that it;
dear ~nd 'ValZ!.ableto Men an~ c;hr!j}ial1s. ,EttJen tbeJe
./ibttj es rtLtber't have ren~er d man)' rifthe Clerg.!
Ole tbe Cburcb qj England immortal, by t.heir exeel-
Jettt Vdences of the Chrijlian Religion; and l'per-
jitade 111J,[eif that their Lordjhips if London, Dul'..
hanl:J Litchfield and Coventry, huH,. rather be
PRE F ACE. xvii
remember'd atld knO'lPft to 'Pqflerity by Paftoral Let-
ters, Defences of Chriftianity, and Vindications of
Chriil:'s Miracles, than by that Rigidnefs and cruel
Zeaifor Unifo.rmity in Opinif!1ls, and lifelefs Cere-
montes, b), tobtcb man)' oj tbeir 'Predeceffors bave lefs
an it/delible Stain on their Names and Memories.
May tbey go on thus to adorn their Epifcopal Cha-
rader ; and, by being, Exarltples 0/ Chr#flian Piet»,
Moderation, and Forbearance, influence the inferior
Clergy to imitate them .
. [have nothing, more to add) but to dejire the Rea ...
der to over-look an)' lejftr Faults that may ha·ve
eJcaped me in the Introdutlion or Trariflation, and to
ask my Sub(cribers 'Pardon for the long 'Deity' of this
Work. The ill State of my Health for many Months
pajl, and my cO'!/lant Engagements in Life, will be
allowed aslomeExc~re by all equitable 'Perjons. As
to tbo]e who can make me no Allowance, all I can fa),
to them is, that as this is the firft Book that I have
publijhed 0/, Su~fcriptiott, fo, accordittg, to. m;: pr~fen.t
Judgment, twzll be the lqfl. Such as zt u,if' zt
will do aN! Good, .I flail be .thankful to God, itpJ. flot
repent my. O'lUnLttbour.' .. ,

London) Sept.


L I s
-0 E' 'f HE·


'A~ B.
H E Revermd William 'rhe R.~ht HOI'!8~rab.lethe Loyd Pifiou1I.t

n Ayerft, D. D. .'
Benjamin Avery, L.L.D ..
The Rev. Mr. -John Ari'-
tie by
The Rev. Mr, John Archer
7he Rev. Mr. Thomas Amory
\ ijar"lDgton.
The Re:v. Mr. Robert BilIio

The'RMJ. Mr. 'Jofepfl Billio~.Sets

'rhe RMJ. Mr . .Jobn' Bond .'
7'he Rev. Mr. John Barker
The Rev. Mr. Bale

Jofeph Andrews E{'li 7'he Re7J. Mr. Samuel Bat,es

Robert Arwood En; '.l'he Rev. Mr. George Benfon
Mr- JofephAdams' . The Rev. Mr. Jofuua Bays
Mr. Thomas Afhurft <fhe Re7J. Mr. Jofeph Burroughs
Mr. Allen Stamp Brooksbank Ef'l;
Mr. Abraham Atkyns Brook Bridges E{'1j
Mr. Edward Andrews John Burton E{q;
Mr. Daniel Adams Nathaniel Braffey EJqj 4 SeU
Mr. Thomas AftJey James Brain Efrl;
Mr- Samuel Avery Jofeph Bell Efq;
.A LIS T rif tlJe SUB sc a I BE It S. .
Thomas Bennet E{q; of Norton
Mr. Jonathan Bromley D.
Mr. John Bird The Right Honourable James Earl of
Mr. Levi Ball Derby, L. P. .
Mr. William Bafnee John Dive EJq; of Queen-Brett WeR-
!\tIr. John Burkit minfier J

Mr. Simon Le Blanc Humphry Davie E{q;

Mr. Benjamin Butcher Benjamin Derby EfrJ;
Mr. Samuel Bucknal, Merchant The Rev. Mr. Jofeph DenhaM
George Bayley oj Chichefter, M. D. The Rev. Mr. Robert DawfoR
Mr. Thomas Browne The Rev. Mr. Dodridge
Mr. George Baker Mr. James Deacon
Mr. Thomas Broadley, Merchant Mr. Jofeph Dyer
Mr. Nehemiah Brooks Mr. Thomas Dyer
Mr. Richard Buller Mr. Rivers DickenfOft
Mr. Humphry B~ Mr. Thomas Davi'l1e
Mr. William Batt Mr. Philip Dumouftier
Mr. Richard Dswfon
C. Mr. Benjamin Darling, MerclJ4mt
The Re». Ruben Clark,aD. Mr. James Diggles
The Re'lJ. Mr. William Crooke, In- Mr. Michael Deaa
bendary of Chichefter .
The Rev. Mr. Samuel Clark E.
The Rru. Mr. Richard: ChoppiD,.,6 lets 'I"heRev. John Evans, D.D.
The Rev. Mr. Edmund Calamy, S Sits 7'he·l/..iN. Jabez Earle, D. D.
Henry Cope EJ'l; .
.Benjamin Collier Elf. F..,
Antony Collins £['1; The Rev. Mr. Ebenezer Fletcher
Mr. Thomas CoRingham !IbeRev. Mr. Samuel Fantour.c:
Mr. Robert Cady " " The Rev. Mr. WilliaM,FoN
Mr. SanttlctCtaigbe8d , : " Mr. Philip Founareau
Mr.jotmCar"elV . Mr. Thomas Fettows
Mr. Paut Corbet Mr. Edward Forfter
Mr. Jonathan Conier Mr. Chriftopher Fowler'
Mr. Samuel Chandler -f PorttfMatb, Mr. Thomas Fletcher, a SIll
3 SitS ;, " . " Mrs. Elizabeth FJOfd '
Mr. John Carter;dl"HIJat -,' Mr. Bernard Frederick
Mr. LUKe cum...., MwJNtill ' Mr. James Figgins
Mr. John CoptlQ4; . " Mr. Jofeph Fuller "I

Mr.John Chaadler Mr. Farr ,H

Mr. John Cox ,;: .. J. . •• ,1. Mr. Henry Fau~. nfdf':llij
Mr. Cofeley oJBriftol, Book/eUer, 12 Sets Mr. John FartingdOll: .;i['iW.l!'
Mr. Nehemiah Champion Mr. ,c It.icbUQ ~'FOt~ 1JI,~r,'111
Mr, T~sQieDaJl :. : $tts ~ln~l r ~i~';~.J'" :

1 c
A LI ST of elJe St1 B S C RIB E R S.
G. Mr. William Hawkes
The Rev. Benjamin Grofvenor, D. D. Mr. Hawkfworth.
The Rev. Mr. Philip Gibbs Mr. Peter Harvey
The Rev. Mr. Edward- Godwin, Mr. John Hollifter
'1he Rev. Mr. Thomas Green Mr. Peter Hind"
The Rev. Mr. Henry Grove Mr. Samuel Hawkins
The Rev. Mr. Grant Mr. Farnham Haskell
Thomas Gearing Efq; Mr. George Houlme
Thomas· Gordon Efq; Mr. Nathaniel J:lighmore
Mr. Robert Gibbs Mr. William Hoole
Mr. John Grubb Mr. Richard Hetc, Book/eller, 14 Sets
Mr. Jofeph Gardner Mr. Gavin Hamilton, Bookfeller, 7 S~ts
John Gray, M. D.
Mr. Richard Godman, Merchant J.
Mr. Jofeph Gardner oj Porrfmouth John Jacob Efq; 4,StlS
Capt. Simon Garbut . Stephen jackfon EJq;
Mr. John Gough Mr. Benjamin James.
Mr. William Goddard Mr. Giles James, L. P.
Mr~.John Goodchild Mr. John Jdfer
Mr. Thomas, Gearing Mr. William Ieffrie~
Mrs. Elizabeth Gough Mr.lofeph Jeffries
Mr. eremiah Immyn$>
H. Mr. Jofeph Ingram
Sir JohnilIartqp, Bart;' ..' '.' Mr. Robert James
The Re'U( Samuel Holcomb, J)..Dl· .~
The Rev. William Hartis, 1). D.
'" \. ~.. K .,
John King Elf;
':the Rev. Obadiah Hughes, D. D..
TheRe'll. Mr. JohnHorf~ley. - r-
Samuel Kent EfiJ~,
'['he Bf11..:Mr.;johnHubhardc ;. L.
Robert Hucks E!qj. -, .,'; SamuelLifle, ;,D; l):., 1 ,
':fhe Rev.
Henry Hall ~Jq; The Rev. Mr . .lI'bomasLeaveOey~ ;?
John Halliday" Gent. The Rev. Mr. Nathaniel Lardntr:
Mr James Hawkins The Rev. Mr. Mofes Lowman.
Mr. William Harrifon TIe Rev. Mr. lAngford,
Mr. JOhIlH~u~d_, _ (&ltPuelLefiil!gbam E[q; ,
Mr. John Holmes' Richard Lewen Eh;
Mr. H1iftwcll' ., Mr. John. Lancafhire-
Mr. Jafper Hale", 3 Sm Mr. Marthew Langley l .
Mr. Benjamin HolUs. Mr. Nicholas Langley
Mr. Adam Holden Mr. Benjamin Lehook,
Mr. Humphry Hil..h -;' Mr. John Longuee
Mr. William B(>$:kyns
,.-. -. >, t .< • ,.

I; '.
:Mr. William ij4nUley .. ~ Stn; ~", :.., - ; ,~i

:Mr~,Thomas Herne .oj. 'The Rev. Ifaac ;NaQdox, ·D. ~.

ldl\ "Ihomas Handley The &v. Mr..Lawrellcc'MacC'
..... 'f"o\
A LIST' of tbe SUB 5 C RIB E R S.
The Rev. Mr. John Milner P.
The Rev. Mr. Daniel Markes The Rev. Mr. John Phelps
'fbe Rev. Mr. John Moor T'heRev. Mr. Samuel Price
'fhe Rev. Mr. Mafu The Rev. Mr. Thomas Priefi
The Rev. Mr. William May The Rev. Mr. John Parring.en
The Rev. Mr. Murray Archdale Palmer Eftj;
Henry Meriton EJfJ; John Palmer EfrJ;
John Mitchel EJq; Samuel Palmer Efq;·
Jofeph Murden EJq; Thomas Palmer E{q;
Mr. Morgan Morfe David Polhill EJq;
Mr. Obadiah Marryat Jofuua Pembroke EJq;
Mr. John Morton Henry Plumtree. M. D.
Mr ..John Mount Mr. Samuel Palmer
Mrs. Moor Mr. Thomas Partridge
Mr. Jofeph Mace Mr. Henry Palmer; Merchant··
Mr. Samuel MOfllis M,r. George Pell
Mr. Gabriel Motley, Mr. Stephen Peters
Mr. John Mucklow Mr. Samuel Parifh
Mr. Anthony Malcher, Merchllnl' Mr. Thomas Pariili
Mr. James Milnes, Merchant Mr. Ed ward Clark ParHh,.
Mr. 'ViUiamMan ' Mr. John Peters
Mr. Jafper Mauduit Mr. Thomas Palmer.
Mr. William Mount, 7 Sets· Mr. Edward Petit
Mr. William Piercy
N. Mr, Thomas Penford
":fbi Rev. Mr. William Na:fu·; M. A. Mr. George Penfold-
The Rev. Mr. Daniel Neal, M.A. Mr. Edward Price
7'he Rev. Mr. John Norman Mr. Michael-Pope
Mr. JamQSNeave' Mr. John Peele, Book/e/ler.
Mr. Henry Newcomb,
Mr. John Nicholfon K.
Mr. AldermRn Newnham of Portf- Sir Thomas Roberts, Bar~
mouth The Rev. Mr. James Read.
Mr. William Newnham. The Rev. Mr. Henry Read,
t». Nettleton Samuel Read Efq;
Mr. - NieholfOl1 " Mathew Raper E/q-;
Mr. Joho Noon" Boo,k}il/er,-,:'S'ees' M*S'Raper Efq;
Dudley Ryder J!fq;
0" Nathaniel Roffey E{q;
The Right Ron. Arthur Onflow, E.f'l; Mr",Richard Ryder
Speaker. of the Honourable Hvu/e. of Mr. Gearing Roberts-
Commons, L. p. Mr. jofeph Richman.
Jofhua Oldfield, M. D;' Mr. John Richar4foIl"
- Oliver, .M. D. of tht Bath Mr. William Rickmal1'
Mr. Edmund Ggden- Mr. Thomas' R.ed.Jaan;t~·

Mr. lobo'
r ..

.. ,
o.rE . ., .. Mrs. &e.!DOldso 'A
xxn• • .A LIS'T of tbe SUBSCRIBERS •
Mr. Daniel Radford Mr. James Taylor
Mr. Benjamin Robinfon Mr. Harding Thompkins
Mr. Samuel Randal Mr. John Towers
Mr. Robert Rogers Mr. Henry Tatham
Mr. Richard Reynell Mr. Peter Thornton, MerCM1tt
.Mr- Jofeph Turner
S. Mr. Jofeph Tindal
The Rev. Bennet Srepherifon, D. D. Mr. William Thornhil
The Rev. - Scott, D. D. Mr. Nathaniel Townfend
7he Rev. Mr. George Smyth, M A. Mr. Samuel Travers, Mercooltt
The Rev. Mr. Jofeph Sills
The Rru. Mr. John Southwell, 4 Sets W.
The Rev. Mr. Samuel Savage Cf'heRC1J.Samuel Wright, D. D.
7he Rev. Mr. Sleigh 'Ihe Rev. Haae Watts, D. D.
7!le Rev. Mr. Patrick Simpfon 'l"heRev. \Villiam Wifhart, D. D.
The Rev. Mr. Nathaniel Sheiffield 'lbe Rev. Mr. JamesWatfon
<.rheRev. Mr. James Strong 'Ihe Rev. Mr. William Wallis
The Re'lJ.Mr. Arthur Shallec crhe Rev. Mr. Thomas Walker
John Schrimfhire Efq; crbl Rzer1: Mr. John Winer
Meyer Sehamberg, M. D. <.rhc Rt'V. Mr. James Watkins
Mr. Robert Sedgwick 9:hc Rev. Mr. Nathanael Whitlock
Mr. Samuel Sedgwick Wight W oolleyEh;
Mr. Jeremiah Smith Arthur Woolley E.h;
.Mrs. Catharine Sharp Ifaac Weiman EJq;
Mr. Shorey John Wowen 'B.!'l;
Mr. Thomas Smith ·William Walter EJlJ)
Mr. lohn Smith James White, GeJlf.
Mr. Samuel Srephenfen Mr. James Wen:
Mr. Thomas Speidell Mr. Watkinfon WiJdmasa
Mr. Jofeph Selby Mr. Edward Walburge
Mr. James Smith Mr. Antony W.lburge
Mr. Allen Smith Mr. George Witty, j-.
Mr. John Stansfield Mr. William Willy
Mr. Stephen Smith Mr. Daniel Wi1G1ott
Mr. John Staples Mrs. Mary Winnock
'f. Mr. William Wildman
The Rev. Edward Tcnifon, D. D. Mr. Thomas Walker
<TheRev. Mr. Marcin Thompkins Mr. John Wefton of Greenwich
7 he Rev. Mr. John Tren .Mr. JohnWainwright
7he Rru. Mr. Jeremiah Titcomb Mr. ThmaSWarreB -,
St. Quintin Thompfon Elf; Mr. JoelWatfoo, BrcfKmt
John Tracy EJ'n Mr. Winter
Edmund Trench-EftJ; Mr. Jo~n \VeIl.. .
Peter Temple of BiihQpftrow) GfW. Mr. Samuel Welten
Mr. John Tarnell Mr. Obadiah Weeks
~r.John Tatlock Mr. Aaron Ward, Bodit/illw




!41~.~~,*~ S Religion is a Matter of the higheft Importance to every Man,
there can be nothing which deferves a more impartial Inquiry,
or which fhould be examined into with a more difinterefted
Freedom s becaufe as far as our Acceptance with the Deity de-
pends Of) lhe Knowledge and Practice of it, fo far Religion is;
and moil be, to us a purely perfonal Thing, in which therefore
we ought to be determined by nothing but the Evidence of Truth, and the ra-
tional Conviftioes of our own Mind and Confcience. Without fuch an Exami-
nation and Conviction we {hall be in danger of being impofed on by crafty and
defigning Men, who will not fail to make their Gain of the Ignorance and Cre-
dulity of thofe they can deceive, nor fcruple to recommend .to them the wo:ft
b Prm-
The 1_ T ROD U C T ION.
Principles and Superftitions, if they find them co~ducive or neceflilry to {up-
port thei.r Pride, Ambition and A ~arice. .The Hiftory of almoft all Ages and
Nations 15 an abundant Proof of this Affertion.
God himfelf, who is the Object of all religious Worfhi~, t? whom ~e owe
the moO: abfolute Subjettion, and whore Actions are all gUIded by the ~Jfcer~-
ed Reafon and fitnefs of Things, cannot, as I apprehend, confiftent wIth. ~IS
own moft perfect Wifdom, require of his reafonable Creatures the explicire
Belief of, or aCtual A1Ient to any Propofition which they do not, or cannot
either wholly or partly underftand; becaufe 'tis .requiring of. them a real ~m-
poffibility, no Man being able to ftretch hIS Faith beyond hIS Underftandmg,
i, e. to fee an Object that was never prefent to his Eyes, or to difcern the
Agreement or Difagreement of the different Parts of a Propofition, the Terms
of which he hath never heard of, or cannot poffibly underftand. Neither can
it be fuppofed that God can demand from us a Method of Worfhip of which
we cannot difcern fome reafon and fitnefs, becaufe it would be to demand from
us Worfhip without Underftandiag and Judgmenr, and without the Concur-
rence of the Heart and Confcience, i. e. a Kind ofWorfhip different from, and
exclufive of that, which in the Nature of Things is the moft excellent and
beft, viz. -rhe Exercife of thofe pure and rational Affections, and that Imira-
tion of God by Purity of Heart, and the Practice of the Virtues of a good
Life, in which the Power, Subftance, and Efficacy of true Religion doth
confift, If therefore nothing can or ought to be believed, but under the Di--
rection of the Underftanding, nor any Scheme of Religion and WorIhip to be
received but what appears reafonable in it felf, and worthy of God ; the necef-
fary Confequence is, that every Man is bound in Interefl and Duty to make
the beft Ufe he can of his reafonable Powers, to examine without fear, all
Principles before he receives them, and all Rites and Means of Religion and
WorIhip before he fubmits to and complies with them. This is the common
Privilege of human Nature, which no Man ought ever to part with himfelf, aad
of which he can't be deprived by others, without the greateft Injuftice and
'Twill, I doubt not, appear evident beyond' Contradiction, to all who-im-
partially confider the Hiftory of paft Ages and Nations, that where and when-
ever Men have been abridged, or wholly deprived of this Liberty, or have
neglected to make the due and proper Ufe of it, or facrificed their own pri-
vate Judgments to the publick Confcience, or complimented the licenfed {pi-
ritual Guides with the' Direction of them, Ignorance and Superflition have
proportionably prevailed; and that tothefe Caufes have been owing thole great
Corruptions of Religion which have done fo much Difhonour to God, and
where-ever they have prevailed, been deftructive to the Interefts of true Piety
and Virtue. So that intlead of fervingGod with their Reafon and Underftand-
ing, they have ferved ,their fpiritual Leaders without either, and have been fo
t1r from rendring themfelves acceptable to their Maker, that they have the
more deeply, 'cis to be feared, incurred his Difpleafure; becaufe God cantc
but difhke the Sacrifice of Fools, and therefore of fuch. who either neglect to
2 im-
improve the realonable Powers he hath given them, or part with them in
complaifance to the proud, ambitious, and ungodly Claims of others, which is
one of the higheft Inftances of Folly that can pollibly be mentioned.
I will not indeed deny, but that the appointing Perfons, whofe peculiar Of-
fice it fhould be eo minifter in the external Services of publick and focial Wor-
fhip, is, when under proper Regulations, of Advantage to the Decency and
Order of Divine Service. But then I think it ot the molt pernicious Confe-
quence to the Liberties of Mankind, and abfolurely inconfiftent with the true
Profperity of a Nation, as well as with the Intereft and Succefs of rational Reli-
gion, to fuffer fuch Minifters to become the Directors general of the Confcien-
ces and Faith of others, or publickly to affurne, and exercife fuch a Power, as
fhall oblige others to fubmit to their Determinations without being convinced
of their being wife and reafonable, and never to difpute their fpiritual Decrees.
The very CJaim of fuch a Power is the higheft lnfolence, and an Affront to
the common Senfe and Reafon of Mankind; and where-ever 'tis ufurped and al-
lowed, the moft abjeCt Slavery both of Soul and Body is almoft the unavoid-
able Confequence. For by' fuch a Submillion to fpiritual Power the Mind
and Confcience is aCtually enflaved, and by being thus render'd paflive to the
Prieft, Men are naturally prepared for a fervile Subjection to the Prince, and
for becoming Slaves to the moil: arbitrary and tyrannical Government. And I
believe it hath been generally found true by Experience, .that the fame Perfons
who have aflerted their own Power over others in Matters of Religion and
Confcience, have alfo afferted the abfolute Power of the Civil Magiftrate, and
been the avowed Patrons of thofe admirable Doctrines of Paffive-Obedience
and Non-Refiftance for the Subjea. Our own Nation is fufficiendy witnefs te
the Truth·of this.
'Tis therefore but too natural to fufpea, that the fecret Intention of aU
ghoftly and fpiritualDirelton and Guides in decrying Reafonvthenobleft Gift
of God; and without which even the Being of a God, and the Method of our
Redemption by Jefus Chrifl, would be of no more fignificancy to us than to the
Brutes that perifu, is in .reality the Advancement of their own Power and Au-
thority over the Faith and Confciences of others, to which found Reafon is, and
ever will be an Enemy. For though I readily allow the great Expediency and
.Need of Divine Revelation [0 affiil: us in our Inquiries into the Nature of Reli-
gion, and to give us a full View of the Principles and Practices of it ; yet a very
(mall Share of Reafon, withour.any fupernatural Help, will fuffice, if attend-
"cd to, to let me know that my Soul is my own, and that I ought not to put m,
Confcience out to keeping to any Perf on whatfoever, becaufe no Man can be
anfwerable for it to the great God but my'fclf; and thar therefore the Claim of
Dominion, whoever makes it, either over mine or any others Confcience, is meer
'Impofture and Cheat, that hath nothing but Impudence or Folly to fup~
it, and as truely vifionary and romantick as-the imaginary Power ofPerfons di1:'
.order'd in their Senfes, and which would -be of no more Significancy and Inftu-
.ence amongft Mankind than theirs, did not either the Vi6\!s of ambitioUSPrin-
c~J or the Superftition and FoUret Bigots- encour~geand,fupport it.
b2 ..• .. IQn
4- The I N T ROD U C T ION.
On there Accounts it is highly incumbent on all Nations,. who enf.oy ~heBlef-
fings of a Iimited Gover.omen!, w~o would preferve t~eIr CO~~ItunOn, and
tranfmit it Iafe to Pofterity, to be Jealous of every Claim of fpmtual Power,
and not to enlarge the Authorit~ and }urifdiLlion of fpiritual Men, beyond
the Bounds of Reafon and Revelation. Let them have the freeft Indulgence (0
do good, and tpread the Knowledge and Practice of true Religion, and pro-
mote Peace and Good-will amonglt Mankind. Let them be applauded and
encouraged, and even rewarded, when they are Patterns of Virtue, and Ex-
amples of real Piety to their Flocks. Such Powers as there God ~nd ~an
would readily allow them, and as to any other I apprehend they have lirtle right
to them, and am fure rhey have kldom made a wife or rational Ufe of them ..
On the contrary, numberlefs have bees theConfufions and Mifchiefs introdu-
ced into the World, and occaficned by the U fur pe rs of fpir itu a I Au Lhority .
In the Chriftian Church they have ever ufed it ."ith Infoleece, and generally
abufed it to Oppreflion and the worft of Crueloes. And though the HifrofY
of fuch Tranfattions can never be a very pleafmg and grateful Talk, yet I
think, on many Accounts it may be ufefu] and inftrcCtive; efFeciaBy as it way
tend to give Men an Abhorrence of all the Methods of Perfecutien, and puL
them upon their Guard againft all thofe ~J1godly PretenJions, by PI hich Per fe-
cution hath been introduced and fopporood.
ButhGW much foever the perfecutiag Spirit huh pevailDd.a~ tGo.fe wn()
have-called themfelvesChrfttians, yet certainly 'tis agrcatmUiake t'O.oolillfineit
wholly to them. We have in:ftances of Persons, who wer,e left ttl [he Light of
Nature and Reafon, and ftt'lVer fufpeChed of being perverted by Revelation,
murthermgand deft<f:oyingeach 'Other OR 'the A.ccouct of Rehgiom:; and .of fame
. judicially condemned to Death for differing from the Orthodox, i. e. the etl:a-
blifhed Idolatry ohhdr Country. ADcl ~ dlllUlhtt :Jl()~ hut llhat if we had as full
and particular an Accounr ohhe TranfaCtions. ..of .the ,diffe:rent r:eHgious SeCts
and Parties amongft the Meatbens,as we ba~eof tlhafe'3immngft Cni:idli~ we
fhouJd find a great,many more Inbnces0fihis Ikind, 1:han 'tiseaf"'1M" poffi.b1e
DOW to produce. However, there are feme ver¥t'ema:rkable '0Il:C$ w.a.ich I.
fhall not wholly omit.


S E C'T. 1.
Of PerftNdiansamrmgfJ the Heathen; upon Accountoj' Religion.

CIP.~. THERE is. Pafiage in the Book QfjuJiih which intimates to ~ tha.t.
T. 6. f':!,. .the ~D~eftors of. the 'jewJ .themfolNes were perfecuted,upLUl A..ccouQt
.()fthcIr ReltgIon. ~, CaptaJo ·of !.he.Sonsof Ammon,gi",es1:loJqftrtJeJ lthis.
ACCOl1Dt of the Origin of that Nacion. 'Ibis People au deftentkd ofth.e Chaldeans ;
ad tkey fljournedker:etofore ~n Mefopotamia, becQJlje the, 'Wo.ulJnatfollow the Gods
JttjIbezr Fa/lxrs wbuh were In the Land of Chaldea ; for they left the Way of their
1 be I N T ROD u cr ION
A'iet!lOrs, and 'iJ.'cl'jhippcd the God of Heaven, tbe t;H} kne:». So !bey
cafl tbem cut (rom ibe Pace of their Gods, and 11.)9 JlL'.l into Mefopot.uuia, and }o-
jOllnJa! thcrt: lIla!l) Days. Sr. :1l1Jlitt and Marj/:'tlIlt. both take I\.'Hice of rhis Tra- Dc.rivi"
dilion; WhICh IS farther confirmed by all the oriental Hiflorians, who, as rheDLI, l. 16.
learned Dr. Ilsdc tells us, unanimoufly affirm, that rlbrabani fuffercd manye. I~.
Perfecutons upon th~ Accou~t of his OPP?(j~~()n to the Ido!atrY of hi.s Ccunrry , ~lra~n'I.§v, T

and that he was particular! y irnpr ifoned for )e by Nimrod 10 V,'. Some of the Dc Rclig.
eaflern Writers alfo tell us, that he was thrown-into the Fire, but that he was Perf. c. 1..
miraculoufly preferved from being confirmed in it by God. This Tradition al-
fo the Jews believed, and is particularly mentioned by '[onatban in his'Targum
upon Gen. xi. 28. So early doth Perfecuticn feem to have begun againft the
Worfhippers of the true God. .
Socrates; who in the Judgment of an Oracle was the wifefl Man living, wasPlat. in
perfecuted by the dtbenians on the Account of his Religion, and when pait fe- APo~g.
verity Years of Age brought to a publick Trial and condemned. His Accufa~~~~tf. -
tion was principally this, That he did unrighteouOy and curioufly fearch intoDiog.
the great M yfteries of Heaven and Earth i a tha t he corrupted the Yourh, and ~ert. ia
did norefteem the Gods worfhipped by the City to be really Gods, and that heV~t.SQC.
iarroduceed new Deities. This lafr pan of his Acoufation was undoubtedly
owing to ,b,1S jnculcating upon them more rational and excellent Conceptions of
tiae Deity, than were allowed by the efbbliihed Creeds of bis Country. and to
bis arguing againft: the Corruptions and Superftitions which he faw univerfally
praCtifed by the Greeks. This was called corrupting the Youth who were his
Scholars, and what, together with his fuperipr \Vi,fdom, raifed him many
Eoemies amongft all forts of People, who loaded biOi .with Reproaches, and
[pread Repor.ts cOLlceromg him grc:atly to his Difadvantage, endeavouring
werehy to prejudice the Minds of his "cry Judges aga.inil him. When L1ewas
brought to his Trial fev-eral of bis Accufers wel.e nev(r fo much as named or
difcove,red to him, 10 that as he himfelf complained, h.e was as it wer.e fighting
with a Shadow, when he WJS deft:11ding himJe1faga.inft .his Adverfaries, be-
caufe he knew not WhOAl he.oppofed, and had nOJ)t1e .to ,hill9. However,
he ma.iatained his. own Innocence with the no,bleft Refolut,ipn al1d Courl:\ge ~
lhewed he\V~ far f.rom COfnpting the YQuth, .anr:} cha,t he be,.
lieNed t·he Being of a God. And as the Proof of .t.his his Belid he bravely [aid
to his Judges, that though he was very ftnfible of his Danger fr.QlTI the Hat.rea
and Malice of the People, yet that as he apprehended Gad bimfelf bad ap-
pointed hitD to tea~h :his Pbilofophy, fo he Jhould,grieyou(ly a.trend ·him1hpuJ4
he forfake flis:&ttlon wo.~gh feaT of De.ath, Ql' any ()t~J Ev,i,l; and that .f~t'
~c~ a DifQbedie.nce .to .the Pci,iy ,d!ey JDi,ght m~e jutUy ;J.coufe hiro as not be:
lJevmg the!: were ariy Gods: Addmg, .as ,th.ou,gh he had. rome~hat .of th..e fame
ble.(fed SPlIlt that afterwards refted on the Apatites otChnft~ tbj,,[ 1f they·
would difmifs him upon the Condition of not teaching lUi rhi1",~y .fUlf~.e~

a. AJlltti 7il~Ol.l~(J.'v n ':t'oAi, J'O(J.I(ti e,lI~ II J'O(J.I(""· f.n:y. '$

'2:(,')(..".> ,!(.:LWo:C 1'fl.l.U.O'llft."jr"-.
~@:. AJ'OLti 5 i£t 7110,11$ J'U"'ipa~f"'Y·TIp."t-«'.;}1U~1(j-.
I .

1 he I N T ROD U C T I ON.
I 'Will obty God ratber than you, and teach my Pbilofopby as long,as 1 live. How-
ever, norwithftanding the Goodnefs of his Caufe and Defence, he was con-
.demned for Impiety and Atheifm, and ended his Life with a Draught of Poi-
fon, dying a real Martyr for God, and the Purity of his Worfhip. Thus we
fee that in the Ages of natural Reafon and Light, not to be orthodox, or to
differ from the eftablifhed Religion, was the fame Thing as to be impious and
atheiftical, and that one of the wifeft Men that ever lived was put to Death
merely on account of his Religion.
I muft add, in Juftice to the Laity, that the Judges and Accufers of Socrates
.were not Priefts. Melitus was a Poet, Anytus an Artificer, and Lycon an Ora-
tor; fo that the Profecution was truly Laick, and the Priefts don't appear to
.have had any Share in his Accufation, Condemnation, and Death. Nor.
indeed, was their a.ayN eed of the Affiftance of Prieflcraft in this Affair, the
.Profecution of this excellent Man being perfectly agreeable to the Conftitution
and Maxims of the Athenian Government; which had, to ufe the Words of
0'.R.ogersa late Reverend Author, incorporated or made Religion a Part of the Laws of
~n~i1tbe the civil Community. One of the Attick Laws was to this Effect: : Let it be C

b;;;'me~ta perpetual Law, and binding,at all 'limes, to worJhip our national Gods and Heroes
&c. 'publickly, accordingto the Lat»: of our Anceflors. So that no new Gods, nor new
Doctrines about old Gods, nor any .new Rites of Worfhip, could be introduced
by any Perfon whatfoever, without incurring the Penalty of this Law, which
Cone, A- ..was Death. Thus 70ftphus tells us, that 'twas prohibited by Law to teach
~Ion. I. 2.. new Gods, and that the Punifhment ordained againft thofe who fhould intro-
If~:~t. duce any fuch, wasDeath. Agreeably to this, the Orator lfacrates, pleading
. Areop. in the~rand Council of l1.thcns, p~ts th.e~ in mind of t~e Cuft~m and Practice
of their Anceftofs: d 'Ihts was tbeir prtnctpal Care to abolifh nothing they had re-

ceived from their Fathers in Matters of Religion, nor to make any Audition to what
they had eftablijbed. And therefore, in his Advice to Nicocles, he exhorts him
to e be of thelame Religion with his Anceflors. So that the Civil Eftablifhment of
'Religion in Athens was entirely exclufive, and no Toleration whatfoever ak
'Diog. 'lowed to thofe who differed from it. On this Account the Philofophers in ge-
bert.l. S.neral were, by a publick Decree,' banifhed from Athens, as teaching heterodox
a:.7..Phr• .Opinions, arid corrupting the Youth. in Matters of Religion, and by a Law,
t. \;~~.9'
very much refembling the famous m~ern SchiJm Bill. f prohibited from being
, Matters and Teachers of Schools, without Leave of the Senate and People,
even under Pain o(Vearh. ThisLaw, indeed, like the other, was but very fhort
lived, andSophocles the Author of it punifhed in a Fine of five Talents. L),/ima-
cbus alfo banifhed them from his Kingdom. 'Tis evident from thefe Things, that
according to the Ath@ian-Conftitution, Socrates was legally condemned for not
b .nf1G'Of'1U ~ ~eAl f'dMOY II fJf'll'. Plat. Ibid. Act. S. 19.
(' 0eG'f'@- IUAlYI~'TO/~ Aln/'d. '5f'0~0/~, "tlel9'- 'TO.d.".d.yTd. Xe9V0I', eelS~ TIP.!I.' l!1 tltAld.~
frA"'e(lI~.51' ItO/YAI ef'lI'oIYlfA.Ol~ 'Of'O/f '!rd.TeJ4lr·
X EK,;-lI'O (401'01'enfllv 07rAl; po"/',, f'tlT5 TiJ' '!rt:tTelAlI' Xd.TttAlJ(fIf)(fI, fl.'t/7· 5~'" 'Till' 'OI.J.I(oPJt.;IItII1
-e T d. W 'TlS~ 0Sl(~ '!rOI&l IJ.VJ AIr 01 "'!h0YOI It.d.TiJlf1;rtl'.
r MilleI'd. 7A1Y~IM(fOflll' (fX0,","f "~II"'f1eO-1U, fl.Y fJ.II ':'11{kAIl ~ 'T"/'''P.III lo~tI' &I Is P.II, .3'/tlld..
'JOI' fI'lU 7111' c: 11f"4".
'11e I N T ROD U C T ION. 7
believing in the Gods of his Country, and prefuming to have better Not~ons of
the Deity than his Superiors. In like manner, a certain Woman, a Pneftefs,Jof. Ibid.
was put to Death upon an Accufation of her introducing new Deities.
Diogenes Laertius tells us, that Anaxagoras, the Philofopher, was accufed ofIn ;It.
Impiety, becaufe he g affirmed, that tke Sun was a Globe ?f red ho~ Iron; which An It.
was certainl y great Herefy, becaufe hIS Country worfhipped him as a God.
Stilpa was alfo banifhcdhis Country, as the fame Writer tells us, becaufe he I. ~.c. 38•
denied h Minerva to be a God, allowing her only to be a Goddefs. A very deep and
curious Conrroverfy this, and worthy the Cognizance of the Civil Magifhare.
Diagaras was alfo condemned to Death, and a Talent decreed to him thatJorep!y
fhould kill him upon his Efcape, being accufed of deriding the Mya-eries oflbJd.·
the Gods. Protagoras alfo would have fuffered Death, had· he not fled his
Country, becaufe he had written fomething about the Gods, that differed
from the orthodox Opinions of the Athenians. Upon the fame Account, AthenJ·
Tbeodorus; called Atheus, was alfo put to Death. Ibid.
The Lacedemonians conftantly expelled Foreigners, ana would not [uffer their Jofeph.
own Citizens to dwell in Foreign Parts, becaufe they imagined that both the lbl~.§~)6.
one and the other tended to corrup.t and wea~en. their own Laws; nor would ;.n;. 9- ttl
they fuffer the teaching of Rherorick or Philofophy, becaufe of the Qgar-
rels and Difputes that attended it. The Scythians, who delighted in human
Blood, and were, as ,]ofepbus fays, little different from Beafts, yet were zea-rbid. §.;7.
loul1y tenacious of their own Rites, and put Anacharjis, a very wife Perfon, to'
death, becaufe he feemed to be very fond of the Grecian Rites and Cere-
monies. Herodotus fays, that he was fhot through the Heart wirhan Arrow, Herodoe,
by Saulius their King, for facrificing to the Mother of the Gods after the man- Melpom,
ner of the Grecians; and that Scyles, another of their Kings, was depofed by ~o9. Ed.
them, for facrificing to Bacchus, and ufing the Grecian Ceremonies of Reh~Stenh .
~ion., and his Head afterwards cut off by Oflama!ades, who was chofen King ep.
In his room. So rigid were they, fays the Hiftorian, in maintaining their own'
Cufioms, and fo {evere in puniJhing the Introducers of foreign Rites. Many alfo Jofepfi,~,
amongft the Perfians were. put to Death on the fame Account. And, indeed, Ibid. ,
'twas almoft the Practice of 'all Nations to punifh thofe who difbelieved or de-
rided their national Gods; as appears from Timades, who,. Ipeaking of the
Gods of the .!Egyptians, fays, How /hall the Ibis, or the Dog, prejerve me.? i And Athett:
then adds, Where is the Plate that doth not immediately punifh thofe who behave im-I. 7' c. I~;
pioufly towards the Gods, fuch· as are confejfed to be Gods?
Iuvenal It gives us a very tragical Accololntof fome Difputes and Quarrelssatyt. J~~"
about Religion amongft tbe .lEgyptians.,. who entertained an eternal Batred-
il !i/~71 Tov 16AIoV fA.1J1'e,JV EM)" 1'1d.7rCleJV.
~ Mil
1 Oirli "et~
fiVd.1 d.v1l1v
etoV, d."-Ad. eEd.V.
9il1{"1IK 0fA.IJAO)"I1pJ.pI1{ Bf;l1{ d.~£fJl1/1T!{
Inter finittimos vetus atq; antiqua limultas,
SlJ';;'strJ{ A/"'1l'i

Immortale odium, & nunquam fanabile vulnuJ

Ardet adhuc, Ombos & Tentyra. Summus utrinq;
lnde furor vulgo, quod numina vicinorum
Odit l\tcrq; locus, cum folos credat halJenQ,p1
and Enmity againft each other, an-d'eat and devoured one another, becaufe they
did not all worfhip the fame God. ,

Englijb'dby Ornbos and Tentyr, mighb?uring'Towns, of late,

Mr. Dry- Broke into Outrage of deep feller' , if .:e,
den, f:1'(. Religious Spite and pious Splecr. "',i,/1
conr, Ap.
This Quarrel, which fo long B',~~' ;·:Irfl·
t :

I. z , § 6. Each calls the others God ;1/'11'>(;/

. . ~
His own, Divine, tho' from tbe ji1f fame Block.
At firfl both Parties in Reproacbes jar,
And make their Tongues the 'Trumpets of the War.
Words ferae but to enjlame the warlike Lins,
Who wanting Weapons dutch their horny Fifts,
Te: thus make fhift t' exchange fitch furious Blows,
Scarce one efcapes with more than half a Nofe,
Some }land their Ground with half their Vifage gone.,
But with the Remnant of a Face fight on.
Such transform'd Spettacles of Horror grow,
Tba; not a Motber her own SOI1would Know.
One Eye remaining, for the other Spies,
Which now on Earth a trampled Gelly lies.

All this religious Zeal hitherto is but mere Sport and childifh Play, and
therefore they piouOy proceed to farther Violences, to hurling of Stones, and
throwing of Arrows, till one Party routs the other, and the Conquerors feaft
themfelves on the mangled Bodies of their divided Captives.

Tet hitherto both Parties think the Fral.' .

But Mockery of War, mere Cbildrms Play.
'Ihis whets their Rage, to fearch for Stones - -
j/n Om bite Wretch (by Headlol1gflrait betray'd,
And falling M'wn i'tb' Rout) is Prifoner made.
WhoJe Flefb torn off by Lumps the rauenous Foe
In MorJels cut, to make it farther go.
His Bones clean pick-'d, his very Bones they gnaw;
No Stomach' J haulk'd, hecauJethe Corps is raw.
cr' had been loft crime to drefs him: Keen Dejire
Supplies the Wa1zt of Kettle, Spit, and Fire.

De Hid. & Plutarch alfo relates, t~at in his .Time fome of the A!.gypt~ans who wodhipp'd
on-, p. a Dog, eat one of the Fifhes, which others of the .lEgypttam adored as their
~8o. Ed. Deity; and that upon this the Fifh Eaters laid hold on the other's Dogs, and
ranc. facrificed and eat them, and that this gave Occafion to a bloody Battle, in
which a great Number weredeftroy'don both Sides.

Tbe I N T It 0 D Y' C T I 0 N~ 9
'.Antiothus Epiphalles~ tho' a very wicked Prince, yet was a great ZeaTof (or AntiqJud:
'his Religion, and endeavoured to propagate It by all the Methods of the moft]. u. c.~.
bloody Perfecution, ]ofephus tells us, that after he had taken ]erujalem, and
plunder'd the Temp~e, he caufed an A.ltar. to be built in it, upon which he
l'acrificed Swine, which A:bommatlOn to the Jews, and forbidden by
their Laws. Not content with this, he compelled them to forfake the Wor-
1hip of the true God, and to ~or1hip fu,ch as he accounted Deities; building
Altars and Temples to them III all the 1owns and Streets, and offering Swine
upon them every Day. He commanded them to forbear circumcifing their
Children, grievoufly threacning fuch as fhould difobey his Orders. He aJfo
appointed £.".I""O""l'f, Overfters, to .comp~l the Jews ~o come in, and do as
he had ordered them. Such as rejected rr, were conunually perfecuted, and
put to Death, with the moftgrievous Tortures. He ordered them to be
cruelly fcourged, and their Bodies-to be tore, and before they expired under
their Tortures, to' be crucified. The Women, and the Children which they
circumcifed; were, by his Command, hanged, the Children hanging from
the Necks of their crucified Parents, Where~e\le1' he found any of the facred
Bocb, or of theLaw, he deftroy'd them, undoubtedly to prevent the Pro-
pagation ofheretkalOpinions~ .and.pun.ilhed with Death fuch as kept them.
The fame .Author tells us alfo, 10 hIS Hiftoty of the Macca!Jt'eT, that Antioch«,)
put forth an Edi6t, whereby he made it Death for any to obferve the JewiJh
Religion, and compelled them, by Tortures, to abjure it. The inhuman
Barbarities he exercifed upon EleaZll'l'- and the Maccabees, becaufe they would
.nor renounce their Religion, and facrifice to his Grecian Gods, are nor, in
fome ~ircumftanceSt to be paralltl'd~b, any Hiflories o! Pe~fecution extant,
and w·dl ever render the Name and Memory of that illujlrtous 'T1ranl exe-
erabJe·andinfamous. It waBonitb~fllme' religious Account that he banilhedAthtl'l.
the Philofophers from all Parts of his Kingdom, the Charge againft them I. U.C.I1..
-being, their c-orrupting tb» routh,i.~. teaching themNotions of the Gods, dif-
ferent from the common orthodox Opinions which were eftablifhed by Law,
commandingPhaNias, that fuch Youchs as converfed with' them 1liould be
The ten Perfecurions, as they are reckoned, of the Chriftians by tfie
ROIINm Emperors, purely for their Religion, are ftanding Monuments of
theirrdigiousZeal, or rather of their outragious Fury againft all who woul,d
not comply with the effablifhedReligion. Indeed, the very civil Conftitution
of Rome was founded upon I'erfecuring Principles. '1'erlfiliian tells US,i '1'hat Ape]. c.1iO
'twas all tlflrie1tt Decr-It ,lNft; no<Empuor jhould confecrate (J, tme GM, .unleft he 'Was
opprO'Oed0,.IDe SnIfJH; and1 one' of [·he' ftanding LawB of rheRepu blick was
00 this EHea, as' Ci"r()., gWes. it:, K '1'htlt no 9M jliOllltJ·ha'Ut [eparate/y new Gods, De Leg.
,no nor worfhip pri'Uately foreign Gods, unleft admitud by the Commonwealth. TJ1isl.z..

j Vetus erat decretum ne qui Deus ab imperatore confecraretur, 'GiG aStnacu probatus. .
k Separatim nemo habelIit deo, neve novOI, fed 1lC, .dv~ oUipub1ice adfcicos. privatim.
•• Law
. 10 The I o:li~
IN.T 1t '0 D~U·.C·T
Law he endeavours to vindicate by Reafon and the Light of Nature, by add-
De Leg. ing, That for Perfons to worfhip their ~w~, or i~e.w, or foreign God~, would be ~"
1.2. c. 10. introduce Confujion and flrange Ceremonies in RelzglOn.. So t~ue a Friend ~as this
eminent Roman, and great Mafter of Reafon, to U niformiry of .Worlhlp ; and
fo little did he fee the Equity, and indeed Neceflity of an umverfal Tolera-
tion in Matters of Religion. Upon this Principle, after he had reafoned well
againil: the falfe Notions of God that had obtained amongfi: his Country men,
and the publick Superftitions of Religion, he concludes with what was enough
De Divin, to defiroy the Force of all his Arguments, I 'Tis the Part of a wife Man to de-
t 4. fin. fe11d the Cufloms oj his Anceflors, by retaining their Jured Rites and Ceremonies.
Thus narrow was the Foundation of the Roman Religion, and thus inconfifi:ent
the Sentiments of the wifefi: Heathens with all the Principles of Toleration and
univerfal Liberty. It was no wonder therefore that Chrifiianity, which was fo
perfectly contrary to the whole Syftcm of Pagan Theology, Jhould be looked
upon with an evil Eye, or that when the Number of Chriftians encreafed, they
fhould incur the Difpleafure of the Civil Magiftrate, and the Cenfure of the
penal La ws that were in force againft them.
The firft publick Perfecution of them by the Romans was begun by that
Monfter of Mankind, Nero; who, to clear himfelf of the Charge of burning
Rome, endeavoured to fix the Crime on the Chriftians;. and having thus faIny
and ryrannicall y made them guilty, he put them to Death by various Methods
of exquifite Cruelty. But though this was the Pretence for. this Barbaricyto-
wards them, yet it evidently appears from undoubted T eftimonies, that they
were before hated upon Accounr of their Religion, and were therefore fitter
Objects to fall a Sacrifice to the Refentrnenr and Fury of the Tyrant. For 'fa-
'Annal. . citus tells us.. That they were In hated for their Crimes. And what thefe were,he
1.IJ.C·44· afterwards fufficiendy informs us, by calling their Religion • an e)¢c&rable Su-
~Jd. 6 perflition. In like manner Suetonius; in his Life of Nero, fpeaking ofthe Chr'"
.p. I . mans, fays, They were a Set of Men sobo had embraced a new and aceurfed Super-

Annal. Jiition.. And therefore Tacitus farther informs us, That thofe who confe1fed
1.15. c·44; rhemfelves Chrifhans, P were condemned not fo much for the Crime of burning tbe
.City, as for their being hated by all Mankind. So that 'tis evident from thefe
Accoums, that 'twas through popular Hatred of.them.for their Religion, that
they were thus facrificed to the Malice and Fury of Ner-o. Many of them he
dreffed up in t~e Skins of wild Beafts, t~at they might_ be devoured by Dogs.
Others he crucIfied. Some he cloathed 111 Garments,ot Pitch and burnt them,
that by their Flames he might fupply the Abfence of the Day-light.
E. H. 1. 3· Th~ Perfecution begun by Nero was revived, and carried on by Domitian
t. 17; 18. who put Cometo Death, and banifh'd others upon Account of their Religion:
Euftbius mentions Flavia Domitilla, Neice to Flavius Clemens, then Conful, as

1 Majorum InCtituta tueri facri; Ceremoniifque retinendi~ fapientis'e1l.

m Per fIagitia invifos.
II Exitiabilis fuperJlitio.
() Genus lbminllm, fuperfiitionis nov:e & malefic:e.
! ~uJ puinde. ill c:rimin~ incendii '1ua~ odio h~lJ!ani gene.tia ~~vKli.

~niih.ecl fQF thi$ Reafon
The IN
Ifland Pontia. Dion the Hiflorian's Account oft, 61: ill
to. the
this Affair ill fomewhat different. q" He tells us, That Fabius Clemens theDoIDlt.
" Conful, Don.itiall's Coufin, who had married Flavia DomiJilla, a near Re-
" lation qf J)omili411\ was put to Death by him, and Domitill» b.wilhcJ
'44; [0 PiNI4a.t41'ia, being both accufed of Atheifm ; and that Oil the fame Ac-
" count ma.ny who bad embraced the 1ewifh Rites were likewite condemned,
" fome of whern were put to Death, and others had their Eflates confifca-
" ted.». think. this Account can belong to no other but the Chriftians,
-whom Dian feems to have confounded with the Jews i a Mi1take into which he
and others might naturally fall, becaufe the firfl Chriftians were ]e'q)s, anq
came frQ£n the Land of 'Judea. The Crime with which thefe Perfons wen:
charged was Atheifm; the Crime commonly imputed to Chriflians, becaufe
tb~, rctfqfed ~Q' worfhip the Raman Deities. Alld as there are no Proofs, that
·DomiJ.i411 eyer perfecuted the '}6~S uFoa account of their Religion,. nor any
IJtEill1;!1tjQll,Qf this Nature in Jofepbus, who finifhed his Antiql}itic$ towards the
Iatter ~ of Dfm,jlil!rn's Reign; I think the Account of Ellftbi~$7- which he de-
clares he Ef.lOkfHlIll Wrjt~r~, wbQ wele fa!, [rQm being Friends tQChri~ianity 7-
is j)rtf¢ to Jbat 9f f)iqJ(s .• and t~[ th.cretor;e i:here Perfecutions by Domi-
ti4fz ~e l,tplfl ~~9uO( of Chriili~nity. Howfver, tItey did pQtla.ft long~ for E. H. L. 3.
~f;lttfebiMs. tel~ ijss he"Fllt a StOp to them D}Iall Editl: in their favoqr. Terlul- C 10.
fUm alfOatirms the fam@, ~nd adds, that he ffE:;lll¢d thofe whgm. he ~ ~ Apol. c.~.
o·iihecJ. So that thf)ugh thi~il! re(koo'd by EccJdiaftical W.riterus the fec;ond
F~Jr¢Cutions it d.Qth not appear (0 have been genera), or vtny fevere. Domi-
tra". afro expeJled all chet PhjJP[ophers frOID &flU and italy. VIC ~m1t.

-lJ1lc):r 'rrtY411'l odleF'4'if~ ~ m~il 'JJ~.dl¢~tPrincet began the third Perfecu- e. I •

tlioD,.in tM f4lll ~~ar pfPis ~~n.Illrpfwer ttl a Lener of Plin, he ordered,
R T1}at 1~1 C/iryliON Jh~uld IIDI hi .fiJ.. ht I{t~~,hut sb~ ijJb,y wore !U(l4jiJ and
c/JII-uifle(/. rif being Chrijf,i41Uo 1b8, jlm4d k. pu'l'Ujhed, }itcb;edasjhfiu/d den,
thmftltuef Ii' be r;l.1rtj)imu, IUfdgj'Vt tln eWddJlJ PI'Oof ¢ # by 'Ul~rjJJif'ping his
Godi~ Thcle were' to re£!!.Wc FaJi~ qpol) thi$ ~ReirRJp€llt~nce, hew much
'~F, ~y:mi~trh~velx~ Wf~~~ib«t.e. F~ this: t~pcriaJ Refcript it
~.\}nq~.d,.evi~Ilf,Jbjn this rerf~uti~ Q1 .dic Chriftians, by tJ:raj41l was
PPi"~y o. ~e SCQfe-of t~ J..¢ijgiqn, bccmfe,~ or*rs, that w8afQever Was
~~IN!. and cQJWjcve<i" bc;ng a Ck,iftian Ib&uld b¢ pun.ilhcdwith Death,.
~W"r. ~ le~unq:d fljs J?'o{e~ MP fa£ri.tiE:edto the Gods. ~H tbat was re~
~eds f .. ~erlrtll/lia1J, ~ "'~I.rly. 'tI- tollfefs lIN Name-, '1(fiJ:bquJan1 Cog~1#'Apol. Co 7..
beJlfgl.-tj My c;rj~ .l!'Ii11J hft£elf, in hi$· Lener &:~ ~he ~fQ'JI .a<;q~it&
tb~al ~~~TlHegQfp* Wat~ ~,UUa ,., .t TNt 'fit ~ ~lt4.
«p,.~'dlv.,.,:~~ ..
~ E<tr[l/Je.x,:Jitt; ~1&-. . . ,.' _.
pm'luaruofi ~ fUllt., , Si ~'$ ItI'guRlUUl' pumeardi' ~IK; Ita'anteir ut qui t'le'gM', erit 110
~J.rUtI~w e~ ~ ~d;f& meo~ ~ecaic. ill ei fuppiicaadQ. Dis no4ris,. "..,..,.U1 ....
IJ) rr:J$,.rl1~fI), fUIC7 ~WMl , ... ~ntJa IIDje,tr.e.t. . _',
I1ludfQlum. CI:xpdtarul~t;U1o n9,ltIinis> no» e~u,IW cr~_ ' " '. '.,.
'Jtdfirmabant a~rem hane fiud!: ~mm.m v.ri cu1lxl: fi'Ja:, vrJ er,rQr~.QPOd ~~~IO~ J.i'l'CJ d.i~
:Inre luc~m conve~1CeJ carmenq; Chrdlo, quatt.9t!o; dicere, liicl'll1l' iJnoi~ .,. ....... , nn JIJ
feclus aliquod.,finng.ecc) ,~.ij,~ funa. ,o.e ~AC .,_ C9J\MtM.,
C 2 ' ttlIIS,
I~ 7I» I N T ROD 'U C T I 0 N~
was, tbn: theif whole Crime orError confiJl~d in this, that at fiated cfimes they wert uJed·
to meet before Day-li.~ht, and to Img an Hymn toChrij! as God, and that t~ey bound
themJel'Ues by an Oath not to commit any WidedntJs, fitch as Thefts, Robberies, Ad~l-
teries, and tbe like. And to be aflured of the Truth of this, he put two Maids
to the Torture, and after examininz them, found them guilty of nothing bur
n wicked and unrell.fOnable Superjlition.o This is the nobleft Vindication of (he Pu-
rity and Innocency of the Chriftan Affemblies, and abundantly juftifies t~e Ac-
E.H. L.'.count of Eufebius from Hegefippu1, u Tbat the Church continued until thefe Times as
G. 3 • a Virgin pure and uncorrupted; and proves beyond all ContradiCl:ion, that the
Perfecution raifed againft them was purely on a religious Account, and ~ot
for any Immoralities and Crimes againft the Laws, that could be proved againlb
the Chr iflians, though their Enemies flandered them with the vileft, and her~by'
AdScapul endeavoured to render them hateful to the whole World. Why, fays Tertullian,
doth a Cbriflian fu.ffer, bNt for being of their Number ? Hath anyone pro'l.Jcd Incefl,
or Cruelty upon us, during tbis longfpace of'l'ime? No; 'til for our Innocence, Pro.
bity, Juflice, Cha;1ity, Faitb, Yeracit:J, and for the living' God #Jat we are burnt
alive. Pliny was forced to acquit them from every Thing but an unreafonable
Superflition, i, e. their refolute Adherence to the Faith of Chrift. And yet
though Innocent in all other refpects, when they were brought-before his Tri-
bunal he treated them in this unrighteous Manner:- He only afked them, Whe ..
ther they were Chriftians? If they confeiTed it; he afked them th~-fame Ql1e.
ftion again and again, adding Threatnings to his ~eftions. It they perfe-
vered· in their Confeffion he condemned them to Death, becaufe whatever-
their Confeffion might be, he was very fure, that their Stttbbornnefs.and'i1r.f!e#tible-
Obflinacy deftrved Punifhment. So that without being convicted of any Crime,
but that of ConRancy in their Religion, this equitable Heathen, this rational
Philofopher, this righteous Judge, condemns them to a cruel Death. And
for this Conduct the Emperor, hisMafter, commends him. For in anfwer to"
Pliny's Q!!eftion, Whether he fhould goon· to puni1h. the Name it fdf; though
chargeable with no Cr,imes, or the Crimes only which attended the Name r
c.Trajan in his R~fcript, af~ercom.m7ndjng. Pliny, orders, That if~they were
accufed and convu:l:ed of being Chrdhans they fuould be put to'Death,:'Uolefs:
they renounced that Name, and facrificed to his Gods. '.£ertulli"" and·!t1tbe1ttl-
goras, in their Apologies, very juftly inveigh with great Warmth againfhhis'
imperial Refcript; and indeed, a more JhamefuJ Piece of Iniquity was never
practifed in the darkeft Times of Popery. I hope alfo my Reader wilt ob-
ierve, thatthis was Lay-Perfecution, and owed its Rife to the religious Zeal.
of one of the heft of the RomtHt Emperors, and not only rothe Contrivances of
cruel and defigning Priefts; that it was juftified and carried on by a very ta-
mous and learned Philofopher, whofe Reafon taught him, that what he ac-
counted Sup~rftition, if incurable,. was to be puni1hed with Death; and that·
it was managed with great Fury and Barbarity, Multitudes of Perfons in the
feveral Provinces being def1:royed merely on account of the Chriftian ,Name
by various and exquifite Methods of Cruelty. . •
~ Aet p.sxp 711)'17011 %0'111)' 'iTa-rat.,\9- x.,,9a.~ 'l1 cl'/c,offr 'fAM"' "'X~""c.
1. The
The ,I N T ROD U, c T ION.
Tht'Refcript of Adrian his Succeffor to Minutius Fundanus, Pro-Conful of
Ajia, feems to have fomewhat abated the Fury of this Perfecution, though not
wholly to have put an End to it. Tertullian tells us, that rlrrius AntrminuJ, af- Af! SC:l'";.
terwards Emperor, then Pro-Conful of .I1fia, when the Chriftians came in ;l I

Body before hisTribunal, order'd ferne of them to be put to Death;

and Iaid
to others, x To« Wretches! 1f you will die ye have Preapicies and Halters. He
alfo fays, That feveral other Governors of Provinc~s punifhed fome few Chri-
ftians, and difmiffed the reft r fo that (he Perfecution was not fo general, nor
revere as under 'I'rajan.
Under Antoninus Pius the Chriftians were very cruelly treated in fome of the
Provinces of rlfia, which occafioned Juflin Martyr to write his firft Apology.
It doth not however appear to have been done, either by the 0 rder or Confent
of this Emperor. On-the contrary, he wrote Letters to the Cities of Afia,
and particularly to thofe of Lariffa, CJ'hejfalonica, Athens, and all [he Greeks,
That they fhould create no new Troubles to them. 'Tis probable, that the
Afiatick Cities perfecuted them by virtue of fome former imperial Edicts which
don't appear ever to have been recalled; and, perhaps, with the Connivance
ot AntoninusPhiloftphusf the Collegue and Succeffor of Pius in the Empire.
Under him began, as 'tis generally accounted, the fourth Perfecution, upon
which 1uflin Martyr wrote his fecond Apology, Meliton his, and 'Athenagpras E. H. 1. 4.
his Legation or Embafly for the Chriftians. Mcliton, as Eufebius relates it, c. 1.6.
complains of it as an almoft unheard ofCJ'hing, that pious Men were now perfeeuted,
and greatly diftrejJed by new Decrees 'throug.bout Afia; that moll impudent Informers,
who 'were greedy of other Perfons Subftance, took Occafian from the imperial EdiEls, to
plunder others who were intirel'J.innocent. After this he humbly befeeches the Em-
peror, that he would nocfuftertheChriftians [0 be any longer ufed in fo cruel
and unrighteous a Manner. juJlin Martyr, in the Account he gives of the Apol. J.da.
Martyrdom of Ptolemeus, aflures us, that the only Queftion afked him was, C.4~.Edic.
Whether he- was II Chriflitm? And upon his confeffing that he was, he was irn- Thlrlb.
mediately ordered to the Slaughter. Lucius was alfo put to Death for making
<\thC:cfameConfeffioof and afking Urbicus the Pref.etl, why he condemned Pia-
~,who was .neither conviCted of Adultery, Rape, Murther, Theft, Rob.
bery, nor of any other Crime, but only for owning himfelf to be a Chriftian.
From thefe Accounts 'tis abundantly evident, that it was frill the very Name
of a, Chriftian that was made capital; and that thefe Cruelties were committed
by a.n Emperor who was a great Mafter of Reafon and Philofophy, not as
Pundhments upon Offenders againft the Laws and publick Peace, but purely
for the Sake of Religion; and G:Jnfcience;. committed, ~o maintain and propa ..
gate ldola1ry~"which is conu:aryto all the Principles of Reafon aoo PhitofG-'
phy, and upon Eerf&n&of great Integrity and Virtue in Heart and Life, for their
Adherence to the Worfhip of One Goo, which is the Foundation of aU truc'
Religion, and one of the plaineft and mot\: important Articles of it: The Tor-
t.ures which the .Perfecutors of the Chriftians applied, and the Cruelties they

~Q I'tI1\o/,fI .:}ir.tli«/,nSfllq'MjJ' "~IIfA'llSII ~e,9XlS> ix.7~

14 ,The I NT RODU OTI 0 N.
(xercifed on them, enough, one' would think, to have overoome me
eft human Refolurion ana Patience, could never extort from rhern u Con-
fefllon of that Guilt their Enemies would gladly have fixed on them. And
yet Jnnocen~ as they were in all refpeets,. they were treated with the ue-
mon Indtgnity, and deftroy'd by fuch Inventions of Cruelcj, as were abhorrent
to all the Principles of Humanity and Geednefs, They were, indeed, aceufed
of Arheifm, i. e. for not 'believing in and worfuipping the fictirious Gads of
EuCeb. the Heathens. This was the Cry of the Multitude againft Polycarp: 'This is the
E. H. L 4· Dotior of Afia, the Father of the Cbrifiians, tbe Subverter of our Gods, wbfJ tsach«;
c. I S· many that they muft not perform the facred Rites, 1101' worjhip our Deities: This
was the Reafon of the tumultuous Cry againfl him, Alf. T~~ASill;, A-way 'With
theft .dtheiJls. But would not one have imagined that Reafoo and Philafophy
fhould have informed the Emperor, that this kind of Atheifm W:13, a real Vir-
tue, and deferved to be encouraged and propagaeed amongft Mankind? No;
Reafon and Philofophy here failed him, and his blind Attachment to his
Country Gods caufed him to Ihedmnchinnecent Blood, and to become ~h.e
M.l. 4· Deftroyer of the Saints ofthe Living God. At laft,mdttd. the Emperor
C.13· feerns re have been fenfible of the great lnjuftiee of this Perfecurion, and by
an- Edict ordered they fhouJd be no longer ptmifhedfof being Cbriftians.
I fhall not trouble my Reader with an Aecbuf1t'Qf't1iis P<!rfecuti:on as carrit'd
on by Seuerus, Decius; Ga!fUJ, Pal'eritl1t1tS, Diocltj1a1t" aftd othel1l of.~ lUfMaiI
Emperors, but only obferve in seneraf, that the [1IIofte.x~Ye:and outragiaus
Barbarities. were made ufe of ul'O-nall who wouldn~t ~lafFheme- Chrift,. and of-
fer Incenfe to the imperial Gods; They were publiekly..whi?pe.d; drawn by the
~~el~ through the S~reets ofOties, rq,c;k~ till eve,r~Bone. of their Bodies wa~
dlsJQrnted ~ had theIr TeetqbC\.c out; thetrN~, Hands &fYdEars ;eij! off ..
1llarp pointed Spears tan, under their Nails; ·wet'eferrur~ with, mehcd '
Ltad thrown on their naked Bod1~;. had their Eyes dug out-;. dl~ Lim:b6
cut of i were cQndemned to the Mines;.gf'O\lOd be1:.. ecm St0l1etl;. !tailed to
Delith;~ b~rnt al!ve; .tbro",!! Headlong from·..~igPrButl~; bta.eaded;
fm~heredlll burnmg Llme-!{Ilns; f;ln througf\ rhe Bod)l'.lth~Spe~Sl
deftroyed with Hunger, Thir.ft &lJdCol'd; throwoto the-wildDMfts.-w br~
on Gridiro~s with Cow Fires;. ca!l' b~ Heaps into the-Sea; erucifiuh'fcrapcft
to Death WIth fharp Shells-;. torn In Pieces by die Boaghs fJf TNIS; alld:.. Xl a
Word, deftroy'd by aft the vatio.usMetf\.ods t.ltat the moft 4t:wolical S~t1et1
and Malice coutdqeviCe. - ; ;; .. ( :,. •.
It muft .indeed be conf~~d, tflat nn.der the, latter .E.~ .who pet'fecu~
the-Chriftlans, the S'unpl'ktt1 and. Purity of the C!u'ifb1fl Rdigloo weft ~~tl¥
corrupted, aQ<!that Ambition, Pride and LUXllry, Bad too gene-:aȴ'pJeniil
Epifi. xi. ed both a.rI1oogft the PaftQrs and People. Cyprian, w,ho YtVedunder tlw»~~
Ed. Fell. Per(ecution, writing concerning iet.o the P~s arid De«~'J INys) 1t
muftbe oUllled· tZnti c(mleffi~ !bat tbis flJdf"atPts .tPn1 DtrJ'fJ'j·Ctll.. 'J). wbJi:JJlZtIJ
afmfJjl devoured our FrOdc, ani oontfnues trJ ilt'r1rmr it ;" tf;i5 DtI'j,. j4th ""Jlllfa::/6JIIJ
becauft of our Sins, jince we keep not the Way of the Lord, nor objerz.'ehis heavenly
~l1Jands given tq us jor our Salvation. ~h01tgb our lArl tlitt tIH rtfl oj.'iHf FtHher,
" yet
The I N T ROD U C T ION. ,5
~"I!"we Jo i1~r the Will o] the Lord. ~r principal,Study is ,to get ,!vtoliC) il1llil!lit~~ es ;
we fa/low after Pride, WI ~t at LeiJilrt for nothl11g but Emulatiot: did ~((lrrc!'tllg, •
anti have fll'gldfed the Simplicity, of tb« fi2itb •. #'e flat', "e~cuu~/'tl tbis If ol:lti ":
Words only, a."d 1Iot ilt deed. hvety one .lludus to pleofe bm~./t'Lj, and to d,.fpLt:aJe
otbers. ,After Cypritm, Ettjt'bius the Hiftorian gives a fad Account of I he De- E. II, 1. h.
gencra<:y of ("!hrHlillfls about the Time of the Dioclefian Perfecunon : He tells c. I.
us,fJ'hal tbrough too ltllfch Libtrty tbey grtw ¥ltgligclIt and //~thful, t11tr)'ing aud "e.
prbaching one nnotber ; 'Waging, ilS it icere, civillf/'ars bd'ween IlJemjelves, lJijb{lps
rptartelllffg wit/; BijlxJp$, and the People divi&d into P arties : Tba; HYPfXr~(y and
Deceit soere gr,';.on 10 the higbe.J1pitch 0,/ Witked~7!fs; thallbey Were become fh inlen-
jible, as not fo mxcb as Ie think oj .Jlpp.eajill!, the DiviNe A"g(.r~ but tbst; like A'hei{ls~
Ihey thoNght tbe WorM defli!ilte of any proviJelltial Gd'V'frnnwll ll17d Care. dlzd thus
t1tfded o1te Crime to (metber ; t!Ji/t the Bijhops thetnJChV:5had tbrown off ,all Care of
ReligiOi1, VJere pttpttultlly (anURail1£, wi.:/;) f)N'C anotber, b,1lddid lIP/bill!, ~ut ljuarrel
tU>itIJ, llJ1il tbreaftn, and €11'VY'l- fi'filJ htlle '01iriitroth&; 'Wert full if JlMhilimt,., aNd
ryf-toJHnitalty Nfttl tbeil'l'twer. This was the deplorable State of tht: Chriftial1
Chutch, whilZh God, a$ EUf~itu weB obfetv~ fitO: puni1hed with a gentle
HQnd \ but when tMy grew budftltd nna inturable in their Vices, he was
p}ta~ed to letitl th~ tltoft gfitvous~rfecuck>ns upon them, under Dicdefidl1t,
whith exet'eded '0 Severity .and Len~th all that had been before .
. From thefe ActooMs it e\l'h.1entlyt\p~ear$, that the Chriftiatl World alone i~
ftot chargeable \\'ith the Guilt ()f PelletlltiOh on the Score of Relig:on. 'Twas
ptatlifed I~hg~tf()re Chriftianity was in bein~~ and fir.{\' !aught th~ Chrifiians
by the p~tfecutlng Hcatht'hs. Th~ molt emillellt Pbrlolophers tfpoufed and
l'indi<:atedptrfetuting Prindples; :and Emperors, otherwife exctllent and
goo<.l, made no fcruple of ddtroYltlg MUJricudt$ on a telj~iou~ ACC()\lnt, fllch
as crr-ajan, a nd Aurelius f/ e' tIS. And I think I rna y fa rther add, that
the Mt:thod of pr0P"lgatir.g Rcligjon by Cruc:lty and Death, .OWCi ita Inven-
tion co Lay Pabey and Craft; and that how fCn'ile1y foever the .Pridlhood
hath thought fit to imitate them, yet that they have never exceeded them
in Rigour and Severity. I can trace out the Footfieps but of very few Priefts
in the foregoing Accounts; nor have I ever heard ot more exct>nive Cruelties
than thofe practifed by Anti(JCbus, the Egyptian Heretick Eaters, and the Ro-
m,!" Emperors. I may farther add on this imponant Article, that 'ris the
Laity who"-h:lVe put it into the Po\ver of the PrieRs to perfetute, and tendered
tt, wtrrt.h heir. while to do it; th~y h:we done it by the Authority of th.e tivii.

La~s.~,9It1l 'as employed Lay Hands to execute the Drudgety of it. Th~
EhioInm-enu'of Honours :tnd Itrcb-es that have been annexed to the favourite
~e.Jigion~U1tl Prid\:ho~ is rheE1hbJifbmttrt bf tiviJ S'Ocie!y, Whereby k~-
hglon hach b'etn tnltfet'Xtremely pTofitable, aAd the Gains of GodJinel$,
wO~th .c?ntentli~gf?t. H~d the L:tity been mote (paring in their Gtanr~, :and
theu' ~IVll Cot'ifhrutl?nS formed UPOh the g.enerous and equitable PrinCIple of.
a:n ~nlverfal Toleration, PerfeCUtion had ne~tr been heard of amongft Men.
The Frieih would h~ve wanted not onlv the Power. but the IntlinatiQn tbper.·
fec:u'te; fince few Per[.)ns ha,;e f~lth an'Artarhmtbt eithtt to \v.hatthey:u:cOl)ht
. . Relig;ion..
-16 The IN T ROD UC T 1 0 N.
Religion 'Or Truth, as to torment anddeflroy others for the fake of it, unlefs
tempted with the Views of worldly Ambition, Po~er and Grandure. T~1cfe
Views will have the fame Influence upon all bad Minds, whether of the Prieft-
hood or Laity, who, when they Are determined at all Hazards [0 purfue them,
'will ufe all Methods, right or wrong, to accornplifh and ~ecure them.. .
As therefore the Truth of Hiftory obliges me to compliment the Lalt~ WIth
·the Honour of this excellent Invention, for the Support andPropagation of
Rel igion; and as its Continuance in the World to this Day is owing to the Pro-
tection and Authority of their Laws, and to certain political Ends and Purpo-
fes they have to ferve thereby, the loading the Priefthood only, or principal-
ly, with the Infamy and Guilt of it, is a mean and groundlef~ Scandal; and
to be perpetually objecting the Cruelties that have been practifed by fome who
have called thernfelves Chriftians, on .others for Confcience fake, as an Argu-
ment againft the Excellency of the Chriftian Religion, or with a V iew to pre-
judice others againft ir, is an Artifice unworthy a Perf on of common Un-
derftanding and Honefty. Let all equally fhare the Guilt, who are equally
chargeable with it; and IetPrinciples be judged of by what they are in them-
felves, and not by the Abufes which bad Men may make of them: If any Ar-
gument can be drawn from thefe, we may as well argue' againft the Truth
and Excellency of Philofophy, becaufe Cicero efpoufed the Principles of Perle-
cution, and Antoninus the Philofopher authorized all the Cruelties attending it.
Bur the ~eftion in thefe Cafes is not, what one who calls-himfelf a Philofopher
or a Chriftian doth, but what true Philofophy and genuine Chriftianity lead to
and reach ; and if Perfecution be the natural Effect of either of them, 'tis nei-
ther in my Inclination or Intention to defend them. But I pars from th.efe Re-
flections to the Hiftoryof Chriftian Perfecurions,

'S E 'C T. II.

Of the Perfecutions amangf/ Chr1jlians upon ..I!cco.zmtoj Religion.

I F ~ny Perfon wa~ ~o judge of the Nature and Spirit of theChriftian

gion, by the Spirit and Conduct only of too many who have profefled to
believe it in all Nations, and almoft throughout all Ages of the Chriftial\

Church, he could fcarce fail to cenfure it as an Inftitution unworthy the God of

Order and Peace, fuhverfive of the Welfare and Happinefs of Societies, and
deligned to enrich and aggrandize a Few onl y, at the Expence of the Liberty,
Reafon, Confcieaces, Subftance, and Lives of others. For what Confuficna
and Calami.ties, what ~uins and Defolations, what Rapines and Murthers,
hav~. been lOtrodu~ed into the Wor.ld, und~. th~ pretended Autwity of Jefus
Chn{r, and fu.pport1~g and propagatmg Chnfbamty? What is thebeft part of
our Ecclefiaftical HIflory better than an Hiftory of the Pride and Ambition.
lbe A~..arice and Tyranny, the Treachery and Cruelty of fame, and of the
Perfecutions and dreadful Miferies of others? And what could an unprejudiced
Perron, acquainted with this melancholy Truth, and who had never feen the
facred Records, nor informedhimfelf from thence of the genuine Nature ot
Chriftianiry, think, but that it was one ofthe worfr ReligIons in the World,
as tending ttl deftroy all the natural Sentiments of Humanity and Cornpaffion,
and infpiring its Votaries with that Wifdom which is from beneath, and which ij
earthly, fenjilal and deuilifb ? If this Charge could be juftly fixed upon the Reli-
gion of Chrift, it would be unworthy the Regard of every wife and good Man,
and render it both the Intereft and Duty of every Nation in the World to
rejell: it.
It muft be allowed by all who know any Thing of the Progrefs of the Chriftian
Religion, that the £lrft Preachers and Propagators of it ufed none of thefe vile Me-
thods to fupport and fpread it. Both their Doctrines and Lives deftroy every Suf pi-
cion of chisNature; and yet in their Times the beginnings of this Spirit appeared:
Diotrepbes loved the Prebeminence, and therefore would not own and receive the
infpired Apoftle.· We alfo read, that there were great Divifions and Schifms
in the Church of Corinth, and that many grievous Diforders were caufed there-
in, by their ranking rhemfelves under different Leaders and Heads of Parties,
one being for Paul, another for Apollos, and others for Cephas. Thefe Ani-
mofities were difficultly healed by the Apoftolick Authority; but do not how-
-ever appear to have broken out into mutual Hatreds, to the open Difgrace of
the Chriftian Name and Profeffion. The Primitive Chriftians feem for many
Years generally to have maintained the warmefi: Affection for each other, and
to have dittinguifbed themfelves by their mutual Love, the great Characteri-
frick of the Difciples of Chrift. The Gofpels, and the Epiftles of the A poftles
all breath with this amiable Spirit, and abound with Exhortations to cultivate
this God-like Difpofition. 'Tis reported of St. John, that in his extreme old Hieron, il\ •
Age at EpheJus, being carried into the Church by the Difciples, upon account Gal. c. 6.
of his great Weaknefs, he ufed to fay nothing elfe every Time he was brought
there, but this remarkable Sentence, Filioli diligite alterutr"m, Little Children
·love one another. And when fome of the Brethren were tired with hearing fo of-
ten the fame Thing, and afked him, Sir, Why do you always repeat this Sen-
tence; he anfwered with a Spirit worthy an Apoltle, Qpia preceptum Domini
eft· Et fi folum fiat, fufficit. 'Tis the Command oJ the Lord, and the fulfilling of the
Law. Precepts of this kind fo frequently inculcated, could not but have a
very good Influence in ·keeping alive the Spirit of Charity and mutual Love•
.And indeed the Primitive Chriftianswere foveI'y remarkable for this Temper,
that ther were taken notice of -oa this very Account, and recommended even
by their Enemies as Patterns of Beneficence and Kindnefs.
But at length, in the fecond Century, the Spirit of Pride and Dominatioo
appeared publickJy, and created great Diforders and Schifms amongft Chrifti.
ans. There had been a Conrroverfy of fome ,ftanding" on what Day E4j1er
fhould be celebrated. The Afiatick Ohurches thought that it ought to be kept on
the fame Day on which the jews held thePaffover, the fourteenth Day of Ni-
fan their firft Month, on whatfoever Day of the Week it Ihould fall out. The
d CuftQm
18 The I N T ROD U CT ION.
Cuftom of other Churches was different, who kept the Feftival of Eafier only-
on that Lord's D.1Y which was next after the fourteenth of the Moon. This
Controverfy appears at firft View to be of no manner of Importance, as there
is no Command in the facred Writings to keep this Feftival at all, much Ids
Eufeb.l.~.fpfcifying the particular Day on which it 1hould be celebrated. Eulebius tells
c. %.4. us from Ireneus, that Polyearp Bifhop of Smyrna came to Anieetus Bifhop of
Rome on account of this very Controverfy; and that though they differed from
one another in this and fome other leffer Things, yet they embraced one ano-
ther with a Kifs of Peace; Polycarp neither perfuading rlnicetus co conform to
his Cuftom, nor rlnicetus breaking off Communion with Polycarp, for not com-
plying with his. This was a Spirit and Conduct worthy rhefe Chriflian Bi-
fhops : But Vitior the Roman Prelate acted a more haughty and violent part ;
for after he had received the Letters of the Afiatick Bifhops, giving their Rea-
fons for their own Practice, he immediately excommunicated all the Churches
of Afia, and thofe of the neighbouring Provinces, for Heterodoxy; and by
his Letters declared aU the Brethren unworthy of Communion. This Conduct
was greatly difpleafing to fome other of the Bifhops, who exhorted him to
mind the Things that made for Peace, Unity, and Chrifiian Love. lrenaus
efpecially, in the Name of all his Brethren, the Bifhops of France, blamed
him for thus cenfuring whole Churches of Chrift, and puts him in mind of the
peaceable Spirit of feveral of hi, Predecefiors, who did not break off Commu-
nion with their Brethren upon account of fuch leffer Differences as thefe. In-
deed this A.C1:ionof Pope VWQr was a very infolenr Abufe of Excommunica-
tion ; a~i is an abundant Proof that the Simplicity of the Chriftian Faith was
gre-atly departed from, in that Hetercdoxy and Orthodoxy were made to de-
pend 00. CcntQrmity of Non-Coefermiry to the Modes and Circumftances of
certaie Th~s, when there was ae Shadow of any Order for the Things them-
feh'(s in the facred Writings i aod that the Luft of rower, and the Spirit of
&ide, had too Olu~bp~fi"dred fome of the Bilhop6 of the Chriftiaa Church.
Eufeb.l.;. The fame Yi{tor allo excommunicated one 'INfdofius for being unfound in the,
e, 18. D<:>&dn,e of the Trinity, .
'·Tis no wond~r ~~a.t~fter. t~is wt fhould.find Matters gr9wiJ:tg worfe and,
worfe. As the Primirive Chnlbans had any Int~rvals from Perfecution they be-
camec more proiigate in their MoraJs, and more quarrelfome in their Tem-
pers..' .As. the R.even.w:s Qf dle kv((al Bi1bepsim;rea,fed,th~y grew n'lore Ambi·
tilms" Jef:iCllpable of CQJllt:adiCtioe., mOle Paughty and arrogant in their Be-
haviqur, ffiQl1<J e.nvit),Us and revengeful in every part of their- ConduCt, and more
r~gardiefsof el1e Simplicit~ and Gra.vity of their Profeffion and CharaCler •.
The Accounts I have before given of them t-rorn Cyprian and Eufebius before
Efill, q. the Diaelefta", Perfe~ution, to which I might add the later one of St.1erom,,_
~re ver): melancholy and affeCting, a.od fhew how vafily they were degenera-
red from the FielY and feaceabJe Spirit of many of their Predeceffors,. and how
Tftady they were to tnter i~to tbe worft Meafures i)f Perfecution, could they:
bu.tha'le gOt the Opportuwty and Power.

Under Confla1ttine the Emperor, when they were reflored to full Liberty,
their Churches rebuilt, andrhe imperial Edicts every where publifhed in their
Favour, they immediately began to difcover what Spirit they were of; as
foon as ever they had (he Temptations of Honour and large Revenues betore
them. Conflantine'» Letters are full Proof of the jealoufies and Animofities
that rcizned amongft them. In his Letters to Miltiades BiOlOP of Rome he E.II.J.10.
tells him: that he had been informed that Cacilianus Bifhop of Carthage hade.).
been aecufed of many Crimes by fome of his Collegues, Bifhops of Africa, and
that it was very grievous to him to fee fo great a Number of People divided in-
to Parties, and the Bifhops difagreeing amongft thernfelves, And though the Ibid.
Emperor was willing to reconcile them by a triendly Reference of the Centro-
verfy to Miltiades and others, yet in Ipite of all his Endeavours they maintained
their Quarrels, and factious Oppofition to each other, and through feeret
Grudges and Hatred would not acquiefce in the Sentence of thofe he had ap-
pointed to determine the Affair. So that as he complained to Chreflus Bifhop of
Syracufe, thofe who ought to have maintained a brotherly Affection and peace-
able Difpofition towards each other, did in a fcandalous and deteftible Manner
lepJlrate from one another, and gave Occafion to the common Enemies of
Chriftianity to deride and fcoff at them. For this Reafon he fummoned a.
Council to meet at rlrles in France, that after an impartial hearing of the feveral
Parties, this Controverfy which had been carried on for a long while in a very
intemperate Manner, might be brought to a Friendly and Chriftian Compro-
mife. Eufebius farther adds, that he not only called together Councils in the Ie- De Vito
vera] Provinces lIpon account of the Qparrels that arofe amongft the Buhops, Con. I. I.
but that he himfelf was prefent in them, and did all he could to promote Peace?' 44'
amongft them. However, all he could do had but little effect; and it muft
be owned that he himfelf greatly c-ontributed to prevent it, by his large En-
dowment of Ch urches, by the Riches and Honours which he conferred on the
Bifhops, and efpecial1y by his authorizing them to fit as Judges upon the Con-
fciences and Faith of others, by which he confirmed them in a worldly Spirit,
the Spirit of Domination, Ambition, Pride and Avarice, which hath in all
Ages proved fatal to the Peace and true Intereft of the Chriftian Church.
In the firft Edict, given us at large by Eufebius, publifhed in favour of the Eo He LxO!
Chriftians, he acted the part of a wife, good, and impartial Governor, inc,S·
whi~h~ without mentioning any particular Sects, he gave full liberty to all
Ch~lftlans, Y and to all other Perfons whatfoever, of following that Religion they thought beft. But this Liberty was of no long Duration, -and fOOD
~brl~ged In refe,rence both to the Chriftians and Heathens. For alrhough
In this tirft mentioned EdiCt he orders the Churches and Effeds of the Chrifti ...
ans in gene~aI' to be reftored to t~m, yet in one immediately following he
confines this Grant to the Cathohck Church. After this, in a Letter to
Miltiade: Bilhop of Rome, complaining of the Differences fomented by the

y AJtMll.J~~ 7tl Il<l'VXttt 7611'~'tt'~fM' .rur- "",'&1ltI ~u'ewa",It) 0'ftJ' S;lS<TICV Ptt~9' s",1f
7., euf~ 'b Tnp.iAiW D<10010Y" tty(3.1.11141
~ffW. " .' .

d· z African
.Ajrictln Bithops, he lets him know, that he had fo great a Reverence for the-
~ Catholick Church, that he would not have him fuffer in any Place any Schifm Difference whatfoever .. In another to Cecilianus Bifhop of Carthag.e, after
e.e, giving him to underftand, that,he had ~rdered Urfu: to pay his Reverence three
Thoufand Pieces; and Heraclides to difburfe to him whatever other, Sums h.s
Reverence fhould have occafion for, he orders him to-complain of all Perfons
who Ihould go on to corrupt the People of.the moft holy Catholick Church by
any evil and falfe Doctrine, to Anulinus the Pro-Coaful, and Patricius, to
whom h~ had given Inftructions on this Affair, that if they perfevered in fuch
Madnefs they might be punifhed according to his Orders. 'Tis eafy to guefs
what the Catholick Faith and Church meant, viz. thar which was approved
by the Bifhops, who had rhe greareft Intereft in his Favour.
De vito As to the Heathens, foon after- the Settlement of the whole Empire under
ConG.I. 1.. his Government, he fent into all the Provinces Chriftian Prefidents, forbidding
1:,44.. them, and all other Officers of fuperior Dignity to facrifice, and confining to
fuch of them as were Chriftiansthe Honours due to their Characters and Sta-
tions; hereby endeavouring tofupport the Kingdom of Chrift, which is not of
this World, by Motives purely worldly, viz. the Profpects of temporal Pre-
ferments-and Honours; and notwithftanding the excellent Law.he had before
publifhed, Thatevery one fhould have free Exercife of his own Religion, and
worfhip fuch Gods as.they thought properche foonafrer prohibited the old Reli-
I~jd.c'4Sgion, viz. the Worfhip ofldols in.Cities and Country ;.commanding.that no Sta-
tues of the Gods Ihould be erected, nor any Sacrifices offered upon their Altars.
And yet notwithfianding this Abridgment of the Liberty of Religion, he de-
clares in. his Letters afterwards; written to all the feveral.Governors of his Pro-
l~id.c.S6.vince9, tharrhcugh.he withed the Ceremonies of the Temples, and the power
of Darknefs were wholly removed, he would force none, . but that -,ev-ery one
1hould have the Liberty of ac9:ingin Religion as he pleafed.
'Tis not to be wosder', that the Perfons whoadvifed thefe Edi& to
fupprefs the ancient Religion of the Heathens, Ihould be againft tolerating any
other amongft themfelves, who Ihould prefume to differ from them. in any Ar-
ticles of the Chriftian Religion.theyhadefpoufed sbecaufe if.erroneous and
. falfe Opinions .in Religion, .as fach, are. to be prohibited or ppoi1hed by the
Civil Power, there is.equal Reafon for perfecutlnga Chriftian,. 'who~ Belief-is
wrong, and whofe· Practice is erroneous, as for perfecuting Ferrons of any
other falfe. Religion whatfoever; and the fame Temper and Principles that lead
to the latter, will alfolead-to and juftify the former. And as the Civil Mag\:"
Ilrate, under.the Direction of his Priells,_ muft always judge for himfelf what
is Truth.alld Error in Religion, his Laws for fuppor.ting the one, and punifh-
~ the other, muft always b(: in Confeql1enceof this Judgment. And ther:e:-
fote ifConftanlw and his Bifhops were right in PFohibiting Heathenifm by Civil
La ws,. becau.fethey, believed it·erroneous aDO falfe, DwclejitUI and Li(ini,u, "and
tlleir Priefts, w~re eqpally right in prohibiting Chriftianity by Civil Laws,
becaufe they belIeved It not onlyerroneous and falfe, but the hlghcft JmFi~ty
aid ,Blafphemy againft their Gods, and _ev~Qa PJ'oo£of Atheifm it felf.. An~
. I., b17
1he I N T R.O 0 U C T"l 0 N. ~I
by the (arne Rule every Chriftian, that hath Power, is in the right to perfe-
cute his Chriftian Brother, whenever he believes him to be in the wrong. And
in truth, they feern generally to have acted upon this Principle; for which
Party foever of them could get uppermoft was againfl all Toleration and Li-
berty for thole who differed from [hem, and endeavoured by all Methods to
opprefs and dellroy them.
The Sentiments of the Primitive Chriflians, at leaft for near three Centuries,
in reference to the Deity of our Lord Jt:fus Chrift, were, generally fpeaking,
pretty uniform; nor do there appear to have been any publick Quarrels
about this Article of the Chriftian Faith. Some few Perfons indeed, differed Eufeb.
from the commonly received Opinion. One Tbeodotus a Tanner, under theE. He
1. ~.
Reign of Commodus, afferred Chrift was a meer Man, and on this Account was c. 1. •
excommunicated, with other of his Followers, by Pope Viiior, who appears
to have been very liberal in his Cenfures againft others. Artemon propagated
the fame erroneous Opinion under Seuerus. Beryllus alfo, an Arabian Bifhop Ibid. 1. 6\ .
under Gordian, taught, That our Saviour had no proper perfonal Subfittence> 33·
before his becoming Man, nor any proper Godhead of his own, but only the
Father's Godhead refiding in him; but afterwards alter'd his Opinion, being
c-onvinced of his Error by the Arguments of Origen. Sabellius alfo propagated 1.7. c.1.7,
much the fame Doctrine, denying alfo the real Perfonality of the Holy Ghoft.
Afrer him Paulus Samofatenus, Bilhop of Antioch, and many of his Clergy, 18,1.9..
publickly avowed the fame Principles concerning Chrift, and were excommu-
nicated by a large Council of Bifhops, But though thefe Excommunications
upon account of Differences in Opinion, prove that the Bifhops had fet up for
Judges of the Faith, and affumed a Power and Dominion over the Conferences
of others, yet as they had no civil EffeCts,. and were not enforced by any penal
Laws, they were not attended with, any puhlick Confufions, to the open Re-
proach of the Chriftian Church.
But when once Chriftianity was fettled by the Laws of the Empire, and the.
Bifhops free to act as they pleafed, without any fear of publick Enemies
to difturh and opprefs them, they fell into more 1hameful and violent~affeIs,
upon account of their Differences concerning the Nature and Dignity of Chrift.
The Conrroverfy firJl: began between Alexander Bilhop of 'Alexandria, and driusDe vi'J
one of his Prefbyters, and foon fpread it felf into other Churches, enflamingCOnfl:.l.z..·.
Bifhops againft Bifhops, who out of a Pretence to fupport Divine Truth exci-,~IE H'
red Tumults, and entertained irreconcilable Hatreds towards one another-I. I:c:,.:
Thefe Divifions of the Prelates fer the Chriftian People together by. the Ears, "
as they happened to favour their different-Leaders and Heads of Parries ; and
the Difput.e was managed with fuch Violence~ that it foon reached the whole.
Chriflian World, and gave Occalion to the Heathens in. feveral Places to r.idi-.
cule the Chriftian Religion u~n their pubIick Theatres. How different wero.&fcb.1.6. -,
the Tempers of the Bifhops and Clergy of thefe Times from the excellent Spirit c. 45.
of Dionyfius Bifhop of Alexandria, in the Reign of Decius, who.writing.t01'W1-
'llatus upon account of the Difturbance he had raifed in the Church Of R()fM~
bl. the Severity of his D.oHrine, in .not admittipg,_~hofc .who Japfcd imO .IdoJat~Y"
'Ihe 1 N T ROD U C T ION.
in Times of Perfecution ever more to Communion, though they gave ali the
Marks of a true Repentance and Converfion, tells him, One ought to Juffer

any 'Thing, in the World rather than divide tbe Church of G.od. .
;'d'. E. 11. 'The Occafion of the Arian Controverfy was this, rllexander B:f110p of
J. I. C. s. ALo'xandria fpeaking in a very warm Manner concerning the Tri~it.Y before
the Prefbyrers and Clergy of his Church, affirmed there w~s m~ ~Ji1ily in ~the
'Trinity, and particularly that the Son was Co-eternal and C01ZIubjla1l1iat, mzd oj tbe
[ame Dignity with the Father. rlrius, one .of his Prefbvters, thought that the
Bifhop, by this Doctrine, was introducing the Sabellian Herefy, and there-
fore oppofed him, arguing in this manner: a If the Father begot the: Son, be 'lJ.:ho
was begotten muft have a beginning of his Esiflence , and from bence, fays I.~e, 'lis
manifeft, that there was a 'lime when be was not; tbe lIccejJary COIlf'qUfJICC~!icbicb
E. H. 1.1. he affirmed was this, Tbat he had his Subfifience out of'1binzs not t'xijlzng. SO-Zf}-
c.15· men adds farther, that he afferted, b'1hat by virtue of his Frcc-ioill tbe Son
was capable of Vice as well as Virtue; and that he was the mere Creatu~e nm! (Fork of
God. The Bifhop being greatly difturbed by thefe Expreflions of rlrius, upon
account of the Novelty of them, and not able to bear fuch an Oppofirion from
one of his Prefbyters to his own Principles, commanded Arius to forbear the
Ufe of them, and to embrace the Doctrine of the Confubftantialiry and Co-eter-
nity of the Father and the Son. But Arius was not thus to be convinced, efpe-
cially as a great Number of the Bifhops and Clergy were of his Opinion, and'
fupported him; and for this Reafon himfelf and the Clergy of his Party were
excommunicated, and expelled the Church, in a Council ot near an Hundred of
the Egyptian and Lsbian Bifhops met together for that purpofe, by the Bifhop,
who in this cafe was both Party and Judge, the Enemy and Condemner of Ari-
us. Upon this Treatment Arius and his Friends fent circular Letters to the fe-
vera~ Bifheps of the C~urch,.giving them an Account of their Faith, and defiring
that If they found their Sentiments orthodox, they would wrrre to Alexander in
their Favour; if they judged them wrong, they would give them Inftructions
how to believe. Thus was the Difpute carried into the Chriftian Church, and
the Bifhops being divided in their Opinions, fome of them wrote to Alexander
not to admit Arius and his Party into Communion without renouncing their
Principles, whilft others of them perfwaded him to act a different part. The
Bifhop not only followed the Advice of the former, but wrote Letters to the
feveral Bifhops not to communicate with any of them, nor to receive them if
Soc. E. H.,they fhould come to them, nor to credit Eu[ebius, nor any other Perfon that
1. l.c.6. lliould write to them in their behalf, but to avoid them as the Enemies of God,
and the Corrupters of (he Souls of Men; and not fo much as to falure them, or
502. 1. I. to have any Communion with them in their Crimes. EuJebitls, who was Billiop
c, I S· of Nicomedia, rent feveral Letters to dlexander, exhOrting him [0 let the Con-
troverfy peaceably drop, and to receive Arius into Communion; but finding

z EJ'fi ~ ,3 ~ '7f'd.'I o111J// '7f'49fiV~ lI'7Zif n PO" J'lU4lU 711' UC.itAII(fId.'711atll.

a EI 0 1;d.Tlff s )'evnl" 70'11./0", 4f%'IV lI"l7af~iAI~ IX" 0 ')'",lleffl'. KILl :}L n1rs J"JA~Y, on II' 01. WI(,
"' 0 ,!~. 0,7"1'
d.x.o}..1l01!l T! e; ILva,.J(,"~ e~ Wit 41110'
eXiI' Tn, 1I'1'1K'tlLtfW.
~ Keu CWTg;1lU'n7;l/1 u,; ~ ct.~.7nr '!1
J'u71J(,ov 1I1F4fXfi'J ~ ,,71(f!J.d. ~ 'nl"IJ,~1 rJ.Md. ""3M«.
him inflexible to all his repeated Entreaties, he got a Svno.i to meet in
Bubvnia , from whence they wrote Letters to the other Bilhops, to engage
them to receive the ririans Co their Communion, and {Q pertu.ule /llrsandcr to
do the fame. But all their Endeavours proved indl~:dl1.d, an.l hy thclc un-
friendly Dealings the Parties grew more enraged againil each other, and ihc
Quarrel became incurable.. . .
'Tis, I confers, not. a little Iurprizing, that the whole Chnflian World
fhould be put into fuch a Flame upon account ot a Dilpute of fo very abftrufe
and metaphyfical a Nature, as this really was in the Courfe and Manaf;!;e~ent
of it. Alexander's Doctrine, as Aritis reprefents it in his Letter to Eufebius of
Nicomedia, was this, c God is aluiass ; and the Son always. The fame Time the Fa- ~h~odi
tber, the [ame crime the Son. Tbe SOil co-exi~s with God unbegottel1ly, being ever s.· . J. c:
begotten, being unbegottenly begotten. Tbat God was not before the Son, no not in Con-
ception, or the leajJ Point oj 'Time! he being ever God, ever a Son. For Ike Son is
out of God himfelf. Nothing could be more inexcufable, than the tearing the
Churches in pieces upon account of Iuch high and fubtle Points as there, ex-
cept the Conduct of Arius, who on the other hand aflerted, as Alexander, his
Bifhop, in his Letter to the Bifhop of Confiantinople, tells us, d That tbere soas ald. J. r,
crime when there was no Son of God, and that he who before was not, afterwards c. 4.
eJ4ijled, being made, when [ceuer he was made, juft as any Man whatjOever, and that
therefore he was of a mutable Nature, and equally receptive of Vice and Virtue, and
Dther'rhings of tbe like kind. If thefe were the Things taught, and publickly
avowed by Alexander and /lrius, as each reprefenrs the other's Principles, 1.
perfwadc my felf, that every fober Man will think they both deferved Cenfure,
for thus leaving the plain Account of Scripture, introducing Terms of their
own Invention into a lJotl:rinc of pure Revelation, and at laf] cenfuring and
w.riting one againft another, and dividing the whole Church of Chrift upon ac-
count of them.
But 'tis no uncommon Thing for warm Difpurants to miftake and mifrepre-
fent each other; and that this was the Cafe in the prefent Controverfy, is, I.
think, evident beyond Difpure , Alexander and Arius defcribing each other's
Opiniens, not as they. held them themfelves, but according to the Conlequen- .
ces each imagined co follow from them. Thus Alexander affirms in the afore-
mentioned Letter, that the Father ever was, and thence infers what he chinks
neceffarily (o]Jows, that the Son, upon whofe account he is called a Father,
mufl ha'lle ewr been, and yet exprefiy afferts the Son to be begotten, and that
r h~ Fatber a~one, ~ unbegotten. When Arius reprefems thefc Things to his
Fnend Eujebz1JS, tJS according to what he accounted the necelfary Confequences
of them, and n6)t as. they were really maintained by.dlexa1lder; and becaule

<: Af'!0 0,&, Itfol 0 t{@-' d!'-d. '7rrt71l~, I:J./ML t{@-. ITt/vlI-7;/tfXeI tt')l~PPI,1~, 0 t{@- Tfo> .3"(0', ttif}'EI"I1'·
E>''::, "-jEVI'l1nr;I'H, <,IV· ~Ti 'i-7;lilOltt ti7e rt7C(M') 7/VI '7rfOIt)'''; 0 G.@- Ti$ t{i$. ltd G.@-, It.., 11~' if
/1.1.01.'; HOI 7~ 0"60 l!&-'
d l!' o;r~7:o7~ :<lG ltV 0 ~.?-'[I{ E>elt, ~ ')Ie[ov!v lI>ff.Jl' 0 'iTp.p1.egv ~11 UVI:J.~X"V, TOlti1tT y&,~~,
07E '!-J "11"07.
Y<'}OI/V, n:
Ol..... if! -;ora, f1VtU '7r<~lIltfV et.v9f"'1Z@-· 01, <tJf.O}l.~9(c1' ~ ~1t.~/' 1t1l7W Tff .. 11!>
Hl'tU ~JiO"U", af~l;l; 7, Ji;x.Cl.iI./<t,.; f.1ZIJ'.u7/J1.0I'.

�+ Tbe I NT ROD U C T ION.
he apprehended that the abfolute Co-eternity of the Son with the Father was in-
confiftent with the Son's being begotten of him, he fays that Ale~ande: held
he was rmbe!!,ljttenlybeg,ottm, or begotten and not begotten, thus making h~sown
Confequences pafs for the Bifhop'sSe~timents.On the o~her hand, A.rzUJ af-
Ierted, Tbe Son hath a beginning, and is .from none of tbe 'fhmgs tha! do exifl; not
meaninz that he was not from Everlafting, before ever the Creation had a Be-
ing, or~hat he was created like other Beings ~bf~lutely out of n?thing, or that
like the ref] of the Creation he was mutable In hISNature. Artus expreOy de-
clares the contrary in his Letter to Eu[ebius, his intimate Friend, fro~ .whom
Theod. he had no reafon to conceal his moil: fecret Sentiments, and fays, e 'Ihtsp what
E. H. I. r. we have and do profeft, That the Son is not unbegpuen, nor in any manner a p~rt of
c. 5. the unbegottcn God, nor from any part of the material World, but that by the IVzlt and
Council of the Father he exi/led before all 'limes and Ages, perfe8 God, the only begot-
ten and unchangeable, and that therefore before he was begotten or formed he was not,
i, e. as he explains hirnfelf, f Tbere never was a 'lime when he was unbegotten.
His affirming therefore that the Son had a Beginning, was only faying, that he
was in the whole of his Exiftence from the Father, as the Origin and Fountain
of his Being and Deity, and not any Denial of his being from before all Times
and Ages; and his faying that he was no pan of God, nor derived from
Things thar do exift, was not denying his Generation from God before all
4ges, or his being compleady God himfelf, or his being produced after a more
excellent Manner than the Creatures, but that as he was always from God, fo
he was different both from him, and all other Beings, and a Sort of middle
Nature between God and his Creatures; whofe beginning) as Eufrbius of Ni-
ra. Ibid. comedia writes to Paulinus Bifhop of'Tyre, was g not only inexplicable by Words,
c.6. but unconceivable by the Underftanding of Men, and by all other Beings jUperior to
Men, and who was formed after the moft perfetl Likenefs to the Nature and Power if
God. This is the ftrongeft Evidence that neither Arius nor his firft Friends pat
the Son upon a Level with the Creatures, but that they were in many refpeas
of the fame Sentiments with rhofe who condemned them. Thus Alexander de.
elares the Son to be h before all Ages. Arius expreRy fays the fame, that he was
i before all '.times and Ages. Alexander fays, the Father only is unbegotten. AriUJ,
Tba: there never was a 'Iime when the Son Was not begotten. Alexander, that the
Subfiftence of the Son is inexplicable rom by Angels. Eufebius, that his beginning is
inconceivable and inexplicable by Men and Angels. Alexander, that the Father
was always a Father becauft of the Son. Arius, that the Son was nor before he
was begotten, i, e. Tba: he was from before all Ages tbe begotten Son fJj God.

e 071 0, 4~ II" £,IV tJ.')·;VI'»7&,· i P.£f~ d.')'~'l'ln~ uT l/J'e1ltJ. TeJI6fOll, vJ'. ~; UtrZOXf-lt4f;1I71-
v~. to,}, 071 ~~AIlP.(t71 ~ ~l/"" V1iT~>" ?rei XeJPfdP ~ ?reJ tJ./fdllAW, "f"l\.n~Il' E>.~, f.I.OJ'O')I£'"f,
tJ.Va.Jl.Jl.d.Ir.J7f# '!1 '7retv"sVV1I9,,-l/X III'.
f A')'£VJlM1~ ill/I(. IIV.

S n~. TS)..{,td.V op.ololll/ct J'1tJ.~£~£"'S TI ~ J'UVd.f.A.~fd'Tw ?ritrZOIIl1C.O/@-')'i'}'t1~OI/' II 'T)fl/ tJ.f%"V tl

M')'r.J 1J..'I'OVtJ.bll)f"/OV, tJ.1..Jl.4 It, nYIH4 1I~ U8f4ilV4ilV /'oOYOVtJ.M'X. x' 7ft)? " .... " d.J'9~fd1n. '7r_'7.,
f-l1'<Ud.1!.d.7tthM:rlo, '7r£trZl>iVU(~. ::J >
h ne;«II'o'VI&-.
i ne; X.U,." ~ 'lfeJ tJ.U<lV4ilI'.
The I
Arius again, k Tbat the Son was 110 tart of Ccd, nor [rom ali) l!J;'llgJ diJ n:i.J1.1lJ,o,!,
Alexander That the 0111v begotton Nature was 1 a middle Nature, benoecn tbe tmbe.l:..ll• " L
:<,ottCJZ rtztl,er, and the 'lbil1J,S cre~ted by bim. out of J:O:/Ji1ig.j\n~ yet not,wic,hfhnd- c. 4,
Ing all there Things, when Ato:anJer gIves an Account ot the Pr inciplcs of
rlrius to the BiOlOPS, he rcprefents them in all the Confequcnccs he thought fit
to draw from them, and charges him with holding, tbat the Son was made
like every other Creature abfolutely out of nothing, and that therefore his Na-
ture was mutable, and Iufceptive equally of V irtue and V ice; with many
other invidious and unfcriptural Dottrines, which .L1riUJ plainly appears not to
have maintained or taught.
But as 'tis the common Fate of religious Difpures to be managed with an
intemperate Heat, 'cis no wonder the Dilpurants Ihould rniltake each other, or
in their Warmth charge one another with Confequences which either they do
not fee, or expreOy deny. Whilft this is the Cafe the Controverfy can never
be fairly managed, nor brought [Q a friendly and peaceable Iffue. Many Me-
thods were tried, bur all in vain, to bring Alexander and rlrius to a Reconcili-
ation, the Emperor himfelf condefcending to become a Mediator bel ween
The firft Step he took to heal this Breach was right and prudent: He fentEufcb.Vir.
his Letters to Alexandria, exhorting Alexanacr and rlrius co Ia y afide their Dif- ConG.1. i ,
ferences, and become reconciled [Q each other. He tells them, That after bee. 63,&&.
had diligently examined the Rife and Progre]: oj this Airair, he found the Occafion of
the Difference to be 'iJery trifling, and not worthy fuch furious Contentions; and that
tbercfire he promiJed bimfelf tbat his Mediation betuicen them for Peace would have
the deflred Effe:t. He (ells Alexander, Tbat he required/rom his Pnfll)ters a De-
claration of their Sentiments concerning (J filly, empty f!<.ueflion. And AriuJ, 'That he
had imprudently uttered what he fbould not have euen tbought of, or what at leaft he
ought to have leept [ecre! in his own Breajf; and (bat therefore S?<.,uejJions about filCh
'fhings jhould not have been afted; or if they had, jhould not haw been anlwered;
'that they proceeded from an idle Itch of Difputation, and were in th.:mft/ws of jO high
and difficult a Nature, as tbat they could not be txa8ly comprehended, or lui/ably ex-
plained; and that to infift on fuch Points too much before the People, could
produce no other Effect, than lO make fome of them talk Blafphemy, and
othe~s turn Schifmaticks; and that therefore as they did not contend about any
tJfentzal Doctrine of the Gofpel, nor introduce any new Herefy concerning the Worfhip
of.God, th~y fhOllld again communicate with each other; and finally, that nOt-
wlthft:mdmg their Senrimems in thefe unneceffaryand trifl:ng Matters were
different ,from each ot~er, they 1hould acknowledge one another as Brethren,
and, laymg aflde thelf Hatreds, return to a firmer Friendfhip and Affection
than before.
But religious Hatreds are not fo eafily removed, and the Ecclefiaftica1
Combatants were teo warmly engaged to follow this kind aAd whc]efom~ Ad.

k 07, II (.t.'~@- 0<~ ~S'IV, ~!~

e~ 1.i'77QlC.€'l,tJ,vll 7/,e-.
1 M£lTn~tJ~O'd.. '7l'a.7~'!j- (J,'}irl'r:7!l K!U '7(.,.. 1f.7/.'}£v7"' .. IJ'tI"d..l.n. :; t~ 0I'16.'J'.
-e ViCe.
~6 The INT J\ 0 DUe T ION.
Eu1tb. vice. The Bifhops of each fide had already inrerefted the People in their
Vit.conft·QEarrel, and heated them into fuch a Rage that they attacked and fought
1.3· e. 4'~'w\th, wounded and deftroyed each other, and aCl:edwith fuch Madnefs as to
commit the greateft Impieties for the fake of Orthodoxy; and arrived (0 that
, pitch of Infolence, as to offer great Indignities to the imperial Images. The
old Controverfy about the Time of celebrating Eafler being now revived,
added Fuel to the flames, and render'd their Anirnofiries too furious to be'
Tl'eJirfl ConJlantinc being greatly diflurbed upon this Account, fent Letters to the
ger;er~J Bifhops of the feveral Provinces of the Empire to aITemble together at Nice in
~U~Ci~1.) Bythinia, and accordingly great Numbers of them came, /1. C.. ~j25. fome
11 {b'd • through hopes of Profit, and others out of Curiofity to fee fuch a Miracle of
c.6. 1 • an Emperor, and many of them, as Sozomen informs us, to negotiate their own
Soz. E. H. private Affairs, and to redrefs their Grievances, by accufing thofe who had
1. I. c. 17. injured them. The N urnber of them was three Hundred and eighteen, befides
vaft Numbers of Prefbyters, Deacons, Acolyrhifls, and Others. The Eccle-
ftafiical Hiftorians tell us, that in this vaft Collection of Bifhops fome were re-
.markable for their Gravity, Patience under Sufferings, Modefty, Integrity,
Eloquence, and the like Virtues; but yet they all agree that there were others
of very different Characters. Eufebius tells us, fome came to the Council with ..
Theod. worldly Views of Gain; and Cfheodorit, that others were ilbde and crafty, and
:E..H.t. I'of a quarrelling, malicious Temper, and aCtuated with a Spirit of Revenge ..
c. 7, I I. And indeed, this appeared immediately upon opening the' Council; for after'
the Emperor, who honoured this Affembly with his Prefence, had exhorted
them to lay afide all their Differences, and toenter into Meafures of Union'
and Peace, inftead of applying themfelves to the Work for which they were
convened, they began Ihamefullj to accufe each other before him, and railed
great Difturban.ces in the Council by their mutual Charges and Reproaches ..
Soc. E. H. Sahinus, alfo, faith they were generally a Set of very ign<mlnt Men, and defli-
1. I. Co 9' tute of Knowledge and Learning, But as Sabi1)lis was an Heretick of the Ma-
(edanian Sea, probably his Tel.ti.mony may be thought exceptionable; and
even fuppofing his Charge to be true, y~t Socrates bflngs them off by telling us,
that they were enlighten'd by God, and the Grace of b~ Holy Spirit, and fa'
c:~\ddnot po(libly err from t~ ~ruth. Bu.t as .rome Men may pom~ly que-
ftt()n the Truth of thetr lnfpIr~tIQJ:1,fo I think It appears hut too plam, that
an Affembly of Men, who D)Ct. ~ogether with fueh dif:fereIJtViews, were fo
greatlyprejudlced and in~am¢d ~g~~~ e:l<;h.9ther, aDd ar~ allowed, many of
~hem, ~o be Ignorant, uN they receIved miraCUlous IUummations froOl God,
did not feern very likely ~oheal the Differences of the Church, or to examine
with that Wifdom, Care and Impartiality, or to enter into thofe Mt'afures of
Condefcenti'on and Forbe~r~J)~e ~~. were ~ceQ"~ry SQ lay a (01i<J Foundation
for Peace and Unity... .
However, the' Emperor brought them at bft to fome Temper, fo that they
fell in good earneft to Creed-rnaki:~ and drew 1,lp, and fubfcribed that, which
from the Place where they ~re . mblcd was ~kd d/ICNirqu. Br the Ac-
2 . counts
Tbe I If T ROD U C T ION. ~1
-counrs orthe Tranfadions in this Affembfy, given by A/hanafius himfelf, in his'I'heod.
Letter to the African Bifhops, it appears, that they were determined to infert H. 8
inca the Creed fuch Words as were moft obnoxious to [he Arians, and chus to . I. c. .
force them to a publickSepararion from the Church. For when they refolved"
to condemn fame Expreffions which the Arians were charged with making ufe
of, fuch as, '!'he Son uras a Creature; there was a Time when he was not, and the
like s and to eftablifh the Ufe of others in their room, fuch as, 'Ib« Son was tue
only begotten of God by Nature, the Word, the Power, the only Wifdom of the Fa-
ther, and true God; the Arians immediately agreed to it: Upon this the Fa-
thers made an Alteration, and explained the Words, From God, by the Son's
being of the Subftance of Goa. And when the Arians confented alfo to this, the
Bifhops farther added) to render the Creed more exceptionable, that he was
.con.fu~ftantial, CT' of the fiJme Stt.hflanu with the Father. And when the Arians
objected, that this Expreffion was wholly unfcriptural, the Orthodox urged,
that though it was fo, yet the Bifhops thatlived an Hundred and thirty Years
before them, made ute of it. At laft however all the Council fubfcribed the
Creed thus altered and' amended, except fhte.B'ifuops, who were difpleafed
with the Word C01lfub.JItl1ltial, and made many ObjetHons againft it.
Euftbius, Bifhop of Ct£[arttl, was alfo in doubt for a confiderable Time, Theod.
whether he fhould fet his Hand to it, and refufed to do it, till the exceprion-L I. C.11.
able Words had been fully debated amongft them, and he had obtained an Ex-
plication of them fuitable to his own Sentiments. Thus when 'twas afferted by
the Creed, that the Son was of the Fatber": Subflance, the negative Explication
agreed to by the Bifhops was exaCl:ly the fame Thing that was afferted by Ari-
us, viz. that He was not a part of the Father's Suhflance. Again, as the

Words, begotten, not made, were applied to the Son, they determined the
Meaning to be, that the Son was produced after a different Manner than the Crea-
tures which he made, and was therefore of a more excellent Nature than any of
,the .Crearures, and that the Manner of his Generation could not be underftood.
This was the very Doctrine of Arills, and Euftbius of NicffmeJia, who decJar'd,
that as the Son soas no parltJ/God, fo neither was hI fr011l any ~hing created, ttnd that
the Manner of his Gtfle1'atiol1 was nona k t1efcribttl. And as to the Word Con[ub•
./lantial to the Father,. it was agreed by the Councilro mean no more, titan that
the. S'o~ had. no. Lifune[s with l111y createtllItings, but was in all CJ'hifIgJ like tsbim that
begot ~tm? an:Jthashe 'Was notfr~m any other H1Poft~ftJ o~ Subj/anc( but !hel!'athet·'s.
{)fthlsSentunent affo were: Artus, and &[tblJls hIS Fnend, wha mamtamed noc
onfy his~lJ~ of a more ex~. flent:Or~g.inal than the"Ctea.tures" but that he w-a:. 'S
'formed oj an t'f11'hfMtable tm,t!,fle,fftIJhS1I!lfttmU 41Uf Natflr" 41fd afterthemofl 1!.erJltf
Lileneft o[tlreNtrfTlrt'a1tif ]#(J'(berofbimtbttt {orm-etl1Jim. Tbere'were the Expli-
cations 0(0 there T~s agr~ (0' by tbe Council, 'uponwftich F.ttfebiul of Ctif.t·, '
na fub.fcrlbed them in the. Creed; and though fume- few of the Arian Bi1Jrc:jP"
'ref'Jfed to do it, yet itcfotb ~t appear to me) that it procee~ed fnnn tbeitROt
~grceing in the'Senfe of there lUpJicacions, but beaufethet appt."ebm.4c4 dttt

e 2 the
the Words were very improper, and implied a great deal more than was pre-
tended to be meant by them; and efpecially becaufe an Anathema was added
upon all who fhould prefume not to believe in the~n and u.fe.them.. Eufebius
of Cafarea gives a very extraordinary Reafon for his fubfcribing this Anathe-
ma, viz. becaufe it forbids the Ufe of unftriptural Words, the introducing tobicb he
affigns as the Occafion of all the Differences and Difiurbances which had trouble.d tbe
Church. But had he been confiftent with himfelf, he ought never to have Iub-
fcribed this Creed, for the very Reafon he alledges why he did it ; becaufe the
Anathema forbids only the unfcriptural Words of Arius,; He was made
out of notbing ; there was a crime when he was not, and the like; but allowed and
made facred the unfcriptural Expreffions of the Orthodox, viz. Of the Fatber's
Subfl ance, and Confubjl antial ... and cut off from Chriftian Communion thofc
who would not agree to them, though they were highly exceptionable to the
Arian Party, and afterwards proved the Occafions of many cruel Perfecutions
and Evils.
In this publick Manner did the Bifhops affert a Dominion over the Faith
and Confciences of others, and affurne a Power, nor only to dictate to them
what they fhould believe, but even to anathematize, and expel from the Chri-
ftian Church, all who refufed to fubrnir to their Decifions, and own their Au-
So~.l.l. thor iry, Fer after they had carried their Creed, they proceeded to, excorn-
C'_51· municate rlrius and h is Followers, and banifhed A-rius from Alexandria. They
alfo condemned his Explication of his own Doctrine, and a certain Book, cal-
led Thalia, which he had written concerning it. After this they rent Letters to
Alextlndria, and to the Brethren in Egypt, Lybia, and Pentapolis, to acquaint
them with their Decrees, and to inform them, that the Holy Synod had con-
dernned the Opinions of rlrius; and were fo zealous in this Affair, that they
had not patience fo much as to hear his ungodly Doctrine and blafphemous.
Words, and that they had fully. determined the Time for the Celebration of
Eafl er, Finally, they exhort them to rejoice for the good Deeds they had
Gone, and for that they had cut off all manner of Herefy, and to pray that
their right Tranfactions might be eftablifhed by Almighty God and our Lord
~~[t:b. de J:fus Chdt. \Vh~n rhefe Things were over, Confiantin» fplendidly treated the
~ ir, Co~l!l.BJfhop~, filled t~elr .Pockets, and fent them honourably borne; advifing them
,3· c. ~O at panmg to mamtam Peace amongft rhemfelves, and that none of them Ihould
envy another who rnizht excel the reft in Wifdom and Eloquences. and that
fuch fhould not carr,y ihemfelves haughtily towards their Inferiors; but. conde.
fcend to, and bear witb their Weatnefs. A plain ~monftration that. he faw
ioto tM:r~Tempers, and was no Stranger to the Fride and Ha:ughtinefs that in.
fluenced lome, and the Envy and Hatred that actuated others. After he had.
th~s difmi1fed the~ he rent fever~1 Letters, recommending and enjoyning an.
uPiverfal ConformIty to the CounCils Decrees both- in Ceremony anJ Doctrine, .
Soc. E. H. ufing, among other Things, this Argument for ir, nat what thty baddecreeil,
I. I. c. 9· fQa5 the Will of God, and tbat the Agreemtnl of fo great a N.umbtr of ru,b Bijhops
'Was by btfjiraJ.jon of the HQly Gboft.
Tb« I N T ROD {1 C T ION:
'Tis natural here to obferve, that the ,Anathema's and Depofitions agreed
on by this Council, and confirmed by. the imperial Authority, were the be-
ginning of .111the Perfecutions that afterwards raged againfl each Party in t~l'ir
Turns. As the Civil Power had now taken part in the Controverfies about
Religion, by authorifing the Dominion of the Bifhops over the Confciences of
others, enforcing their Ecclefiaftical Confl itunons, and commanding the uni-
verfal Reception of that Faith they had decreed to be Orthodox, it was eafy to
forefee that thofe who oppofed them would employ the fame Arts and Autho-
rity to eftablifh their own Faith and Power, and to opprefs their Enemies, the
firfl favourable Opportunity that prefenred : And this the Event abundantly-
made good. And indeed how fhould it be otherwife? For Doctrines that are
determined merely by dine of Numbers, and the Awes of worldly Power, car-
ry no manner of-Conviction in them, and are not likely therefore to be be-
lieved on thcfe Accounts by thofe who have once oppofed them. And as fuch:
Methods of-deciding Controverfies equally fuir all Principles, the introducing-
them by any Partygives but too plaufibie a Pretence to every Party, when
upperrnoft, to ufe them in irs rum ; and though they may agree well enough
with the Views offpirituaJAmbition, yet they can be of no Service ill the
\Vorld to the Inrereft of true Religion, becaufe they are directly contrary to the
Nature and Spirit of it ; and becaufe Arguments, which equally prove the Truth
and Excellency of all Principles, cannot in the leafl prove the Truth ofany,
If one may form a Judgment of the Perfons who cornpofed thisCouncil,
from the (mall Accounts we have-left of them, they do not, I think, appear'
to have met fo much with a Defign impartially to debate on the SubjeCts in
Conrroverfy, as to efiablifh their own Authority and Opinions, and opprefs
their-Enemies. For befides what hath been already obferved concerning their
Temper and Qualifications, Tbcodorlt informs us, that when thofe of the ArianE. H,
Party propofed in writing to the Synod the Form of Faith [hey had drawn up, I... c.,..
the Bifhops of the Orthodox fide no fooner read it but they gra vel y tore it in·
pieces, and called it a fpurious and falfc Confeffion.;and after they had filled
the Place with Noife and Confufion, univerfally accufed them of betraying the
Uothine according to Godlinefs. Doth fuch a Method of Proceeding fnit ve-·
ry well wi~htheCharaCter of a Synod inffired, ,as rhegood Emperor declared,
by the Holy Ghoft? Is Truth and Error to be decided by Noife and Tumult? -
Was this the Way to, convince Gaillfayers, and re.concile them to the Unity of·
the Faith? Or could it be imagined, that the diffatis-fied Part of this venerable Af ..,
fe.~bly wouldacquiefce in the tyrannical Determination oHLIch a Ma.jority,. and
pa Clem)y fubmit toExG)mmunication, Depofition;and the Condemnat ion ot their·'
Opinions,almoft unheard, and altogether unexamin'd? How juftJ y doth the Ceo-',
fure paffed by Gregory Nazitl1lZell upon the Councils that were held in his TimeV~J. 1. .. .
agree to this fa'moQS one of Nice? If, fays he, 1muflJpeakthecrruth, tbisis mJ&foltl-f~~(l. 2;;j"
lion, to a"Joid all qot!1'Jcilsof tl;: ~iJhops J for 1 have 110t fun any good End a~Jweredby E It. •
ony Synod wbtltjoroer ; for theJr leve of. Contention, and tbeir tuft of Power, art J()()
Ifeat rom for Words to exprefi. The Emperor'sCondull: to the Bi1hops met at £ufeb. <Ie '
lViu, is full Prooioftheformer; for when tbeywcIc met irl-Q)unci) they._};'it.Conlt.,
, . imme" 1.. 3· C;. 13-0 ,.
30 T]» -IN T !t 0 Due T ION.
immediately fellto .wrangling and quarrelling, and were not to be appeafed.
and brought to Temper, till Cwftantine inrerpofed, artfully.perfuading fome,
fhaming ochers into ~lence! and heaping COll~mendattons on thofe Fathers that
J~pke agreeable ~o hIS Sentiments .. The Decifions ~hey made c()ncerm~ the
Faith, and their Excommucicariena and Depofitions of rhofe who differed
from them, dernonftrate a1fo their affectation of Power and Deminioa. But as.
they had great Reafon to believe, that their own Decrees would be wholly in-
Iignificant witJ.1outtb~ Interpofition of the imperial !\llthoriry ~o enforce them,
they foon obtained theirDefiresvtbe Emperor readily confirming all they had
determined, and iojoining all Chriftians to fubmit themfelves to them.
Eufeb. de His firftLet.ters to this purpofe were.mild and gentle: But he was foon per.
Vit.Conll.fuaded into more violent Meafures i for out of his great Zeal to extinguifh
c.65. Herefy, he put forth publick Edicts againft the Authors and Maintainersof
it; and particularly againft the- Novatians, Valentinia1tI, Marcio1tij/S, and
oshers, whom .afrer reproaching with being E1mnilJ oj '1'rlllb, d6jlruBwe Cou»:
JallorsJ. and with holding Opinions Juitable to their Crimes, he deprives of the Li-
berty of meeting together for Worfuip, either in publick or private Places,
Soz, l.r, a.nd glyeS all their Oratories to the Orthodox Church. And with refp¢B: to
c. s r, the Ariaijs"he banifbed Ibius himfelf, ordered all h~ Followers, as abfolute
Soc. 1. J. Enc~es <>f Cbrift, to be caUedP-orpbpians, from Porpbyriltt an Heathen who
c. 9. wrote againft Chr-iftianity ; ordained that the Beeks written by :them .Ihould
be burnt, that there migbt be 00 Remains of their Doctrine left to. Pot1:erity.
and moft cruelly cQlllffianded, that ifevet anyone fhould dare to keep in his
PoflCBioo any Book written by drius, and fhould not immediately burn it, he
l1'tQuldbellQ fooaer cODviaed of the Crime but he £bOllld fuffer Death.
Thus the Orthodox fi.rft brought itt the PunHhment of Herefy with Death,
and perfuaded the: Em peror to deftroy thofe whom they. could not eafil y convert.
T.~e no longer the.. Rule and Standard of the C~riftian
•Fattb. Orthodoxy and Herefy were frem hence forward to be determmed by
the.1)ecifionsofCouncils and Fathers, and' Religion to be propagated no longer
by the apoftoHck Methods of Perfuafton,For:bearance, and the Virtues of an
holy Life, but by-iOlpetiaJ Edicts and Decrees ~ andhercrical Gainfayet'S not
Ie;) be ~vioced, that fhey might be brought to the Ac:knowledgmcsrt of the'
'Truth and be faYed, bue to be perfecured. anti defrroyed. 'Tis' no wondes;
that aftel this there Jhould bet a continual FluChtatiof);of thctpttblick Faith, juft
as tbe PJeva.iJing Partiea bad. dut imperial Authority· to fupport them, or that
,w•. fuquld DltJCt with little cMemEcclefiaftical HiU:.orj&but Vioi~nce and-
Crueltie\ comtaittetl bY'Mett who; had left the Simplicity· or the Chriftian Faidt
and p~moa, cmQayc.d Ambition and A vari~ and ha.dbefOre

E.!Jiil ni.Bevenu~ '* .,;.

.thQfP tl\.ct c:nfl'iafUtg VieW! of tetrtporalc Grandure~ high Prefermen~~ amllarge
n Gitzet: iIJ¢ A'1l~ hlllDmut4fttl in the Clnlrches, Iay$
n Nunc autcm Eccldiir ~ A.\tUuia, pviit·le1t de S.a£:erd.Qte;.& v.iew Qt. Ptopbm.
Singuliquiq; pr~ Potentia .Epifcopal;a Dominis~ CJUam.ubi. i!>tiillicitc ~cr Ffc1efi.. y;erWic"v~llc.
(ocv.quod L~atanfm C!lIP UftIJ;f~ rcdfguJit> Motlunhtr' '~1l"t .11101 fepehnrllltlldlldftlf".
. ,. ,Pt$um
The I N T ROD U C T I 0 N. 3I
St.1erom. tht Law of the Pridf, .1Id Iht 11'''''11 'O{du p,~.b.WJ {hUed. lPhilfl
.u e~1fwui fDt' the F..Pifro/'fllPtra1tr, wlJKh lht) ~ feru im IfVilbau"t "the
Cb4i,p's kaw .ID/I a;~ I~ tlu;, IUIlI U~i all 01.1 kJrmgs U t~ l..~.,icts. '{be 'mi-
Jerabk Pri41 kg; i/lZ UJe Streeu_'Ibey 4ie w4lb HUlIgtr W'O flJ't l'OM11l'li1ldtrf:to bur»
otbers, 'loey aft jw Pi'toJ 'WN .t ·(()mHltlttMa to ,ity fIIIIerJ' , Oe hieJls only
UM"t il ttl leI Monel-Benet HAtrtJs.,.ife Ihrottr/J 'tiIe.#mrkl If lht P,'it{h ~
bena tOe BifhoRl /IN tlccll{e~~ their Cit,.!.,; ImJt,e '" st.!f8"lls If reI P"rtlalrs,
bzna the CaufeJ,p!DcJaliitions j heme the Rij: fJj tIItir Wic1Julntft. Retigionand
Chrifiianit y feem indeed to be the lcaft Thing thar either the ~onte9ding Parties
had at heart, by the infamous Methods they took to eftablifh themfelves and
ruin their Adverfaries,
If one reads the Complaints of the Orthodox Writers, againft the Arians,
one would think the Al'ians the moLl: execrable Set of Men that ever lived,.
they being loaded w:th all the Crimes that can poffibiy be commitred, and:
reprefented as ?ad, ?f even worfe, t.h:w (be Dnil himfc}t: But ~ wife N!an
will eafily credIt thete .fu:counts, which the Orthooax gn'e of then Enemies,
becau(e, as Socrates tells as; lJ.'his was tbe Prllt1ict Bj lhe 8ij1Jops tiJWarJr 8U tbe, E. H. 1; r;;--
depoftd, to SWift and prDllQM1tu them ity;DItJ., btU IIDJ u teO odIerr the &alms c. 104-
why they acCtiJed·them as fuch. 'Twas enougli for their Purpofa to elfpofe them
to the publick Odium, and make them ap~ar impious co the Multitude,·
that fo they might get them expelled from their rich Sees, and be tranOated to'
them in their room. And this they did as frequently as they could, to the in.
troducing infinite Calamities and Confufions into the Chriftian Church.· And':
jf the Writings of the Arians had not been prudently deftroyed, I doubt not
but we fhould have found as many Charges laid by tbem, with equal Jull:ice,
agilillft the Orthodox, as the Orthodox have produced againft them; their
very Supprefiion of the Arian Writings being a very ftrong Prefumpcion I

againft them, and the many imperial E<Jia,. of CfJllj."ti"e, '.fbNdofi"S, '4im.
timan, Martian, and others, againft Hereticks, being an abundant Demon-
firation that they had a deep Share: in the Guilt of PerfeC\1tion.
AltxtVlder, Bifhop of AiextJtJdtitf, in his Letter to the BUhop of ,(Afljla"ti.Theocl.,
nopk., complaiJilS that Arillsand othersj defiroU8of Power and Riches, did Dt,l.I.C.4'So'
and Night invent Calumnies, and were continuaUy exciting SeditiOO9 and P~r.
ftcutions againft him; and Arius in his turn, in his Letter fO Eu[tbiusof Nirri-
media",with roo l?uch Juftice, charges Pope .AkXaIlMr with violently perfecuting'
and opprellliJ~ hl~ UPO!!~cco~t of what he c:allcd the Tr~t~~ ·and ufing evt:rt
Me~ to ~lD him, dnvmg hun out ofthe:Clty as an athetftlcal Perfon, for not'
agreem~ with ~m in his SentilDeRtsaboutthc Trinity. .4tb4n.fUts alfo bitter ..
ly exclauns agamft the CrOJfkl Qf Ue AJ'iaas, iahis Apology for his flight •.
WhfJm ha7.u IDt'1111Jt, fays he, 14.#11 with Ibe 1/Y&tejtbuJig1lity., ,·thal Ibt'J
brJw IimI Vol. r.~
a~le to lay hold fJj 1 Wh6 bath t"lJer"jaJleIl into tbeU--Hand:,. IbiIllhey bntWilll1P' 70:.·
Pofcunt rnirerecor.d~m, qu.i mutreri aliis fiant precepti-SoJas inrnbat Diririis-Hmc:pt'qltet
Sacerdotum Avantlam Odla conf~r~uDr, hinc Epikopi 8CCllfanc," • CIo~hillC: p~uea,
.iDc Defolationum- Caufa:, hinc On~ Cril1linil'.

3" Tbe I N T ROD U C T ION.
jpitt! ag:zilIJ1, 'Whom they have not fo (ruelly treated, as either to 1iZuY/b~r ,0r, to tn,aim
bim ? If/bat. Place is there where they have not left the Monuments of their BarbarIty?
If/hat Cburcb if there whicb doth not lament their Treachery again) their Bifhdps ?
After this paflionare Exclamation he mentions feveral Bifhops they had banifh-
edor putto Death, and the Cruelti~s they made ufe of to force ~he O~th~dox
to renounce the Faith, and to fubfcnbe to the Truth of the Arian Doctrines.
B~Jt might it not have been afked, Who was it that firft broughr. in Excom-
munications, Depofitions, Banifhrnents, and Death, as theJ>.umlhment3 of
Herefv? Could not the Arians recriminate with Jufiice? Were they nor re-
proached as Atheifis, anathematized, expelled their Churches, exiled, and
made liable to rhe Punifhment of Death by the Orthodox? DiJ nor even
they who complained of the Cruelty of the Arians in the moil: moving Terms,
create nurnberlefs Confufions and Slaughters by their violent Intrufions into the
Sm. 1. T. Sees of their Adverfar ies ] Was not rltbanajius himfelf alfo accufed to the Em-
c. ~:.. peror, by many Bifhops and Clergymen, who declared thernfelves Orthodox,
of being the Author of all the Seditions and Ditturbances in the Church, by
excluding great Multitudes from the publick Services of it ; of murthering
, fome, putting others in Chains, punifhing others with Stripes and Whippings,
Philo11org. and of burning Churches? And if the Enemies of Atbanajius endeavoured to
Compen. ruin him by Iuborned Witneffes and falfe Accufations, Athanafius himfelf ufed
E. H, 1.8·the fame Practices to deftrov his Adverfaries, and particularly Eufebius of Ni-
c. lI'comtdia, by fpiriting up a Woman to charge EuJebius with getting her with
Child, the Falfhood of which was detected at the Council of T'yre. His very
Ordination alfo to the Bifhop of Alexandria, was cenfured as clandeftine and
Soz, 1. 1. illegal. Thefe Things being reponed to Con/illntine, he ordered a Synod to
c. 2h :.8. meet at Cefarea in Paleftine, of which Place Eujebius Pamphilus was Bifhop,
before whom Athanajius refufed to appear. But after the Council was remo-
ved to T')'rc he was obliged by force to come thither, and commanded to an-
fwer to the feveral Crimes objected againft him. Some of them he cleared him-
{elf of, and as to, others he de fired more Time for his Vindication. At length,
after many Seffions, both his Accu[ers, and the Multicude who were prefent in
the Council, demanded his Depofition as an Impoftor, a violent Man, and un-
worthy the Priefihood. Upon this Atbanafius fled from the Synod, after
which they condemned him, and deprived him of his Bilhoprick, and ordered
he ihould never more enter Alexandria, to prevent his excicing Tumults and
Seditions. They alfo wrote [0 all the Bifhops to have no Communion with
him, as one convicted of maRy Crimes, and as having convicted himfelf by his
flight of many others, to which he held not antwered. And for this their Pro--
cedure they affigned thefe Reafons, that he defpifed the Emptror's Orders, by
nor coming to Ctefarea ; that he came with a great Number of Perfons to T'yre,
and excited Tumults and Difturbances in the Council, fometiOlcS refu!ing.(o
anfwer to the Crimes ohjeCl:ed againft him, at other Times reviling all the Bi-
1hops; fometimes not obeying their Summons, and at others refufing to fub--
mit to their Judgment; that he wall fully and evidently convicted of break-
ing in pieces the f.1cred Cup, by fix BifilOPS who had been ft'n~ inco Egypt to
I inquire
The IN T ROD U C Tl 0 N.
::-inquirc out the Truth. Athanajius, however, appealed to CCilj1.11i(,;t, . and
-g,wc him fuch 'h. Reprefentation of the CO~l1cil'sTranfad ions as g~eatly. offend-
cd him. But when Eufebius and others laid the whole Matter before hun, tl.e
Emperor entirely altered his Sentiments, confirmed his Depolirion, awl ba-
nifhcd him into France.
Indeed AthanajiuJ, notwithfhinding his fad Complaints under Perfecurion,
and his exprefly calling it a diabolical Invention, yet feerns to be againfl: it only Ad Imp.
when he and his own Party were perfecuted, bur not againft perfecuting the<Anll.
Enemies of Orthodoxy. In his Letter to Epifletus, Bifhop ofCorintb, he faith, IApol.6
soonder that your Piety hath born theft 'Things (viz. the Herefies he had before- ~ ~\ .
mentioned) and tbat you did not immediately put tbo]: Hereticks under Refiraint, and p.o~·8~
propay the true Faith to them; that if they would not forbear to contradiit they
might be declared Hereticks ; for 'tis not to be endured that theft ~hings fbould be either
[aid or heard amongff Cbrifiians. And in another Place he fays, that they ought toOtat. r,
be had in Ul1iver[al Hatred for oppojing the Trutb ; and comforts himfelf, that thecont• Ar •
.Emperor, uFon due Information, would put a Stop to their Wickednefs, and P' 3°4-
that they would not be long liv'd. And to mention no more, I therefore exhort Vol. r.
"(Ju, fays Ire, Zen10 one be diceived, but as though the ]ewHh Impiety was prC'VaiZingP' 291•
"Overthe Faith of Chrift, be ye all zealous in the Lord. And let roery one hold faft the
Faith he hath received from the Fathers. which alfo the Fathers met together at Nice "
declared in Writing, and endure none of thoft who may attemp: to make any Innoua- I
lions therein. 'Tis needlefs to produce more Inftances of this kind; whofoeverP. 29,l."
gives himfelf the Trouble of looking over any of the Writings of this Father,
will find in them the moil: furious Invectives againft the Arians, and that he
ftudioufly endeavours to reprefent them in fuch Colours, as might render them
·the Abhorrence of Mankind, and excite the World to their utter Extirpa-
I writenot thefe Things out of any Averfion to the Memory, or peculiar
Prlnciples of Athanajius; whether I agree with him, or differ from him in Opi-
nion, I think my felf equally obliged to give impartially the true Account of
him. And as this which I have given of him is drawn partly from Hiftory,
-and partly from his own Writings, I think I cannot be juftly charged with
mjfrcpr~fenting him. To fpeak plainly, I think that Atbtl1lafius was a Man of
an haughty-and inflexible Temper, and more concerned for Vill:ory and Power
~han for Truth, Religion or Peace. The Word Con!ubftantial that was inferted
~nto the Mcene Creed, and the Anathema denounced againft all who would orSGz.Lt.
could not believe in it, fumi1hed Matter for eodlefs Debates. Thofe who wercc:. 18.
againft it 'cenfured Bl3fphemers tbofe who ufcd it; and as denying the pro-
per Subfifteoce of the SOn~. and as falling into the Sabellian Herefy. The
Confubftantialifts on the other fide reproached their Adverfaries as HeathenS,
and with bringing in the Polytheifm of the Gentiles. And though tbey ~~
ly ,denied the Confequences whic.h their refpeltive Principles were charged With,
fet as the Orthodox would not part with the Word CfJnjubjlamitlJ, .. and- th"Ati.
ans could not agree to the Ufe of it, they continued their uncbriftiab Re-
:proacbes.and Accufations of each other. .4tballafills would yield to Do Terms
f ~
of Peace, nor receive any into Communion, who would not abfolutely fubmir
Vol. 1. to the Decifions of the Fathers of Nice. In his Letter to Johannes and Anti-
p. 9~1. ocbus he exhorts them to hold faft the Confeffion of thofe Fathers, and to reje/1
all who fbould [peak more or left than toat contained in it. And in his firft Ora-
P.19J. tion againft the Arians he declares in plain Terms, "That th~ expreffing.
U a Perfon's Sentiments in the Words of Scripture was no fufficient Proof ot
" Orthodoxy, becaufe the Devil himfclf ufed Scripture.Words to cover' his
« wicked Defigns upon our Saviour; and even farther, that Hereticks were
" not to be received, though they made ufe of the very Expreflions of Or-
" ihodoxy it fell." WIth one of fo fufpicious and jealous a Nature there could
fcarce be any poflible Terms of Peace, it being extremely unlikely, that without
fome kind Allowances, and mutual Abatements, fo wide a Breach could ever
becornprornifed. Even the Attempts of Confiantine himfelf to fofcen Athana-
fius, and reconcile him to his Brethren, had no other Influence upon him,
Soc. 1. I. than to render him more imperious and obftinate , for after drius had given in
C.1.7. fuch a Confcflion of his Faith as fatisfied the Emperor, and exprefly denied
many of the PI inciples he had been charged with, and thereupon humbly de-
fired the Emperor's Interpofition, that he might be reftored to the Com-
munion of the Church; .dtbanaflus, oat.of Hatred to hisEnemy, flatly denied
the Emperor's Requeft, and told him, that 'twas impoffible for thofe who had
once rejected the Faith, and were anathematized, ever to. be wholly refl:ored ..
This [6 provoked the Emperor, that he threaten'd to depofe and banifh him,
unlefs he fubrnitred to his Order; which he fhortly after did, .by fending him
;:l !~id, into France, upon an Accufation of feveral Bifhops, who, as Sacrate« intimates,
t. 35. were worthy of Credit, That he, had [aid he would flop the Com that was year-
!y fent to COJ1jtol1tinople from the City of Alexandria. To fuch an Height or
Pride was this Bifhop now arrived, as even to threaten the Sequeflration of the
Revenues of the Empire. ConjlanJine alfo apprehended, that this Step was ne-
ceflary to the Peace of the. Church, becaufe AJhallojus abfolutely refuted to
'Communicate with Ar'itlsand his ~llowers.
Ad Solit, Soon after thefe Tranfatl:ions AJ'rusdied, and the Manner of his Death, as it
'.;~i~.Agcn. was reported by the Orthodox, Athtl1fajius thinks of it jelt tufficient fuUy to
l'iJ~L,condemn the Arian Herefy, and :an evident Proof that it:. was b.atrful to ,God.
~'l'~~'" Nor did Conjftl~tine himfelf long furvive him j·ire was fuocecded by h:s
Sons, COJ1jJ.antzne, ConjlanJifls,. aDd C:otiflans. Conftlllltine the eideR: recalled
iioc. 1. L • .Ataanafitts from Banilhment, and reftol:ed him to his. Bilhoprick,. upon ~bich.
c,3; Account ther:ear~f~ .g]o!t.Wi~vousQparrels and Seditions, m~ny being kil ..
soz.t). led, and many pubhcklywhlpped by I!Jbana}iulfl Ordet, accordlOg to theAc~
.~.5. ,ufationsof his Enemi~. COrij1anJius; after his dder Brother's Deatb,' coo ..
vened a Synodat4ntiocb inSy,:ia, w,her-eAth8JlQ!1UJ.wasagain depokd for thefe
Soz. 1. 3. Crimes., and Gugory~t·iflto the See QL4J~itl.·.ln chis Council a new
c. ~. Creed was drawn up, inwl}idlt.he Wi)l'd (;~bjttllltial was wholly omitted,
Soc. 1.2. and the Expreffio9S made· u1e,tt fo. gene~ 'as <that rbq.might have been
Co 10. equal] y agreed to' by: the Orthodox and Arians. 'JothcClofe of it .event! Ana-
thema's were added, andpanicuJarJy'upon allWboJhOuld ttach'or'preacb
. other-
The I N T ROD U C T ION. ~ S
otherwife than what this Council had received, becaufe, as they themfelves fay;
'They did really believe and foLlow all 'Things delivered by the Holy Scriptures, both Pre-
pbets and ..:1pofllc:s. So that now the whole Chrill:ian World was under a Iynodi-
cal Curfe, the oppofire Councils having damned one another, and all that dif-
fered from them. And if Councils, as fuch, have any Authority to anathe-
matife all who will not fubmit to them, this Authority equally belongs to. eve-
ry Council; and therefore 'twas b~t a natural Pi~ce of Re~engc~ tha~ as the
Council of Nice had fent all the Arians to the Devil, the Anans, m their turn,
Ihould cake the Orthodox along with them for Company, and thus repay one
Anathema with another.
Conflantius himfelt was warmly on the Arian fide, and favoured the Bifhops
of that Parry only, and ejected Paul the Orchodox Bifhop from the See of COlt-
[lantinople, as a. Perron altogether unworthy of ic, Macedonius being fubfticu- Soc. I. 3·
ied in his room. Macedonius was in a different Scheme, or at leaft expreffedc,~, r.
himfelf in different Words both from the Orthodox and Arians, and aflert- ~t s~naa
ed, That the Son was not Confubftantial but OP.O/~(fI9-, not of the fame, but a.;rin.nV .....
like Subftance with (he Father, and openly propagated this Opinion, after hej, 2.10.
had thrull: himfelfinto the Bifhoprick of Paul. This the orthodox Party highly Soc. I. &.
relented, oppofiot Ht'tlniJgenes, whom Conftantius had fenr to introduce him, c. 13·
and in their Rage burnt down his Houfe, and drew him round the Streets by
his Feet till chey had rnurthered him. But notwithftanding the Emperor's Or-
.ders were thus oppofed, and his Officers killed by the orthodox Party, he
treated them with great Lenity, and in chis Intlance punifhed them much lefs
than their Infolence and Fury deferved, Soon after this Atbanajius and Paule. If.
were reftored again to their refpective Sees; and upon Athanajius's entering
Alexandria great Difturbances arofe, which were attended with the Deflruction
of many Perfons, and Athanafius accufed of being the Author of all rhofe Evils.
Soon after Paul's return to Conflantinople he was banifhed from thence again by
the Emperor's Order, and Macedonius re-entered into Poffeffion of that See,
upon which Occafion three Thoufand one Hundred and fifty Perfons were mur ..
rhered, fome by the Soldiers, and others by being preffed to Death by the .
Croud. Athanafius alfo foon followed him into Banifhment, being secured of Soc. La.
feUing the Corn which Conjla1Jtine the Great had given for the Support of thee. 11.
Poor of the Church of Alexandria, and putting the Money in his own Pocket'
an~ being ~herefore threaten'd by Ctmflantius wich Death. But they were bot,h
a httIe while after recalled by Conflans, thell banithed again by Conflantius; .
~nd'paul,~s fome ~ay, murthered by h~s Enemies the Aria~s, ashe was car~y ..
!ng mto ~Xi1e; thoug~ as Atba1l6./ills hunfelf owns, the Arlans exprefi y dented A~SoJ •
..c, . and fald, .that he died: of (om~Di1temper. MlJce4tJniulhaving thus gotten VIt. Ag.
qUle~ Poffefiion of th~ &eeof Colt!aYifi"!Jpk, l*e~ailed with the Emperor to p. itJ.
p~bll1h a Law, by which t~ofe of the Conf~bftalltlat, or orthodox Party, "~Soc. L 2..
driven not only. out of.the Churcpes but Cl~les tOOt and many of them C~pe1;'C.1.1.
Jed to c~mmumcate with the ~rlans by StrIpes and Torments, by,Pro(crl,caons
and Bantfhments, and other Violent Methods of Severity_ U(*i tb~'~Ih- A1 Coat.
ment of AtbanaftNs, whom C,njJ.",irls·in hi' L«eert.o ~CitizeaII • .AwtM- AP061.1!
f 2 Jri ~
~6. The I N T ROD U C T I 0 N\
tl,.iaealls an Impoftor, a Corrupter oj Men's Souls, a Diflurber of the City, a perni-'
,;ous Fellow, one convWed of the worft Crimes, not to be expiated by his fuffering.·
Death ten 'limes, George was put into the See of Alexandria, whom the Empe-
ror, in the fame Letter, ftiles a moll venerable Perfon, and the moJl capable of all
Cont. Ar. Men to inftruCt them in heavenly 'l'bings; though Athana}ius, in his. ufual Stile,
Orat.l. calls him an Idolater and Hangman, and one capable of all Violences, Rapines;
$t. 190· and Murthers; and whom he actually charges with committing the moil: im-
~ ~. C.l-S. pious Actions and outragious Cruelties. Thus, as Socrates obferves, was the
Church [om in pieces by a Civil.War for the fake of 4thanajirts and the VVord
The Truth is, that the Chriflian Clergy-were now become the .chief Incen-
diaries and Diflurbersof the Empire, and the, Pride of the Bifhops, and the.
Fury of the People on each fide were grown to fuch an Height, as that there .
fcarce ever was an Election or Reflorarioa of a Bifhop in the larger Cities, but
it was attended with Slaughter and Blood. .dtbanajius was feveral Times ba-.
nifhed and reftored, at the Expence of Blood; the Orthodox were depofed,.
and the Arians fubftituted in their room, .with-the Murther of Thoufands; and
as the Controverfy was now no longer about the plain Doctrines of unccrrupted
Chriftianity, but.about Power and Dominion, high Preferments, large Reve-
Soc. 1 z, nues, and fecular Honours; agreeably hereto, the Bifhops were introduced
Co If, 16. intojheir Churches, and placed on.their Thrones, by armed Seldiers.. and
paid no Regard to the Ecclefiaftical Rules, or. the Lives of.their, Flocks, fa
they could get Poffeffion, and keep out their Adverfaries: And.when once
they were in, they treated thofe who differ'd from them without Moderation
or. Mercy, turning, them out of their Churches, denying them, the Liberty of
Wodhip, putting. them under an.Anathema, and.perfecuting them with innu-
rnerable Methods of Cruelty;' .as is evidentfrom the Accounts given. by..the
Ecclefiaftical Hiftorians, of Athanafius, Macedonius" George., and others, which
may be read at II argein tbe.forementioned Places .. In a Word, they feerned
to treat one another with, the fame implacable Bitternefs and Severity, as ever
their common Enemies, the Heathens, treated them, as though they thought
that Perfecution for, Confcience fake had beet) the diftinguifhing .rre<;ept,of the
Chriftian Religion; and that they could not mOJ~ effe.duilll y. recommend and
diftinguifh ,themfelves as the Difciples oLChrift, than by tating and devouring:
Am. Mar. one another.. This made ]ulialJ, .the Emperor, fay. of them, Cfbat hefound by
1.:.1. C. ~. Experience, that eve» Beafls are not [o,crud 10. Men, as the generality of ChrijJians
were loom anotber.
This was the unhappy Stat~ of the Church in the Reign of CQnjantiru,., which
affords us little more than the Hiftory of CouA,cilsand Cre~s .differing from,
and contrary Coeach other; BiJhops dep,ofing, cenfuring, .and iIlathematizing·
their Adverfaries,aJ¥l rhe ChriftjanP.eople divid~ into FaCtions under their,
refpective ~~ackrs,.,f~ tbe fa!,-e.ofWor~the1underftOQd nothing of the Senf{
of, and ftrlvmg tor.:Vl~J eyen t~ IPood(hcd and Death. Upon the. Sqcceffi'f'
on of julian to .the E,mpire. dtough. the contending_Parties could DO,tunite
•. inft the common £nemy ,yet mey were bI ~c Empcror'$ CJemeA~Yand
. Wifdom.,
The I N T ROD U C T ION. 17
Wifdorn kept in tolerable Peace and Order. The Bifhops which had been Soc. J. 3.
banifhed by Conftantiushis Predeceffor, he immediately recalled, ordered their s- I.
Effects, which had been confifcared, to be reflored to them, and commanded
that no one fhould injure or hurt any Chriflian whatfoever. And as Ammiallus
Marcellinus, an heathen Writer of thofe Times, tells us, he caufed the Chriftian I. :.:..c.~.
Bifhops and People, who were at variance with each other, to come into his
Palace, and there admonilhed them, that they fhould everyone profefs their
own Religion, without Hindrance or Fear, provided they did not difturb the
publick Peace by their Divifions, This was an Inftance of great Moderation
and Generofity, and a Pattern worthy the Imitation of all his Succeffors,
In the beginning of 'Julian's Reign fome of the Inhabitants of Alexandria, Soc. 1. 3•.
and, as ~as reP?rted, the Friends of Athanajiu~, by his Advice, raifed.a gr~at~hil~A:l:·..
Tumult In the City, and murthered Ceerge, the Bifhop of the Place, by taring him t. 7
in pieces, and burning his Body; upon which Athanafius returned Immediately c.
from his Banifhrnenr, and rook Poffeffion of his See, turning out the Arians from
their Churches, and forcing them to hold their Affemblies in private and mean
Places. 'Julian, with great Equity, feverely reproved the Alexandrians for this
their Violence and Cruelty, telling them, that though George might have
oreatly injured them, yet they ought not to have revenged themfelves on him,
but to have left him to the Jtlftice of the Laws. Athanajius, upon his Refto-
ration, immediately convened a Synod at Alexandria, in which was firft affert-
ed the Divinity of the Holy Spirit; and his Confubftantiality with the Father
and the Son. But his Power there was but fhort , for being accufed to Juliallc, r;.
as the Deflroyer ofthat City, and all Egypt, he raved himfelt by flight, but
foon after fecretly returned to Alexandria, where he lived in great privacy rill Theo.i.
the Storm was blown ever-by J*lian's Death, and the Succeffion of Jovian to I. 4·C' :,.'
the Empire, who reftored him to his Sec, in which he continued undifturbed to
his- Death.
Although Julian behaved himfelf with great Moderation, upon his firft At-
ceflion to the imperial Dignity, towards the Chriftians, as -well as others, yet
his Hatred to-Chrittianiry foon appeared in many Infrances. For though he
did not, like the reft of the Heathen Emperors, proceed- to fanguinary Laws, Soc. J. j •.
yet he commanded, that the Children-of Chriftians fhould not be inftruCted in c. l~, &&~
the Grecian Language and Learning. By another EdiCt he ordained, That ne
Chriftian Ihould bear any Office in the Army', nor have any Concern in the Di-
ftrfbuticn and Management of the publick Revenues. He taxed very heavily, TheoJ. '
and demanded Contributions from all who would not facrifice, to fupport the~' c. "', ,
vaft Expeaces he was at in- his Eaftern Expeditions. A nd when the Governors &-.
of the Provinces took Occafion from htnce to 0fprcfs and plunder them, be .
difmiffed thofe who complained with-this fcomfu Anfwcr, Tour God hath com- ..
manded ycu to Juffer PerJecution! He alfo deprived the Clergy of all their Irnmu-i-
nKies, Honours, and Revenues, granted them by Conflantine, abrogated the
Laws made in their Favour, and ordered they 1hould be lifted amongftthe
Number of Soldiers. He deftroyed {everal of their Churches, and tt ...ppt'd
tb(m of ..their Treafure and facred Ve1fels. Some he punilhecLwithBanifh .. -
J , ment, >
merit, and others with Death, under pretence of theirhaving pulled down fame
of the Pagan Temples, and infulted himfelf.
The Truth is, that the Chriftian Bifhops and People fhewed fuch a .turbu-
lent and feditious Spirit, that 'twas no wonder that Julian Ihould keep a jealous
Eye over them, and though otherwife a Man of great Moderation, connive at
the Severities his Officers Iometimes practifed on them. Whether he would
have proceeded to any farther Extremities againtl: them, had he returned Vi-
Ctorious from his Perfian Expedition, as Tbeodorit affirms he would, cannot, I
1.3. C.-2.I. think, be determined. He was certainly a Penon of gre~~t Humanity in his
natural Temper; but how far his own Superfltion, and the Imprudencies of
the Chriftians, might have altered this Difpofition, 'cis impoffible to [;l}'.
Thus much is certain, that the Behaviour of the Chrifti ins towards him, was,
in many Inftances, very blameable, and fuch as tended to irritate his Spirit,
and awaken his Refentment. But whatever his Intentions were, he did nGC
live to execute them, being flain in his Perflan Expedition.
Soc. 1. ). He was fucceeded by Jovian, who was a Chrifl ian by Principle and Profef-
c. 24,2.~· fion. Upon his return from Perfia the Troubles of the Church immediately re-
vived, the Bifhops and Heads of Parties crouding about him, each hoping
that he would lill: 00 their fide, and grant them Authority to opprefs their Ad-
Theod. verfaries, Atbar.ajit/s, arnongft others, writes to him in favour of the Nicene
1.+ C·4 Creed, and warns him againft the Blafphemiesof the Arians, and though he
doth not directly urge him to perfecute them, yet he tells him, that 'tis ne-
ce1fary to adhere to the Decifions of that Council concerning the Faith, and
that their Creed was Divine and Apoftolical; and that no Man ought to reafon
or difpure againfi it, as the Arians did. A Synod alfo of certain Bifhops met at
Antioch in Syria; and though feveral of them had been Oppofers of the Nicene
Doctrine before, yet finding that this was the Faith efpoufed by Jovian, they
with great Obfequioufnefs readily confirrn'd it, and fubfcribed it, and in a ;flat-
tering Letter fent it to him, reprefenting that this true and orthodox Faith was
the great Center of Unity. The Followers alfo of Macedol1ius, who rejected
the Word Confubflantial, and held the Son to be only like to the Father, moil:
humbly befought him, that fuch who afferted the Son to be unlike the Father
might be driven from their Churches, and that they themfelves might be put
into them in their room ; with the Bilhops Names fubfcribed to the Petition.
But Jovian, though himfelf in the orthodox Doctrine, did not fm' himfelf to be
drawn into Meafures of Perfecution by the Arts of thefe temporizing Prelates,
but difmi1fed them civilly with this Anfwer: I hate Contention, and love thoft
only tbat fludy Peace; declaring, that be would trouble none upon account of tbeir
Faith, whatever it was; and that he would favour and efieemfuch only who jhfJUlJ
Jhew themftwes Leaders in reJloringthe Peace of the Church. 'l7mniftius the Philo-
fopher, in his Oration upon ]07Jiall's Confulate, commends him very juftlyol1
r his acco.unt, that he ga:ve free Libe~ty to every one to \fOrfhip God as he wou~d,
and defplfed the. flattermg Infinuattons o~ thofe who would have perfuided him
to the Ufe of vl~lent Methods, concernmg. whom he pleafant1y, but with tOO
much Truth, f.1Id, 'fhat be found by Exptrtfl1l"e, tllat tht'] fIIOrJbip _ God, bNJ
Ib, Purple. The
Tl» I NTH. 0 Due T ION.
The two Emperors, Valentinianus and 1~1!ei!S, who fu.cce,eded J.u·~icl11, w~re
of very different Tempers, and embraced different Parties In Religion. 1 he Soc, 1. 4'
former W;lS of the Orthodox fide; and though he Iavourcd thole molt who were?' I,
of his own Sentiments, yt t he gave no Ditlurbance to rhe Arians. On the
contrary, Volens, his Brother, was of a rigid and fanguinary Difpoftrion, and
Ieverely perfecuted all who dint-red from him. In the beginning of their ReignThcoJ.
J. Synod 111('( in filyicum, who again decreed the Confubftantial.t y of Father, l~4· c~8.
Son, and Holy Ghofi. This the two Emperors declared in a Letter their Af_C~d. d
fent to, and ordered that this Doctrine Ihould be preached. However, they ~t.~~:1.9'
both publifhed Laws for the Toleration of all Religions, even r he Heathen and
Arian. But Volens was Coon prevailed 01) by the Arts of Eudoxius, Bifhop of Soc. 1. 4'
Conii antinople, to torfake both his Principles of Religion and Moderation, and~' 6'1 6
embracing the Arian Party, he cruelly perfecuted all thofe who were orthec~;: .•
orthodox Party. The Conduct of the orthodox Synod met at Lampfacus was
the firft Thing that enraged him; for having obtained of him leave CO meet; .
for the Amendment and Settlement of the Faith, after two Months Confulta-
tion they decreed the Doctrine of the Son's being like the Father as to his Ef-
fence, to be Orthodox, and depofed all the Bilhops of the A rian Party. This,
highJy.exafperated Valens, who thereupon called a Council of A rian Bifhops,
and commanded the Bifhops that cornpofed the Council at Lampfacus to em-
brace the Opinions of Eudosius the Arian, and lIpon their refutal immediately
fent them into Banifhmenr, and gave their Churches to their Enemies, fparing
only Pat/linus, for the remarkable Sanctity of his Life. After this he enrer'd
into more violent Meafures, and caufed the Orthodox, fome of them to be
whipped. others to be difgraced, ochers to be imprifoned, and others to be
fined. He alfo put great Numbers [0 death, and particularly caufed eighty of::;()c.lbi,l.
them at once to be put on Board a Sh1P, and the Ship to be fired when it was:: I~, .o.
failed out of the Harbour, where they miferably perifhed by the Water and the )lhl:o,\,z
Flames. There Perfecut ions he continued to the End of his Reign, and was' 4' c. •
gr,eatly afllfted in tkern by the Bifhops of the Arian Party •
. 'In .the mean Time great Difturbances happened at Rome. Liberius, Bilhop5oc.1. 4'
of that City being dead; Urfinus, a Deacon of that Church, and DamaJus, C.lf). ~

were botn nominated to fureeed him. The Parry of DamaJus pre.vailed, and
goth,im .chofen and ordained. Ur/intfJ being enraged that DamaJus was prefer . -
re~before him, fer up feparate Meetings, and at laft procured himfelf to be
pnvately ordained by certain obfcure Bi·lhops. This occafioned great Dirputes
amongft.theCitizens, which thould obtain the Epifcopal Dignity t and the Matter'
was.carflOO to fuch anHeigbt/tbatgreat Numbers were murthered in the Q?ar •.
:el on both fWe.s, no ~tha~ oneHundr~ thirty Jenn Perfons being deftroy'd
Hl the Church It felft3ccordmg to AmmUI1tUS, who adds, "'that 'twas no W01ltk,J.~'!. c. F
to Ja tboje wbo~e ambitious of human Greatneft, contending with Jomucb J1eal
.. ~ <:um id ad~pl i, n!turi rl4lt~:~ fccuri, ut dilC11turobJationibllS Marronarum, prQCCdanr9;~riicu'"
lu~nkd~flles, Clrclltl1l:pdh: vdhu, tpulaa. .<:uraate. profufu, aOco ut oouw COfIvjVill'~CI' fup"·
rcut menus.

and ".
The I NT ROD U -C T I O-N:
ana ..1l1imofity for that Dig,Jiity, becauf« tcben they had ~btained it, :bey were jiirt to
-be enriched by the Offerings of the Matrons, of appe~rtllg :1broad twgreat ~plend()r,
of being admired for their cojlly Coaches, fumptuous tn. tbeir Feafis, out-doing Soue-
1'eigll Princes in tbo Expences of their Cfabies. For wh!ch Reafon !rcete.'.;tatuJ, a~
Heathen, who was Prefect of the City the follow 109 Year, faid, Make me Bi-
fbop of Rome and I'll be a Cbriflian too. .'
Gratiau, the Son of Valentinian, his Partner and Succeffor In the Empire, was
of the orthodox Party, and after the Death of his Uncle Valens recalled c.hole
'llJl:od. whom he had banifhed, and reflored them to their Sees. But as co the Arians,
1 ). c. L. he Ienr Sapores, one of his Captains, to drive them, as wild Beafls, out of all
their Churches. Socratcsand Sozomen tell us, however, that by a Law he or-
_dained, that Perfons of all Religions fhould meet, without fear, in their fev~r;~l
Churches, and worfbip according to their own Way., the Eunomiass; Pbotini-
ans and Manicbees excepted.
Tbeodofius, foon after his Advancement by Gratian to the Empire, difcover-
Soz. 1.1. ed a very warm Zeal for the orthodox Opinions; for obferving that the City of
c.... ' 6. Confiantinople was divided into different Sects, he wrote a Letter to them from
Cfhejfzlonica, wherein he cells them, '['hat 't'was his Plea JUre, that all his Subjev'1s
fbould be of the fame Religion with Damafus BijhO{J of Rome, and Peter Bifhop of
Alexandria; and that their Church only Ihould be called Catholick, who wor-
1hipped the Divine Trinity as equal in Honour; and that rhofe who were of
another Opinion Ihould be called Hereticks, become infamous, and be fubjetl:
to other Punifhments. He alfo forbid A ffemblies and Difputations in the Po-
. rum, and made a Law for the Punifhrnenr of thofe that fhould prefume to ar-
Soc. 1. ). gue about the Effenceand Nature of God. Upon his firft coming co CQnjtan-
c. 7. tinople, being very folicitous for the Peace and Increafe of the Church, he fent
for Demophilus the Arian Bifhop, and a1ked him whether he would confent to
the Nicene Faith, and thus accept the Peace he offered him; adding, If you re-
fuft to do it I will drive you from your Churches. And upon Demophill/J's Reo-
fural, the Emperor was as good as his Word, and turned him and aU the Ari-
ans out of the City, afcer they had been in poffeffion of the Churches there for
c.8. Forty Years. But being willing more effectually to extinguifh Herefy, he
fummoned a C:ouncil of Bifhops of his own Perfuafion, A. C. 383. to meet to-
gether at Conflantinople, in order to confirm the Nicme faith: The Number of
them were one Hundred and fifty; to thefe were added thirty fix: of the Mace-
Tl'efecond donian Party. And accordingly this Council, which is reckoned the fecond
gener~1 Oecumenical or general one, all of them, except the Macedonians, did decree
~u;,/, 8 that tbe Niccne Faith 1hould be the Standard of Orthodoxy;
. • 3 3·reIies fhould be condemnfd.
and that aU He-
They alfo made an Addition to that Cre~ ex-
.plaining the orthodox Doctrine of the Spirit againfi: Macedonius, viz. after
the Words Holy Ghoft, they inferted, fie Lord, the QIlicvur, proceedingfrom
the Fatber, 'Whomwith tbe Fatbtr and the Son 'We worfhip (Ina glorify, and who Jpalee
Cod. by tbe Propbets. When the Council was ended the Emperor put forth t\VO
need. Edicts againft Hereticks; by the firft prohibiting them; from holding any Af-
1.11, U; _femblies; and by the. fecond, forbidding them to meet in Fields orViJlages,
l/JC I N T ROD U C T 10 N.
ordering the Houfes where they met to be .confi~cated, and cO!11manding that
fuch who went to other Places to teach their OpInIOnS, or perform their reli-
glous worfhip, Ihould be forced t~ return to t.he Places where they dwelt, con-
dernninz all rhofe Officers and Magiftrares of Cities who Ihould Dot prev..:nt Iuch
A ffembl'ie.:s. A lirrle while after the Conclufion of this Council, finding that many
Ditorders were fiill occafioned through the Oppofition of the Parties toone Soz, I. 7.
another, he convened the principal Perfons of each, and ordered them to deliver C 11..
into his Hand a written Form of their Belief, which after he had received, he r eti,
red by hinuclf, anJ earne1tJy prayed to Go.d, that he would enable him to make
Choice of the Truth. And when after this he had perufed the Ieveral Papers
delivered to him, he tore t hem all in pieces, except that which contained the
Doctrine or the in.iivifible Trinity, to which he intirely adhered, After i
he publ-fhed a Law, by which he k.r:)i.l Hcreticks to worfhip or preach, or [0
ordain Bifhops or others, commanding tome to be banifhed, others (0 be render-
ed infamous, andto be deprived of the common Privileges of Citizens, with
other grievous Penalties of the like nature. Sozomen, however, tells us, that
he did nor put thefe Laws in execution, becaufe his Intention was not to punilh
his Subjects, but to terrify . them into the fame Opinions of God with himfelf,
praifing at the. fame time chofe who voluntaril y embraced rhem. Socrates I. s. C.1.o.
alfo confirms the fame, telling us, that he only banilhed Eunomius from Con-
ftontinopl« for holding private Affemblies, and readinghis Books to them, and
thereby corrupring many with his Doctrine. But that as to others he gave
them no Difturbance, nor forced them to communicate with him, but allowed
them all their feveral Meetings, and to enjoy their own Opinions as to the
Chriftian Faith. Some he permitted to build Churches without the Cities,
and the Nooatians to retain their Churches within, becaufe they held the fame
Doctrines with himfelf •
.dreadius aOlj Honorius, the Sons and Succeflors of 9:heodofius, embraced the Sol. J. 8.
orthodox Religion and Party, and confirmed all the Decrees of the foregoingc. 1,10, +
Emperors in their Favour. Soon after their Acceffion to the imJ;>CrialDigni-
ty, Nectarius Bifhop of Conjlantinopie died, and John, called for hIS Eloquence
Cbr'iJlOflom, was ordained in his room: He was a Perf on of a very rigid and Ie-
vere Temper, an Enemy to Hereticks, and againft allowing them any Tole-
r~tion. Gaina, one of the principal Officers of Arcadius, and who was a Chri-
{ban of the Arian Perfwafion, defired of the Emperor one Church for himfelf
and ~hofe of his Opinion, within the City. Chryfoflom being informed of if, im-
medIate~y went tothe Palace,tak,ing with him all the BifhQps he could find at
Conflantznopl~, the p:reft:nce of the Emperor bitterly inveigh'd againft
Ga1l1a, who was h!mf~fatth~ Au~.eflCe, and reproached him for his former
Poverty, as alfo wIth Infolence and Ingratitude .. Then he produce~ the Law
that was made by Theodojius, by which Hereticks were forbidden to holdAf-:
f~mblies within the Walls of the City ~ and turning to the Emperor, .perfw~4ed
him to ~eep III f~rce all the ~aws agalOft Hereticks;, that 'tw~,~ter
voluntarily to qUit the Empire, than to be guilty of the Impiety ~f~YJDg
the,Houfe of God. CbryJojlom carried his Point, and the ConfequenceoTit Wi'S
g ... ..'.... ."...... an
an Infurrection of the Goths in the City of Conftantil1ople, which had like to have
ended in the Burning the imperial Palace, and the Murther of the Emperor,
and did actually end in the cutting off all the Gothick Soldiers, and the Burning
of their Church, with great Numbers of Perfons in it, who fled thither for
Soz. I. 8. Safety, and were locked in to prevent their efcape. His violent Treatment of
c. IS. feveral Bifhops, and the arbitrary Manner of his depofing them, and fubftitu-
ting others in their room, contrary to the Defires and Prayers of the People, is
but too full a Proof of his imperious Temper, and love of Power. Not con-
tent with this, he turned his Eloquence againft the Emprefs Eudoxia, and in a
fet Oration inveighing againft bad Women, he expreffed himfelf in fuch a
Manner, as that both his Friends and Enemies believed that the Invective was
chiefly levelled againft her. This fo enraged her, that Ihe foon procured his
Depofition and Banifhrnent. Being foon after reftored, he added new Provoca-
tions to the former, by rebuking the People for certain Diverfions they took
at a Place where the Statue of the Emprefs was erected. This fhe took for an
Infult on her Perfon, and when Chryfoftom knew her Difpleafure on this Ac-
count, he ufed more fevere Expreffions againft her than before, faying, Hero-
dias is enraged again; ./he raifts frefh Dijlurbances; and again deflres the Head of
John in a Charger. On this and other Accounts he was depofed and banifhed
by a Synod convened for that ptirpofe, -Bilhops being always to be had in
thofe Days eafily, to do what was defired or demanded of them by the Emperors,
Soz, 1. 8. ChryJoflom died in his Banifhment, according 00 the Chriftian \Vilh of Epipbs-
c. 16. nius, 1 hope youSIl not die Bifbop of Conftantinople; which CbryJoflOM returned
with a Wifh of the fame good Temper, 1hope yousll not live to return to your
Qwn City; fo deadly was the Hatred of thefe Saints and Fathers againft each
other. After ChryJoftomss Death -his Faveurers and Friends were treated with
great Severity, not indeed on the Account of Religion, but for other Crimes
Soc. 1.6. of Sedition they were charged with, and particularly, for burning down one of
e, 18. the Churches in the City, the Flames of which [pread themfelves to the Senate
Houfe and entirely confumed it.
Under the fame Emperors the Donatifls gave fad Specimens of their Cruelty
Epill. 50. in Africa towards the Orthodox, as SE. Au-ftin informs us. They feized on Maxi-
ad .Bon., & mianus, one of the African Bifhops, as he was itanding at the Altar, beat him
E!~t.63. unmercifully, and ran a Sword into his Body, leaving him for dead. Anda
a anuar'little after he adds, That it would be tedious to recount the many horrible
Things they made the Bifhops and Clergy fuffer; feme had their Eyes put
out; one Bifhop had his Hands and Tongue cut off, and others were cruelly
deftroyed. I forbear, fays AuJiin, to mention their barbarous Murthers, and
demolifhing of Houfes, not private ones only, but the very Churches them-
Cod. felves. H01for;us publifbed very revere EdiCts againft them, ordaining, That if
Theod. they did not, both Clergy and Laity, return to the Caeholicks by ftKh a Day,
L ~~.
they fhould be heavily fined, their- Eitates lhouJd be oonfifcatm, the Clergy
banifhed, and their Churches all given to the Catholicks. Thefe Laws AuJlin
commends as rightly and pioufly ordained, maintaining the Lawfulncfs of per-
ftcuting Hereticks by all manner of Ways, Death only excepted-.
The I N T ROD U C T [ 0 N.
Under the Reign of ~heodofius, Arcadius his Son, thofe who were ca~lerlHe.
reticks were grievouOy perfecured by the Orthodox. 'Ibeodofius, Bif:»;': .ofSoc• 1.1.
Synnada in Phrygia, expelled great Numbers of the Followers of lV!~".',!:JlJItlS c, ~.
from the City and Country round about, Not from any Zeal for the true Faitb, as
Socrates fa ys, but through CrYlJetoufnefs, and a Defig1'l to extort Money from them.
On this Account he ufed all his Endeavours to opprefs them, and particularly
Agapetus their Bifhop, armed his Clergy againft them, and accufed them before
the Tribunal of the Judges. And becaufe he did not think the Governors of the
Provinces fufficient to carryon this good Work of Perfecution, he went to Con-
fiantinople to procure frefh Edicts againft them; but by this means he la~ his
Bifhoprick, the People refufing him Admiffion ino the Church upon hIS re-
turn, and chufing Agapetus, whom he had perfecuted, i:1his room.
Tbeopbilus; Bifhop of Alexandria, the great Enemy of Chryfoflom, being I. 7. C·1·
dead, Cyrill was enthroned in his room, nor without great Difturbance and Op-
pofition from the People, and ufed his Power for the Oppreffion of Hereticks ;
for immediately upon his Advancement, he fhut up all the Churches of the
Nooatians in rha t City, took a'way all their facred Treafures, andftripped Tbeo-
pemptunheir Bifhop, ofeveryTh~dYat he had. Nor was this much to bel.,.. c. I~J
wonder'd at, fince, as SfJC1"dtti obferves, that from the Time of 'I'heophilus,14'
Cyr;lI!s, Predeceffor, Tbe Bifhop of Alexandria began to aJ!ume an .Authority and
Power above what belonged to the [acerdotal Order. On this Account the great
Men hated the Bifhops, becaufe they ufurped to themfelves a good part of that
Power which belonged to the imperial Governors of Provinces; and particu-
larly, Cyrill was hated by Orejl~s, Prefect of Alexandria, not only for this Rea-
fan, but becaufe he was a continual Spy upon his AtHons. At length their
Hatred to each other publickly appeared. C,rill took on him, without ac-
quainting the Governor, or contrary to his leave, to deprive the Jews of all
their Synagogues, and banifhed them from the City, and encouraged the Mob
to plunder them of their Effetl:s. This the Pref~ahighly refented, and refuted
the Bi1hop's Offers of Peace and Friendfhip, Upon this about fifty Monks
arne into the City for Cyrill's Defence, and meeting the Prefect in his Chariot
~b~ckly infulred him, calling him Saaificer and Pagan; adding many other
,lDJurlOusReproaches. One of them, called .A",mtmius, wounded' him in the
~ead with a Stone, which he flung at him with great Violence, and covered
him ~1lover with Blood; and being, according to the Laws, put by Oreftes
pUbbckl~ to the Torture, he died through the Severity of it. St. Cyrill honour-
ablyrecetved the Body ,into t,be Church, gave him' the new Name of 'fhafJ"!IT-
flus, or, erp''rD1ltk1fulJorderedbiuHO'belookedonasa Martyr, and lavUhty
extolled hun,m the ~h, at' 3' PerfGil murthcredfbr his Religioft. Tins
fcandalous Procedure; of! Cyilrs the Chriftiansthemfelves were afliamed of,
:becaufe 'twas pu~lic~y known, that the Monk was punifhed for his Infolenc,eJ
and even St. C'~fll ~lmfelt had ~he Modefty at )aft to ufe his Endeavoun.~ .
the whole AffaIr mIght be enurely forgotten. The Murther alfo ()f ~ lei. IbId.
bTC" ,.ilfsFriends a~d Clergy~ merely out of Envy to her fuperior, SiWt- Phi-C•1S•
10foph.)') brought hun and his Church of.dle~""'"" uader'gr-:.IJIf«rdY'i for
ga a
as {he was returning home from a Vific, one Peter a Clergyman, with fome
other Murtherers, teized on her, dragged her out of her Chariot, carried her
to one of the Churches, ftripped her naked, fcraped her co Death with Shells,
then core her in pieces, and burnt her Body to Allies. .
Soc. 1.7. Innocent alfo, Bifhop of Rome, grievouily perfecured the Nouatians, and took
c·9· from them many Churches; and, as Socrates obferves, was the firft Bifhop of
that See who diflurbed them. Celefiin« alfo, one of his Succeffors, imitated.
this lnjuftice, and took from the Nouatians the Remainder of their Churches,
C. I J. and forced them to hold their Aflernblies in private; For the Bijhops of Rome,
as wet! as tbo]: of Alexandria, had ufurped a tyrannical Power, which, as Priejis,
they had no right to; and would not fuffer thofe who agreed with them in the
Faith, as the Nouatians did, to hold publick Aifemblies, but drove them out
of their Oratories, and plundered them of all their Subflance.
Neflorius, Bi1hop of Conftantinople, immediately lIpon his Advancement,
fhewed himfe1f a Violent Perfecutor , for as foon as ever he was ordained, he
addreffed himfelf to the Emperor before the. whole Congregation, and laid,
Purge me, 0 Emperor, the Earth from Hereticks; and I will give thee in recompence
the Kmgdom of Heaven. Conquer with me the Hereticks, and 1with thee will jUbdu~
the Perfians. And agreeable to his bloody Willies, the fifth Day after his
Confecrarion, he endeavoured to demoli1h the Church of the Arians, in which
they were privatelyaffembled for Prayer. The ArianSinthcir Rage, feeing
the' Deftrucrion of it determined, fet Fire to it thernfelves, and occafioned
tl-e Burning down the neighbouring Houfes; and for this Reafon not only the
Herericks, but thofe of his own Perfuafion, Q\{iinguifhed him by the Name of
Incendiary'. But he did not refl here, but crred all Tricks and Methods to de-
firoy Hereticks , and by thefe- MI .11S endangered the Subverfion of ConjJanti;.
nople it felf, He perfecuted th~,l\'0Jatians, through hatred of Paul their Bi-
Ihop for lis eminent Piety. He grtevouHyoppreifed thofe who were not Or-
thodox as (.) the Day of keeping Eafier; in Afio, Lsdia, and Caria,and oeca-
fioned the Murthers of great Numbers ootDis Account', at Mile/us and
Sardis. ,
c. z.. Few indeed of tbe Bifhops were free from this wicked Spirit. Socrates, how-
ever, tells us, that rltticus Bifhop of Conftantinople was a perron of great Piety
and Prudence, ami that he did not offer Violence to any of the Hereticks, but
that after he had once attempted to terrify them, he behaved more mildly and
gendy to them af.erwards. Proclus alfo, Bifhop of the fame City, who had
been bro~ght up under Atticus, wua careful Imitator of his Piety and Vircue,
and exerciLd rather greater Moderation than his Mafter,being gentle towards
al~ Men, from a Perfwa~on, that this was. a qJuch more proper Method than
V IOlence to reduce Heretlcks to the true Faith, and therefore he ne.ver mage
ufe of the imperial Power for this purpoie.;And in this he imitated 2'heOl1ofius
the Emperor, who was not atallcoacerned or difpJeafed that any fhould think
differently of God himfeJf. However, the Number ,of Bi1hops of this
Temper was bue fmall. Nothing pJeafed th~generalinr ~hhem but Methods
of Seve r i(y, and the utter Ruin and Extirpa.tioa Q,f;thcir Adverfarics.
Under the Reign of this Emperor, :he Arians alfo, in their Tl~rn, ured
the Orthodox with no greater Moderation, than the C?rthodox h.a~1ufed them.
The Vandals, who were partly Pagans, and partly Ar ians, had Ieized on Sfaill
and Africa, and exercjled innumerable Crudtie.s on thofe .who ~erc not of the
Iarne Religion with themfelves. Trnfimond their General In .SP~t1t, and G{'ilfc-
rick in Africa, ufed all poflible Endeav.ours to propagate ~rtan!fm throughout
all their Provinces. And the more effectually to accornplifh this Defign, they
filled all Places with Slaughter and Blood, by the Advice of the Bifhops of
their Party, burning down Churches, and putting the orthodox Clergy to the
molt grievous and unheard of Tortures, to make them difcover the Gold and
Silver of their Churches, repeating thefe kind of Tortures feveral times, fa
that many actually died under them. Genferick feized on all the facred Books
he could find, that they might be deprived of the Means of defending their
Opinions. By the Counfel of his Bifhops, he ordered that none but Arians
fhould be admitted to Court, or employ'd in any Offices about his Children,
or fa much as enjoy the Benefit of a Toleration. Armogefles, Mafculon, and
Saturus, three Officers of his Court, were inhumanly tortured to make them
embrace Arianifm; and, upon their refufal, they were {hipped of their Ho-
nours and Eftares, and forced to protract a miferable Life in the utmofl: Po-
verty and Want. There and many more Inftanccs of Genfericlc's Cruelty to-
wards the Orthodox, during a long Reign of thirty eight Years, are related by
Vir/or, l. I. in fine.
During thefe Tranfactions, a new Controverfy, of a very extraordinary
and important Nature, arofc in the Church, which, as the other had done
before, occafioned many Diforders and Murthers, and gave Birth to the third
general Council. Neflorius, the perfecuting Bifhop of Confl antinople, altho' tole- Evag.E.H.
rably found in the Doctrine of the real Deity of the Logos, yet excepted againtt I. I. ~.Zo.
the Virgin Mary's being called G'OTOH.@-, i. e. Mother of God, becaufe, as he Soc.Zo ';4
argued, Mary was a Woman, and that therefore God could not be born of her; c. 3 , •

adding, I cannot call him God, who once was 110t above two or three Months old;
and therefore he fubflirured another Word in the room of it, calling her
XetS"O'TOH.@-, or Matber of Cbrift, By this Means, he feemed to maintain, not
only the Diftinction of the two Natures in Chrift,. for he allowed the proper
Perfonality and Subfiftence of the Logos, but that there were alfo two diftinCl:
Perfons in Chrifl , the one a mere Man, abfolutely diftinct from the Word,
and the other God, as abfolutely diftinCl: from the human Nature. This caufedTb;rdgene:
great Difturbances in the City of Conftantinople, and the Difpute was thoughtr.,ICotmcil,
of fuch Confequence, as to need a Council to fettle it. Accordingly TbeodofiusA• C'6t~1'
convened onea~ Epbt{us,:A. C. 434 •. of which ~'jrill was Prefident; and as~:/L';.
he ha~ed .Ne(torttls, he perfuaded the Bifhops of hIS own Party to decree, thate• i~
the Virgin was, and fhould be, the Mother of God, and to anathernatife 'all
who fhould not confefs her in this Character, nor own that the Word of God
the Father was united fubftantiaBy to the Flefh, making one ChriftoftwoNa-
tures, both God and Man together; or who fhould afcribe what the Scriptures
fay of Chrift, to twO Perfons or Subfiftences, interpretingfomec>fthe Man,
. exclufive
46 Tbe I N T 1\ 0 Due T ION:
exclufive of the Word; and others of the Word, exclufive of the human
Nature; or who fhould prefurne to call the Man Chrift 0WOf@-, the 'Bearer,
or tbe Reaptab!~ of God, inftead of God; and hnfl ily to depofe Nefiorius five
Days before the coming ofJohll Bifhop of Antioch, with his fuffragran Bifhops.
JOhl1, upon his Arrival at Epbejus, depofed Cyrilf, in a Council of Bifhops held
for that Purpofe, and accufed him of being the Author of all the Diforders
occafioned by this Affair, and of having rathly proceeded to the Depofition of
Ncflorius. Csrill was foon abfolved by his own Council, and, in Revenge, de-
pofed John of Antioch, and all the Bifhops of his Party. But they were both
reconciled by the Emperor, and reflored each ocher to their refpectivc Sees,
and, as the Effect of their Reconciliation, both fubfcribed to the Condemna-
tion of Neflorius, who was rent into Banifhmenr, where, after fuHering great
Hardfhips, he died miferably; being thus made to tafte tnofe Sweets of Per.
feeution, he had fo liberally given to others, in the Time of his Power and
Evag.l. 1, Profperity. The Emperor himfelf, though at firfl: he difapproved of this
c. H. Councl's Conduct, yet afterwards was perfuaded to ratify their Decrees, and
publifl.ed a Law, by which all who embraced the Opinions of Neftorius,
were, If Bifhops or Clergymen, ordered to be expelled the Churches; or if
C:hal.Con- Laymen, to be anathernatifed, This occafioned irreconcileable Hatreds, arnongft the Bifhops People, who were fo enraged againft each other i
that there was no pafling withany Safety from one Province or City to ano ..
ther, becaufe everyone purfued his Neighbour as his Enemy, and, without
Epic. any Fear of ~od, revenged themfelves on one another, under a Pretence of
Ecclefiaftical Zeal.
Evag. 1. :. Marcia«; the Succeffor of'l'heodofius in the Empire, embraced the Orthodox
c. I. Party and Opinions, and was very defirous to bring about an entire Uniformity
. in the Worfhip of God, and to eftabl ifh the fame Form of Doxologies amongft
Concil. all Chriftians whatfoever. Agreeably to this his Temper, Eufebius, Bi1hop of
~~:l~ed: !"JcDm~dia, addrefs'd ~im foon. after his Promotion in .thefe. Words: God hath
3 Juftly gtven you the Empire, that youjhould govern afl for the unwer[al Welfare, and
fortbe Peace of his boly Churcb: And tberefo,oe, before and in all'l'bings, take Care
of the Principles of tbe orthodox and moP holy Faitb, and extinguijh the Roarings of
Evag. 1. Zo. the Hereticks, and bring to Light tbe Doctrines of Piety.. The LegatQ al[o of
~. 2. Leo, Bilhop of Rome, prefemed him their Accufations againft Dioftorus, Bifhop
of Alexandria; as did al[o Eufebius, Bifhop of DoryltEum, befeeching the Em-
peror that thefe Things might be judged and determined by a Synod. Mar-
cianconfented, and ordered the Bifhops to meet firft at Nice, and afterwards
'l'hefoll'lth at Chalcedon. This was the fourth oecumenical or general Council, confifting
gtntr41 of near fix hundred Prelates. The principal Caufe of their affembling was
Council, the Eutycbian Herefy. Eutyches, a Pre1byter of Conjfantinople, had aJfertect.
A.C. 4H· in the Reign of'l'beodofius, jun. that ]efus Cbrijl confifJed of two Natures before
1. I. C. 9, bis Union or Incarnation, but tbat after tbis be had 0118 Nature only. He alfo de ..
10. nied that the Body of Cbrift was of the fameSubfJance witb ours. On this Ac-
count, he was depofed by a particular Council at Gonjla1diMple by Pla'l1i4lt,
Bifhop of that Place: But, upon his complaining to tl»Empcror that' the
Jba I N T ROD U C T ION. 47
Alh of that Council were faHified by his Enemies, a recant! Synod of the
neiabbourinc Bifhops met '10 the fame City, who, after examining thole Acts,
fou~d them ~o he p.;enuine, and confirmed the Sentence againft Eutycbcs. But
Diofi:orw, BiOlOP of Alexandria, who WJS at Enmity with Flauian of Couftan-
tinoplc, obtained, from Theodofius, that a third Council fhould be hel~ on ~llIs
Affair, which accordingly met at Eph eJus, which the Orthodox fl.Jgm;ltlfed
by the Name of "»,eIK», the thieving Council, or Council of Thieves. Diof-
corus was Prefident of it, and, after an Examination of the Affair of Eutyches,
his Sentence of Excommunication and Depofition was taken off, and himfelf re-
ttored co his Office and Dignity, the Bifhops of Conft antinople, Antioch, and
others, being depofed in his Itead. But the condemned Bifhops, and the Le-
gates from Rome, appealed from this Sentence co another Council, and pre-
vailed with Tbeodofius to iffue his Letters for the affembling one: But as heEvag.l.t.
died before they could meet, the Honour of determining this Affair was re- c. 4, 18.
ferved for his Succeffor Marcian ; and when the Fathers, in Obedience to his
Summons, were convened at Cbalcedon, the Emperor favoured them with his
Prefence ; and, in a Speech to them, told them, q'hat he had nothing more at Heart
than to preferue the true anti orthodox Chrifliall Faith, fafe and uncorrupted, an d that
tbersfor« heprQPoJedto them a Law, that no onefbould dare to difputeof the Perjon of
Cbrijl, otbertoi]« than as it had been determined by the Council of Nice. After this
Addrefs of the Emperor, the Fathers proceeded to their fynodical Bufinefs,
and, notwithftanding the Synod was divided, fome of the Fathers pioufiy cry-
ing out. Damn Diofcorus, banifb Diofcorus, b.mifb the lEgyptian, banifh the
Heretick, Chrift hath depofed Diofcorus , others, on the contrary, Reflore
Diofcorus to the Council, reflore Diofcorus to his Cburcbes ; yet, through the
Authority of the Legates of Rome, Diofiorus was depofed for his Contempt of
the facred Canons, and for his Contumacy towards the holy univerfal Synod.
After this, they proceeded (0 fettle the Faith according to the Nicen« Creed,
the Opinions of the Fathers, and the Doctrine of Athanafius, Cyrill, Ctelefline,
Hilarius; Bajii, Gregory, and Leo; and decreed, that Chrifl was truly God,
dnd truly Man, eonfitbjJantitJ/ to the Father as to his Deity, and eonfubflalltial to us
as to his Humanity, and that be was to be conJeffid as confifling of two Natures toitb-
fJIIl Mi~ture, Comierfion of one into the other, and without Divijioll or Separation;
Im.a that it fbould not be lawful for any Perfons to utter, or write, or comp0Je, or
thtrl.1r.,or teach any othfr Faith whatJOever; and that if any fhould prefume to
do .1r, they fuouJd, if Bifhops or Clergymen, be depofed; and if Monks or
Lalcks, be anarhematifed. This procured a loud Acclamation: God bleft the
Emperor, God blefs tbe Empreft. We belirue as Pope Leo dotb. Damn the Divi-
ders and tbe Confounders. We bdie'fJe' as CyriH did: Immortal be the Name Dj
• Cyrill. 'Ihus. the D:thud(Jx ~elif!'()e; and curfed ~e roer~ one that doth not belie'Uc
fa t~o. Marc!a~ ratified theIr Decrees, and bamfhed Dtofcorus, and put forth all Evag. l.z..
~dla, contaml?g very fevere Penalties againfi the Eutychians and .Apol!~"~- of the ~J..
rifts, comm~ndl1lg that no one wha~f~ever, either o~ the Cler~y or Latty'lnquiji-
fuould publIckly dlfpute about ReligIOn, under Pam of BanIfllluent, and tio1l, 1. J.
Lors of all Honours, Dignities, Orders) &e. For this ReafOn,Pope Leo c. 5·
~ returns
Auguli. returns him Thanks, that he had deftroy'd there Hcrefies, and exhorts him
lpitt, 7~· firt her , that he would reform the See of A/c'xandria, and not only depofe the
heretical Clergy of Confl antinople from their clerical Orders, but expel them
from the City it felf
E\·Jg.l:z. Proterius was Iubftirured by this Council Bifhop of Alexandria, in the room
c. 5· of Diofcorus ; and, upon his taking Poffeffion of his Bifhoprick, the whole
City was put into the utmoft Confufion, being divided, Jon) ror Diojcorus,
Niccph. fame for Proterius, The Mob aflaulred with great Violence their IV13giftrnes,
I J s· 8. 'and being oppofed by the Soldiers, they put them to flight by ,:1 Sho:ver of

Stones; ; nd as they betook themfelves to one of the: Cuur ches for Sanctuary,
the Mob i-efieged it, and burnt it to the Groun.l, with the Soldiers in it.
The Emp' ror Ient two thoufand other Soldiers to que! this Ditlurhance, who
cncreafed (he Miferies of the poor Citizens, by offering rhe IligheH: Indigni-
Eng. l.1.. ties to tlu ir Wives and Daughters. And though they were Ior fome Time
e.s. kept in .vwe, yet, upon Marcian's Death? they broke out into greater
Fury, orcained Timotbeus Bifhop of the CIty, and murrhered Proterius, by
running hun through with a Sword. After this, they hung him by a Rope,
in a publick Place, by way of Derifion, and then, after they had ignominioufly
drawn him round the whole City, they burnt him to Afhes, and even fed on
his very Bowels in the Fury of their Revenge. The Orthodox charged thefe
Outrages upon the Eutscbians ; but Zacharias, the Hiftorian, mentioned by
Euagrius, fays, Proterius hirnfelf was the Caufe of them, and that he raifed
the greateft Difturbances in the City: And, indeed, the Clergy of Alexandria,
in their Letter to Leo, the Emperor, concerning this Affair, acknowledge,
that Prateries had depofed Timotheus, with tour or five Bifhops, and feveral
Monks, for Herefy, and obtained of the Emperor their actual Banifhmenr,
c. S. Great Difturbances happened alfo in Paleftine on the fame Account; the Monks
who oppofed the Council forcing 1uvenal, Bi1hop of JeruJalem, to quit his
See, and getting one ,!heodofiui ordained in his room. But the Emperor foon
reftored 1uvenal, after whofe Arrival the Tumults and Miferies of the City
greatly encreafed, the different Parties acting by one another juft as their
Fury and Revenge infpired them.
e. 9) 10. Leo fucceeded Martian, and fent circular Letters to the feveral Bifhops,
to make Enquiries concerning the Affairs of Alexandria, and the Council of
Chalcedon. Moft of the Bifhops adhered to the Decrees of thofe Fathers, and
agreed to depofe 'I'imotheus, who was fent to bear Diofcorus Compally in Ba-
Under Zena, the Son-in-Law, and Succeffor of Leo, Hunnericlc the Vandal
grievouOy perfecuted the Orthodox in Africa. In the Beginning of "his Reign,
he made a very equitable Propofal, that he would allow them the Liberty of
chooling a Bifhop, and worfhipping according to their own Way, provided
the Emperor would grant the Arians the fame Liberty in ConjJantinopie,
anG ocher Places. This the Orthodox would not agree to, choofing rather
to have their own Brethren perfecuted, than to allow Toleration to Cuch as
,Wfered from them. llunnericlc was grearl.y enraged by this Refufal, and excr-
The I N T ROD U C T ION. 49
cifed great feverity towards all ~ho would not profefs the Arian Faith, .being
excited hereto by Cyri" one of hIS Bifhops, who was perpetually fuggeftmg to
him that the Peace and Safety of his Kingdom could not be maintained, un-
lefs he extirpated all who differed from him a,s ~ublick Nufances .. This ,cruel
ecclefiaftical Advice was agreeable to the KIng s Temper, who immediately
pUt forth the rnoft fevere Edicts againft thofe ~ho held the DoC1:rin~of the
Confubftantiality, and turned all t~ofe Laws which had been mad~ agal.nft: the
Arians, and other Hereticks, agamft the Orthodox themfelves, It being, as
Hunnerick obferves in his Edict, an lnflance of Virtue in a King, to turn evil
Counfels againfl thofe who were the Authors of them. But though the Perfecution
carried on by the Orthodox was no Vindication of Hunneri~k's Cru:l~y towar~s
them, yet I think they ought to have obferved the Ju!bce of divine Provi-
dence, in fuffering a wicked Prince to turn all thofe unrighteous Laws upon
themfelves, which, when they had Power on their fide, they had procured for
the Punifhment and Deflruction of Others. A particular Account of the Cruel-
ties exercifed by this Prince may be read at large in VifJor de Jl(lndal Perfec.
J. 3.
Zeno, though perfectly Orthodox in his Principles, yet was a very wicked
and profligate Prince, and rendered himfelf fo extremely hateful to his OWl!
J1amily, by his Vices and Debaucheries, that Bajilifcus, Brother of Perina,
Mother of Zeno's Emprefs, expelled him the Empire, and reigned in his {lead;
and having found by Experience, that the Decrees of the Council of Chalcedoll Bvag.l.s ..
had occafioned many Difturbances, he by an Edict ordained, that the Nlcene». fa
Creed alone fhould be ufed in all Churches, as being the only Rule of the pure
Faith, and fufficienc to remove every Herefy, and perfectly to unite all the
Churches; confirming at the fame Time the Decrees of the Councils of Con-
flantinople and Epbefia, But as to thofe of the Council of Chalcedon he ordered,
that as they had deftroyed the Unicy and good Order of the Churches, and the
Peace of the whole World, they fhould be anathematized by all the Bifho}Js;
and that where-e""Aany Copies of thofe Articles fhould be found they 1hould
be immediately b~tl And tha~ whofoever after this fhould attempt, either
by Difpure or Wntmg) or Teaching, at any Time, Manner or Place, to utter,
or fo muc.h as name the Novelties chat had been agreed on at Cbalcedo» contrary
to the Faith, fhould, as the Authors of Tumilrs and Seditions in the Churches
of God, and as Enemies to God and himfelt, be fubjetl: to all the Penalties of
the. La~, and be depofed, if Bifhops or Clergymen; and if Monks or
Lalcks~be punifhed with Bani1hment, and Confifcation of their Effects, and
even wlt.h-Death it f~.:M0ft:of the caft~DBilh~ps fubferibed thefe LettersL 3. c. s.
of B~jilifan; and beltl~afterwards met 1ft Councltat Epbefus, they depofed
AcactUs t~ ~thodox KIfhop of C01Ijlanti1lople, and many other Rilhops that
agreed with,huD. ~hey ~lfo wrote to the Emperor to inform bim, Thatthe,
bad voluntar:ly fubftrtbed hts Letters; and to perfuade him to adhere to them, or
.that otherwlfe the whole World would be fubverted, if Jh4 DttrNS fJ/ tb4Sf!l64 of
Chalcedonjhould be re-eftab/.i./hed, which hadalreatlj prodl«etl i1l1l1l~IIIliSltm¥ft-
J",s. and (Jccafionedthe Jheddtng oj tbe BlIJodD/.lb, ,rlbt.'Cbri~' ,;But .Jt~ctus.
h Bifhop
Bifhop of Conjlaiztinople, foon forced Bafilifcus to alter his Meafures, by railirrg
up the Monks and Mob of the City againft him; fo that he recalled his for-
mer Letters, and ordered Neflorius and Eutscbes, with all their Followers, t?
be anathematized, and foon after he quitted the Empire to Zeno, Upon hIS'
Evag.I.;. Reftoration he immediately refcinded the Atts of Bajili.fcus, and expelled thofe
~-8,9. BiOlOPSfrom their Sees which had been ordained during his Abdication. In
the mean Time the Ajiatick Bifhops, who in their Letter to BajiliJcus had decla-
red, that the Report of their /ubJcribing involuntarily, and by force, was a Slander
and a Lye; yet upon this Turn of Affairs, in order to excufe rhernfelves to-
Acacius, and to ingratiate themfe1ves with Zeno, affirm, Tbnt they did it not vo-
lunft1rily, but by force, fwearing that they had always, and did now believe the Faith
if the Synod of Chalcedon, Euagrius leaves it in doubt, whether Zacharias de-
famed them, or whether the Bilhops Iyed, when they affirmed that they Iub-
fcribed involuntarily, and againft their Confciences,
Zenoobferving the Difputes that had arifen through the Decrees of the laft
Council, publifhed his Henotieon, or his uniting and pacific/( Editt, in which he'
confirmed the Nicene, Crmftantino/,olital1, and Epbefine Councils, ordained that
the Nicene Creed fhould be the Standard of Orthodoxy, declared that neither
himfdf nor the Churches have, or had, or would have any other Symbol or-
Doctrine but that, condemned N~orius and Eutyches, _and their Followers;
and ordered, that whofoeverhad, or did think otheiwife, either now or for-
merly,. whether at Cbalcedon or any other Synod, 1hould be anarhemarized..
The Intention of rhe Emperor by this- Edict, was plainly to- reconc.le the
Friends and Oppofers- of the. Synod of Chalcedoll; for he condemnt<lNejloriur
and Eutychcs.., as that Council had done, but did not anathematize rhofe who ...

would not receive their Decrees, nor fubmit to them as of equal Authority·
with thofe of the' [hreefo~mer Councils :- But this-Compromitt was far from-
having the defired effect.,
~ II, u. '.During [~lt:ferhingS"feveraIC~nges happen'd in theBi1h:.rr..•irk-of AfcKa"dr;a.-
r;{$mothy, Bifhop of that Place bemg dead, onePeter-Mrmg . as elected by the'
Bilhops Suffragan. of' that See, which fO"enraged Zen(),t at he' intended to"
have put him to Death; but changed it for Banifhment, and '.timotby, Succe1for'
of Pro1erius, was fubftituccd-in his room.. Upon crimotby's Death- Joh", a'
Pre1byter of that Church, obtained the Bifhoprick by Symony, and in De-
fiance of an Oatn-.he had taken to Zeno, that he would never procure himfelf
to beelctted into that See. Upon this he was expelled, and Mangus reO:ored
by the Emperor's Order~ - Mongus immtdiateJy confented, and fubfcribed co
the pacifick. Edid, and received:-intoCommunion thofe who had form~rly been-
of a different Party. Soon after this, he was accufed by Ca/endio Bi1hop of An-
tioch for Adultery, and~for having publickly anathematized the Synod of Chat-
ir. 11. cedtJn at Alexandria; and·&hough this JatterCharge wastrue, yet he folemnly
denied it}n a Letter~o.Ac~~Bi1hopofprmjlD!'ti"'!p/e, turning with the Time,
(ondemnmg andrecelvmglt, Jtri\ as It fUlted hiS VIews, and ferved his Incereft.
!! 1.0, U. But being at laft accufcd before Felix Bifhof of Rmnt, he was pronounced anc
Hcrctkk, excommunicated, aJ¥.lanithemati!ed. _- .
Tbe I N T ROD U C T ION. 5f
Anaflafrus, who fucceeded Zeno, was hirnfelf a great Lover of Peace, and Eva.t::. l. J"
endea voured to promote it, both amongft the Clergy and Laity, and therefore c. ;0-
ordered that there fhould be no Innovations in the Church whatfoever. But
this Moderation was by no means pleafing to the Monks and Bifhops. Some of
them were great Sticklers for the Council of Cbalcedon, and would not allow fo
much as a Syllable or a Letter of their Decrees to be altered, nor communi-
cate with rhofe who did not receive them. Others were fo far from fubmitting
to this Synod, and their Determinations, that they anathematized it; whilft
others adhered to Zeno's Henoticon, and maintained Peace with one another,
even though they were of different Judgment concerning the Nature of Chrift.
Hence the Church was divided into Factions, fo that the Bifhops would not
communicate with ea-ch other. Not only the Eaftern Bifhops feparated from
the Weftern; but thofe of the fame Provinces hadSchifrns amongft them-
felves, The Emperor, to prevent as much as poflible thefeQgarrels, banifhed
thofe who were moft remarkably troublefome from their Sees, and particularly
theBifhops of Conflantinople and dntioch, forbidding all Perfons to preach either
for or againft the Council of Cbalcedon, in any Placeswhere it had not been
ufual to 'do it before; that by allowing aU Churches their feveral Cuftoms, he
rnightprevcmt any Diftorbances upoD.account of Innovations. But the Monks c. 31, 3'••
.and Bifhops prevented all thefe Attempts for Peace, by forcing one another to
make new Confeffions and Subfcriptions, a-nd'by anathematizing all who differed
from them as Hereticks; fothat 'by their fedirious andobftinate Behaviour they
occafioned innumerableQuarrels and Murthers in the Empire. They alfo treat-
edthe Emperor himfeif with great Infolence, and excommunicated him as an
Enemy to the Synod of Cbalcedon. Macedonius, Bifhop ofConJlantinople, ande. i40
his Clergy, raifed the Mob ofthat City againft him, only for adding to one of
their Hymns thefe Words, Who was crucified for us. And when for this Reafon
Macedonitu was expelled his Bifhoprick, they urged 00 the People to fuch an
height of Fury as endangered the utter DeftruEtion of the City; for in their
Rage they fet Fire to feveral Places in it, cut off the Head of a Monk, crying
out, he was an Enemy of the '[rinity; and were not to be appeafed till the Em-
per~r himfelf went amongft them without his imperial Diadem, and brought
them to Temper by proper Submiffions and Perfuafions. And though he c. J+
had'great Reafon to be offended with the Bifhops for fuch Drage, yet he was
of fo human and tender a Difpofition, that though he ordered feveral of them
to be.depofed for various Offences, yet apprehending that it could not be ef-
~ea:ed Wlt~ou~.~loodfhed" he wrote to the Prefect ofAJia, Not to do any Tbing ;
ttl the AjfaU'!if ,twould occafioll tbe.fh~dding ajingle Drop of Blood. .,
Under this EmperorSY11U1Un"blu B1010p of Rome expelled the Manicbees from Platidl
the City, and ordered .~heir Books to be pnblickly burnt before the Doors of,
the Church. . :
• JuJlin was more ze.alous.for Orthodoxy than his Predec~1for AnaJtiJfillj'.aJ)d~vag. Year of hiS Re!gn gave a ve~y fignal Proof of It. . S~eNts.·.JJrlh()p L 3· 1:·4,',
of Antwcb .. was warm agamft the Council of Chalcedon and contlnuaHr anatbe- .
.matizing:it in the Letters he wrote to feveral Bifhops ; ,aDdbetawe-t1J&People
11 2 • quarrel-
quarrelled on this Account, and divided into feveral Parties, juflin ordered the
Bifhop to be apprehended, and his Tongue to be cut out, and commanded that
the Synod of Cbalcedon Ihould be preached up through all the Churches of the
10 vito Empire. Platina alfo tells us, th~t he bani~ed the Arians, ~n~ g.av~ their
Johan. r, Churches to the Orthodox. Hormifda alfo, Bifhop of Rome, In irmtation of
Placin. his Predeceffor Symmachus, banifhed the Remainder of the Manicbees, and cau-
fed their Writings to be burnt.
Evag. 1.3. 'Juflinian, his Succeffor in the Empire, fucceeded him alfo in his Zeal for
c. I I. the Council of Cbalcedon, and banifhed the Bifhops of Conflantinople and rlntiocb;
becaufe they would not obey his Orders, and receive the Decrees of that Synod.
He alfo publifhed a Conftitution, by which he anathematized, them and all
their Followers, and ordered, that whofoever Ihould preach their Opinions
1hould be fubject to the moft grievous Punifhments. By this means nothing.
was openly preached in any of the Churches but this Council; nor did anyone
dare to anathematize it, And whofoever were of a contrary Opinion, they
were compelled by innumerable Methods to come into the Orthodox Faith..
'2Ul. In the third Year of his Reign he publifhed a Law, ordering that there Ihould
c. 16.
be no Pagans, nor Hereticks, but orthodox Chriflians only, allowing to He·
rericks three Months only for their Converfion. By another he deprived He·
Cod. de reticks of the Right of Succeflion. By another he rendered them incapable of
Heret. being Witneffes in, any Trial againft Chriftians. He prohibited them alfo-
)loveI.i2..from baptizing any Perfons, and from tranfcribing heretical Books under
Co 1. the Penalty of having the Hand cut offw Thefe Laws were principally
owing to the Perfuafions of the Bifhops.. !hus Agapetus, Bifhopof Rome.
who had-condemned Anthimus, and depofed him from his See of €onflanti7lOpie"
perfuaded 1uflinian to banifh all thofe whom he had condemned for Herefy.
~atin. Pelagius alfo defired, (hat Hereticks and Schifmaticks might be punifhed by
the fecular Power, if they would not be convened. The Emperor was too
ready, (0 comply with this Advice.. But notwithltanding all this Zeal for Or.
thedoxy, and the cruel Edicts publifhed by him for the Extirpation of aerefy.,
Evag.1.4.he was infamoufiy Covetous, fold the Provinces of the Empire to Plunderers
c. 30. and Oppreffors, {hipped the Wealthy of their Eftates upon falfe Accufations
and forged Crimes, and went Pannus with common Whoresintheir Gains of
Proftitution , and what is worfe, in the Eftates of thofe whom thofe Wretches'
falfely accufed of Rapes and Adultery. And yet, that he might appear as-
Pious as he was Orthodox, he built out of there .Rapines and Plunders many
ftately and magnificent Churches;. many religious Houfes f'Of Monks and
c. 3:&. Nuns, and Hofpitals for the Relief of the Aged and Infirm. E'Vagrius alfo'
charges him with more than beftial Cruelty in the Cafe of the J'c1iftian.s,whom
he not only allowed, but even by Rewards encouraged to. murther their Ene-
mies at Noon-day, in, the very Heart of the City, to break open Houfes, and;
plunder the Poffefi'ors of theic R.icltes~ forcing theIP to redeelJl; their Lives at
the Expence of all they hadl And if any of his Officers ponifhedtbem for
thefe Violences, they were fure to be puni!hed themfelvcs with Infamy or
Death. And that each fide might tafte of hie Severities), he afterwardt. turned'
Tbe I N T R 0 :J) U C T ION. 5,
his Laws againft the J7enetif!ns, putting great Numbers of them to Death,
for thofe very Murthers and Violences he had before encouraged and fup-
ported. .,. .
During his Reign, J~ ~he 24~h Year of It, ~as held th~ fifth general Counc.d
at ConjlantinopJe, confilting ot about 165 Fathers.
1 he Occafion of thelrc'oun<1J,
Meeting was the Oppofirion ~~at was ma?e to th~ four ge~eral C~lUn-A. C. ~~ 1.
cils and particularly the Writings of Ongm, which Eufiocbius, Bdhop ot Je-
ruj;Jern accufed, as full of many dangerous Errors. In the firft Seflions it was Evag. 1. 4-
debated, Whether thoft uibo were dead 'were to be anatbcmatized? One Eutscbi-s: 33•
lIS looked with Contempt on the Fathers for their Hefiration in fo plain a Mat-
ter, and told them, that there needed no Del.beration about it , for that King
Jcfias formerly did not only deftroy the idolatrous Priefts who were living, but
dug alfo thole who had been dead long before out of their Graves. So clear a
Determination of the Point, who could refift? The Fathers immediately were
convinced, and Juftinian caufed him to be confecrated Bifhop of C?1tftantinople,
in the Room of Menas, juft deceas'd, tor this his Skill in Scripture and Ca-
fuiftry. The Confequence was, that the Decrees of the four preceeding Coun-
cils were all confirmed; thofe who were condemned by them re-condemned
and anathematized, particularly Tbeodorus Bi1hop of Mopfuejiia, and [bas, with
their Writings, as favouring the Impieties of Neftorius , and finally, Origen,
with all his dereffible and execrable Principles. and all Perfons whatfoever who
fhould think, or Ipeak of them, or dare to defend them. After thefe Tranf-
actions the Synod fent an Account of them to Ju~inian, whom they compli-
mented with the Title of the moil Chriflian King, and with having a Soul parte-s- 39-
ker of the heavenly Nobiltty. And yet foon after there Flatteries his moft Chri-
ftian Majefty turned Heretick himfelf, and endeavoured with as much Zeal to
propagate Herefy as he had done Othodoxy before: He publifhed an Edict, by
which he ordained, That the Body of Chrift was incorruptible, and incapable even
tf natural and innocent Paffions; tbat before his Death be eat in the fame manner as
he did after his Re{urreffion, receiving no Converfion or Change from his very For-
mation in the Womb, neither in his voluntary or natural Ajfeflions, nor after bis Re-
{urref1ionr But as he was endeavouring to force the Bifhops-eo receive hise... r,
Creed, God was pleafed, as E'Vagrius obferve9, to cut him off, and notwith;"
1l:anding the heavenly Nobility oj his Soul, he went, as the fame Author charitablYl.~. C.I.
fuppofes, to the Devil.
Hunnerick, the Arian King of the Pandals, treated the Orthodox in this Em-J.+ Co • .,.;
peror·s. ~.eign with &reat Cruelty in Africa, becaufe they would not embrace
th? Prmctples QfArJus; fome he burnt, and others he deftroyed by different
KInds of !Jearn; he ordtred the Tongues of feveral of them to be cut out,·
w~o af:erwar~s mad~their Efcape to Conflantinople, where Procopius, ifyoti-
w. III behe~e hl~, am:rms he heard t~e~ fpe.ak as diftin~Iy as if t~eir Tong.uc:s
had remalOed 10 theIr Heads. Juftmtan hlmfelf mentions them In oneoffU!l
€onftitutions. Tw~ of them however, who happen'd to be Whore.Maj}ers,.·
Joftafterwards on thiS Account, the Ufe of.their~S~dr, for this ~af~, and
l~ Honour and Gra{;e of Martyrdom... . .
') 4- The I N T R 0 ·DU C T :I 0 N.
E\'ag.l. S. ]Ujlil1 the younger, who fucceeded Juflinian, publifhed an Edict foon after his
c. I. .Advancemenr, by which he rent all Bifhops to their refpective Sees, and to per-
form divine Worfhip according ro the UfU3] Manner of their Churches, without
making any Innovations concerning the Faith. As to his perfonal Character,
he was extremely diffolute, and debauched, and addicted to the moft vile and
criminal Pleafures. He was alfo fordidly Covetous, and fold the very Bi.
fhopricks to the beft Bidders, putting them up to publick Auction, Nor was
~. t.. he lefs remarkable for his Cruelty: He had a near Relation of his own Name,
whom he rr eacheroufly murthered, and of whom he was fo jealous, that he
could not be content till he and his Emprefs had trampled his Head under their
C·3· Feet. However, he was very Orthodox, and publifhed a new Explication of
the Faith, which for Clearnefs and Subtlety exceeded all that went before it.
In this he profeffes, That he believed in Father, Son, ami Holy Spirit, the Con-
fubflantial crrinity, one Deity, or Nature, or EJ1ence, in one Virtue, Power and
Energy, in three Hypoflafts or Perfons ; and that be adored tbe Unity in 'l'rinity, and
the crrinity in Unity, having a mof] admirable Difference and Union; tbe Unity ac-
cording to the EJ!ence or Deity; the'Irinity according to the Properties, Hypofla{es or
Perjons ,; for they are divided indivifibly; or if I may /0 fDeak, tbey are joined toge-
ther [eparately. 1be Godhead in the Tbree is One, and the Tbreeare One, the Deity
,being in them; or to!peak more accuratelq; the Tbree are the Deit"J..,God the Father,
(Jod)he Son, and God the Holy Ghofl. each Perfon being confidered by itfelh the Mind
..thus feparating 'Ibings infeparah.le; the Tbree being underflood to be togetber Go.d,be-
ing one in Operation a!1dNature. We believe aljOin one only begOt/enSon of God, .tk~
Word for the Holy crrinity receives no Addition of a fourtb Perfon, even after
the Incarnation of God the Word, one of the holy crrinity. But our Lord Jefus ChTi.ft
is one and the fame, ConJubjiantial to God, even the Father, according to his Deity,
. pnd Confubflantial to us accordingto hi! ManhoQd. He fuiJered in the Flejh, but was
impa./fiblein the Deity.. For we do not own tba: God the Word who wrought the Mi-
racles was one, and he that fuffered anotber ; but we confeft that our Lord JeJus
Chrijf, the Word of God, was one and the jame, who was made FleJhand became
per/etl Man; and that the Miracles and Sufferings were of one and the[a1,lJe: For it
was not a Man that gave himfelf for tiS, but God the Wor.dhimfllj; being made Man
without change; .fo that when we confeft ou,. Lord JeJus Chrifl to be one and the fame,
compounded of each Nature, of the Godhead and Manhood, we do not introduce any
Confufton or Mixture by the Union-for as God remains in tbe Manhood, fo alf(J
nevertheleft doth tbe Man, being in the Excellel1c'Jof the Deily, Emanuel being both
in one and the fame, even.QneGpd and {I/jiJ Maf1. ·,dnd 'lphenwe confefshim to be per-
letl in the Godbead, and peifeti in the Manhood, of which he is cowpounded, we
don't intro4u,ce,(I Divifion in part, or Seflion to his one compoundedPerfan, but only
fignify the "Differ/nee of the Natures, which is not taken away by the ,Union ; jor the
divine Nature # 1;Otconverted into the human, nor the human Nature cbanged into the
(Jivin~.. But we JayI'.tkat each being confidered~ or ratber atlu~lly exifting ill the ver,
Defimizon or Reafon, of tts proper Nature, confl:tute the Onenefs zn Perfon. Now thIS
Onenefs as to Perfon ftgnijies tbat God the Word, i. e. one Perfon of the three Perftns
ifJbe Godhead was not united to a pre.exiflent Man, but that he formed to himfelf~n
T he I N T ROD U c t ION. 5j
the"7 0mbof our holy Lady Mary, glorious Mathe: of Cod, and ~ver a Pirgin, and
out of her, in his own Per/on, F~ejh confubftanttal t~ us, and liable to all tbe fame
PaiJions, without Sin, animated ioitb a reafonnble and intelleilu al Soul. -- For con-
fidering his inexplicable o.JI~Jlll~, we ort~odoxly conf:fi· one Nature of God the Word
made Hefh, and yet conmvrng til our Minds the Difference 0/ the Natures, we fay
they are two, not i~trodl!cillg ailY Manner of DivY!Ol1. For each Nature is in him,
Jo that we con/eft hI/II to he aile and the fame Chrijt, one Son, one Perfon, one Hypo-
ftafts, God a~~ Man _togetber. Moreover, we anathematize al~ who have, or ~o
think otbcruii]e, and Judge tbem as cut off from the holy Catbolick, and apo/tolzek
Church of God. To this extraordinary Edict, all, fays (he Hiftorian, gave
their Confenr, efieeming it to be very Orthodox, though they were not more
united amongft thernfelvesthan before.. .
Under Mauritius, ']ohn Bifhop of Conftantinople, in a Council held at thatP!atin in
City, ftiled himfelf Oecumenical Bifhop, by the Confent of the Fathers thereVlt• Greg."
affembled; and the Emperor himfelf ordered Gregory to acknowledge him in T.
that Character. Gregory abfolute1y refufed it, and replied, that the Power of
binding and loafing was delivered to Peter and his Suceffors, and not to the Bi-
fhops of Conftantin"ple; admonifhing him to take care, that he did not provoke
the Anger of God againft himfelf, by raifing Tumults in his Church. This
Pope was the firfl who ftiled himfelf, Seruus Seruorum Dei, Servant ofthe Ser-
vants of God; and had fuch an Abhorrence of the Title of Univerfal Bifhop, .. ..
that he faid, 1confidently affirm, that whofoever calls himfelf uni7fer[1l1P'rieji is tbel. 6. Epia.
Forerunner of Anticbrift, by thus proudly exalting himfelf above others. . 194-
But howevermodrft Gregory was in refufing and condemning this arroganfP!atin i~ .
Tide,. Bonif~ce III. thought better of'rhe Mat.t~r; and after great flruggles, vlt.Bonl~
prevailed with Pbocas, Who murthered Mauritius the Emperor, to decfare, nr.
[hat the See of the blefled ApoftJe Peter, which is the Head of all Churches,
fhould be fo called and accounted by all, and the Bithop of it Oecumenicalor
univerfal Bithop. The Church of Conflanlinople had claimed this Precedence
and Dignity, and was fometimes favoured herein by the Emperors, who de-
dared, that the firft See ought to be in that Place which was the Head of the .
Empire. The- Roman Pontiffs, on· the other hand, affirmed, that Rome, of
",hic~ Conflantint;ple was but a Colony, ought to be efteemed the Head of the:
EmpIre, becaufe the Greeks themfelves, in their Writings, ftile the Emperor,
Roman Emperor, and the Inhabitants of Con[tanlinople are called Romans and-
not Greeks; n~t to mention, that Peter, the Prince of the Apoftles, gave the
K~ys ofthe ~lDgdom of Hea~CJ! to his Succeffors, the Popes of Rome. On-
thiS FoundatIOn was the SuperIority of the €liurth of Rome to that of all other·
Churd· "5 buitt; and Pbocas, who was gUilty of-aU Villanies, was one of the'-
Bttefi Perfons thac~ould be found to gratify Bani/ale in this Requeft •. Jiimi{ll&t '
alfo cal.Jed a Coun·cll at Rome., where this Supremacy was confirmed, ,and by
Whom It was decree~, that Blth~pS fhould ~e chofen by the Clergy and People •.
approved by the Prmce ot the City, and ratIfied by the Pope with there Words,
Jl'r;lumus& jubemus, For this is our Will and Command. To"reward Pbocai for
~he Grant of the Primacy, i.e approved- the·Murther ·ofMtw#itJJ,and very ,
2- _., honour ...
56 The IN T ROD U C T ION.
honourably received his Images, ~hic~ he fent to Rome, And having thus
wickedly polTdfed rhernfelves of this unrighteous Power, the Popes as wickedly
tired it, foon brought almof1: the whole Chriftian World into fubjet.l:ion to them,
and became the Perfecurors General of the Church of God; proceeding from
one Ufurpation to another, toll at lal~ they brought Emperors, Kings and
Princes into fubjection, forcing them to rarify their unrighteous Decrees, and
to punifh, in the feverett Manner, all that Ihould prefurne to oppofe and con-
tradict them, till Ihe became drunken with the Blood of the Saints, and with the
Blood of the Martyrs of Jefiu. Babylon the great, the Mother of Harlots, and
Abominations of the Earth.
The Inquifition is the Mafter-piece of their Policy and Cruelty; and fuch an
Invention for the Suppreffion of Religion and Truth, Liberty and Knowledge,
Innocence and Virtue, as could proceed from no other Wifdom but that which
is earthly, fenjual, and dC'Uilijh. And as the Hiftory of it, which I now prefent
my Reader with in his own Language, gives the moil: pertcct Account of the
Laws and Practices of this accurfed Tribunal, I fhall not enter into the Detail
of popifh Perfecutions, efpecially as we have a full Account of thofe practifed
amongft our felves in Fox and other Writers, who have done Juftice to this
SubjeCl:. I Ihall only add a few Things relating to the two other general
Councils, as they are ftiled by Ecclefiaftical Hiftorians.
, Under Heradius, the Succeffor of Pbocas, great Difturbances were raifed
:HQI1ol11 I. upon Account of what they called the Herefy of the Monotbelites, i, e, thofe
who held there were not two Wills, the Divine and Human, in Chrift, but
.only one fingle Will or Operation. The Emperor himfelf was of this Opi-
.nion, being perfuaded into it by pyrrhus Patriarch of Conflantinople, andCyruJ
Bifhop of Alexandria. And though he afterwards feerns to have changed his
Mind in this Point, yet in order to promote Peace, he put forth an Edict,
forbidding Difputes or QyarreJs, on either fide the Queftion. Conftans, hii
,Grandfon, was of the fame Sentiment, and at the Inftigarion of .Paul Bifhop
of Conjlantinople, grievouOy perfecuted thofe who would not agree with him.
:P1adnvit.Martyn, Pope of Rome, fent his Legates to the Emperor and Patriarch to
J¥1~t. .forfake their Errors, and embrace the Truth; but his Holinefs was but little
regarded, and after his Legates were imprifoned and whipped, they were rent
,into Banifhrnenr, This greatly enraged Martyn, who convened a Synod at
Rome of 150 Bifhops, who decreed, that whofoever lhould not confeft two Wills,
and two Operations united, the Divine and tbe Human, in one and the fame Chrift,
fhould be anathema, and that Paul Bifhop of Conjlantmuple, fhould be condemn-
ed and depofed, The Emperor highly relented this Conduct, and fent O/ym-
pius Hexarcb into Italy to propagate the Monotbelite Doctrine , and either to kill
Martyn, Qf fend him Prifoner to Conjlantinop/e. Ol,mpius not being able to
execute either Defign, '1beodDruswas CcRt in his foom, who apprehended the
Pope, ,put him in Chains, and got him conveyed to the Emperor, who after
Aft. I 6.jg~ominioufly treating him, .banilhed him to Pontus, where he died in great
'Cona:~t MI[ery and Want. The Btlhops of Conflans's Party were greatly affiftanc
1'om.~_tohim in this Wor-~ of Perfecution, and 1hewed more Rage agaioft thei,
f~;l.~. J FdJow~
T he I N T ROD UC T ION. 57
Fellow. Chriftians, than they did againft the very Barbarians them-
Ielves. .
Confiantine; the Eldefl Son of Conf!am, cut off his two younger Brothers N 0- Tl e s., th
fes that they might not Ihare the Empire with him; but however happen. 'cf;,e,er.l/l
, •. JY: d b h P r: r. f L1 ounct ,
ed to be more Orthodox than his Predcceuors; an y t e eriuauon 0 .nga- A. C. 6~ I.
tho, Pope of Rome, conve~ed the Sixth General Co~ncil at Conjfantinople., p 't.;'·" .
in which were prefent '289 Bifhops, The Fathers of this holy Synod ~omph- ,\~,
mented the Emperor with being anotber David, l'aifed up by ChrlJl, tbeir God,
a Man after his own Heart; who had not given Sleep to his Eyes, nor S!u1l1h~~to
his Esc-lids, til! he had gatbered them together, to fi,n~ out the.perfeD Rule of Faith.
After this they condemned th., Hcrefy of one W ill In Chrift, and declared, 'That
they glorified two natural Wil!j and Operations, indivijibly, inconvertibly, witho~t
Confujion, and inJeparably in tbe fame Lord 'lefus Chrift, our true God, i. e. the ~l-
'Vine Operation, and tbe human Oreration, So that 'now the Orthodox Faith
in Reference to Chrift was this; That he had two Natures, the divine and hu-
man; that theft two Natures were united, without ConfuJion, into oneJingle Perfon ;
and that in this one jingle Perfan, there were two dijlinf1 Wills and Operations, the
human and dtvine. Thus, at Iaft, 68 I Years after Chrift, was the Orthodox
Faith, relating to his Deity, Humanity, Nature and Wills, decided and fer-
tled by this Synod; who, after having pronounced Anathemas againft rhe Li-
ving and Dead, ordered the Burning of heretical Books, and deprived feveral
Bilhops of their Sees; procured an Edict from the Emperor, commanding all
to receive their Confeffion of Faith, and denouncing not only eternal, but cor-
poral Punifhmenrs to all Recufants, 'Viz. If they were Bifhops, or Clergymen,
or Monks, they were to be banifhed, If Laymen, of any Rank and Figure,
they were to forfeit their Eftates, and lore their Honours. If of the common
People, they were to be expelled the Royal City. There their definitive Sen-
tences were concluded with the ufual Exclamation, of Goa Jaw tbe Emperor;
Long live the Orthodox Emperor; down with the Heretitks; curfed be Eutyches,
Macarius, &c. Tbe Trinity hath depoftd them.
The next Controverfy of Importance was relating to the W or1hip of Ima-
'ges. The Refpett due to the Memories of the Apoflles and Martyrs of the
Cbriftian Church, was gradually carried into great Superftition, and at
t.ength degenerated into downright Idolatry. Not only Churches were dedi-
ca~ed to them, but their Images placed in them, and religious Adoration
paid to them. Platina tells us, That amongft many other Ceremonies intro-
duced by Pope Six/us Ill. in the Fifth Century, he perfuaded Valentinian the
younger, Emperor of the Weft, to beautify and adorn the Churches, and [0
pl.ace upon the Altar of St. Peter, a golden Image of our Saviour, enriched
'WIth J~vw:els. In the. next. Century the Images of the Saints were brought la,
and religious Wo~fil1p paid to them. This appears from a Letter ot Pope
Gregory's, to the Bifhop of Marftilles, who broke in Pieces certain Images. be~
caufe they had been fuperftitiouOy adored. Gregory tells him, I com1MlIa'JD'!.1.9.Tn-l.t.
that through a pious Zeal, you would not fuffer that which is made witblJanJ.i lobe Ep. p.
"doria; ~t I blame you for breaking the Images in Piece/~, "Ftn'~tis_ning to
adore a pz&ture, and another to ltarn by the Hiflory of tlK Pi9tlte. 'wbat is to be
i a~~~
5g The I N ~ ROD U C T ION.
1. 7.Jud.z.. ador:td. And elfewhere he declares, That Images and Pitiures in CbZfrc~es, toer«
Ep. ~o9. 'Very uftful for the Inflruaion of the Ignorant, who could not read. Sergius, after
flatln. this, repaired the Images of the Apoftles. John. V II. adorned a great .many
Churches with the Pictures and Images of the Saints. And at length, In the
Reign of Pbilippicus, Confl antine the Pope, in a Synod held at Rome, decreed,
That Images fhould be fixed up in [he Churches, and have great ~doration
paid them. He alfo condemned and excommunicated the Emperor himfelf for
Herefy; becaufe he erafed the Pictures of the Fathers, which had been painted
on the Walls of the Church of St. Sophia at Conflantinople; and commanded,
that his Images Ihould not be received into the Church; that his Name fhould
not be ufed in any publick or private Writings, nor his Effigies ftamped upon
any kind of Money whatfoever.
This Superftition of bringing Images into Churches was warmly oppofed, and
gave Occafion to many Difturbances and Murders. The Emperor Leo lfaurus
greatly difapproved this Practice, and publifhed an Edict, by which, he com-
manded all the SUbjects of the Roman Empire, to deface all the Pictures, and
to take away all the Statues of the Martyrs and Angels out of the Churches,

p. ~
. . in order to prevent Idolatry, threatning to punifh thofe who did not, as publick;;. Enemies. Pope Gregory II. oppofed this Edict, and adrnonifhed all Catho-
regor. 'licks, in no manner to obey ir..· T~is Qcc~flp,{\e.,. d fqc,h.;l T.u.mult at Ravenna
in Italy, between the PartiflJ:ns of the Emperor ~.n9t~ ended in the
Murder of Paul, Exarcb of Italy, and his S9D; w\lich enragea the Emperor in
an high Degree; fo that he ordered all.'fe~fp'n$ to b,rin~ to hi~ aH their Ima-
ges of Wood, Brafs and Marble, which he ,publickly burnt ; pun,~ with
Death, all fuch as were found toconceal them. He alfoconvened a Synod at
Co,!jt(mtinople; where, after a careful and full Examination, it was unanirnouf-
[y agreed, that the Intercefflon of tlw S.a~l1ts was ~ meer Fable, and the Wor-
~ip of Images and Relicts wacs q9.,,~,~.js~t~~.olatry, and contrary to the Wo~9
of God. And. as Ger"!anus, Pa;tpatfho.f COl1}t<intinople" favoured Images, the
Emperor banifhed him, and (up{htu,ted Anaj1ati1Js, who was of his own
!'latin. Sen~iments, in his Room. Gregory IU. in the Beginnin~ of his Pontificate,
~C'embled his Clergy, a~d by their un~nimous Confe~h de~~. hi~ on this
Aq:ount, from the EmpIre, ~nd put him under ExcommutllcatioQ ; and was
the firft who withdrew the Italians from th~ir Ob~dience to the Emperors of
C;ol1}la.n.tinople,calling in the ~~fi;a,nce of (Jbarles King of France. After this,
he 'l?laced the Images ot Chnft and his 1\poftles in a more fumptuous Man-
~er than they were before upon the Altar of St. Peter, and at his own Ex-
peI;lce, made a golden Image of the Virgin Mary, holding Chriit in her ~rms,
for the Church of St. Mary ad Prcefepe.
Conflantine Copronymus, Leo's Son and Succe{for in the Empire, inherited his.
~ather's Zeal aga!nft the Worfhip of Images, and called a Synod at COlljf,an-
tznople, to determme the Controv,~rfy.The Fathers being met together, to
the. ~umber of 330, after confidering the Doctrine of Scripture, and th~
OpInIOns of the Fathers, . decreed, ~bat every Image, of whatJOc'Ver Materials
made andformed by. tbe Artifl, fhoulabe caft out oftbe ChriJIia;1 Church as a jlr41lil
"d~ ~omznable crbtng ; Ilddrng an dnatb~m(l upon all who jhould make [",.ages or
, Pitlures~
The I H T ROD U C T ION. ; 9
Pitlures or R4prtftntations tf God, or oj Chrifls or of tb« Virgin Mary, or of
any of the Saints; condemnin.( it as a vain, and diabolical Invention; depojing ,all Bi-
fbops and Jubjeaing the Monk! and Latty, 'Who fbould Jet up any of them tn pub-
lide o~ priuate, to all the Penalties oj the imperial Conjlitutions., They alfo depo-
fed ConjJantine, Patriarch of Confiantinople, for oJ?pofing this Decree; and the
Emperor firO:banifhed him. and afterwards put him to Death; and command-
ed That this Council fhould be efteerned and received as the Ieventh oecu..
rnenical, or univerfa] one. Paul I. Pope of Rome, fent his Legate to Con- P~atin ill
flantinople, to admonifh the Emperor to reftore the facred Images and Statues VIC. Paul 1.
which he had deftroy'd; and threatened him with Excommunication upon his
Refufal. But Copronymus flighted the Meffage, and treated the Legates with
great Contempt, and ufed the Image Worfhippers with a great d~al of Severity.
Conjlantine, Bifhop of Rome, the Succeffor of Paul, feerns alfo to have been
an Enemy to Images, and was there tumultuouOy depofed, and Stephen Ill. rd. in vi~.
fubftituted in his Room, who was a warm and furious Defender of them. He Stephani.
immediately affembled a Council in the Lateran Church, where the holy Fa-
thers abrogated all Con]lantine-s Decrees s depofed all that had been ordained by
him Bifhops, made void all his Baptifm~ and Chrifms; and as fome Hiftorians
relate, after having beat him, ~nd ufed, him with great Indignity, made a
Flrein the Church, and burnt him therein. After this, they annulled all the
Decrees of the Synod of Conftantinopl«, ordered the Reftoration of Statues and
Images, and anathematized that execrable and pernicious Synod, giving this
excellent Reafon for the Ufe ofImages, Tbat if 'twas lawful for Emperors, and
thofe who had defet'ved well of the Commonwealth, to bsu« their Images ereded, but
not lawfut to jet up thoJe of God; the Cmtdition of the immortal God would be worJe
. than that oj Men. After this the Pope publifhed the Acts of the Council, and
pronounced an Anathema againft all thofe who 1hould oppofe it.
Thus the M yfi:ery of this Iniquity worked, till at length, under the Reign of The/evmt'
Irene and Confiantine her Son, a Synod was packed up of fuch Bifhops as weregtntrl~l
teaely to make any Decrees that 1hould be agreeable to the Roman Ponti~, ~~;,tl,
and the Emprefs. They met at Nice, to the Number of about 350. In this
'Venerable ALfembly it was decreed, '1hat holy of tbe Croft jhould be con-
Iterated, and put on the Jacred VeJ!els and VeJlments, and upon Walls and Boards'S
In pri'lJate Houfes and publick Ways; and ejpecially that there fhould be ereHed Ima-
ges of the Lord God, our Saviour jeJus Chrift, oj our bleffid Lady, the Mother of
God, of the venerable Angels, and of all the Saints. And that whoflroer fhould pre-
fume to think or teach otherwift~ or to throwaway lJ7typaintea.BoQks, or the Figurt
of the C~oft" or any lmage or Pifluf'e, Dr tl1rJ gh1fl;"e Reli!ls of the Martyrs, thtj
jhould, if Bi]hops or Clergymen, be depofed, or if MfRlh (J1" Laymen, be excomm,mi-
cated. Then they pronounced Anathemas upon all who lhould not'teceive
Images, or who fhould apply what the Scriptures fay againtl: Idol$, todie
b?ly Im~ges, or who fhould call them Idols, or who fhould wilfully commu-
rucate WIth thofe who rejetted and defpifed them; adding, according tc) Cu-
ftom, Long live Conftantine and Irene his Molbtf'. Damnatim to III O".tticl:l.
Damnation. on the Council thaI r()Mta tJga",jI fJtndillk It1ll!&lS. -f!IIt'&l, trri"ity
,;l1fi/1hdepo[edthem. ' i 2 '.. Irene
60 The I N T ROD U C T ION.
[rent and Conflantint approved and fubfcribed the~e Decrees, and the Con-
fequence was, That Idols and Images ~ere erected In .all the C.hurches ~ and
thole who were againft them, treated with great Seventy. .Thls Council was
held under the Popedom of Hadrian I. and thus, by the IntrIgu~s of the Popes
of Rome, Iniquity was eftablifhed by a Law, and the Worfhip of Idols au-
thorized and d!abJilhed in the Chriftian Church, though contrary to al~ ~he
Principles of natural Religion, and the Nature and Defign of the Chriftian
In vir. 'Tis true, that this Decifion of the Council did not put an entire End to the
Hadrian r. Controverfy. Platina tells us, -r:hat Conftantine himfelf n~t long after annul-
led their Decrees, and removed his Mother from all Share In the Government.
The Synod alfo of Francfort, held ab.out ~x Years after, decreed, that the W~r-
fhip and Adorat~on o~ Images was Implo~s; condemned the Sy~od of N,ct,
which had eftablifhed It, and ordered that It fhould not be called either the Se-
venth, or an univerfal Council. But as the Roman Pontiffs had engroffed
alrnoft all Power into their own Hands, all Oppofition to Image Worfhip
became ineffectual ; efpecially as they fupported their Decrees by the Civil
Power, and caufed great Cruelties to be exercifed towards all thofe who Ihould
dare difpute or contradict them.
For many Years the World groaned under this antichriftian Yoke; nor
were any Methods of Fraud, Impofture and Barbarity left unpra8:iCed to fup-
port and perpetuate it. As the Clergy rid Lords of the Univerfe, they grew
wanton and infolent in their Power; and as the.y drained the Nations of their
Wealth to Iupport their own Grandure and Luxury, they degenerated into
the worft and vileft fer of Men that ever burdened the Earth. They were
fharnefully ignorant, and fcandaloufly vicious; well verfed in the moft exqui-
fire Arts of Torture: and Cruelty, and abfolutely divefted of all Bowels of
Mercy and Compaffion towards thofe, who even in the fmalleft Matters dif-
fered from the Dictates of their.Superffition and Impiety, The infamous Pra-
ctices. of that accurfed Tribunal.. the Inquifition, the Wars ,againft Hereticks
in the Earldom of'TholouJe; the Maffacres of Paris. and Ireland, the many Sa-
crifices they have made in Great-Britain, the Fires they. have kindled, and
the Flames they. have. lighted up in all Nations, where their Power hath been
acknowledged, wimefs againft them, and demonftrate them to be very. MODo:
fters of Mankind. So that one would really wonder, that the whole World
hath not entered into a Combination, and rifen in Arms againft fa execrable
a Set of Men, and extirpated them as favage Beafts, from the Face of the
whole Earth; who, cut of. a Pretence of Religion, have defiled it with the
Blood of innumerable Saints and Martyrs, and made ufe of the Name of the
~o~ boly jt:fus,. to: countenance and fan8:ify the moft abomioable Im~
But it pleafe.d .Go~ in ..his,. good· Providence.,. to take the Remedy and.
Cure of thefe ~vlls., Into his own Hands;. and after feveral fruidefs Attempts
by Men, to bnng.about;. ~t Jaft, a ~eformation,of Religion, by his own Wif.,.
tlom and Power. The Hiftory of this great Event hath. been very particular"
T he I N T ROD U C T rON. 6•
•y and faithfully given by many excellent Wrirers, to which I,mufl: here.refer
my Readers; and it muft be owned, that the Perfons employ d by Almlghry
God, to accornplifh this grear Work, .were, many of rhem, remarka.ble .for
their great Learning and exemplar~ Plery. I am .fure I I~cllO,1tlon
to detract from their Worch and Me~lt. One would mdeed have Jn1a.glOed, th~t
the Cruelties exercifed by the Papifts, upon all who oppofed their Supcrtli-
lions in Worfhip, and their Corruptions in Doctrine, Ihould hav~ given the
firft Reformers an utter Abhorrence of all Methods of Perfecution for Con-
fcience fake, and have kept them from ever entering into any .fu<:h Meafures
thernfelves. But it muft be confeffed, that however they differed from the
Church of Rome, as to Doctrines and Difcipline, yet, that they too gene-
rally agreed with her, in the Methods to fupport, what they thernfelves ap-
prehended to be Truth and Orthodoxy; and were angry with rhe Papifls,
Dot for perfecuring, but for perfecuting thernfelves and their Followers; be-
ing really of opinion that Hereticks might be perfecuted, and, in (orne Cafes,
perfecuted to Death. And that this was their avowed Principle, they gave
abundant Demonftration by their Practice.
Luther, the great Inflrumenr, under God, of the Reformation in Germany, Luther.
was, as his Followers allow, naturally of a warm and violent Temper; hut was .
however in his Judgmenr againft punifhing Herericks with Death. Thus, in his
Account of the Stare of the Popifh Church, as related by Seckendar], he fays:
Tbe true Church teaches the Word of God, but forces no one to it. If anyone I. 2.. sett
will not believe it, jhe difmiJ!es him, and [eparates her [elf from him, according 36. g. aj.
to the Command of Cbritl, and the Example of Paul in the Acts, and leaves him.
to the Judgment of God: Whereas our Executioners, and mol cruel '1yrants, teacb
not the Word of God, but their own Articler, ailing as they pleafe, and then ad.
judge tho[e wiio refuft to believe their Articles, and obey their Decrees, to the Fires,
The fame Author gives us many other ftrong Paffages to the fame Purpofe.
Particularly, in one of his Letters to Lincus, who afked his Opinion about the
Penifhment of falfe Teachers, Luther fays: 1am very aver[e to the jhedding of Ibid. sca.
Blood, even in the Cafe of Juch as deftrlJe it: And 1 the more efpecially dread it in 13. §". 4J-
Ibis Cafe, becaufe, as the Papifts and Jews, under this Pretence, boue deftroy'J
hoi, Prophets and innocent Men ; jJ I am afraid the fame would happen amongft
our .!elv,;.r, if in onejingle Inftance itjhould be allow'd lawful for Seducers to be put
to Death. 1 can therefore, by no Means, allo·w that falfe Teacbers fbould bedeflroy'd ...
But as to all other Punifhmenrs, Luther feerns to have been of Auftin'~ Mind,
and thought that they-might be lawfully ufed.F.or after the before-rnennon'd.
Paffage, .he ad'"ds,-e.Iis./tJjJicimJ:tbtJt Ibe,.f/.Jotld bl bani/hed. And in anotherIbid. sea.

~Iace, he ~Uows, That Heretith ma, btlcwrefletJ, and forced, at leaft, tofile1lcej.36. §. 8 3.
if. tbey publzcldy any one oj Ih~ .Ar~icles received -by all Cbriftians,. and par-
tuularly t~at. Chrift tS God; aifirmzng. hzm to be a mere Man or Prophet.. '111isr
fays he, tS not toforce Men to the Faith, but to reftram publicle Blafphemy. la ... aDO-t
t-her Place he goe& farther, and fays,.. That Hireticks are lIot, ind~d, ,ta jl·1put 1. 3. Scct.
If). Death, bu~ may however be' confined, and jhMJ up in [omt,cerlain PJaNi!,~iJ puts. §. %.8.
under RtjJrlUlJl 4S. MadTMn, . As to ,the]twl, mr..:trltaring'ithc;m more
6, Th~ I N T R 0 'D U C T ION.
1. ,. Sea Ieverely, and was of Opinion, that their Synagogues /hould be [e1J;Oedwith tbe
1.7' §. J.Ground tbeir lJou[es deftroy'd, their Books ()f Prayer, and of the Talmud, and
even tb~ft7of tbe OIJ Teftnrnent, be taken f~om them, thei~ Rabbi's be forbid to
teacb, and jorud, by hard Labour, to get their Bread; and if t!JeJ .would not fub-
mit to tbis, that tbey jhould be banijhed, as was formerly prattifed zn France and
Spain. ...
J.;. Sea. This was the Moderation of this otherwife great and good Man, who ~as
~1.§12.~.indeed againfl: putting Hereticks to Death, but for almoft all other P~n.lfh-
Germany. ments that the civil Magiftrate could inflict : And, agreeably to this Opinion,
he perfuaded the Electors of Saxony, not to tolerate, in their Dominion,. the
Followers of Zuinglius, in the Opinion of the Sacrament; becaufe he efteem-
ed the real Prefence an elfential or fundamental Article of Faith; nor to enter
into any Terms of Union with them, for their common Safety and Defence,
againft the Endeavours of the Papiits to defl:roy them. And accordingly,
notwithflanding all the Endeavours of the Landgrave of Heile Caffel, to get
them included in the common League againft the Papilla, the Elector would
never allow ir, being vehemently dfluaded from it by Lstber, Melanfton, and
1. 7.. Sea. others of their Parry, who alleged, That tbey taught Articles contrary to thoft
,. §. II. received in Saxony; and that therefore there could Agree1lJtnt of Heart witb
them. In one of his Conferences with Bueer; he declared, That there could
be no Union, unlefs Zuinglius and his Party fhould think and teach otherwife ;
curfing all Phrafes and Interpretations that tended to affert the figurative
Sea 17. Prefence only, affirming, That either thoft of his oWn Opini01l,01' thoft of
~. 47. Zuinglius, mu(t be the Miniflers of the DC7,'il. On this Account, thouglfLMtber
was for treating Zuinglius and his Followers, with as much Chriftian Friend-
fhip as he could afford them, yet he would never own them for Brethren, but
looked on them as Hereticks, and prefled the Electors of Saxony not to allow
1. 3· Sea them in their Dominions. He alfo wrote to Albert Duke of Pruffia, to per-
6.1"~' fuade him to baniJh them his Territories. Seckendorf. alfo tells us, That the
~ ~ 13· Lutheran Lawyers of Wittmburg, condemned to Death one Pete" PejJelius, for
Ibia.• being a Zuinglian; though this was difapproved by the Elettor of Saxon,.
Several alfo of the Anabaptifts were puc to Death by the Lutherans, for their
Obftinacy in propagating their Errors, contrary ro the Judgment of the
Landgrave of He.ffe CaffiJ, who declared himfelf for more moderate Meafures,
and for uniting all forts of Prot eft ants amongft tbemfelves.
Calvin. 101m Calvin, another of the Reformers, and to whom the Chriftian World
is, on many Account~, under very great Obligations, was, however well
~nown to be i.n Principle and Practice a Perfecuto.r. So entirely was he
m the perfecoung Meatur~ that he wrote a. Treatlfe in Defence of them.,
maintaining the uwfulnefs of putting Heteticks to Death. And that by He-
reticks, he meant ruch who differed from himfeU', .is evident from his Treat-
ment of Cafleliio and S(1"'lJettls.
!he former, !lot inferior l? C:zlvin himfetf in Learning and Piet¥, had the
MIsfortune to dIffer from him 10 J udgmcnty in cheP.oints of Predeftination,
EleCtion, Free-will and Faith. This Calvitl ·could DOt bear, and rherefore
Tbe 1 ll. T R o :P U C T ION. 6~
ue<lted Cajl6!iiq, in fo fuq, and cruel a. M~nn~r, as ~ ?elieve his war~ltft Fri~nds
will be a{harpeq to juftify. In ferne ot 1115 Writings h~ c~lls him, Blajpbe-
mer RC'Viler, m~licious barking Dog, full of Ignorance, Beflzalztyand Imp «deuce,
41lJpojlor, a haft Carrupler of tbe Sacred Writings, a Mocker of God, a r:on~,:m-
vcr of all Religion, an impudent Fellow, a filtby Dog, a X,nave, an tmpto~s,
leud crooked minded Vagabond, beggerly Rogue. At other Times he calls him
A Dijciple and ~rother of Servetus~ and an Heretiik. . Caflellio's ~~pl.y to all
rhefe Flowers, IS worthy the Patience and Moderation of a Chriftian, and
from his Slanderer he app~als to the. righteous J lIdgmen~ of God. B~t. not
content with thefe Invectives, Caloin farther accufed him of three Crimes
which Cajlellio particularly anfwers. The firft was of Theft, in taking away
lome Wood, that belonged [0 another Perfon, to make a Fire to warm him-
felf withal: This Calvin, calls, Curfed Gain, at another's Expence and Damage;
whereas, in Truth, the Faa: was this. Caflellio was thrown into fuch Circum-
fiances of Poverty by the Perfecutions of Calvin and his Friends, that he was
fcarce able to maintain himfelf. And as he dwelt near the Banks of the
Rbine ; he ufed, at leifure Hours, to draw out of the River, with an Hook,
the Wood that was Qro\lght down by the W~ters of it. This Wood was no
p.rivate Property, but every Man's that could catch it. . Caftelli() took it in
l\1¢. Mi~l~le of the Day, and amongft a great Number of Fifhermen, and
feveral of his own Acquaintance; and was fomerimes paid Money for it by
the Decree of the Senate. This the charitable Calvin magnifies into a Theft,
and publifhes to the World to paint out the Character of his Chriftian Bro-
But his Accufations ran farther yet; and he caUs God to witnefs, that whilft
he maintained CaJtellio in his Haufe, be never Jaw anyone more proud, or perfidi-
9us, or void of Humanity; and 'twas. well knO!"l£JN be was an Impoftor, of (I peculiar
Imputkllc(, ana one that took Pleajur» in [coffing at Piety, and that be delighted
himfelJ in laughiNg at the Principles of Religi()n. Thefe Charges Caftellio an-
fwers in fuch a Manner, as was enough to put even Malice it felf to fi-
lence, For, norwithftanding Calvin's Appeal to God for the Truth of thefe
Things, yet he hiimfe14 and tWOoof his principal Friends, who w~re eminent
fl'each.ers in Sgvoy, preifed Caflellio. even contrary to his Indination, to take
the Charge of a School in Stratfburg: And therefore, as he fays to Calvin,
With what Con.fcience could you make me ]v.lafter, if you knew me to be fuch a Perlow,
when I. dwelt in Jour Houfe? What Sort of Men mufi they be who would commit the
Educatzpn of Cbitdren to. fuch a wicked Wr.etcb as yolt appeal to God 'j()U knew me to
be? Butwb;l~ is yet mOlie to the &rpofe, is, that after he had been Mafter of Sc~ool three Years,CtlJv;n ga.~eh~ 3 Teftimonial, written and figned
With hiS own Ha~, as to the Integrity of his paft Behaviour, affirmiag;
among(\; other Thmgs, That he had behaved bimfelf in fuch a Manner; tbat:bt·
was, by the COllfent of all oj them. appointfd to tbe Pa(toralOffice. And in me
Conclufion he a~lds, Left anyone fhoztld Jufpetl any other Reafon wby SebaftiaB 'Wenl
from us, we teftify to all ~hereJ?~er he may come, ,'fhat be. bimfelfvolu!ta1'iJY,ttfi tbf
S,hool, 411dfo behaved hzmftlf zn It, as thaI 'l'?J.ead;udgedbimf#Ql!Jby tMs,/tI&N(]; ~z-
2 _ n~r1.
�4- Tbe I N T ROD U C T ION.
lIifll),. And that he was not .:ttl:ually re~eived into it, ~as .nonaliqua vitlE ma-
cula, not owing to any Blemdh of his Life, nor to any I~PIOUS Tenets that ~e
held in Matters of Faith, but to this only caufe s the. Difference o~ our 0PI-
nions about Solomon's Songs, anI the Article of Chrift's ~e[cent into Hell.
But how is this Teftimonial, that Cajteltio had no macula nnta, was un blame-
able as to his Life, reconcileable with the Appeal to God, that he w~s
proud and perfidious, and void of Humanity, and.a profeffed Scoffer at Reh-
gion, whi!ft he dwelt at Calvin's Houfe ] If this Charge was true, .How
came Caluin and his Friends to apppoint him Malter of a School, and Judge
him worthy the facred Minitlry ] Or if he was of fo bad Chara~er once, and
afterwards gave the Evidence of a fincere Repentance by an Irreproachab.1e
Behaviour, what Equity or Ju1l:ice, what Humanity or Honour, was there I?
publifhing to the World Faults that had been repented of and forfaken i Cajiellio
folernnly protefts that he had never injured Calvin, and that the fole Reafon of
his Dilpleafure again1l: him was becaufe he differed from him in Opinion. On
this Account he endeavoured to render him every where Impious, prohibited
the Reading of his Books; and, what is the laft Effort of Enmity, endea-
voured to excite the civil Magiftrate againft him to put him to Death. But
.God was pleafed to protect this good Man from the Rage of his Enemies. He
died at Bafi!, in Peace.] and received an honourable Burial, the juft Reward of
his Piety, Learning, and Merit. . vir. I may add to this Account, Calvin's Treatment of one 'Jeflom Bolfec, who
Calvin. from a Carmelite Monk had embraced the reformed Religion, but held the
Doctrine of Free-will and Predeftination upon the Forefight of good Works.
Calvin was prefent at a Sermon preached by him at Geneva, upon thefeArti-
des, and the Sermon being ended, publickly oppofed him in the Congregation.
When the Afi'embly was difmiffed, poor Bolfec was immediately apprehended,
and tent to Prifon, and foonafter, by Calvin's Counfel, banifhed for Sedition
and Pelagianifm from the City, and forbid ever to come inroir, or the Terri-
toriesofit under Pain of being whipped, A. C. 1551.
Geneva. But Calvin's Treatment of the unfortunate Seruetus was yet more fevere,
His Book entitled, ReJtitutio Chriflianifmi, which he rent in MS. to Calvin,
e~rage~ him to that Degree, that he afterwards kept no Temper or Meafures
w.Ith him, fo that as Bolfec and Uytenbogaert relate, in a Letter written by
him to his Friends 1?iret and Farel, he tells them, That if this Heretick (Servetus)
"Bi~lio[h. fhoul4 ever f~ll into his Hands, he would take ~are that bejhould loft his Life. Serve-
Ra,fon; tus ~IS l~pnfonmen~ at Vienne, foon gave him an Opportunity to lhew his Zeal
~~b~e, agamft }l1m: F~r, 10 Order to ~re[)gthen the Evidence .againft ~im, Calvin
&c. I7z8 fene to the M~glftrates of that City, the Letters and WrItings whIch Servetus
A,t. VIlI. h~d f~nt to. hUll .at Ge1!~~. This is evident from the Sentence it kif againft
~Im, In which .t~ofe Wmmgs,as well as his printed Book, are cKpreOy men-
tioned as contammg the Proofs of his Herefy. Whether CiSZvi" fent them of
his own Accord, ?r, at the I?efire of the Magiftraces of Vimne, I {han not
prefume to determme. If of hiS own Accord, it was a bafe Officioufnefs and if
at the Reque!t of thofe Magi1l:rates, it was a moft un&CCountable· Cond;a in a
1 Pro-
The I N T ROD U C T ION. 65
Protefrant, to fend Evidence to aPopi1h Cour~, to put a Proteftan~ to Death ~
efpecially confidering that Serv.etuscould not differ ~ore from Cahn» tb~n Cal-
vin did from the Papifts, th~,r co.mmon Adverfart~s, and ~h~ certaI~I! de-
Ierved as much to be burnt, Il1 their Judgment, as ~.c~..uetus did 10 Cal":'1Jls. .
Befides this, Seruetus farther charges him with wrItmg to one Wdlzam 'Z,:ze
at Lyons, to furnifh the Magiftrates. o.f rhat City with ~atter of Accl]~·lt.lOn
againft him. The Author of the Bibliotbeque beforernentioned, fays, this IS a.
meer Romance, dreffed up by Seruetus, I confefs it doth not appear to me i!1
fo very rornantick a Light, at leaft Calvin's yindication of h}m.felffrom this
Charge doth not feern to be altogether fufficienr, He fays, Tis commonly re-
ported, that I occafioned Servetus to be apprehended at Vienne, on .which Account,
"tis laid by many, that I have ailed difhonourably, in thus expojing hun to the mortal
Enemies of the Faith, as though 1 had thrown him into the Mouth of the Wolves.
But, I befeecb you, how cam-e I, fo fuddenly, into fuch an Intimacy with the Pope's.
Officers? "Iis very likely, truly, that we jhould correJpond together by Letters; and
that thoft who agree with me, jufl as B.elial ~oth with J~fus Chrifl, jhould enter in:o
a Plot with tbeirmartal Enemy, as wtth tbeir Companion : Tbis jilly Calumny wzfl
fall to the Ground!w'he~ 1/hall fay~ in one Word, 'Ihat there is not~ing in it. But
how doth all· this confute Servetus's Charge? For whatever DIfferences there
might be between Calvin'and the Papifts in fame Things, yet, why might he
not write tothe Papifts at Vienne to put Seruetus to Death for what was equally
counted Herefy by them both, and when they agreed as the moft intimate
Friends and Companions in the Lawfulnefs of putting Herericks to Death.
What Calvin fays of the Abfurdity of an Intimacy and Confpiracy with him
their mortal Enemy, is no Abfurdityat all, Herod and Pontius Pilate, tho"
Enemies, agreed in the Condemnation of the Son of God. Befides, 'tis cer-
tain, that the Magiftrates at rienne had Servetur's Manufcripts fent to them
from Geneva, either by Calvin, or the Magiftrates of that City; and when
Servetus was afterwards apprehended at Geneva, the Magiftrates there rent a
Me1fenger to Vienne, for a Copy of the Procefs that had been there carried
on againft him, which that Me1fenger received, and actually brought back to
Geneva. So that nothing is more evident, than that there was an Intimacy
and Confpiracy between the Proteftants of Geneva and the Papifts at f/ienne.
to take away the Life of poor Servetus; and that, though they were mortal
En~mies in other Things, and as far different from one another as Chrift and
Belzat., yet that they agreed harmonioufly in the Doctrine and Practice of Per':
fecutlon, ~d were one in the Defign and Endeavour of murthering this unhap-
py Phy{iclan.. ~nd though<;az::n"~ is pleafed magifterialfy to deny his having
any.CommUnICatlOn by Letters With' thePapifts at rienne, yet, I think, his
Demal far from fufticient to. remove the Sufpicion. He himfelf exprefiy fays,
that many ~erfons blamed him for not acting honourably in that Affair; and
.the Accufat~on was fupporte~ ~y Servetus's Complaint, and by what is a muck
1l:ronger EVidence, by the orlgmal Papers and Letters which .StrUIIIIS had;.fmt
~o Calvin, which were actuaJly produced by the Judges at YUIIIIe_··aadmte,d
10 the Sentence as part of the Foundation of his Condemnation. Aad·as Calvt1l
k himfelf
'6 The I N T R-O Due T ION.
hirnfelf never, as I can find, hath attempted to dear up thefe thong Circum-
frances though he owed it to himfelf and his Friends, I think he can't well
be exc~fed from pratlifing the Death of Seruetus at Jl'iennt, and lending his
Affiftance to the bloody Papifts of chat Place the more effeCtually to procure
his Condemnation.
But he had the good Fortune to make his Efcape from Imprifonment,
and was, 'June J7, 1553. condemned for Contumacy, land burnt in Effigie
by the Order of his Judges, having himfelf got fafe to Geneva, where
he was re-condernncd, and actually burnt in Perf on, Of/ober 27. of the fame
Year, 1553. He had not been long in this ~ity before Calvin fpirited up ~ne
Nicholas de la Fountain, probably one of his Pupils, to make Information
againft him, wifely avoiding it himfelf, becaufe, according to the Laws of
Geneva, the Accufer mull fubmit to Imprifonment with the Party he accufes,
till the Crime appears to have a folid Foundation and Proof. Upon this In.
formation Seruetus was apprehended and imprifoned. Calvin ingenuouOy
owns a, That this whole Affair was carried on at his Inftance and Advice.
and that, in order to bring Seruetus to Reafon, he himfelf found out the Party
to accufe him, and begin the Procefs againft him. And therefore, though,
as the foremenrioned Author of the Biblio/hefJue for Jan. &c. 1729. ob-
ferves, the ACtion after its Commencement was carried on according to the
Courfe of Law; yet, as Calvin accufed him for Heiefy. got him imprifon'd,
and began the criminal Procefs againft him, he is anfwerable for all the Con-
fequences of his Trial, and was in reality the fifO: and principal Author of his
Death, efpecially as the penal Laws againft Hereticks feem at that Time to
have been in force at Geneva, fo that Ser7Jetus could not efcape the Fire Upon his
Conviction of Herefy.
When he was in Gaol he was treated with the fame Rigor as if he had been
detained in one of the Prifons of the Inquifition. He was ftripped of all Means (lIf'
procuring hirnfelf t.he C?nveniencies ~nd Supplies he needed in his Confinement.
They cook from him mnety feven PIeces of Gold, a gold Chain worth twenty
Crowns, fix gold Rin~s, and a~ laft put h~m into a deep Dungeon, where he
was alm~ft eaten up WIth Ve.rmllk An this Cruelty was practifed upon a Pro-
tellant? 10 the Proieflant City ~f Geneva. Befides this, he could never get a
Proctor or Advocate to affifi: him, or help him in pleading his Caufe, though
he requefled it, as bei~g a Stranger, and ignorant of the Laws and Cuftoms
of th~ Country, Calvm, at the Requeft of the Judges, drew up certain Pro-
pofitions out of Serve/us's Books, reprefeming them asblafphemous, full of
Errors, and prophane Reveries, all repugnant to the Word of God, and to
the common Confent of the whole Church; ana, indeed, appears to have
been. acquainted with, and confulted io t.h~ wh~Je Procefs, and eo have ufed
all hIS Arcs and '£ndea.y()~r$ to preven~.h~ cqrnmg oi" with Impunity •.
The I N T ROD U C T ION. 67
'Tis but a poor and mean Excufe that Calvin makes for hirnfelf in this ~re- ..
fpet\: when he fays, As to the Fatt 1 will 110tdeny, but that 'twas at my Pro)ecu-~plr\. nl~
lion he was imprifon'd _ But that after be was comntied of his Herefles I made no Farr e].
Injt ances for his being put to.De.atb .. B~t what need of. Inftan~es ~ He had al-
ready accufed him, got him impr ifon d, profecuted 10 a cn.mmal C?urt t,or
the capital Crime of Hercfy, and actually drew up forty Articles agamfl: him
for Herefy, Blafphemy, and falfe D?ctrine. When ~e wa? convicted of thefe
Crimes the Law could not but take ItS Courfe, and his being burnt to Death
was the neceffary Confequence of his Conviction. What occafion was there
then for Caloin to prefs his Execution, when the Laws themfelves had ad-
judged him to the Flames? But even this Excufe, poor as it is, is not fin-
cerely and honefl:ly made. For Calvin was refolved [0 ufe all his Intereft t,o
deft roy him. In his Letter to Farrel he exprcfl y [.lYS ", I hope, at leafi ; they wzll
condemn him to Death, but not to tbe terrible one of being burnt. And in another to
Sultzer Since the Papifts, in order to vindicate their own Superfiitions cruelly Jhed
innocent Blood, 'tis a Shame that Cbiiflian Magiflrates Jhould have no Courage at
all in the Defence of certain Cfruth. However, I will certify you of one Tbing,
that the City e.treafurer is rightly determined, that he jhall not efcape that End which .
we wijh him; And in another to the Church at Franckfort <l, 'Ihe Author (Ser- E.plll:. ad
vet us) is put in Gaol by our Magiftrates, and I hope he'll jhortly juffer the Punifh-. Farrel.
ment he deJerves. There was but one way poffible for him to efcape, and that
was by bringing his Caufe from the criminal Court, where he was profecuted,
before the Council of the two Hundred. And this Calvin vigoroufiy oppofed,
and reflected on the Syndiek himfelf for endeavouring it. He fays, that he
pretended Illnefs for three Days, and then came into Court to fave that Wretch
(Servetus) from Punifhmenr, and was not afhamed to demand, that the Cogni-
fanee of the Affair fhould be referred to the two Hundred. However, he was una-
nimouOy condemned. Now, what great Difference is there between a Profecu-
tor's endeavouring [0 prevent the only Method by which a Criminal can be
faved, and his aCtually preffing for his being put to Death? Calvin atlually
did the former, and yet would fain perfuade us he had no hand in the latter ..
' Fo is much of a Piece with this, his defiring that the Rigor of Servetus's Death
mIght be mitigated; for as the Laws againft Hereticks were in force at Ge-
neva, the Tribunal that judged SerDctus could not, after his Convitlion of
Herefy, abfolve him fr9m Death, nor change the manner of it, as Calvi"
fa ys, he would have had it ; and therefore his defiring that the Rigor of it
mIght be abated, looks too much like the Praffife of the Inquifitors, who

b Spero eapi.t~le faltem fore : PCEnzvera atro citatem remini cupio. Epifr. ad F"""'-
Cras ad fupphClum ducetur. Genus mortis eonati fUlDus mucare fed frufita. Alwa Epift.
ad Farrel. '
c ~um tam .acres .fl.Jnt & a~imoGfuperfiitionu1ll Cuarum vindices Papillae, ut auoc:iter (zriant
ad fUlldendum J~n?X1Um fangumem, .pud~t Chrifiianos Magillratus in tuenda ecru ~aiItil
prorfus habe!e aDlml. - T~ntum unlUS rel te admonitwn volo, ~ Urbia - io. Jaac cIu&
r~ etre..n~mo, ut faltem eXltum quem optamus non fUgiat. .. . . " .... .
Autior Jpft CCQelW' in careere a Magifiracu nofiro, & P'~,V:t ~ c4 ~nu.
ka what
68 The I N T ROD t1 C T ION,.
when they deliver over an Hererick to the fecular Ar;rn, ber~ech it fa to mode-
rate the Rigor of the Sentence, as not to endanger LIfe or LImb.
This was the Part that Calvin acted in the Affair of Seroetus, which I have
reprefented in the 01011:impartial Manner, as it appears to me;. and am Forry I
am not able to wipe off fa foul a Stain from .the Me1!10ry of th13.othe!Wlfe ~x-
cellent and learned Reformer. But when hIS Enemies charge himwith aChng
rneerJy from Principles of Malice and ~eve~ge in this matter, I think it. an
evident Abufe and Calumny. He was, In hISown Judgment, for perfecutmg
and de11:royingHereticks, as appears from the Treatife he publifhed in Vindi-
cation of this Practice, entitled e, A Declaration for maintaining the true Faith, held
hy ali Chriftians, concerning the 'Iri~ity of Perfons in One onl~ God, by Joh.n ~a!vint
tlgainfl the deteftable Errors of MIchael Servetus, a Spaniard, In whzch tis al-
fo proved, that it is lawful to puniJb Hereticks; and that this Wretch was juflly
executed in the City 0/ Geneva. Geneva, 1554. This Principle maintain-
ed by alrnoft all the Fathers and Bifhops of the Church fince the three lirft·
Centuries, who efteemed Berery as one of the worft of Impieties, and thought
it the Duty of the civil Magifrrate to employ their Power for the Suppreffioa
of it, and for the Support and Eftabli1hment of the orthodox Faith. And
though the firft Reformers abhorred the Cruelty of the Papifls towards the
Proteftants, they had neverthelefs the fame Abhorrence of what they counted
Herefy chat the Papifts had, and agreed with them in the Lawfulnefs of fup-
preffing it by the civil Power. So that Calvin acted in this Affair from aPrin ..
ciple, [hough a mi11:akenPrinciple of Confcience, and had the Encouragersene
and Approbation of the molt learned and pious Reformers of the Times he
lived in. MelanBQn, in a Letter. to .Bullinger, fays, 1 have read alfo what y01l
have written concerning tbe BJafphemieso/ Servetus, .and 1 approve your Piety and
Judgment. I think a.lh, that the Senate 0/ Geneva hath done right, .. that· they have
put to Death that objJz1UlteP.erfon who would not ces]: to blafphefnc ;..and. I saoxder
tbat there are any '!lJhodi{tzpprov.ethat Severity •. He affirms the.fame.alfo in another'
Letter to Calvin himfelf; alfo faid. publickJy in his Sermon, that be'
ought to h{J/l)ehis Bowels, pulkd 0rtt-,., alld be tern. ill pieces, . as Calvin relates, it in.
his Letter [0 Sultzer.. FarJ'elin a Le£t~ to Calvin fays, that be ae.feroed to die
ten Thoufand Deaths, . that it would be a Piece of Cruelty, and an Injuflice to Chrijl,
and the Dot/rine of Piety, for Magi~rates not to take notice of the horrible Blafphe.-
mies of that wicked HercJic.k. And he hoped God would fa fJrder it, that as the lV1a-
giflrates of Geneva. very Prai.fe-wor:thy for punijhing 'Ihier.m and facrilegious<
i'.el:{o1¥.,jo they.wou{d. behave. themftl'Ves we/lin Jk~AjfairoISe,.vetus~ by puttingl
hIm to Death, who had fo long objlinfJtelyperfifled in his Herejin, and d~roy'd ]0:
many PerronI1" them •.
The Paftors of the Chureh· at .Bafi4 in their. I,etter- to the Syndicks and Be;.
lIace of Gmeva, exprefl their J9Y for the App~ehenflOn of Sen;e~us•. and advife
"Declaration po~maintenjr Ie vraye Fby que tiennent tous.Chretiens de la: Trmite des Per~
fonnes e~ un feu! Dleu; par ~an c:.!~in,CODtr!l~s ErtelIt' Mi&hMlS,rwtIlS, E/lag"
hi, en
ou I1 aufll m~nfire.qu d. efihClte de pumrJes Her~iquca : & qu' a boll dJ:oKt1:CJMdChant
a. ICe Cleatte par Julhle ell hi VIlle de -Ge»tw.. It. at",.." 11H. .. . .
T he I N T ROD U C T ION. 69
them firft to u]e all Endeavours to recover him; but that if be perfijld in his Per-
-uerfene]: they fbould punijh him according to their Ojjice, and tbe Power tbey bid
received jrom God, to prevent his giving any Dijtu~b~nce to tke Church, and [eft the
latter end fhould be worfe than the fir).. The Minifters o~ the Church of Bern
were of the fame Opinion, and in their Letter to the Magiltrates of Geneva [;1 y,
We pray the Lord that he would give you the Spirit of Prudence, Counfel and ~treng,th,
to remove this Plague from the Churches, both your o~~ and ctb,ers, and adv,Ife them
to neglef! notbing that may beJudged unworthy a Ckrijtzan Magiflrate to omit. The
Minifters of Zurich give much the fame AdVICe, and thought that there was
need of a great deal of Diligence in the Affair; e!pecia!!y ~s the reformed Chur~h~5
were evil thought of, amongfl other Reafons, for tbis, as being. themJelves beretical,
and Fauourers of Hereticks. But that, as the Prooidence of God had giveiZ them an
Opportunity of wiping off Jo evil a SuJPicion, and preventing the fartber Jil'cading of
fa contagious a Poifon, they did not doubt but their Eecellencies would be careful to tm-
prove it. Thofe of Scaffhufen fubfcribed to the Judgment of thofe of Zurich,
and declare, that they did not doubt, but that their Prudence would put a
ftop to the Attempts of Servetus, left his Blafphemies, as a Canker, Ihould
eat up the Members of Chrift ; adding there remarkable Words, 'That to endea-
'Dourto oppofe his Dreams by a train of Reajoning., what would it be, but to grow mad
'With a Madman.
Thefe Extracts, which are taken out of the Letters printed at the End of'
Calvin's Inftirurions, clearly dernonftrate, that he acted ferioufly and delibe-
rately in the Affair of Seruetus, and that he confulred the neighbouring
Churches, and had their Opinion of the Lawfulnefs and Expediency of putting.
him to Death for his Herefies, And though it doth not wholly excufe his
Fault, yet it ought in Juftice to be allowed as an Abatement and Extenu-
ation of it; and, I think, evidently proves, what his Enemies are very un-
willing to allow, that he was not tranfported by Rage and Fury, and did not
aCt meerly from the Dictates of Envy and Malice, but-from a miftakcn Zeal
againft what he accounted Blafphemy and' Herefy, and with the concurrent
Advice of his Brethren in the Miniftry, and Fellow-Labourers in the great
Work of the Reformation. And I think his eminent Services to the Church
of God, both by his Preaching and Writings, ought, notwithftanding all his
Failings, to fecure to his Memory the Honour and Refpett that is due to it.
For he deferved well of all the reformed Churches, and was an eminent Inftru-
rnent i~ the Hand of Providence, in promoting the great and glorious Work
of favmg Men from the grofs Errors, Superftitions, and Idolatries of the
Romijh Church, And as r thought my {elf obliged impartially to reprefent
thefe Things a~·they appear~d to me, I hope all who love to diftinguilh them-
fel.ves by C:alvt~'s Na~e, ~dl be ~areful not to imitate him in this great Ble-
mIlh o~ hIS LIfe, whIch, In realIty, hath tarnifh'd a Character, that would"
~herwlfe have appeared amongA: the firft and brighteft of the Age, he"
lived in.
In the Year 1632. afrer Calvin"s Death, one Nicholas .Anthoine was condemn-
ed,al-1Oby the Council of Gmeva, to ,be £rft hang~, andaftetwards burnt.
- bccauf~.,
70 The IN T ROD U C T ION.
bccaufe, that having forgotten the Fear of God, he ha~ committed the Crime
of A poflacy and High-Treaion ag~inft God, br ~avJng oppofed the. Holy
Trinity, denied our Lord and SavIOur. Jefus Chrilt, blafphemed his hoi),
Name, renounced his Baptifrn, and the ~lk.e. .
B<'!n. Vnleutinus Gcntilis, a Native of Co/entIa m 1taly, had the MIsfortune alfo to
~'\~~:~V. fall into fome heterodox Opinions conc~rning the Trinity, and held, that l.he
B. Arct, Father alone was f.tv709.@-, God of hirnfelf, f.t'J!<Vll;7@-, unbegotren, Effintz~.
lJill Val. tor, the giver of Effence to all other Beings; but that the Son was EjJCntz-
(',t>llt, atus, of a derived Effence from the Father, and therefore not av109!@-, or
God of himfelf, though at the fame Time he allowed him to be truly God.
He held much the fame as to the Holy Ghoft, making them Three eternal
Spirits, diftinguifh'd by a gradual and due Subordination, referving the Mo-
narchy to the Father, whom he fliled the One only God. Being forced to
fly his native Country on Account of his Religion he came to Geneva, where
there was' a Church of Italian Refugees, feveral of whom, fuch as G. Bland-
rata, a Phyfician, Gribaldus a Lawyer, and Paulus rlldatus, differ'd from
the commonly received Notions of the Trinity. When their Heterodoxes
came to be known at Geneva, they were cited before the Senators, Minifters,
and Prefbyrers , and being heard in their own Defence, were refuted by Cal-
vin, and all fubfcribed to the orthodox Faith. But V. Gentilis having after
this endeavoured to propagate his own Opinions, he was again apprehended,
and forced by Calvin and others to a publick Abjuration, and condemned
An. 1558. to an exemplary Penance, 'Viz. U That he fhould be {hipped clofe
" to his Shirt, then bare-foot and bare- headed fhould carry in his Hand a
" lighted Torch, and beg God and the Court's Pardon on his Knees, by con-
" feffing himfelf malicioufly and wickedly to have fpread Abroad a falfe and
" heretical Doctrine; but that he did now from his Heart deteft and abhor
Ie thofe abominable, lying, and blafphemous Books, he had compofed in its
U Defence; in teftimony of which he was to caft them, with his own Hands,
U into the Flames, there to be burnt to Allies. And for more ample Saris-
" faction, he was enjoined to be led through all the Streets of Geneva, at the
~, found of Trumpet, in his penitential Habit, and ftricHy commanded not
Ie to depart the City without Perrniffion." And this Penance he aCtually un-
derwent. But having found means to make his Efcape, he came at Jaft to
Gaium, a Prefecture, fubjeCl: to the Canton of Bern, where he was feized and
imprifoned by the Governor, who immediately fent an Account of his Appre-
henfion to the Senate of Bern, who ordered him to be brought Prifoner to that
City, where they put him in Gaol. After they had feized all his Books and
Papers, they collected feveral Articles, with the Heads of an indiCtment out
of th.em to be preferred againfr him. Amongft others thefe were two, I. 'I'hat
he diJJente~ [rom. ~s and a~ ~he Ortbo~. in tbe Do8rine of tbe 'I'rillity. And,
2. Tbat bis Wrzlzngs cmla,. tl ma", smpJOfUJJ/aJjJbemies, concmting the '.frinit,.
And becaufe h~ c~ntinued obftina~e in his 0.pinions, nocwithftandingthe Endea-
vours of ~he DI~mes to convert him, he was condemned by the Senate, {or his
'IIafphemles agalDft the Son of God, and .the gJorieus Myftcr1 of the Trinity,.
~ ro
to be beheaded, which Sentence was executed on him in September, Aww
156~ . . .
At Baftl alfo Herefy was a Crime punifhable with Death, Iince the Refer- ;::l!;:.,
marion, as appears from the Treatment of the dead Body of Dcuid GeOl~\e, all Ll.~I1,)t ,

enthufiaftical Anabaptift. Having left Holland he went to Bnfil, and fetrled ~lIft.l~n"
there as one that was banifhed out of his Country for the fake of his Religion, ,. p·/7.
propagating his ow.n D00:rines by Letters,. Books, and Meflengers in Hol/ani!.
But his Errors being difcovered after his Death, he was taken out of his
Grave, and together with h is Books and Pictures burnt (0 Allies, by order of
the Magiftrates, at the Place of Execution, without the "Valls of Bnfil,
May 13, 1559. His Opinions were firft extracted from the prnted Books and
Manufcript Papers found in his Houfe, and he declared an Arch-He-
Zurich alfo furnifhes us with an Infiance of great Cruelty towards an Ana - Znich.
oaptift. A fevere Edict was publifbed againft them, in w hieh there was a B0~k 2.
Penalty of a filver Mark, about four Shillings Englifh Money, fer upon allP' )7·
fuch as Ihould fuffer themfelves to be reo baptized, or Ihould with- hold Baptifm
from their Children. And it was further declared, That thofe who openly
oppofed this Order, fhouId be yet more fevereIy treated. Accordingly one
Ftli;t was drowned at Zurich upon the Sentence pronounced by Zuinglius, in .
thefe four Words, ff<gi interum mer!it, mergatur. He that redips let him be drown-
ed. This happen'd in the Year 1526. About the fame Time alfo, and
fince, there were fome more of them put to Death. From the fame Place
alfo Ochinus was banifhed, in his old Age, in the Depth of Winter, toge-Be7. Epifl.
ther with his Children, becaufe he was an .Arian, and defended PoJigamy, I.
if Baa's Account of him be true.
Lubitniecius, a Polifh Unitarian, was through the Practices of the Caluinifls, Poland,
banifhed with his Brethren from Poland, his native Country, and forced to v«, Ltl?
leave feveral Proteftant Cities of Germany, to which he had fled for Refuge, rtf-
particularly Stetin, Fredericlcfladl, and Hamburgh, through the Practices Ofp~l~~~:lr.-
the Lutheran Divines, who were againfi all Toleration. At Hamburgb he re-
ceived the Orders of the Magiftrates of the City to depart the Place on his
~ath-bed; and when his dead Body was carried to .dltenau to be interr'd,
though the Preachers could not, as they endeavour'd, prevent his being bu-
ried in the Church, yet they did aCtually prevent the ufual funeral Honours
being paid him. john Sylvanus, Superintendant of the Church of Heidelberg, was
put to Death by orderofp,.ednid:Eiectof Palatine, An. 1571. beiol)' accu{ed lub. Hifb
of Arianifm. 0 I.:. c. 1. '.
If we pars over into Holland, we 1hall' affo find,.that the Reformers there Hollan·d,
were moft of them 'in- the Principles and Meafures of Per(ecution and mana-
ged their Di~erences with that Heat and Fury as gave great Adva~tages to the
Papifts, their comr:n?n Enemies_. In the very I~fancy of the Reformation the
!--*tberans and CaIVt11i.ftl condemned each other tor their fuppofed Heterodoxy
m l.he: Affair of ~he S~crament, and looked .upon compliance and mut~al !ole-
ration to be ThlDgs tntQlera.ble. There Differences were kep~ op prmclpally
7~ . TI,e I N T ROD U C T ION'.
by the rJergy of each Party. The Prince ?f Orange, and States ofJJollan~.,
who were hc;lrtily inclined (0 the Reformation, were. n.ot for confining tl~elr
Protecliol1 to allY particular Sec of Princip.le~ or ~pl~lOns, ~ut for granung
.m univcrl.d Illllulgcnce in all Matters of Religion, aiming at Peace an~ r:l1U-
tual Forbearance, and to open the Church as wid~ as p<?ffible for all. Chriftians
of unbl.unenble Lives; whereas the Clergy be109 biaffed by thel.r Paffions
and Inclinations for thole Maflcrs, in whofe Writings they had been.lOftruae~,
Cl1,k1VOUredwith all their Might to eflablifh and conciliat: ~uthof1ty to t~elr
relpcctive Opinions; aiming onl y at Decifions and Definitions, and :fhuttmg
lip the Church by Limit.ations in ~any doubtful and d!fputabl: Articles; fo
t hat the Dilturbances WhIChwere railed, and the Seventies which were ufed
upon the Account of Religion, proceeded from the Bigotry of the Clergy, con-
trary to the Defire and Inrention of the civil Magiftrate.
't3:"andt. Before the Minifters of the reformed Party were engaged in the Controv~rfy
H..fl.] with Arminius, their Zeal was continually exerting it felf againft the Anabaptifls,
V.: •. 17. whom they declared to be excommunicated and cut off from theChurch, and ~n-
deavoured to convert by Violence and Force, prohibiting them fron~ pre~c~mg
under Fines, and banifhing them their Country, upon account of th.elr Opinions,
And the better to colour thefe Proceedings, fome of them wrote In defence of
Perfecution., or which is the fame Thing,againft the Toleration of any Reli-
gion or Opinions different from their own; and for the better Support of Or-
thodoxy, they would have had the Synods ordain, that all Church Officers
fhould renew their Subfcriptions to the Conteffion and Catechifm every Year,
that hereby they might the better know who had changed their Sentiments,
and differed from the received Faith. This Practice was perfeCtly agreeable
to the Geneva Difcipline , Calvin himfelf, as hath been fhewn, being in J udg-
ment for perfecuting Hereticks , and Beza having wrote a Treatife, An. 1600.
to prove the Lawfulnefs of punifhing them. This Book was tranflated from
the Latin, into the Low Dutch Language by Bogerman, afterwards Prefident
of the Synod of Dort, and publifhed with a Dedication, and Recommendation
of it to the Magiftrares, The Confequence of this was, that very fevere Pla-
carts were publifhed againft the Anabaptifts in Friejland and Groningen, where-
by they were forbidden to preach; and all Perfons prohibited from letting
their Houfes and Grounds to them, under the Penalty of a large Fine; or
Confinement to Bread and Water for fourteen Days. If they offended the
third Time, they were to be banifhed the City, and the JurifdiCtion thereof.
Whofoever was difcovered to rebaptize any Perfon fhould forfeit twenty Dol-
Jars; and upon a fecond Conviction be put to Bread and Water, and then be
baniihed .. Unbaptifed Children were made incapable of inheriting; and if
any marrIed out of the reformed Church, he was declared incapable of inherioo:
ting any Efiate, and the Children made illegitimate.
But the Controverfy that made .the greateft Noire, and produced the moft
remarkable ~!feCts, was that earned on between the Cal'lJinijls and .Arminia1Js.
Jacobus Armtmus, on~ of the Profeffors of Divinity at LcyJm, difputing in his
turn about the DoCl:nne of Predeftination, advanced feveral Things differing
The I N T It 0 Due T ION. 7~
from the Opinions of Calvin on this Article, and was in a few Months after
warmly oppofed by Gomarus his Collegue, who held, That 'twas aP/'0l17led hJ
an eternal Decree of God, who among,ff Mankind Jhall be Javed, and wbo fhalt. be
damned. This was indeed the Sentiment of rnoft of the. ~lergy o~ the Um!ed
Provinas, who therefore endeavoured to run dow? Armzmus. and I11S Doctrine
with the greateft Zeal, in ti. eir private ~onverf.'l.tlo~s, p~bltc~ DI(putes,. and
in their very Sermons to their Conwegatlons~ chargmg him -:V1th Innovations,
and of being a FoJlowe~ of ,the ancient h:r~tl~a~ Monk PelagUl.s; wher~a~ t~e
Government was more inclinable to Armzmus s "cheme, as being lefs rigid In
its Nature and more intelliO'ible by the People, and endeavoured all they
could to ;revent thefe Diffe~ences of the Clergy from breaking ou~ into an
open Q."rrel, to the Difturbance of ~he pub lick Peace. But the Miuifters of
the P.redeftinarian Party would enter into no Treaty for Pe ice : The Remon-
flranrs were the Objects of their furious Zeal, whom they called Mamalukcs;
Droits, and Plagues, animatin.g the Magiftrates to ext!rpate a?? deft.roy them,
and crying out from the Pulpits, We mufl.f,o thr?ugh tbick ~nd t.,Jtn, wtthout fear-
ing to flick in the Mire: We know ~hat Elijah did t~ Baal s Priefis, And when
the Time drew near for the Election of new Magiftrares, they prayed to God
for fuch Men, as would be zealous even to Blood, though it were to coft the sobole
'Ir4de of their Cities. They alfo accufed them of keeping up a ~orrefpondence
with the Jefuits and Spaniards, and of a Defign [0 betray their Country to
Thefe Proceedings gave great Difturbance to the Magiftrares, efpecially
as many of the Clergy took great Liberties with them, furiouOy inveighing
againft them in their Sermons as Enemies to the Church, and Perfecutors; as
Libertines and Free-Thinkers, who hated the fincere Minifters of God, and
endeavoured to turn them out of their Office. This Conduct, together with
their obftinate Refufal of all Meafures of Accommodation, and Peace with
the Remonftrants, fo incenfed the Mag.ftrares, that in feveral Cities they
fufpended fome of the warmeft and moft fedirious of them, and prohibited
them from the publick Exercifes of their minifterial FunCl:ion; particularly
Gezelius of Roterdam, and afterwards ROftEUS, Minifter at the Hague, for endea-
vouring to make a Schifm in the Church, and exhorting the People to break
off Communion with their Brethren. Being thus difcarded, they affumed to
themfelves the Name of the perfecuted Church, and met together in private
Houfes, abfolutely refufing all Communion with the Remonftrant Minifters
and Party, in fpite of all the Attempts made ufe of to reconci~e and unite
• What .the of t~e Contraremonftrant Party aimed at, was the hold-
109; a natlOnal'CouncIl, which at length, after a long Oppofition, was agreed
to 10 the Affembly of [he States General who appointed Dort for the Place of
the Meeting. ~rince M~urice of Orange, the Stadholder, effectually prepared
Matters for holdmg the raid Affembly ; and as h~ dec}ared for the
~ontraremonftrant Party, not for that he was of their 0pIRlOnS In RelIgion, be-
Ing rather inclined to thofe of Arminius, but becaufc he thought them the beft
1 . Friends
74 The I N T ROD U C T ION.
Friends to his Family, he took Care that the Council fhould confift of fuch
Perfons as were well affected to them. In order to this his Excellency chan-
ged the Government of rnoft of the Towns of Holland, depofed thofe Magi-
{hates who were of the Remonftrant Perfuufion, or that favoured them in the
Bufincls of the Toleration. and filled up their Places with Contraremonftrants,
or fuch as promoted their Interefts, making ufe of the Troops of the States to
obviate all Oppofition. The Confequence of this was the Imprifonment of fe-
veral zrear Men of the Remonftrant Perfuafion, fuch as the Advocate Olden-
barne:'elt. Grotius and others; and the Sufpenfion, or total Deprivation of a
confiderable Number of the Remonftrant Clergy, fuch as Vitenbogart of the
Hague, Grouinckbouius of Roterdam, Greuius and others, by particular Synods
met together for that purpofe, and to prepare Things, and appoint Perfons
for the enfuing national one at Dort. The Perfons fixed on were generally the
moft violent of the Contrarernonflrant Party, and who had publickly declared,
that they would not enter into Communion with- thofe who differ'd from them,
nor agree to any Terms of Moderation and Peace. There were alfo feveral
foreign Divines fummoned (0 this Council, who were moft of them in the Cal-
-viniftick Scheme, and protefled Enemies to the Arminians. The Lay Commif-
fioners alfo, who were cholen by the States, were moft of them very partial
Contraremonftrants, and two or three of them, who feerned more impartial
than the others, were hardly fuffered to fpeak; and ifthey did, were prefently
fufpected, and reprefented by Letters fent to the States. and Prince Maurice
at the Hague, 3S Perfons that favoured the Remonftrants, which was then con-
fider'd as a Crime againft the Government, infornuch that by there Infinua-
'in' C,un- tions, they were in danger of being ftripped of all their Employments. The
tl,Dort, £irft Semon and Opening of this venerable Affembly, was Nov. 13, 1618.
1618. J?hn Logerman was chofen Prefi~ent of it; the fame worthy a.nd moderate Di-
. vine, who had before tranflated into Low Dutch Beza's Treatife, to prove the
Lawfulnefs of punifhing Hereticks, with a Preface Recommendatory to the
civil Magiftrate; chofen, not by the whole Synod, but by the Low Coun-
try Divines only, the Foreigners not being allowed any Share in the
At the fifth Semon the Remonftrants petitioned the Synod, That a compe-
tent Number of their Friends might have leave to appear before them, and
that the Citation might be fent to the whole Body, and not to any Iinz le Per-
fan, to the End that they might be at liberty to fend fuch as they fhould
judge beft qualified to defend their Caufe; and particularly infifted, that Gro-
'UinckbO'"vius and Goulart might be of the Number. One would have thought
that fo equitable a Requefl fhould have been readily granted. But they were
told, that it could not be allowed that the Rernonflrants fhould pafs for a di-
il:inct Body, or make any Deputation .of Perfons in their common Name to
treat of their Affairs; and agreeably to this Declaration the Summons that
were given out, were not fent to the Rernonftrants as a Body or Part of the
Synod, but to fuch particular Perfons as the Synod thought fit to chofe out of
them; which was little lefs than citing them a$ Criminal$ befurc: a Body of
The I N T ROD U C T ION. 75
Men which chiefly confifted of their profeffed Adverfaries, When they firfl: Ml. S~n..
eared 'In the Synod and Epifcopius in the Name of the rea of them, talkedl:orJ.SclI.
app ,')'
ot enning into a regular Conference about the
Poi . diff 1
ornts In 1 e.rence; t ley were
z z,
immediately given to under~and, tl:at no .Conference was Intended, .but that
their only Bufinefs was t~ deliver t~elr Sentiments,. and hU?1bly to walt for [h.e
Judgment of the Council concernIng them, Epi[r:opzus, In the Name of his
Brethren, declared, that they d:d not own the Synod for their lawful Judges,
becaufe moil oj that Body were their avowed Enemies, an~ F ornenters an? Pro-
moters of the unhappy Schifm amongfl: them; upon which c~ey. were '.mme-
diarely reprimanded by the Prefident, for impeaching and arr:lIgnmg their Au-
thority, an I prefuming to prefcribe Laws to thofe whom the SIdles Ge~1eral had
appointed for their J-udges. The ~ivines of Geneva ad(~ed ,upon t~IS Head,
Tbat if People obflinately refufed to fubmlt to th~ lawful DetermWa!1011Sof !':'e.C~JUlcb,
tberetbm'retnained two Methods to be ufed agam) them; the one, that the CIVIl Ma-
giflrate might firetcb out his Arm of Compulfion ; the other, .that tbeCburcb might
exert her Power, in order to fepara:« and cut off by a publlck Sentence, thoft who
'Violated the Laws of God. After many Debates on this Head, between the Sy-
nod and the Remonftrants, who adhered to their Refolution, of not owning
the Synod for their Judges, they were turned out of it by Bogerman the Prefi-
dent with great Infolence and Fury; to the high Diffatisfaction of many of the
foreign Divines,
After the Holy Synod had thus rid themfelves of the RemonO:rants, whofe
Learning and good Senfe would have rendered them exceeding troublefome to
this Affernbly, they proceeded to fix the Faith; and as they had no Oppofition
to fear, and were almoft all of one fide, at leaft in the main Points, they
agreed in their Articles and Canons; and in their Sentence againft the Remon-
ftrant Clergy who had been cited to appear before them; which was to this
EffeCt: "They befeeched and charged in the Name of Chrift, all and fiogular
~, the Minifters of the Churches throughout the united Netherlands, &c. that
" they forfake and abandon the well known five Articles of the Remonflranrs,
~c as being falfe, and no other than Secret Magazines of Errors _ And
c., whereas forne, who are gone out from amongft us, calling thernfelves Re-
ce monftrants, have out of private Views and Ends, unlawfully violated the
" DifcipJine and Government of the Church _ have not only trumped up
cc old Errors, but hammered out new ones too _ have blackened and ren-
ce dered odious the eftablilhed Doctrine of the Church with impudent Slan-
ce ders and Calumnies, withourend or meafure, have filled all Places wi,h
" Scandal, Difcord, Scruples,- Troubles ofConfci(~nce _ all which heinous
cc Offences ought to be reft~ained.and punilhed in Clergymen with the fevereft
cc Cenfure~: Therefore thIS natIonal Synod _ being affured of irs own
U AuthorIty -.doth hereby declare and determine, that thofe Minifters,
cc who have acted In the Churches as Heads of Factions, and Teachers of Er-
:: rors? are guilty, a~d convi~ed of having violated our Holy Religion,
havmg made a Rent In the Vmty of the Church, and givcnvery great Scan-
-" dal: ADdas for thofe who were cited before thiJ'5ynexl, ~bat they are be-
lz " fides
1h~ I N T R-0 Due T ION. 71
of them banifhed on this very account. The Reader will find a very. particu-
lar Relation of thefe Tranfacbons, in the learned Gerard Brandt's Hittory of
the Reformation of the Low Countries, to which I muft refer him.
If we look into our own C01Jmry we fhall find numerous Proofs of thecrcat-
fame anrichrifbian Spirit and Pra~ice. Ev~n our fir~ Refo~mers, who had Britain.
feen the Flames which the Papitts had kindled agamft their Brethren, yet
lighted Fires themfelv~s to confume thofe who differed from them: Cranmer's
Hands were Itained With the Blood of Ieveral, He had a Share In the Profe-
cution and Condemnation of that pious and excellent Martyr John Lambert; Burnet's
and confented to the Death of Ann rlsketu, who were burnt for denying the cor- Hill. Ref.
poral Prefence, which, though Cranmer then believed, he faw afterwards rea- Vo61.II. p.
In the Year 1549. 7oan B ocber was con demne d f or r. lome ent hu- 10, °7.
fon to deny.
fiaftical Opinions about Chrift, and delivered over to the fecular Power.
The Sentence being returned to the Council, King Edward VI. was moved ~o
fizn a Warrant for her being burnt, but could not be prevailed with to do It.
C~anmer endeavoured to perfuade him by fuch Arguments as rather filenced
than fatisfied the young King. So he fet his Hand [0 the Warrant with Tears
in his Eyes, faying to the Archbifhop, that if he did wrong, fince it was in
Submiffion to his Authority, he Ihould anfwer for it to God. Though this
ihuck Cranmer with Horror, yet he at laft put the Sentence in Execution
againfi her. About two Years after one George Van Pare, a Dutch Man, was
accufed before them, for faying, That God the Father was only God, and
that Chrifl was nor very God. And though he was a Perf on of a very holy
Life, yet becaufe he would not abjure, he was condemned for Herefy, and
burnt in Smithfield. The Archbifhop himfelf was afterwards burnt for Herefy,
which, as Fox obferved, many looked on a juft Retaliation from the Provi-
dence of God, for the cruel Severities he had ufed towards others.
The Controverfy about the Popifh Habits was one of the firft that arore
amongft the Englijh Reformers. Cranmer and Ridley were zealous for the Ufe
of them, whilft other very pious and learned Divines were for laying them
afide, as the Badges of Idolatry and Antichrift. Amonglt thefe was Doctor
Hooper, nominated to the Bifhoprick of Glocefier ;. but becaufe he refufed to be
confecrated in the old Veftrnents, he was, by Order of Council firft Iilenced,
and th~n confined to his o,wn Haufe; and afterwards, by Cranmer's Means,
commmed to the Fleet Prifon, where he continued feveral Months.
In the b~ginn~ng of ~een Elizabeth's Reign, .A.~. 1559. an Act: paired 9,.lItdl
fo~ ~he l.!mformny of Common Prayer, and Service In the Church, and Ad;:,Elizabet!tY
mmlftratlo~ of the SaCrameR!S, ~1 which.:the ~eenand Bifhops were empow-
red to ordain fucbCerem0!l'les ~nWor~tp, as they fhould think for the Ha-
Ilour of God, and· the ~d.lficatlon of hiS Church. This Act was rigoroufiy
preffed? and great Sevenues ufed to fuch as could not comply with it. P4rker
A~chbJ.lhop of. Canterbu.ry, made the Clergy fubfcribe to ufe the prefcribed
R.ltes and HabIts, and cited before him many ()f the moil: famous Divines who
fcrupled them, and would allow none to be prefented to Livings, Of prefm-ed
III the Church, without an in.tire Coatormity. Hefummopid t~whol~ BOdJ
of the LondOil Pallors and Curates to appear before him at Lambeth, and imme-
diately fufpendcd Thirty feven, who refufed to fubfcribe to the Unity of Ap-
parel, and lignified to them, that within three Montps they fhould be totally
deprived it they would not conform. So that many Churches were fhut up;
amt" Ihoue h the People were ready to mutiny for want of Minifl:ers, yet the
Archbilb~p was deaf to all their Complaints, and in his great Go~dnefs and
Piety was refolved they fhould have no Sacraments or Sermo?s without the
Surplice and the Cap. And in order to prcven.t all C?ppofitlon to Church
Tyranny, the Star Chamber publifhed a .Decree for SeallO.g up the Prefs~ and
prohibiting any Perfon to prm~ or publifh any ~ook againft the Queen s In-
junctions, or againft the Meaning of them. This Decree was figncd by the
Bifhops of Canterbury and London. .
This rigid and fanatical Zeal for Habits and Ceremonies, caufed the PUrl-
tans to feparate from the Eftablifhed Church, and to hold private Affernblies
for Worfhip, But the ~een and her Prelates foon made them feel their Ven-
geance. Their Meetings were difturbed, and thofe who attended them ap-
prehended, and fent in large Numbers, Men and Women, to Bridewell, for
Conviction, Others were cited into the Spiritual Courts, and not difcharged
till after long Attendance and great Charges. Subfcriprions to Articles of
Faith were violently preffed upon the Clergy, and about one Hundred of
them were deprived, Anno 1572. for refufing to fubmic to them. Some were
clofely imprifoned, and died in Gaol, through Poverty and Want. And that
ferious Piety, and Chriftian Knowledge might gain Ground, as well as Uni-
forrnity, the Bifhops, by order of the Qjieen, pu down the Prophefyings of
the Clergy, Anno 1574. who were forbid to affernble, as they had done for
fome Years, to difcourfe with one another upon religious Subjects and Ser-
mons; and as fame ferious Perfons of the Laity were ufed to meet on Holy
Days, or after they had done work, to read the Scriptures, and to improve
themfelves in Chrifiian Knowledge; the Parfons of the Parifhes were fent for,
and ordered to fupprefs them. Eleven Dutch Men, who were Anabaptifts,
'were condemned in the Confiftory of St. Paul to the Fire, for Herefy; nine
of whom were banifhed, and two of them burnt alive in Smithfield. In the
Year 1583. Copping and Thacker, two Puritan Minifters, were hanged for
Non- Conformity. It would be endlefs to go through all the Severities
that were ufed in this Reign upon the Account of Religion. As the ~een was
of. a very high and ar.bitrary Temper, fhe preffed Uniformity with great
Vl?len.ce, and found Bifhops enough, Park:" Aylmer, Wbitgijt, and others,
to Ju~bfy a~d promote her Meafures; who either enter'd their Sees with per-
fecuting Principles, or embraced them foon after their Entrance, as heft be-
fitting the Ends of their Promotion. Silencings, Deprivations, Imprifonments,
Gibbets, an~ Stakes, upon the Account of Religion, were fome of the pow-
erful ReafoDl~gs of thofe Times. The Bilhops rioted in Power, and many of
them abufed It to the moft cruel Oppreffions. The Cries of innocent Prifo-
ners, widowed Wives, and ftarving Children, made no Impreffion on their
Hearts. Piety and Learning with them were void of Merit. Rcfuf~ of
2 Sub-
The I N T ROD U C T ION. 79
Subfcriptions, and Non-Conformity were Crimes. never to b~ forgiven. ~
particular Account of thefe Things may be.feen In Mr. s excellent H14
ftory of the Puritans, who hath done juftice to .that ~ubJe~t. ~ fhall only
add, That the Court of High:Commiffion eftablifhed In t.hls Reign, by.the
Inftigation of WhitgiJt, Archbl.fhol? of Cante~bury, by which the C~mmlffi,:
oners were impowered to enquire into all Mifderneanors, by all.fuch Way:>
and Means as they could devife, and thought neceffary, to ~xamme Pe~fons
upon Oath, and to pun.ifh t!~ofe ~ho refufed t?e Oath by Fine or Impn~on-
ment according to their Difcretion, was an high Stretch of the Prerogative,
and h'ad a very near Refemblance to the Cou~ts ofI~quifition, and [h~ Crue~-
ties that were practited in it, and the exorbitant Fines that were levied by It
in the two following Reigns, made it the univerfal Abhorrence of the Na-
tion, fo that it was diffolved by Parliament, with a Claufe that no fuch Court
fhould be erected for the future.
King 1ames I. ~h~ was bred up in the K!rk o~ Scotland, which profefIed]amcs 1.
the Faith and Difcipline of thofe called Puritans In England; and though he
bleffed God, For honouring him to be King over fuch a Kirk, the fincereft Kirk in
the World, yet, upon his Acceffion to the Englifh Throne, foon fhewed his
Avedion to the Conftitution of that Kirk; and to their Brethren, the Puritans
in England. Thefe were folicirous for a farther Reformation in the Church,
which the Bifhops oppofed, inftilling this Maxim into the King, No Bifbop no\Vilfon.
King; which, as flale and falfe a Maxim as it is, hath been lately trumpt up,
and publickly recommended, in a Sermon on the 30th of 'January. In the
Conference at Hampton Court his Majefty not only fided with the Bifhops, but
affured the Puritan Minifters, who were Ient for to it, that he had not called the
Affimbly together for any innovations, for that he acknowledged the Gouernment Ec-
clefiaftical, as it tben was, to have been appr()ved by God himfelf; giving them to
underftand, that if they did not conform, he would either hurry them out of the Kil1g- Heylin's
dam, or eife do worfe. And thefe Reafonings of the King's were fo {hong, that Life of
Wbitgift, Archbifhop of Canterbury, with an impious and fordid Flanery,Lau~.
He was verily perJuaded that the King jpoke by the Spirit of God. 'Twas no won- p. S •
tier that the Bifhops, thus fupported by an infpired King, fhould get an eary
Vid:ory over the Puritans, which poffibJy they would not have done, had his
Majefty been abfent, and the Aids of his Infpiration withdrawn, fince the
Archbiiliop did not pretend that himfelf or his Brethren had any fhare of ir.
But having thus gotten the Victory, they {trove by many Methods of Vio-
lenceto maintain it; and ufed [uch Severities towards the Non-ConfQrmifts~
that they were forced to feek Refuge in foreign Countries. The Truth is, this
Confer~nce at. Hampton Court was never intended co farisfy the Puritans, but
as a Bhnd to Introduce Epifcopacy into Scotltl11d, and to fubven the ConRitu-
tion and Efl:ablifhment of that Church.
His Majefty, in one of his Speeches to his ParI iarnent, tens them, that hi
'Was never violent and unreafonable in his ProfejJidn of Religion. I believe all Man- .
kind will now acquit him of any violent and unreafonable' the
ProteftantReligion and Liberties. He added in the fa~e S'pccch, it ma~ be
,, , ~~eftlon-:
queflloned, whether by Infpiration of the Spirit, I acknowledge the Roman
Church to be our Mother Church, although defiled with Jome Infirmities and Corrup-
tions. And he did behave as a very dutiful Son of that Mother Church, by
the many Favours he fhewed co the Papifts during his Reign, by ~is P~ocl~-
mations for Uniformity in Religion, and encouraging and Iupporting hl~ BI-
fhops in their Perfecutions of fuch as differ'd from, or could not fubmit to
them. Bancroft, promoted to the Archbifhoprick of Canterbury, was, as ~he
Wilfon. Hiftorian calls him, A fturdy Piece, a cruel and inflexible Perfecutor, treating
Lift of the Non-Conformifrs with the greateft Rigor and Severity; and who, as Hey-
Laud, lin tells us, was re.fOlved to break tbem, if tbey would not bow. He put the
p. S8. Canons and Conflirurions agreed on A. C. 1603. furioully into Execution,
and fuch as Itood out againft them, he either deprived or Iilenced. And
Wilfon. indeed, as the aforementioned Author fays, Who could ji and againji a Man of
Juch a Spirit, armed with Authority, baving the Law on his Side, and the King to
his Friend. During his being Archbi!hop he deprived, filenced, fufpended,
and admonifhed, above three Hundred Minifters. The Violences he and his
Brethren ufed in the High-Commiffion Courts, render'd it a publick Grievance.
Wilfon. Every Man muft conform to the Epifcopal Way, and quit his Hold in Opinion or Safe-
ty. 'That Court was the Toucbfione, to try whether Men 'were Met"l for their Stamp;
and if they Were not Joft enough to take Jucb Impreffions as were put upon them, they
were made malleable there, or elJethey could not pafs current. 'This was the begiml~ng
of that MifchieJ, which when it came to a full Ripeners, made Juch a bloody 'finC1ure
in both Kingdoms, as never will be got out of the Bifhop's Lawn Sleeues. But no-
thing difple.ifed the fober Part of the Nation more, chan the Publication of the
Book ofSporcs, which the Bifhops procured from the King, and which came
out with a Command, enjoining all Miniflers to read it to their Parifhioners,
and to approve of it; and thofe who did not, were brought into the High-
Commiffion, im~rif~ned, and fufpended; this Book bein~ only a Trap to
catch fome confcientious Men, that they could not otherwife, WIth all their
~Vilion. Cunning, enfnare. crhefe, and fuch like Machinations of the Bifhaps, fays my
Author, to maintain their temporal Greatnefs, Eafe; and Plenty, made the Stones
in the fP"alls oj their Palaces, and the Beam in the 'limber afterwards cry out,
moulder aw~y, and come .to nothing; and caufed their Light to g~ out 0ffenji'lJt
to the NoJlrzls of the Rubbijh oftbe People. Indeed many of the Kmg's Bifhops
fuch as Bancroft, Neal, and Laud, who was a reputed Papift in Oxford, and ~
Man of a dangerous, turbulent Spirit, were fit for any Work; and as they
don't appear to have had .any Principles of real Piety thernfelves, they were the
fittefl Tools that could be made ufe of to perfecute thofe who had. Neal
when he was Bi(~lOp of Litchfield and qo'lJentry, pro~ecuted on.e Edward Wight:
m!Z11, for broac?m~ erroneous Do~nne, a~d havmg canoDically condemned',
hIm, got the King s Warrant for hIS Execution, and he was accordingly burnt
in, Litc~field. One Legat alfo, w~s pr?fecuted and condemned for Herefy, by
Ktng :~I~?P of London, . and explre~ In the Flames of Smithfield. He denied
!he DIVInity of our SaViour, accordmg to the Athanajian Mode of explaining
It; but, as Fuller tells us, he was excellently 1killed in Scripture, and his
2 r Con-
The I N T ROD U C T ION. 8,
Congerfation very unblarneable. But as there Sacrifices were unacceptable to
the People, the King. preferred, that Hereticks here~fcer, . though condemn'd,
ihoulJ filently and privately wafte themfelves away In Prifon, rather than to
amufe others with the Solemnity of a publick Execution.
In the Reign of the Royal Martyr, the Church was in the Height of herClmk. t.
Glory and Power; though fuch is the Fate of all human Things, that Ihe
foon ficken'd, languilhed, and died. Laud carried all before him, and ruled
the Church with a Rod of Iron; and though he feerns to have had too much
Pride to fubmit to the Pope of Rome, he acted the Part of a Pope himfelf, al-
lowing hirnfelf, as Heylin tells us, to be addreffed under the Tides of /-lolinrfi,
and mo}l holy Father. The Things he feerned principally to have had at
Heart, were the introducing an arbitrary Government into the State, the Sup-
preffion and Extirpation of Nonconformity, and bringing the Church of Eng-
land, in Rites and Ceremonies, to as near a Refemblance as pollibly he could,
to the Church of Rome.. This appears, by his protetting Montague, Manuia-
ring and Sibtborp; who had infamouOy preach'd up the King's abfolute Power,
and making the two former Bifhops of the Church; by his perfecuting the Puri-
tan Minifters in the Star-Chamber and High Commiffion Court, who, as
Heslin tells us, Laud ufed to fay, were as bad as the Papifts, irnprifoning and
fining, and forcing many others to take Sanctuary in New England; by his put-
ting down and filencing all Lecturers throughout the feveral Dioeefes of the
Kingdom, by his fufpending and ejecting fueh as refuted to read the Book of
Spans, by his forcing the French and Dutch Churches to a Conformity with
the Rites and Ceremonies of the Church of England, by his obliging the Scots
to receive Epifcopacy, a Liturgy and. Canons, by his formin~ new Articles
and eec1efia fl:ical Conftitutions for the Englijh Clergy, and enjoining them a
ftria Oath for the preventing of all Innovations; by the many Popifh Super-
ftitions he introduced into the publick Worfhip, fuch as Altars, Tapers.
Candles, Candleflicks, Copes, Hoods, Images, Pictures, Cringes, Bows.
Confecrations, and the like, and by the Lenity that was Ihewn throughout the
whole of his Adminiftration to the Papifts themfelves, whiHl: many worthy
and learned Proceftant Gentlemen and Divines were treated with the utrnoft
Indignity and Barbarity; fome of them dying in Goal, and others be-ng made
to undergo the moft cruel bodily Puniihments, for daring to oppofe the arbi-
trary and fuperftitious Proceedings of this furious and relentlefs Prelate. No
Man of Compaffion can read his Treatment of Dr. Leighton without being
fhocked and moved in the fame tender Manner as the Haufe of Commons
were, ~ho ~~eral Ti~es interrupted, by their Tears, the reading of the
Doctor s Petition; WhICh I {hall here prefent my Reader with entire, and leave
him to form what Character he pleafes of the Man, that could contrive and
urry on fuch a Scene of barbarous and execrable Cruelty. ..

Tb« IN T R0 J) U C T ION.

tfo tbe HO/JDurob!e and High Court of Parliament, Tbe humble Petitim
oj Alexander Leighton) Prifoner ill the Fleet j
Humbly Sheweth,
OW your much and long diftreffid Petitioner, 011 tbe 17th of February gOlz4
H ten rears, was apprehended in Black-Fryers, coming from the Sermon, by a
high Commifion Warrant (to sobicb no SUbjetl's Body is liable) and thence, with a
Multttud« of Staves and Bills, was dragged along (and all the way reproached by
-. the Name of ,]eJuit and Traitor) till they brought him to Lon~on-houfe, where be
Was fbus up, and, by a /lrong Guard, kept (u;ithout Food) till !C7Jenof the ClOCK,
Sill Dr. Laud, then Prelate of London, and Dr. Corbet, then of Oxford, returned'
from Fulharn-houfe, with a Troop attending. The Gooier of Newgate was [ent
for, who came with Irons, and with a Jlrong Pooser of Halberts and Staues ; the,
carried your Petitioner through a blind hollow Way, without Pretence or Examina-
tion, and opening up a Gate into the Street (which- jome Jay, had not been opened
finee ~uedz Mary"s Days) they thrujl him into a loatbfome and ruinous Dog-hate, fuU
of Rats and Mice, which had no Light but a little Grate ; and the Roof being unco-
vered, the Snow and Rain beat in upon him, ha'l)ing no Beding, nor Place to malu-
s Fire, but the Ruins of an old Jmoafc'j Chimney; where be bad neith{r Meat nor
IJrink,jrom the Tuefday at Nigbt, till the Thurfday at Noon: In. this woful Place;
snd doleful Plight, they kept him clofe, with two Doors jhulllpon bim, for the Spa(~
oj fiftee» Weeks, fuffering none to come at him, tilt lit kngth, bis W1fe 'W4~ only ad-
Tbe fourth Day after his Commitment, the High CommijJi01JPurfeoants came (undpJ
'he Condufl of the Sheriffs of London) to your Petitioner's Houfe, and a mighty Mu/:.
titude with them; giving 01//, that they came to [earcb for Je/uits Books. Tber«
thoft violent Fellotos of Prey laId 1)io1ent.Hands upon your Petitioner's diflreffi.d !ITife,
'(lJithfuch bat baro~s lnhumam~y as he ts aJ!'amed to esprefs i and fa rij/edever"j- Soul
in the Houfe, holdmg a bent Pij/o1 to a Cbild's Bre4/l of fiu« rean old, threatnil1g t~
kill him, if he would no/ tell where the Eoolis'Were ; through which, the Child was I~
sffrigbted that be ne"Oercaft it. crhey broke open Preffis, Chej1s, Boxes, the Boardl
If the Houfe, and every Thing tbey f~und in the ~ay, though they were willwg to.
qpen all•. They, (lndJa"!e of the Sheriffs ~en, /pozled, robbed, and carried awa)' all
the Boaks and_ Aftmu{crzpts they found, wzth Houjhold Stuff, your Petitioner"'s Ap-
p.1rel, Arms, and ather Things; fa that tbey left nothing that liked them; 1zotwitb-.
jlanding, your PetitiOller's Wife told the Sheriffr, they might come t() reck()n for it.
'1hey carried alfo tI great Number of di'vers of your Petitioner's &oks, tmi other
lJkings, f!om one Mr. A!cher~s l!ou[e, as he will teflify. Furtber, Jcur P.:itioner
;etng de~zed tbe Cop, of hzs Commz:ment, b~the .Goal~r of Newgare, his Wife) with
ftme Friends, repaIred t()tbe Sheriff, affirmg hzm bail, according to the Statute in that
behalf; which beingjhew'd by an. ~ttorne'j at Law~ the Sherijfreplifld, That he wijhed
th,' Laws of the Land and Prtvzleges of the Subjef/, had nC'lJcrbeen n:Jmed in the
Parliament, &c. Tour Pditioner (having thus fuffered in &dy, Liberty, Family.,
~ Eftatf,
The I N Tit 0 Due T ION. 8~
Efta!t. ana Haufe) at the End of fiftun Wu'lcs was [trv.ed wit? a SUOptel1a, 011 In-
[ormation laid againjl him by Sir R?bert Heath, tben bis Ma;ej/y's. Attorney-Gme-
ral ; whofe Dealing with Jour Prifoner seas full of Cruelty and Deceit, In the mea"
crime it did more than appear, to four Pb-ficians, that Poifon had been given bimin
Newgate j for his Hair and Skin came off in a SickneJs (deadly to the Eye) in tbe
Height whereof. as ~e did lie, cenfure was pafi ag~inflhi~ in the SIa,: Cbambe»,
soitbout bearing (whtch bad no/been heard of) notwtthftandtng of a Certificate fram.
four Phyficians, and ~1jfida'vit made by an dttornes, 0/ the De(peratene.(J of the Di[-
eaf«. But nothing would [erue Dr. Laud, but the htghe) Cenfure that euer was
pail in that Court, to be put upon him; and fa it WtfstJ be il1fliv7ed with Knife.
Fire, and Whip, at and upon the Pillory, with ten tboujand Pounds Fine j ~()bich
lome of the Lords conceived fbould neuer be in.fIlif1ed, only it was impoled (as on IS
. -

dying Man) to terrify others. Fut the [aid Dotior and his Combinants, car/fed the
laid Cenjure to be executed tbe 26th Day of November following (witb a 117itnefs)
for the Hang-man was armed with Strong-drink all the Night before, in Prifon, and,
·with tbreatning Words, to do it cruell], Tour Petitioner's Hands being tied to a
Stake (befides ttlf' other 'l'orments) he received thirty fix Stripes with a trible Cord;
after which, he flood almolt two Hours on the Pillory, in cold Frofl and Snow, and
Jujfer~d' ffk reft; as cutting off the Ear, firing the Face, and(litting of the Nofe ; ft
that 6e war made tJ 'Theatre if Miftry to Men and Angels: And being.fa broken wit"
'hi! Suffn-ings that he was not able to go, the Warden of the Fleet would not fuifer
him to be carried in a Coach; but he was forced to go by Water, to the further indan-
gering of his Life; returning to the Goal after much harjb and crud Ufage, for the
Space of eight rears, paying more for a Chamber then the Worth of it (having not a
bit of Bread, nor drop of Water aliotoed.) The Clerk of the Fleer, to top up your
Petitioner's Suffering!, fent for him to bis Office, and witbout Warrant, or Cauft
gWtn byyoflr Petitioner, fit eight Jlrong Menjellows upon him, who tore his Clothes,
hruiftd his Body, fo that he was never well, and carried him by Head and Heels, t~
that 10ath.fOmeand common Goal, where, befides the Filthinefi of the Place and
Fjlmifsof the Company, divers Contrh'ances were laid for taking away the Life of your
.Petitioner, tis }hall manifeftly appear, if your Honours will be pleaftd to receive and
'Ptf'U{e a Schedal of that Subjefl. '
. Now the Cauft cf all this harjh, cruel, and continued ill Ufage, unparalled yet
:lIpan an, one fince Britain was bl1Jed with Chrijlianity, was notbing but a Boot.
written by your Petitioner, called Pious Plea againft the Prelacy; and tbat,
by the Callaf divers and many good Chriftialzs in the Parliament 'lime, after di-
'Vers RefuJa/s gi'Ucn 1J,,0U; Petitioner, .who wauldno! pztblijh it being done. till it had
tht Vzcwand Af..probat~(J1Iof tbe beft, ,in tbe Cit" Country, and Univerfity. ana
[ome of the Parlzament It f4f: 111 W1:tneft wbe1'eof he had about 500 Hands'; for
,.roealmg of whoft Names be WIlS pramiftd more FavrJurs-br Sir Robert Heath tben
he will fpetlk of: But denying'toturn AccuJer of his Brethren he w{utbrtate1fdwitb
4Storm~ w. r
hich he (elt to tbefull; whe,rein (througb God's Mercy be- had Jiv~J';
fb()ughbut lzved, chufi~g ratber lola] hIS Neck ISilhe rake!" otbtfs, tben ~_rdlllft
1f'ztlJftlfby otbers Sujfirzngs. '

The I N T ROD U C T :i oN:
Further the Petitioner was robbed of divers Goods, by one Lightborn, Graves,
tlnd others: Officers and Servants of the Fleet, amounting towards the Value of thirty
Pounds, for which Lightborn offered Compofition (by . ~ Jecond H~nd) up,0n tb.e
bearing of tbe Approach of Parliament; but your Petitioner (notwl/hfl:zndmg bis.
Nurjjity) refujed to hearken to any Jitch illegal and dangerous way. :fo. znnum.erate
the refl of your Petitioner's hea'v,y PreJfures, would ,take up a Volume, wzth whzch b-e
will not burden your Honours, tzllfurtber Opportumty. ,
And therefore, he humbly and heartily intreatetb, that you would be graczo,ufl]
pleafed to take tbis his Petition into your Jerious crhoughts, and to command Deliue-
ranee, tbat he may plead bis own CauJe, or rather Chrift's tuzd tbe States. As alJo
to affordJuch COJl and Damages as he has fUffer'd in Body, Eflate, and Family, having
been Prijoner (and that, many 'rimes) in the mofl nafty Prifons, eleven rears, 1101
fuffered to breath in the open Air: To which, give him leave to add his great Suffer-
ings in all tbo]e Particulars, jome fixteen rears ago, for puNijhing a Book, called, The
Looking-glafs of H,)ly War.
Further, as the CauJe is Cbrifl's and the States, fo your Petitioner conceioetb (Ult-
tler Correflion) that the Subjdl of the Book will be the prime and main Matter of your
Agitation, to whoft Wi/dam he bopetb the Bookfball approve it /elf. '
Alfo your Petitioner's wearing Age, going now in Jeventy tao rears, together with
the Sicknejles and Weaknefs of his long diflreJfedWife, require a Jpeedy Deliverance.
Laftly, the Sons of Death, the JeJitits, and 1ejuited, have Jr; long infulted in their
oum licentious Liberty, and ooer the Miferies of your Servant and others; who, for-
bearing more Motives, craves Pardon for his Prolixity, beingnecejfit4ted thereto fro~
tbe Depth and Length oj his Miftries. ln all which he ceafetb not to pray, &c. and, .
KiJ!eth 'Jour Hands.
Provo xxiv, I I.
Wilt tbou not deliver them tbat are dra·wn unto Death, and tbo[e that art reaJy
to be Jlain ?

There and the like Violences of Laud and his Creatures drew down the juft
Vengeance of the Parliamenton his Head, and involved the Church of England
it felt in his Ruin. Bifhops and Common Prayer were now no more. The Churcli
was formed after a quite different Model; and the Prefbyterian Difcipline re-"
ceived and eftablifhed ; both the Lords and Commons taking the folemn League
and Covenant, which was intended for the utter abolifhing prelatical Government.
The \V riters of the Church Party think this an everlafting Brand of Infamy
upon the Prefbyterians.But how d.oth this throw greater Infamy upon them~
than the Subverfian of Pr~lbrtery In Scotland, and [h~ impaLing Canons and
Common Prayer on that Nation, doth on Laud and hIS Creatures?' If ~heAl.
tetation of the eftabliilied Religion, in any Nation, be a Crime in it felf. 'tis
fo in ev.ery,Nation; and 1do.ubt not but the Scotch ~re1byteria.ns ~hif.lktha; that
~rch bl~O~, and t~e prelatlcal ~arty 7 aCl:ed as uOJuftly, illegally, and cyran-
nlcalIy, In Introducmg the En.difh Form of Church Government and Wodhip
into Scotland, 'contrary to theIr former Settlement, and the Inclination of al-
moft the whole Nation, as the High-Church Party can do with refpetl: to the
Prdbytetians for altering the Form of the Eftablifhment in E.l1g1ai:d~: And,
indeed, the fa~e Argume~ts that w~ll v~ndicate the Alterati?ns made in Scot-
land by the King and the Blfh~ps, WIll vindicate chafe made 10 El1gland by the
Parliament and the Prefbyrenans.
It would have been highly honourable to the Prefbyterian Party, had they presby ten.
uled-their Power, when in Poffeffion of it, with Moderation, and avoided alia-ns.
thofe Methods of Perfecutions and Sufpenlions they had thernfelves felt the
Effects of in former Times. But to do them ]uftice, they had no great Incli-
nation for moderate Meafures. As Ioon as they came inca the Church; all
others mull out who would not comply, and fubmit to Sequeftrations and Irn-
prifonments. The folernn League and Covenant was impofed and rigorouOy
exacted of all People, as they would efcape the Brand and Penalty of Malig-
nants, Many of the Epifcopal Clergy, both in the City and Country, were
expelled their Livings, though by a Generofity, not afterwards imitated by
them, Provifion was made for the Support of their Wives and Children. The'
Lord. Mayor, Aldermen, and Common-Council-Men of London, prefented
a Remonftrance to the Parliament, defiring a ftriCl: Courfe for fuppreffing all
private and feparate Congregations; that all Anabaptifts, Hereticks, &e.
as not conformed to the publickDifcipline, may be declared and proceeded
againft , that all be required to obey the Government fettled, or to be fettled;'
and that none difaffected to the Presbyterian Government, be employ'd in any
Place of publick Truft. An Ordinance of Parliament was made, by which
every Minifler that fhould ufe the Common-Prayer in Church or Family, was-
to forfeit five Pounds for the firO: Time, ten Pounds for the fecond, and to
fuffer a Years Imprifonment for the third. Alfo every Minifier, for every
N eglect of the Directory, was to pay ferry Shillings; and for every Contern pr
of it, by writing or preaching, to forfeit, at the Difcretion of thofe before
whom he was convicted, any Sum not under five Pounds, nor above fifty
Pounds. The Parliament alfo appointed Elderfhips to fufpend, at their Dif-
cretion, fuch whom they Ihould judge to be fcandaJous, from the Sacrament,
with a Liberty of Appeal to the claflical Elderfhip, &e. They fer up alfo ar-
bitrary Rules about the Examination and Ordination of Minifters by Triers;
who were to be found in Faith; and fuch as ufually received the Sacrament.
And in thefe Things they were quicken'd by the Scots, who complained that
Reformation moved fo flowly, and that Sects and Errors encreafed, and En.
deavours .were ufed for their Toleration. Great Reftraints alfo were put up.
on the Liberty of the Prefs, by feveral Ordinances made for that Purpofe;
And to fay the truth, when they once got Prdbytery eftablifhed, they ufed
the fame Methods of SUfpenfions, Seq.ueftrations and Fines that the prelatical
Parcy ~ad d~ne .bcfor~; though nor wlthequ~] .~efity; and were as zealous:.
for Umformlty In their own Covenant and Dlfclplme, as the Bifhops were fot" -.
Hierarchy, Liturgy, and Ceremonies. .
But the TriuJ.Tlphs of the Prefbytery and Covenant, were but fuort. U~Cftatles IL
on ~he Refioratlon o~ the ~o~al ~a~~erer,. Charles II. Prelacy immediately.
revived, and exerted It [elf 10 Its pnffimve Vigour. and Severity.· In .1m Ma·
1.' jeft(s
86 T be I N T :R 0 D U 'C T I c N,
jefty's ftrft -Declaration to his loving SubjeCl:s,. he w~s p~eafed to pro~ire a ~i-
berty to tender Confti6HCC!, and that no Man jhoutd be d((quzeted or called m §lgejlufII
[or D!f!erenm of Opinion in Matters of Religion; and that he would confen: to an
'AlI of Parliament for the (ull granting tb~t Indulge1Zc~. Bur other Meafu.res f~otl
prevailed. In the ~econd Y~a~ after hIS Reftoration, the .ACl>of UmfoTl!lIty
was pafled, by which all Minifters were to read. and publtckly declare ul1(ezgneJ
A.lfel1t and Confent to all and every Tbing contained in, and prefcribed bJ the Book of
Common Prayer, befererhe Feaft of St. Bartholomew, then enfuing, under the
Penalty of immediate and abfolute Deprivation. The Confequence of this
Ace was, that between two and three thoufand excellent DIvines were turned
out of their 'Churches; many of them, to fay the leaft, as eminent for Learn-
ing and Piety as the BiIhops, who were the great Promoters of this barbarous
Act; and themfelves and Families, many of them, expofed to (he greareft
Dithers and Poverty. This cruellnjufiice obliged the ejected Minifters, and
their Friendscro fee up feparate Congregations, and occafioned fuch a Divifion
from the ellablifhed Church, as will, 1 hope, ever remain, to witnefs. againit
the Tyranny of rhofe Times, and the reverend Authors and Promoters of that
ACt, to maintain the Spirit and Practice of ferious Religion, and asa publick
Proteftation for the civil and religious Liberties of Mankind, till Time fhall
be no more, or till the Church, {hall do her felf the Jufiice and Honour to opea
wide her Gates, for the Reception of all into her Communion and Miniftry;
who are not rendered incapable of either by Jefus Chrift, the great Shepherd
and Bifhop of SOLIIs. But however, Meafures -.yere thea foon taken to difturb
their Meeting. In 1664. the Bill againft frequenting Conventicles paired;
the fuft Offence made punifhable with five Pounds, or three Months Impri-
Jonment; the fecondOffence with ten Pounds, or fix Months Imprifonmenn
and the third with Banifhrnent to fome of the foreign Plantations sfham Plots,
being father'd on the Diffenters, to prepare the Way for rhefe Severities. But
-forue of the Bifhops, fuch as Sheldon,Ward, Wrenn, &c. did not think thefe Hard-
{hips enough, and therefore, notwithftanding the Devaflations of the Plague, and
:tho' feveralofthe ejetted'Minifters fhewed their Piety and Courage, inftaying
and preaChing in the City during the Fury otit, the five Mile Act waspaffed a-
gainft them the next Year, at Oxford ; by which, all the filenced Minifters were
obliged to take an Oath, that it was not lawful, on any Pretence whatfoever~
to take Arms againft the King, or any commiffion'd by him; and that they
would no[~ _at. any time, endeavour an Alteration in the Government of
Church and State. Such who rerupled the Oath, were forbid to COrne within'
..five Miles of any City or Parliament Burrough, or of the Church where they
had been Minifters, under Penalty of ~orty Pounds,or fix Months Imprifonmenr9
for every Offence. After there thmgs, feveral Attempts were fet on Foot
Jor a Co~prehealion, but renpered inetfeCl:ual by thePrratHces of the Bifhops,
and particularly by Ward, Bdhop of Salisbury., who had himfelf taken the-
{akron League and 'Cevena~t: But having forfaken his firft' Principles; 'tis
no \Vonder he became a bItter Perfecutor. In the Year 1670. another fe.:..
,¥~re ACt was pl!fed againft them, by which it W'QS' pr.ovideds that. if' any
The I H T ROD U C T 10 H. 87
Perron, upwards or Iixteen, Ihould be prefent at any Conventicle, under
of exercifing Religion, in any other Manner than according to the Practice o~
the Church of England where there were five Perfons or more, befides thofe' .
of the faid Houfhold,' the Offenders were to pay five Shillings for the fir!t
Offence, and ten Shillings for the fecond, and the Preacher to forfeit twenty
Pounds for the tirft, and forty Pounds for the fecond Offence. And thofe w ho
knowingly fuffered any fuch Conventicles in their Houfes, Barns, Yards, &c.
were to forfeit twenty Pounds. The Effect ofthefe Acts was, that great Num-
bers of Miniflers and their People, were laid in Goals amongft Thieves and
common Malefactors, where they fuffered the grearefl Hardfhips and Indigni-
ties; their Effects were feized on, and thernfelves and Families reduced to al-
moft Beagary and Famine. But at length, this very Parliament which had
paffed th~fe fevere Bills againft Proteftant Diflenters, began thernfelves to be-
awakened, and juftly grew jealous of their Religion and Liberties, from the
Encreafe of Popery: And therefore, to prevent all Dangers which might hap-
pen from Popilh Recufants, th.e~ paired, in 1673. the left Act; wh~ch hath
fince been, contrary to the original Defign of the Law, turned agamft the
Proteftant Diffenrers, and made ufe of to exclude them from the Enjoyment
of thofe Rights and Privileges which [hey have a natural Claim to. In the
Year 1680. a Bill palfed both Houfes of Parliament. tor exempting his Ma-
jefty·s Proteflant dilfenring Subjects from certain Penalties ; but when the King.
came to the Houfe, to pais the Bills, this Bill was taken from the Table, and:
never heard ot more: And though this Parliament voted, that the Profecuticne
of Proreftanr Diffenrers, upon [he penal Laws, was grievous to the Subject, a;'
weakc.-Ring the Proteltant Inrereft, an Encouragement to Popery, and dange-
rous to the Peace ef the Kingdom; yet they underwent a frelh Profecution,
their Meetings were broken up, many Minifters imprifoned, and moft exorbi-
tanr Fines l-evied 011 them and their Hearers.
In the Beginning of King JameJ's Reign thefe rigorous Proceedinzs wereJames rr-:
eontinued , but as the Defign of that unhappy biggocred Prince was ~o fub-
"ert the Religion and Laws of thefe Kingdoms, he publifhed, in the Year 1687.
a Declaration for a general Liberty, of Confciencero allPerfons, of what Per-
fuafton foever , not our of any Regard or AffectiQn to the Proteftant Diffen-
rers, but for the promoting [he PopiCh Religion and Interefl. Healfo caufed
an OJ:der of Council te be paired, that his Declaration of Indulgence Chould be
read Inan ~htl1'cheg andChapels, in ~he Time of Divine Service, all over Eng-'
land and Wales. Bur though the Diffen~~s ufed tbe Liberry which was thus-
granted them, and had feveral 0I;'poftuDltlO to have been revenged on their
former Per~e~urors; y~t th~y h:td' roomuc~ H?nour and Regard to the Pto-
teftanc Rei,lgloo and Llb~t1es, ever to tan In WIth the Meafures of the COurt_
6r,lt;nd theIr Affiflanc:eto mtroducearbitrary Power and Popery. Andasthc'
Dlvmes of the Clturch of Englan.d, ~hen they faw King James'S furious, Mea-
~res to fubvert the whole ConftltUtl<~n, threw off their ftiff and haughty Car.
nage tow~rods tl.e D ifenrer~, ow~ed them for Brethren, put on the ,J\.p~nce ..
of the SPH'lt uf .Peace and Chanty) and atrured them, that no, roth rIgorous

8S Tl» IN T ROD U C T·{ 0 N.
Methods fhould be ufed towards them for the future, Things that never en-
tered into their Hearts whilft they were triumphant in Power, and which no-
thinu but a fenfe of their own extreme Danger feerns then [0 have extorted
frOll~ them: The Diflenters, far from following their Refentrnents, readily
entered into all Meafures with them for the common Safety, and were amongft
the fidl: and heartieft Friends of the Revolution, under King WiI1iam III. of
glorious and immortal Memory.
wiu, III. Soon after the Settlement of this Prince upon the Throne, an Act was paffed
for exempting their Majefties Proreftant Subjects, d:ffenting from the Church
of England, from the penal Laws; and though the King, in a Speech to the
two Houfes of Parliament, told them, That he hoped they would leave
Room for the Admiffion of all Proteftants, that were willing and able to ferve
him; agreeable to which, a Claufe was ordered to be brought into the Houfe
of Lords, to take away the neceflity of receiving the Sacrament to make Per-
fons capable of Offices; yet his Majefty's gr.icious Intentions were fruftrated,
and the Claufe rejected, by a great Majority. Another Claufe alfo that was
afterwards added, That the receiving the Sacrament in.the Church uf England,
or in any other Proreftant Congregation, fhould be a fufficient Q:;lalification,
met with the fame Fate as the former: So, tl at though the Difienters were
freed from the penal Laws, they were left under a Brand. of Infamy, and ren-
der'd incapable offerving their King and Country, and the Lord's Supper laid
cpen to be by Law, to th~ moft aband?n~d and profligate Sinners;
and an Infhrution defigned for the Union of all Chnfhans, made the Tell: of a.
Parry, and the Means of their Separation from each other; a Scandal thatre-
mains upon the Church of Enr)and to this Day. It is indeed but too plain, that
when the eitablifhed Church 1a~ it felf out of Danger, 1he forgot the Prornifes
of Moderation and Condefcention towards the Di,ffenters,. who readily and
openly declared their Willingnefs to yield to a Coalition. But as the Clergy
had formed a Refolution of confenting to no Alterations in order to fuch .an
Union; all the Attempts .made to this Purpofe became wholly ineffectual.
Indeed, their very Exemptionfrom t~e penal Laws was envied them by many,
and feveral Attempts were m.ade to difturb and profecute them in this Reign,
but were prevented from taking Effet1 by royal Injunctions.
Q: Ann. Upon the Death of King Wilfi~m, and the Succeflion of Qgeen Ann, the Ha-
tred of the Clergy" towards the Diffenrers, that had lurked in their Breafts, du-
ring the former Reign, immediately broke out. Several Sermons were preach-
ed to render them odious, and expofe them to the Fury of the Mob. A Bill
was brought in and paffed by the Houfe of Commons, for preventing occafio-
nal Conformity, imflofing an h~ndred Pounds Penalty upon every Perfon re-
forting to a Conventicle or Meeting, after hrs Admiffion into Offices, and five
Pounds for every Days Continuance in fuch Offices, after having been prefent
at {uch Conventi~le. But upon, fome .Difagreement between the Lords and
Commom, {he Bill dropped for that Time. The fame BilJ, with fome ft'w
Alterations, patTed the Houfc of Commons the two next Seffions, but was re-
jeCted by the Lords. During this Reign fever'll Pamphlets were publi1h'd.
containing bitter Invectives againft the Diffenrers, and .exciting the Gove:n-
ment to extirpate and deftroy them. Several Profecurions were alfo earned
on againfl: them for teaching Schools, &c. with great Eagernefs and Malice.
In 1709. an open Rebellion broke out, when the Mo~ pulled down the
Meeting-Houfes and publickly burnt the Pews and PUlpItS. Sacbeuerell was
Trumpet to the 'R~bellio~, by preach!ng ~rreafon and Perfe~ution, and the
Parliament that cen1ured him, was haflily diflolved. The Parliament that fuc-
·ceeded 171 I. was of a true Tory Spirit and Cornplection, and in its fecond
Sellion: paired the Bill againfl: occafional ~onfo.rmity. The_next P~rljament,
which met in 17 I 4' was of the fame Difpofirion, and pafled :t Bill to pre-
vent the Growth of Schifm, by which the Diflenters were refl:rained from
teaching Schools, or from being Tutors to infl:ruB: Pupils in any Family,
without the Licenfe of the Archbifhop, or Bifhop of the Diocefe where they
refided s and the Jufl:ices of the Peace had Power given them finally to de-
termine in all Cafes relating thereto. Another Bill was alfo intended to be
brouzht in againft them, to incapacitate them for voting in Elections for Par-
liame~t Men, or being chofen Members of Parliamentthemfelves.
But before thefe unjuft Proceedings had their intended Effefc, the Pro_George 1.
teftant Succeffion, in his late Majefty King George I. took Place; Q!leen
Ann dying on the firft of Augufl, the very Dayan which the Schifm Bill was
to have commenced; which, together with that to prevent occafional Con-
formity, were both repealed. by thefirft Parliament called together by that
excellent Prince- And I cannot help thinking that if the Church of Eng/and
had then contented to have fer the Diflenrers intirely free, by repeal-
ing the Tefl and Corporation Acts; it would have been much to its own
Honour and Reputation, as well as a great Strength and Security to the na-
tional Interefe. But the Time was not then come. We ftill labour under
the Oppreffion of rhofetwo ACts; and norwirhflanding our Zeal for his Ma-
jefty's Perron and Family, muft fit down as eafy as we can, with the In-
clination to ferve him, whilft, by Law, we are denied the Opportunity
and Power.
The Sentiments of his late Majeily, of glorious Memory, with refpeCt to
Moderation, and the tolerating of Diffenters, were fo fullyiunderfl:ood by
the whole Nation, as kept the Clergy in tolerable good Order, and from
breaking out into many Outrages againft them. But a Controverfy that be-
gan amongft themfelves foon difcovered what Spirit many of them were of.
The th~n ~ifhop of Bangor, the.oow ~orthy and reverend Bifhop of Salisbury,
happen d, ma Sermon before his MaJefty, to aflert the fupreme Authority of
Chrift as King in. his own Kingdom; and that he had not delezated his
Power, like temporal Lawgiv.ers, during their Abfence from their King-
doms to ~ny Pe~fons, as hi~ De.puties.aod Vicegerents. AlInol7I7. He
a1fo publifhed his Prefervarive, 10 which he advanced fame Pofirions con-
trary to temporal and fpiritual Tyranny, and in behalf of the civil and re-
ligious Liberties. of M~nkind .. The ~oodnefs of his Lordfuip's Intentions
toferve the Family of hiS prefeDt MaJefty, the Intereftof hii CQUotty, and
n the
90 The IN T It 0 Due T ION.
the Honour of the Church of God, might, methinks, have fcreen'd him'
from all fcurrilous Abufes. But how numerous were his Adverfaries, and
how hard the Weapons with which they attacked him! Not only tbe Dregs
of the People and Clergy opened againft him, but mighty Men, and Men of
great Reno~n, ~rom whom better Things might hav~ been exp~~ed; enter'd
the Lifts with hirn s and becaufe the avowed Champions for Ipiritual Power,
and the Divifion of the Kingdom between Chrifl Jefus and themfelves. His
Lorfhip of Btmgor had this manifeft Advantage upon the Face of the Argu-
ment, He pleaded for Chrift's being King in his own Kingdom. His Ad-
verfaries pleaded for the Tranflation of his Kingdom to certain fpiritual
Viceroys. He for Liberty of private Judgment in Matters of Religion
and Confcience. They for Dominion over the Faith and Confciences of
others. He againft all the Methods of Perfecurion, They for penal Laws.
for Corporation and Teft Acts, and the powerful Motives of pofitive and
negative Difeouragemenrs .. He, with the Spirit of Meelmefs, and of a Friend
to Truth. They with Bitternefs and Rancour, and an evident Regard to.
Interefl and Parry. However, the lower Houfe of Convocation accufed and
profecuted him for attempting the Subverfion of aU Government and Difci-
pline in the Church of Chrifl, with a View, undoubtedly, of bringing him
under a Ipiritual. Cenfure, and with impeaching the regal Supremacy in
Caufes Ecc1eliaftieal, to ftlbject,hiM to the Weight 0{ a·Civil one. Of the;
Bifhop it muft be faid, to his everlafting Honour, that the Temper he dif..·
covered, under the Oppofition he met with, and the Slanders that were-
thrown on him, was as much more amiable than that of his Adverfaries; as
his Caufe was better, his Writings and Principles more confiflenr, and his
Arguments more conclufive and convincing. But notwithftanding thefe Ad..
vantages, his Lordfhip had great Reafon to be thankful to God that the
Ci"il Power fupported and protected him, otherwife his Enemies would not"
in ali Probability, have been content with throwing Scandal upon his Cha-
:raaer, but forced him to have parted with SO MET HI N G, and then
delivered him unto Satan for the Punifhment of his Flefh, and made him '.
have felt the Weight of that Authority, which GOO made him the happy
'and honourable Inftrnment ofoppofing , efpecialJy if eheywere all of them
of a certain good Archdeacon's Mind, who thought he deferved to have his
Tongue cut out.
The Diffenters alfo have had ~heir Q!tarreJs andControverfiesamong{i
Memfelves~ and. ~anaged the.mwlth great .Warmth and Eegernefs of-Tern-
per. During their Perfecueion under King Charks II. and me common
Danger of the ]S:ation under his- Brother '}4r1IIS, they kept tolerably C).~iec
the Defigns of dIe common Enemy to ruin them all, uniting them the more
firmly. amoDgft themfelves. B~t .after the R.evolution, when they were fe-
cure from. Oppniloo by the Cl!ll- Po,":r;' they fOOR fen into eager Difputts '
about Juftdicinon and othet' Pomcs of hJre Naturo. The h~h 6ownortho-
&loxParry would fcarce own for their .8rethren, thafe trho were for Modera-
~ is chefe PrinciplesJ,or who ditkreci in dw-loaftlJom.thW Dotlrine con.. ,
cerning them. And when they could no longer produce Reafon and Scrip- N.,} (;1I1'/
cure in their Defence, they, fame of them, made ufe of infamous Methods ~1'~lcr ll

of Scandal, and endeavoured to blal] the Character of a reverend and .war·v. L;."
thy Divine Dr. H/il/iams, in the n~oft defperare Manner! beeaufe they could :'76.
no otherwife aofwer and refute Ills Arguments. But his Virtue flood the
Shock of all their Attempts to defame it; for after, about eight Weeks
(pent in an Enquiry into his Lif~,by a Committe~ of the ~nite~ Mi~ifters, which
received all Manner of Complaints and Accufarions agawft him j it was decla-
red at a general Meeting, as their unanimous Opinion, and repeated and a-
greed to in three feveral Meetings fucceffively, that he was intirely clear and
innocent of all chat was laid to his Charge. Thus was he vindicated in the
amplefl Form, after the ftritl:eU: Examination that could be made, and his
Ad\'erfaries, who dealt in Defamation and Scandal, if not brought to R~-
penrance, were yet put to Silence. It was almofl incredible how much he was
a Sufferer for his Oppofition to A.nt;nqm;4nifm, by a flrong Party, who left no-
thing unattempted to cruJh him. jf it bad been' ,poffible. But as his Inno-
cence appeared the brighter, .f"r his Charaaer had been thoroughly fifred,
he was, under God, greatly inflrumental in putting a Stop to rhofe pernici-
ous Opiniooswhich his Oppofers propagated; which ftruck at the very Ef-
Ienrials of all natural and revealed Religion. His Gofpel Truth remains a
Monument of his Honour, a Monumene his Enemies were never able to
deflroy. However, nothing would ferve but his Exclufion from the Mer-
chant's Lecture at Piuners-Hall. Three other worthy Divines, who had been
ht, Partners in that Service, bore him Company, and their Places were fup-
plied with four others, of lUlqueftionable Rigidaefs and Sterling Ortho-
doxy. Maoy Papers were drawn up OIl each Side, in order to an Accommo ...
dation; fo that it looked, as Dr. Calli",) tells US, as if the Creed making Age
"as again revived. It was joGGed, that A.r",i"ianifm fhould be renounced on
one Side, and A.ntillfmliamJm on the other. But all was in vain j and the
Papentbat were drawn up to compofe Matters crested new Heats, inftead
~f extiaguifuing the old ,ODes. Thefe Contentions were kept up for feveral
J'ea,rs, tilt at laft, the Difputants grew weary, and the Controv~rfy thread-
bare, .hell it dropped of it Celf.
The next Thing that divided them was the 'Trinitarian Conrroverfy, and
the AiIairofSubfcription to human Creeds and Articles of Faith, as a Teft of
Onh~xy_ln the Year 169f- a great Conte.ft arofe about the Trinity, amongft
the DIWles of the Cburdl of E1«1mtd,who dJargeq each 9ther with Trithe-
iftl;' aDd Sa"UiJlllif_; .. d aocordiag c!o the "cleGat.icaJ Maaner of managing
Dlfputes, beftowed I~es and fcurrilous Lan~~ge very pl~ntifully, up-
en each other. T~e DI(fenters, in the Reign of his late Majefly, not only
unfortunately fell IDto the fame Debate, but carried it on fome of them
at leaft, With.equal want of Prudence and Temper. In the Weft of ElIgl",ul.
\there the Fire firfl broke out, Moderation, Chriflian Forbearance, and
Charity, feemed to have been wholly extinguifhed. The Reverend :md
~earned Mr. Ja",es Peirce, Minifter in the City of ExeuTJ was di{mi(fed fro~
n ~ hlS
92 The I N T ROD U CT I 0 N~
his Congregation, upon a Charge of Herefy; and treated,by his Oppofers,
with fharncful Rudencfs and Infolence. Other Congregations were alfo
pratfiicd with, to difcard their Pallors, upon the fame Sufpicion, who ~ere
accufed of impioufly dmying the L-ord that bought them, to render them odious
to their Congregations, merely becaufe they could not come up to the unfcrip-
rural Tefls 'of human Orthodoxy. And when feveral of the Miniflers of
London thought proper to inrerpofe, and try, if by Advices for Peace, they
could not compofe the Differences of their Brethren in the Wefr: This
Chriftian Defign was as furiouOy oppofed as if it had been a Combination
to extirpate Chriflianiry it felf; and a Propofal made in the Room of it,
that the Article of the Church of England, and the Anfwer in the A{fem-
bly's Catechifm, relating to the Trinity, fhould be fubfcribed by all the
Miniflers, as a Declaration of their Faith, and a Teft of their Orthodoxy.
This Propofal was confidered by many of the Minifters, not only as a Thing
unreafonable in it felf, thus to make Inquifition into the Faith of others, but
highly inconfiflent with the Character of Proreflants, diflenring from the
national Eliablifhment r and diffenting from it for this Reafon amongft o-
thers, becaufe the eflablifhed Church exprefly claims an Authorit] in Contra-
'zmjies of Faith; And therefore, after the' Affair, had-been debatedfor a con-
fiderable while, the Q.ueftion was folemnly pue; and the Propofal rejected
by a Majority of Voices. This the Zealots 'were highly difpleafed with, and
accordingly publickly- proclaimed their Refentmenrs from the Pulpits. Fafts
were appointed folemnly to deplore, confefs, and I'rayagainft the abound-
ings of Herefy; and their Sermons directly levelled againft the two great Evils
of the Church, Non!"bfcription and AYiani{m. Through the Goodnefs of God
they had no Power to proceed farther: And when praying and preaching, in
this Manner, began to grow tedious, and were, by Experience, found to
prove ineGt:B:ua-l, to put a Stop to the Progrefs of the Caufe of Liberty, their
leal immediately abated, the Cry of Herefy was feldomer heard, and the Ala·
rum of the ~hurch's being endangered by pernicious Errors, gradually
ceafed; it being very obfervable, that though Herefy be ever, in its.,Na.·
ture, the fame Thing, yet that the Cry againft it is either more Of- lefs,
according as the political Managers of it can find more or fewer ·PaBions to
work on, or a greater or lefi"er Intereft to fubferve by it.
And thus have I brought the Hiftory of Perfecurion down 'to our own
Times. If Church Hiftory would ha~e afford~d me any Thing better, I
aiflire my Reader he fhould have had It told WIth Pleafure. The Story, as
it is, 1- have told with Grief. But 'cis Time to difmifs him from fo un-
grateful an-Entertainment) and fee what ufeful Reflections we can make,oa
the Whole- ,
1 be I N T ROD U C T ION.

REM ARK S upoJZ the HIS TOR Y of Chrifl ian Perfecution.

1. 'T I S a Truth too evident to be denied, That the Clergy in genera!,.

throughout almofi all the feveral Ages of the Chriflian Church, have
been deep and warm in the Meafures of Perfecmion; as though it had been a
Doctrine exprefly inculcated in the facred Writings, and recommended
by the Practice of our Saviour and his Apoflles. Indeed, could fueh
a Charge as this have been juftly fixed on the great Author of our Religion.
or the Meflengers he Cent into the World to propagate it; I think it would
have been fuch an Evidence ofits having been dictated by weak, or wicked,
or worldly minded Men, as nothing could poffibly have difproved, But that
Chriftianity might be free from every Imputation of this kind, God was
pleafed to fend his Son into the World, without any of the Advantages of
worldly Riches and Grandeur, and abfolnrely to difcIaim all the Prerognri res
of an earthly Kingdom. His diflinguifhing Character was that of meek: and
lowly; and. the Methods-by which he conquered and triumphed over his Ene-
mies, and drew all Men to him, was Patience arid Conjlal1cy, even to tbe Death,
And when he fent out his own Apoftles, he Cent them out but poorly furnifh-
edt to all human Appearance, for their Journey; 'without Staver, Or Scrip, ,0yLukcix.).
Bread, or !l-loney, to let them know that he had but little of this \V orld to
give them; and that their, whole Dependance was on Providence. One
Thing however he affured them of, that they fhould be deli-cered up to th!"M:m. x,
Councils, and fi'ourged in the Synagogues" and be bated of all Men for bis Jake. So 17·
far was he from giving them a Power to perfecute, that.he foretold them
they muft fuffer Perfecution for his Name: This the Event abundantly ju-
fiified. And how amiable was their Behaviour under it? How greatly did
they recommend the Religion they taught by the Methods they took to pro-
pagate it? The Arms of their Warfare were not carnal, but Jpiritual. The Argu-
ment .they ufed to convince thofe they preached to, was the Demon/lration of the
Spirit, and of Power. They approved themfelves as the Min;flers of God, by much,
Patience, !Jy .Af!liRions, Necef]ities, Difireifn, Stripes, Imprijonments, Tuumlrr,
Labours; Watchings, FaflingI, Purenejs, Knowledge, Long-{t1ferillg, Kindnef), l:y
the HoI} Ghoft, , hJ Love unfeigned, hy the U'iJrd of T'ntth, by the Power oj God,
and hy the Armour of Rightnu/nefs on the right Hand and on the left. Oh how
unlike were their Succetfors to them in there Refpeds l How different their
Methods to convince Gainfayers! Excommunications, Sufpenfions, Fines,
Banifhments, Imprifonmcnts, Bonds, Scourges, Tortures and .Dearh, .were
the powerful Arguments introduced into the Church, and recommended;
pradifed and fanCtified by many of the pretended Fathers of it. Even rhofe
whom Superfl irion hath dignified by the Name of Saints, Athana.ftuI, ChrJfifiom,
Gregory. Cyril, ,and.others, grewwamon,with Powera cruelly op.p:retfed tbo~e who
ditfered .from themvand flained mof] of them their Characters with the Guilt
of Rapine and ~urder .. Their religi~us Q?arrels. were. managed with
fuch all unrelenting, furious Zeal, as difturbed the imperial Government,
threw Kingdoms and Nations into Confulion, and turned the Church it felf
into an Aceldarna, or Field of Blood. Some few there have been who were
of a different Spirit, who not only abftained from perfecuting Counfels and
.Mcafures rhernfelves, but with great Juftice and Freedom cenfnred them in
others. But as to your Saints and Fathers, your Patriarchs and Bifhops,
your Councils and Synods, together with the Rabble of Monks, they were
moil of them the Advifers, Abetters and Practicers of Perfecurion. They
knew not how to brook Oppofition to their own Opinions and Power, brand-
ed all DoCtrines different from their own, with the odious Name of Herefy,
and ufed all their Arts and Influence to opprefs and dellroy thofe who pre-
filmed to maintain them. And this they did with fuch Unanimity and Con-
Haney, through a long Succeffion of many Ages, as would tempt a flander
by to think, that a Bifhop or Clergyman, and a Perfecuror, were the fame
Thing, or meant the felf fame individual CharaCter and Office in the Chri-
Ilian Church.
I am far from writing thefe Things with any Defign to depreciate and
blacken the epifcopal Order in general. "Tis aD -04Iice of great Dignity
and t]fe, according to the origiMl DefigD of its Inffiturion.But when that
Defign is forgotten, o~ wholly. perverted; eeD, i~fteadof becomingOwr-
[eers of the Flock of Chn.ft, the BI{hOPS ;a~e anti atfJtJUT sr, and proudly ufurp Do..
.minion over the Confciencesof Chnibans, when they ought tG be Q)l1tent
with being Helpers of their Joy, I know no Reafon why the Name fhould
be complimented, or the Character held faered, when 'tis abufed to Info-
lenee,Oppreffion and Tyranny ror why the venerable Names of Fathers and
Saints, fhould Icreen the Vices of the Bifhops of former A~es wbonGt4
withftandingtheir writing in .behalf of Chrifiia~itr and Onhod1l~y, br'onght
fome of them the greateft Dilgrace on the ChnftJ11DReligion, by their wic-
ked Practices, and expofed it to the feverefl: Satyrs of its profetfed Enemies:
And for the Tn~th of this, I appeal to the foregoing Hiflery. If anyOb ..
fervations on their Conduce fhould affeCt the Temper and Principles of AilY
now living, they themfelves only are anfwerable for it, and welcome to make
wha~ Ufe and .Appli~ation of ~hem they pleafe. Sure I am that 'the -repre"
fentIng them 10 their true ~15~' refleCts an HO.r1onrupcmt'hofe reverettd
and '!orrhy Prelates, \~ho.ma11ltalOthat .Moderatlon and Humility, whieh is
effenual to the true Dlgmty of the Eplfcopal CbaraB:erand who me 80
other Methods of ConviLtion and Perfuafion, but thof.e truly Apoftolical ones
of found Rea'funing and exemplary Piety. May God grant a great locreafe:
and a continual SuecefftOn of tbem in the Chriftian Church.
n. But as the Truth of Hiftory n oot to be concealed' and as it can de
no Sen'iee to theChrjfti~nC2Ufe to,paUiate. the FanJts ofany8et of Chri.
-fiians wharfoever; efpeclany when anPa.rtIes have been more orle{s in-
~olved in the fame Guilt; I muft obferve farther~ as an Aggravatit')J) ~
The I N T ROD U C T ION. 95
this Guilt, that the Things for which Chriftians ~lave p~rFecl1ted each other,
have been generally Matters of no Importance 10 Rellg!on, and ofrentirnes
[uch as have been directly contrary to the. Nature of It. If my Reader
would know upon what Accounts the Church hath been filled with Divifions
and Schifms; why Excommunic~tions and Anathemas have b:en fo dread-
fully toffed about; "hat hath ~Iven Occafion to fuc~ a Multitude of Suf-
penfions, Depofirious and ~xpuHions ; .what hath excited the ~lergy to fuch
numberlefs Violences, Rapines, Cruelties and Murders, he WIllprobably be
furprized to be informed, that'tis nothing of any Confequence or real Im-
portance, nothing relating to the Subftance an~ Li~e of pure a?d
filed Religion; little befides hard Words, technical Terms, and inexplica-
ble Phrafes, Points of mere Speculation, abflrufe QEefiions, and meraphyfi-
cal Notions; Rites and Ceremonies, Forms of human Invention, and cer-
tain lnftitutions, that have had their Rife and Foundation only in Superfii-
tion. Thefe have been the great Engines of Divifion , there the fad Occa-
{ions of Perfecution- Would it not excite fometimes Laughter, and fame ..
times Indignation, to read of a proud and imperious Prelate.excommunicating
the whole Chrilliao Church, and, fending, by Wholefale, to the Devil, all
who did not agree with him in the precife Day of obferving Eafler ? -Elpeci-
tny .hen there is fo far from being any Direction given by Chrifl orhis
Apoftles about the Day; that there is not a fingle Word about the Fefli-
\'al it ftlf. And is it not an amazing Inflance of Stupidity and Superflirion,
that fuch a paltry and whimfical Controverfy fhould actually engage, for ma-
ny Years, the whol~ Chrifiian World, and be debated with as much Warmth
and Eagernefs, as If aU the Inrerefts of the prefent and future Scatehad
been at Stake; as if Chrift himfelf had been to be crucified afrefu, and
his whole Gofpel to be fubverced and deflrey'd.
The Ar;anControverfy, thar: made fuch Havockin the CbriiHan Church,
waS, if 1 may be allowed to fpeak it without' Offence, in the BegrIming
only, about Words; thou~b probably, fome of Ar;UJ his Party went Blrther
afterwards than Ar;tu. himfelf did at firft. Ariu/J as hath been fuewn, ex-
prefiy allowed the Son to be ~ 'XeP~ 'l1 ~ tU"~" kfDrt aI17'l",es and Ages,
"'AlIfll~ef~, per/tEl God, 1I.,u.1I.~.q~~,unthangem,le, and begotten after the moil:
perfea. Likenefs of the un begotten Fat~er. This, to me, appears to bid
"Iery fau for Orthodoxy, and was, I thlDk, enough to have reconciled the
Bi(hop and his Presbyter, if there had not been fome other Reafons of the·
Animolity between them. But when other Terms were invented that were
hard to be .ftde~. aDd 'diIB~ tobe e:tplaiaed,; the original Controver-
fy ce~fed,andth~ Dtfp~e,then. ,!lS aboat ~h.e.Meaning of thofe Terms, and,-;
the Flrnefs'of their Ufel.n explal~lOg t~e DIV1D1ty of the Son of God. Adul
khew not .how to reconcIle the Bl{hop s Words, «Eijlml!~, e'Ver begotulI; - "ith.'-
the Affertlon, that t~e ~on, 'lIPlI'lrltfXI!'I ctY!PI'IlTQ1~T~ ~£Q1, coexifls un!Jegotttnlj_tb"
0tJ; and thou~ht It httle lefs than a ContradIction to affirm, thathe'w.!,
C7'tm1~"'fJlIl~,unbegottenly begotttn. And as to the Word op.."/If C611J-iJltndia1.
A.riul {oems to have thought deftroy~d'>the ~riOna1Sui.tiIen"of th~
II So.n ~ ,
96 TZ,e I N T ROD UC T I 0 -N.
SOD, and brought in the Dodrine of Sobellius , or eire, th~t it -implied, ~hat
the Son was t)"ro~ TIS '7T'a7e.;;, a Part of the Father; and for this Reafon declme~
the Ute of it. And, indeed, it doth not appear to me that the Council
of Nice had themfelves any determinate and fixed Meaning to the Word, as,
I think may be fairly inferred from the Debates of that Council, with Eujebi-
us, Bifhop of Cafm-ea, about that Term; ,~hich, though I?ut into their Creed,
in Oppofirion to the Arians, was yet explained by them In fuch a Senfe as al-
mofl any Arian could have, bona fide, fubfcribed. On the ~ther .hand, the
Bifhop of Alexandria feems to have thought, that when Arius aflerted that
the Son exifled -' ~ TIS '7T'd.1v; hy the usu and Caunfel of tbe Father;

it implied the Mutability of his Nature; and that, when he taught concern-
ing the Son, 011 tlV 01, ~~ tlJ', tbat there was a Time when he was nat; it inferred
his being a temporary and not an eternal Being; though Arius exprefly de-
nied both thefe Confequences. In fhorr, it was a Controverfy upon this me-
ThllJ. raphyfical Queflion, Whether or no God could generate Or produce a Being, in
E H. 1. I. Striilne], of Speech, as eternal as himfelj? or, Whether God's generating the Son dotb
c, s· not neceffilrily imply the Pre-esiflence oj the Father, either S'7T'IVOId., in Conception, or
tt1o.u.", 711'l, [cme [mall imaginable Point of Time, as Arius imagined, and the Bi-
fhop denied. This was, in FaCt, the State of this Conrroverfy. And did
not the Emperor Confiantine give a juil: Character of this Debate, when he
declared the Occafion of the Difference to be very trifling; and that their
Quarrels arofe from an idle itch of Difpuration, fince they did not contend
about any eflential Doctrine of the Gofpel ? Couldthefe hard Words and in-
explicable Points juftify the Clergy in their intemperate Zeal; and in their
.treating each other with the Rancour and Bitternefs of the moil: implacable
Enemies? "That hath the Doctrine of real Godlinefs, what hath the Church
of God to do with thefe Debates? Hath the Salvation of Mens Souls, and
the PraEtice of Virtue any Dependance upon Mens receiving unfcriptural
Words, in which they cannot believe, becaufe they cannot underftand them,
and which, thofe who firil: introduced them were not able to explain? If I
know my own Heart, I would be far from giving up any plain and important
Doctrine of the Gofpel. But will any Man cooly and foberly affirm, that
nice and intricate Qpefrions, that depend upon metaphyfical Difiintlions,
and run fo high as the moft minute fuppofeable Atome or Point of Time,
can be either plain or important Dodrines of the Gofpel / Oh Jefus! If thoU
_be the Son of the, everlafiing. God, the Brightne/s of thy Father's Glory, and the e"-
prejj Image oj hIS Perfan; If thou art the moil: perfectRefemblance of his all
perfect Goodnefs, that kind Benefaceor, that God-like Friend to the human
Race, which the faithful Records of thy Life declare thee to be How can I
believe the efiemial Doa~ines of thy Gofpel to be thus wrapped 'uP in Dark-
nefs; or, that the Salvation of that Church, which thou haft pur&hafed with thy
J3!ood, depends On.fllCn myfierious and inexplicable Conditions~ If thy Gofpet
reprefems the~ ~Ight, furely thou mnft be better pleafed with the humble,
peaceable ChrJlllan, who, when honeftly fearchina into the Glories of thy
):-lature, and ivilJing co give thee all the Adoration bthy great Father hath or-
I dered
The I N T 1\ 0 Due T ION. 97
dered him to pAy thee, falls into fome Errors, as !he Confequence of h?ii'an
Weaknefs; than with that imperious and tyrannical Difciple, who divides
thy Members, tares the Bowels of thy ~hurch, and fpreads Confulion and
Strife throughout thy Followers and .Fnends~ eve~ for the fake of Truths
that lie remote from Mens Underflanding, and 10 which thou haft not ~hought
proper to make the full, the plain Decifion. If Truth is not to be gIven up
for the fake of Peace, I am fure Peace is not to be facrificed for the fake of
fuch Truths; and if the GofpeI is a Rule worthy our Regard, the Clergy of
thofe Times can never be excufed for the Contentions they raifed, and the
Miferies they occafioned in the Chrifiian World, upon Account of them.
The third and fourth General Councils feem to have met upon an Occa-
fion of much the like Importance. The firft Council of Nice, determined ~he
Son to be a diftina Hypoflafis, or Perfon from, but of the fame Nature With
the Father. The fecond at Conflantin(lple, added the Holy Ghoft to the fame
Subftance of the Father, and made the fame individual Nature to belong
equally and wholly, to Father, Son, and Holy Ghoft; thus making them three
diftintt Perfons in one undivided Eflence- But as they determined the Son to
be truly Man, as well as truly God, the Bifhops brought a new Conrrover-
fy into the Church, and fell into furious Debates and Quarrels about his
PerfonaIity. Neflorius, Bifhop of Con/lantinople, with his Followers, main-
tained two difiina Perfons in Chrift, agreeable to his two diftintt Natures.
But Saint Cyril, the implacable Enemy of Neflorius, got a Council to decree,
that the two Natures of God and Man being united together in our Lord,
made one Perfon or Chrift, and to curfe all who Ihould affirm that there
were two difiint1 Perfons or Subliftences in him. 'Tis evident, that either
Cyril, and his Council, muO: have been in the wrong in this Decree, or the
two former Councils of Nice and Conflantinople wrong in theirs; becaufe 'tis
certain, that they decreed the Word PER SON to be ufed in two infi-
nitely different Senfes. According to thofe of Nice and Confiantinople, one
individual Nature or Effence conrain'd three difiina: Perfons. According to
Cyril's Council, two Natures or Effences infinitely different, and as diflinc] as
thofe of God and Man, conflituted but one Perfon. Now how one Nature
Jhouid he ~h~e: P~rfons, and yet t~o Natures one Perfon, will require the Skill even
o~ Infallibility It felf to explain ; and as thefe Decrees are evidently contra-
didory to one another, I am afraid we mufl allow, that the Holy Ghofl had
no Hand in one 01' other of them. This fame of the Clergy very en/ily ob-
ferved i and therefore, to maintain the Unity of the Perfon of Chrifl, Euty~
cbes a~d DitUCOYUl. maintained, that though Chrift conlified of rwo Natures be-
fore hIS Incarnation, yet after. that, he had but one Nature only . But this
was condemned by the Council of Chalcedon, and the Contradictions of the
former Councils ded.ared all to be ~rlle, and render'd facred with the Stamp
of Orthodo~y. ThIS was ~lfo ratified by the fifth Council under Jujlinim,.
who alfo .ploufiy and ch~fltably ra~ed into the Dull: of poor Origm, and
damned hIm for an Here.t,ck. But 0::111 there was a Difficulty yet remaining.
about the Perron of ChIlO::: For as Chrift's being one Perion did not de!lroy
.0 the
The I NT It on U C T ION.
the Difiinction of his two Natures, it became a very important and warm·
Controverfy, WhetherChrifi had any more than one Will, as he was but one
Perron in two Natures? or, Whether he had not two Wills, agreeable to his
two difrintt Natures, united in one Perfon ? This occafioned the calling the
Iixth General Council, who determined it for the two Wills; in which, ac-
cording to my poor Judgment, they were very wrong. And had I had the
Honour to have been of this venerable A£fembly, I would have compleated
the Myflery, by decreeing, that as Chrifl had but one Perfon, he could have
but one perfonal Will; but however, that as he had two Natures, he mufl
alfo have two naturalWills, I be~ my Reader's Pardon for thus prefuming
to offer my own Judgment, in Oppofirion to the Decree of the holy Fa-
thers; but at the fame Time, I cannot help fmiling at the Thought, of
two or three hundred venerable Bithops and Fathers thus trifling in
Council, and folemnly playing at: Qpeflions and Commands, to puzzle o-
thers, and divert themfelves. Were it not for the fatal Confequences that
attended their Decifions, I fhould look on them as Bifhops in Mafquerade,
met together only to ridicule the Order, or to fet the People a laugh-
ing at fo awkward a Mixture of Gravity and Folly. Surely the Reverend
Clergy of thofe Days had but little to do amongft their Flocks, or but little
Regard to the Nature and End of their Office. Had they been faithful to-
their Character, inflead of doting about Q.U4/ionsanil-5lriJ;soj mrds, whereof
came Envy, Strife, RailiNg!, evil Surmiftng!, per'Uftft Difputingsoj: Men of cor-
rupt Minds, and defiirute of the Trtub, fuppojiilg that qain is GodJinefs•. they would,
have confented to. and taught wholfome WOrds, e'lJen the "Words of 0tIr LArd 1efU$
Ch;'i(l, and the Dollrine ssbicb is according to Godlinefi. -
But this was not: the Temper of the Times. It would have been indeed.
more tolerable, .had the Clergy confined their ~larrels to themfelves, and,
quarrelled only about Ipeculative Dodrines and harmlefs Conrradidions..
Hue to inrereft the whole Chriflian World in thefe Contentions, and to ex-
cite furious Perfecurions for the Support of Dodrines and Pradices, even
oppolire to the Nature, and deflrudive of the very End of Chriftianity, is-
equally monfirous and aftonithing. And yet this is the Cafe-of the feventb-
General Council, who decreed the Adoration of the Virgin MarJ. of'
Angels, and of Saints, of Relicts, of Images and Pictures, and who thereby
obfcured the Dignity, and corrupted the Simplicity of the Chrifl:ian Worfhip
and Doctrine, This the venerable Fathers of that Council did, and pro-
nounced Anathemas againft all who would not come. into their idolatrous·
Practices, and excited the Civil Power to opprefs, and deftroy them. .
III. Surely it could not be a Zeal for God and Chriftt and the Truth and lIo--
nour of Chrifiianity, no real Love to Piety and Vertue, that prompted sad lead:
rhem on to thefe Ads of Injuftice and Cruelty. Without any Breach of Charity,
it may be alferted ofmoft, if not all of them, that'twas their Pride, and their
immoderate Love of Dominion, Grandeur and Riches, that influenced themro·
there unworrhy and wicked Meafutes. The Intereft of Religion and Truth, the-
Honour of Goo and the Church, is, I know,rthe ftalc Pretence:.; bucaP.r:etcnce.l
-- aID
The I N T ROD U C T ION. 99
am afraid that hath but little Probability or Truth to fupport it. For what I13th
Religion;o do with the Obfervation of Days? or, What c~u!d excit~ ViRor to
excommunicate fo many Churches about Eafler, but the Ifide of hIS Heart,
and to let the World fee, how large a Power he had to fend Souls to the Devil?
How is the Honour of God promoted, by Speculations that have no Ten-
dency to Godlinefs? Will any Mall ferioufly affirm, that the ancien~
Difputes about IJ7fO;ttl1{~, ~fT~7fOI', tJ'lol11l,~, ~IJ'T{~, OP.Ol1(ilO" Or~OI\1'T/O" and the refl ot
the hard Words that were invented, did any Honour to the Name of
Chrifr, or were of any Advantage to the Religion of his Gofpel ? Or, can
. he believe that Alexander, .Arius, Atbanafius, Macedonius, and others, were
influenced in all their Contentions and ~larrels, in all the Confufions they
were the Authors of, and the Murders they occationed, purely by religious
Motives P Surely the Honour of Religion muft be promoted by other Means;
and genuine Chriflianiry may flourifh, and, indeed, would have flourifh'd
much better, had thefe Difputes never been introduced into the Church;
or had they been managed with Moderation and Forbearance. But fuch
w;S the .Haughtiaefs ()f~h~Clergy, fnch. their Thirft of Dominion over the
Confciences ofoth~rs,£ucbtheir Impatience of Contradiction, that nothing
wO\lldcOptent ,them but implicit Faith to their Creeds, abfolure Subjection
tothCir Decrees, and Subfcription to their Articles without Examination or
Convi<9:ion of their Truth; or for want of there, Anathemas, Depofitions,
Banifhments and Death.
The Hifrory of all the Councils, and of almofl aU the Bifhops that is lefe
us, is a Dernonfiration of this fad Truth. What Council can be named. that
did not affume a Power to explain, amend, fettle, and determine the Faith?
That did not anathematife and depofe thofe who could not agree to their Decifi-
ons, and that did not excite the Emperors to opprefs and deftroy them? Was
this the Humility and Condefcention of Servants and Minifters? Was Dot
this lording it over the Heritage of God, fearing themfelves in the Throne
efche Son of God, and making themfelves owned as Fathers and Maflers, in
Oppofidontoth~ exprefs Command of Chrift to the contrary?
c-:: (;/4711ens Romanul, in his firft Epiftle to the Corinthians, Cap. 44' tells us, Apud eo;
..;~~the Apojl/eJ knew, hy the Lord Jefus Chrifl, that the Epiftopal Name andteJ..p.I1;~
~~,~ he the Occafion of Conwztion in the Chri(1ian Church; a t noble Inflance,
fays :th,c learned FeU, in his Remarks on the Place, of the prophetick Spirit of the e.
A~-. ~tt.
Apojlttli4!. Age. Formerly, he adds, that Mens Amhition and evil Pra£lices to oh-
rain tbill)!gtz;th lred/lceq &hifm~ and H~refies. And 'twas indeed no Wonder
that ~ueh;~fQrAAr$ .IUld~,~n~,,~opl~;be occafioned, when the B~..
fuopncks \Vef~.~rt~uP~t,ps,not~yto'Po~er Qnd Dominion, but to the
E~ol\1ments an6 ..A<1vaatilges of Riches.~d Honours .. Even long before t~e
::'IJme of ConflanttJl!,-rbe Clergy had got a very great Afcendant over the
;)t Kltl 01 d.7fO,MOI
~,·.e~IO"X07fIl< .,
I1[J.GlV E'}'VAJO'4.V J'/~ TIt X.lIell$ II[J."V r;~l$ XP,II, 0/1 Eel~ Ir;/U
WI T'l{orot#it"
• ';" ,~, ,
1::~ue~lenta praefenf,o rer~m- quacq;prophetieum Apofiolici zvi_spir~tar.
Vllm aiimU& & h:rrefcs fublnde or::£, pr:rfaH.!gii iftius defid",icI4c~'~,.J ..;~.
o 2 "Laity;
JOO The I N T It 0 Due i I 0 No~
Laity; and grew, many of them, rich, by the voluntary Oblations of the
People: But the Grants of that Emperor confirm'd them in a worldly Spirit,
and the Dignities and vall: Revenues that were annexed to many of the Sees,
gave Rife to infinite Evils and Difturbances, So they could but get Pof-
feflion of them, they cared not by what Means, whether by clandefline Or-
dinations, fcandalous Symony, the Expulfion of the Pofleflors, or through
the Blood of their Enemies. How many Lives were loft at Rome, Conflantino-
pie, Alexandria and Antioch, by the furious Contentions of the Bifhops of
thofe Sees j depofing one another, and forcibly earring upon Potfeffion?
Would AtharlaJius, and Macedonius, Damajus, and others, have given Occa-
fion to fuch Tumults, and Murders, merely for Words and Creeds, had there
not been fomewhat more fubfiantial to have been got by their Bifhopricks?
Would Cwil have perfecured the Nouatians, had it not been for the fake of their
Riches, of which he plunder'd them, foon after his Advancement to the See
of Alexandria? No. The Character given by the Hiflorian of 7heodoftus,
Bifhop of Synada, may be too truly applied to almoft all the reft of them;
who perfecured the Followers of Macedonius, not from a Principle of Zeal
for the Faith, but through a covetous Temper, and the Love of Money.
This St. Jerome obferved with Grief, in the Palfage cited p. 31. of this In-
troducnon ; and Ammianus Marcellinus, an Heathen Writer, reproach'd them
with, in the Paflage cited p. 39'
I V, I think it \ViII evidently follow, from this Account, th~t the Deter~
mi narions of Councils, and the Decrees of Synods, as to Matters of Faith,
:l~'C of no manner of Authority, and can carry no Obligation upon any Chri-
ftian wharfoever- I will not mention here one Reafon, which would be it
felf fufficient, if all others were wanting, viz.. That they have no Power
. given them in any Part of the Gofpel Revelation, to make thefe Decifions in
controverted Points, and to oblige others to fubfcribe them; and that there-
fore the Pretence to it is an Ufurpation of what belongs to the great God,
who only hath, and can have a Right to prefcribe to the Confciences of
Men. But to let this pafs, what one Council can be fixed upon, that will
appear to be compofed of fuch Perfons, as, upon an impartial Examination,
can be all owed to be fit for the Work of fettling the Faith, and determin-
ing all Conrroverfies relating to it? I mean in which the Majority of the
Members may, in Charity, be fuppofed to be difinterefled, wife learn-
ed, peaceable and pious Men? Will any Man undertake to affirm this
of the Council of Nice? Can any Thing be more evident than that the
Members of that venerable Alfembly, came, many of them, full of Pa1iioa
and Refentment; that others of them were crafty and wicked, and others
ignorant and weak? Did their Meeting together in a Synod immediately
cure them of their Defire of Revenge, make the Wicked virtuous, or the
Ignorant wife? If nor, their joint Decree, as a Synod, could really be of
no more ~eight than their private Opinions; nor, perhaps, of fo much I
becaufe, tIS well known, that the great TranfaCiions of fuch A{femblJes,
are generally managed and conduded by a few; and that Authority, Per-
. . - - - -- (uanao,
The IN Tit 0 Due T ION. 101
fllalion, Profpe& of Interefl, and other temporal Motives, are commonly
made Vfe of to fecure a Majority. The Orthodox have taken Care to de-
firoy all the Accounts given of this Council, b~ thofe o.f th~ oppofite Party;
and EujebiuJ Bifhop of Cit/area, hath pafled It over In Silence; and only
dropped tw~ or three Hints, that are very far from being favoura~le to
thofe reverend Fathers. In a Word, nothing can be collected from Fn.ends
or Enemies, to induce one to believe, that they h~d any of thofe Qualifica-
tions which were neceflary to fit them for the Province they had undertaken,
of fettling the Peace of the Churc~l .by a. fair, candid and impartial Det~r-
mination of the Conrroverfy that divided It: So that the Emper?r ~onflanttn~, .
and Socrates the Hiftorian, took the mofl effectual Method to vindicate their
Honour, by pronouncing them infpired by the Holy Ghoft, which they had
great need of, to make up the want of all other Qualifications.
The fecond General Council were plainly the Creatures of the Emperor
'I'heodojius, all of his own Party, and convened to do as he bid them; which
they did, by confirming the Nicene Faith, and condemning all f::Ierefies.
The third General Council were the Creatures of Cyril, who was their Prefi-
denr, and the inveterate Enemy of Neflorius, whom he condemned for Herefy,
and was himfelf condemned for his Rafhnefs in this Affair, and excommuni-
cated by the Bifhop of Antioch. The fourth met under the Awes of the Em-
peror Marcian, managed their Debates with Noife and Tumult, were formed.
into a Majority by the Intrigues of the Legates of Rome; and fettled the
Faith by the Opinions of Athanafius, Cyril; and others. I need not men-
tion more; the farther we go the worfe they will appear. Now may
it not be asked, How came the few Bifhops, who met by Command of Theo.
dofius, to be fliled an Oecumenieal or General Council? As they came to
decree, ashe decreed they fhould, what Authority, with any wife Man, can
their Decifionshave? As they were all of one Side, except thirty fix of the
Macedouia» Party, who were afterwards added; what lefs could be expected,
but that they would decree themfelves Orthodox, eflablifh their own Creed,
and anathematize all others for Hereticks? And as to the next Council, I
confefs I can pay no Refpett or Reverence to a Set of Clergy, met under
the Diredion and Influence of a Man of Cyril's Principles and Morals; efpe-
dally as the main TranfaCiion of that Council was hurried on by a Defire of
Revenge, and done before the Arrival of the Bifhop of Antioch, with his
~utfr~gan Brethren, and condemned by him as foon as he was informed of
It; till at length the Power and Influence of the Emperor reconciled the
two haughty Prelates; made them reverfe their mutual Excommunications
decree the fame l?oehine, and join in pronouncing the fame Anathemas:
Cannot anyone difcern more of Refentment and Pride in their firft ~ar-
reI, than of a Regard to Truth and Peace; and more of Complaifance to the
Emperor than of Concern for the Honour of Chrift in their after Reconcilia-
tio~? And as t? the next Cou~cil, let anyone but read over the Account giveB
of It by Evagrtus; what horrible Confufions there were amongft them; how
~ey threw about Ana~hema~ and Curf~§~ h~~ they f.a!~er'd!b.c~ VlOlences
10:1 T he I.N T ROD U C T ION.
on Chrifl:; how they fettled the Faith by the DoCtrines of AthannJiU5, Cyril.
and other Fathers; and if he can bring hirnfelf to pay any Reverence to their
Dccrce s 1 envy him not the Subrniflion he pays them, nor the Rule by which
he lTuiJ:s and determines his Belief.
£' confcis I cannot read the Account of thefe Tranfadions, their afcribing
their Aunrhcrna s and Curfcs to Chrifr and the Holy Trinity, and their De-
citions as to the Faith, to the Holy Gholl, without Indignation at the horrid
Abufe of rhofe facred Names. Their very Meeting to pronounce Damna-
tion on their Adrerfaries, and to form Creeds for the Confciences of others,
is no lefs than a Dcmonftrarion that they had no Concurrence of the Son of
God, no Influence of the Holy Spirit of God. The Faith was already fettled
for them, and for all other Chriilians in the facred Writings, and needed no
Decilion of Councils to explain and amend it. The very Attempt was In-
faience and Ufurpation. Infallibility is a neceflary ~lalification lor an Of-
fice of Inch Importance. But what Promife is there made to Councils of this
divine Gift? or, if there fhould be any fuch Promife made to them; yet
the Method of their Debates, their fcandalous Arts to defame their Adverfaries~
and the Contradictions they decreed for Truth and Gofpel, proves, to the
fullefr Conviction, that they forfeited the Grace of it. And indeed, if the
Fruits oj the Spirit are Love, Peace, Long-Jujfering, Gemlenef), Goodnejs; and
Mel!kneJs, there appeared few or no Signs of them in any of the Councils.
The Soil was too rank and hot to produce them.
I wifh, for the Honour of the former Times, I could give a better 'Ac-
count of there AIl"emplies of the Clergy, and fee Reafon to believe my felf
that they were, generally fpeaking, Men of Integrity, Wifdom, Candour,
Moderation and Virtue. The Debates of fuch Men would have deferved
Regard, and their Opinions would have challenged a proper Reverence. But
even had this been the Cafe, their Opinions could have been no Rule co
others, and how great a Veneration f?ever we might have had for their
Characters, we ought, as Men and Chriflians, to have examined their Prin-
ciples. There is one Rule fuperior to them and us, by which Chrifiians are
to try all Doctrines and Spirits; the Decifion of which, is more facred than
that of all human Wifdom and Authority, and every where, and in all
Ages obligatory. But as the ancient Councils confifted of Men of quite
other Difpofitions s and as their Decifions in Matters of Faith were arbi-
tra.ry and ~nwarrante?; a~d a.,s t~ofe Decifions themfelves were generally
owmg to Court Practices, lOtl?gUlng Starefmen, the Thirfl of Revenge, tl~e
Management of a few crafty interefled Bifhops, to Noife and Tumult, die
Prcfpeds and Hopes of Promotions and Tranflations, and ocher the like
Caufes; the Reverence p~id them by many Chriflians is truly furprizing;
and I cannot account for It any lVay but one, 'Viz.,. that thofe who thus cry
tlP their Authority, are in hopes of fuceeeding them ill their Power ; and
therefore would feign perfuade others that their Decrees are facred and
LindiJgJ to make way for the impofing of their own.
The I N T ROD U C T ION. ] 03
It would be well worth the while of ~ome of the.fe Cout1cil-l:10ngers to
lay down fome proper Rules and D.iftincbons, ~1Y which we may. Judge what:
Councils are to be received, and which to be. re)e.Eted; a?d particularly why
the four fidl. General C~llncils fhould be Iubmittcd to. ~n Preference to :l~l
others. Councils have often decreed contrary to Counci IS, and the fame ~l'
fhops have decreed different Things in different Councils; and even the third
and fourth General Councils determined the Ufe of the 'Nord PER SON,
in an infinitely different Seule from what the two firft did. Heretical Councils,
as they are called, have been m.ore in. Number ~han fome Q:thodox gene-
ral ones, called by the fame imperial Authority, have claimed the fame
powers, pretended [0 the fame Influence of the Holy Ghofi, and pronounced
the fame Anathemas againft Principles and Perfons. By what Criteria or
certain Marks then mufl we judge, which of thefe Councils arc thieving,
general, particular, orthodox, heretical, and which not? The Councils
themfelves muft not be Judges in their own Caufe ; for then we rnufl re-
ceive or reject them all. The Characters of the Bifhops that compared
them' will not do. for their Characters feem equally amiable and Chrifliau
on each fide. The Nature of the Doctrine, as decreed by them, is far from
being a fafe Rule; becaufe, if human Amhori ty, or Church Power makes
Truth in any Cafe; it makes it in every Cafe; and therefore, upon this Foot
the Decrees at 'lyre and Epbejus , are as truly binding [IS thofe at Nice
and Cbalcedcn. Or, if we muft judge of the Councils by the Nature of
the Doctrine, abflracied from all human Authority. thofe Councils
can have no Authority at all. Every Man mufl fit in Judgment over
them, and try them by Reafon and Scripture, and reject and receive them,
juft as he would do the Opinions of any other Perfons wharfocver. And, I
humbly conceive, they fhould have no better Treatment, becaufe they de-
ferve none.
V. If then the Decrees of Fathers and Councils, if the Decifions of human
Authority in Matters of Religion, are of no avail, and carry with them no
Obligation, it follows. that the impofing Subfcriptions to Creeds and Arti-
cles of Faith, as Tells of Orthodoxy, is a Thing unreafonablc in it Cdf)
ss it hat~ proved of infinite ill Confeqnence in the Church of God.
1 call It an unreaJonable Cuflom, not onlv becaufe where there is no PG\Vl'r
to make Creeds for others, there can be no Right to impofe them; but be-
ca~fe no ~me good Reafon can be affigned for the Ule and Continuance of
this Practice. For, as my Lord Bi1hop of L01tdon admirably well explains this
11atter,As long as !'d~n are .Mm) and have different Degrees of Underflmzdil1g, Bijbop of
and every on.ea PaTttaltty.tQ hIS own Conceptions, it is not to be expened that they London,
p;ou!d a,~reetJZ anyone emtreScheme, mid every Part of it, in th'! Circumftancn as l.d paji.
-u:ell (IS the ~ubfiance, in. tbe l\1.,mner of TI'ings, as 'well as in th~ TIlings them{elver. ~~: p. liv
The Q.teflton ther~fore IS ~ot tJZ general about a Dif!"renci! in Opinion, whhh, in
~ur pr~Jen: ~ta:e, IS ~ma'Voldable; hut aboftt the Jf/eight aad Importance of the '['kings
'Wherein Chrifluznf d~ffe~, ~a.nd th~ Things wherein the;; agree. And it wil/appear~
that the jiveral Duwmmatlom of ChrijtialZS agree lotb in the Su!Jjlance of Religion, and
1 ~
1°40 Tl» I N T ROD U C T ION.
in the necef!ary Injorcements of the PraElice of it. CJ'hatthe W/arld, and all Thingi
in it, were created by God, and are under the Direction and Government of his all
powerfitl Hand, and all feeing Eye; that there N an eJ!ential Difference he-
tween Good and Evil, Virtue and Vice; that there will be a State of future
Rewards and Puni/hments according to our Behaviour in this Life; that Chrifl
WtlJ a Teacher [en: from God, and that his Apoftles were divimly inJpired; that aft
('hriftians are bound to declare and profeIs themfelves to be his Difciples ; that not on-
ly the Exercil« oj the [eueral Virtues, hut alfo a Belief in Chrifl is nece.Jfaryin order
to their obtaining the Pardon of Sin, the Favour of God, and eternal Li]e ; that the
W70rjhip of God is to be performed chiefly hy the Heart, in Prayers, Praifes, and
7hankfgivings ; and, as to all other Points, that they are bound to live by the Rules
which Chrift and his Apoftles have left them in the Holy Scriptures. Here then, adds
the learned Bifhop, is a fixed, certain, and uniform Rule of Faith and PraElice,
containing all the moft neet.Jfary Points of Religion, eftahli/hed by a divine SanElion,
emhraced as [ucb, by all Denominations of Cbriftians, and in it Je/f abundantI]
fufficient t9 preferve the Knowledge and Practice of Religion in the World. As to
Points of greater Intricacy, and which require uncommon Degrees oj Penetratien and
KNowledge; [ucb indeed, have been SubjeEls of Di/pute amongft Perjons of Swdy and
Learning in the [eueral Ages of the Chriflian Church; but the People are not obliged
to enter into them, .fo long as they do not touch tbeFoundations oj Chrijlianity, nor
have an Influence upon Pradice. 1n other Points it is fufficient that they lelieue the
Do£1rines,jo far as theyfilld, UpOlldue Enquiry alldExamination, according to their {e'lJe.
ral Abilities and Opportunities, that 'God hath revealed them. This incomparable
Paflage of this Reverend and truly Charitable Prelate, I have tranfcribed intire;
becaufe it will undoubtedly give a Sanction to my own Principles of univerfal
Benevolence and Charity. His Lordfhip affirms, that all Denominations of Chrifii-
am (he will allow me to mention a few of them; Socinians, Arians, Athanafians,
Sabe 11ians, Pelagians, Arm inians, Cal vinifls, Epifcopalians, Presbyterians, Inde..
pendants, Anabaptifts, &c.) agreein the Subflance of ReligiON)and in the nece.JfaryEn-
forcements of the PraGice of;t; inafmuch as they do all believe firmly and fincerely;
thofe Principles which his Lord Chipcalls, with great Reafon and Truth, a fixed,
cert.ain, and unifirm Rule of Faith and PraElice, aJ containing all the moft nece.Jfary
Points of Religion, and in it/elf a!Juudantly fufficient to preferve the Knowledge antJ
Practice of Religion in the World .. My Inference from this noble ConceffiOD,
for which all the Friends to Liberty, in Church and State, throughout Great
Britain, will thank his Lordiliip, is this; that {iDce all Denominations of
Chriftians do, in his Lordfhip's Judgment, receive his fixed, certain, aDd
unifornl Rule of Faith, and embrace all the mofl: nece{faryPoims of Reli.
gion; to impofe Subfcriptions to Articles of Faith and human .creeds, muft
be a vety .un~eafona.ble and needlefs Thing: For either fuch Articles and
Creeds. contain nothing more than this fame Rule of Faith and PraCtice;
and then all Subfcr~ptions to them is ,Impertinent; becaufe this is already
receitred by all Denominations of Chriftians, and is abundantly fufficient, by
the Bifuop's own Allowance, to preferve the Knowledge and Prauice'of Re-
l~ion in the \Vorld.: Or fuch Articles and Creeds contain fomething mor~
The I N T ROD U C T ION.' 1°5
than his Lordfuip's fixed Rule of Faith and Pradice, fomething mi)r~ than
all the moil neceflary Points of Religion, fomething
more than IS fufficient to
preferve the Knowle.dge and Pr~~ic.;e of Religion in th~ World, h. e. {
very unneceffary Points of ReligIOn; [omething on which .th~ P: efcrvatlOn
of Religion doth not depend; and of Confequence, Snufcnptlons to unne-
ceffary Articles of Faith, ou which Religion doth not depend, can n.erer be
neceflary to qualify any Perron for a ~in~fler of the Church of Chrifl, a!"d
therefore not for the Church of England, If that be Part of the Church of ChnH:.
And this is the more unneceflary.becaufc, as his Lordfhip farther well obfcrvcs,
the Pecple me not obliged to enter into tbem,fo long as they do not touch the Foundari.nv
of Chrijlianity, i. e. fo far as his Lordfhip's certain, fix'd and uniform Rule,
which contains all neceflar y Points of Religion, is not affeaed by them. And
if the People are Dot obliged to enter into Points of great Intricacy and
Difpute, I humbly conceive, the Clergy cannot be obliged to preach rl.ern ;
and that of Confequence 'tis as abfurd to impofe upon them Subfcriptions
to fuch Things, as to oblige them to fubfcribe what they need not preach,
nor any of their People believe.
Upon his Lordfhip's Principles, the impoling Subfcriptions to the hard
unfcriptural Expreflions of the Athanafians and Adam, by each Party in their
Turns, and to the thirty nine Articles of the Church of England, muft be a very
unreafonable and unchriftian ThlOg ; becaufe, the Peculiarities to be fub-
feribed, do not one of them, enter into his fpecified Points of Religion, and
are not neceflary to preferve Religion in the World; and after fo publick a.
Declaration of Charity towards all Denominations of Chriftians, and the
Safeey of Religion and the Church, upon the general Principles he hath laid
down, there is no Reafon to doubt but his Lordfhip will ufe that Power and
Influence which God hath entrufled him with, to remove the Wall of Se-
paration in the eflablifhed Church, in order to the uniting all differing
Seces, all Denominations of Chriftians, in one vifible Communion ;' and that
he will join in that moft Chrifiian and Catholick Prayer of one of his own .
Brethren, though difapproved of by another of narrower Principles, Rlef- Bijbop ·f
fed be the) 'Whohave contributed to {o good a Work. Subfcriptions have ever been B~gor's
a Grievance in the Church of God, and the firft Introdudion of them was ~I~ ~:::
owing to Pride, and the Claim of an unrighteous and ungodly Power. Nei-ofWor.
ther the Warrant of Scripture, nor the Inrerefc of Truth made them neceffary. edler.
'fis, I think, but by few, if any, pretended that the [acred Writin s coun-poflfe,ipt,

te~ance this PraCtice .. They do indeed abound with DireCtions anl'Exhor-P' 1.°7·
rations to ~here fted/aflly to the Filith, not to be moved [rr>m the Faith, oortof-
fed about 'WIth every Wind of Do£frin2. But what is the Faith which we are
t~ adhere to? Wh~t the ~a:ith efiabliilied. and O:amped for Orthodox by the
Blfuops and CounCils? Rtdlcnlous! If dHS was the Cafe our Faith muft be
as various as~their. Creeds, and as abfurd and contradiEt~ry as their Deeifi-
ons. No, lhe Faith we are to be grounded and fealed in is that 'lJJbich 'WIIi
at (J~cedelit:ered to the Saints, that which was preached b; the ApoRle4i t\>
Gem,ltl., as well as 'Jew1 j the wbu/efolllt H'iJrds we are to confent to art tM Words
p ~
106 The IN T ROD U C T ION.
DJ our Lord ,elus Chrift, and the Doflrhze whicb is according to Godline/t. This all
genuine Chrifrians receive, out of regard to a much higher Authority than be-
longs to any Set of Men in the World ; and therefore the Sanction of Fa-
thers and Councils in this Cafe, is as impertinent as a Man's pretending to
~i\'e a Sanction to the Conflitutions of the Great God. And as to all other
A rriclcs of Faith, neither they, nor any others, have any Commiffion to impofe
them on the Confciences of Men, and the Moment they attempt to do it,
they ceafe to be Servants in the Houle of God, and aCt as the true and pro-
per Lords of the Heritage. .
But it may be [aid, That the Church bath Power to determine in Controverfitr
(JI Faith ; Ia as not to decree any thing againjl Scripture, nor to enjorce any thing t~
be believed as necefftlry to Saluaticn bejides it; i. e. I fuppofe the Church hath
Power to guard the Truths of Scripture; and in any Controverfies about
Doctrines, to determine what is or is not agreeable to Scripture, and to en-
force the Reception of what they thus decree, by obliging others to Iub-
fcribe to their Decifions. If this be the Cafe, then it neceflarily follows,
that their Determinations mufl: be ever right, and conflantly agreeable to the
Doctrine of holy Writ; and that they ought never to determine, bur when
they are in the Right, and are fure they are in the Right; becaufe, if the
Matter be difficult in its Nature, or the Clergy have any Doubts and Scm-
ples concerning it, or are liable to make falfe Decifions, they cannot, with
any Reafon, make a final Decifion ; becaufe 'tis poffible they may decide
on the wrong fide of the Queflion ; and thus decree Falfhood inflead of
Truth. And I prefume there are but few who will claim, in Words, fo ex-
rraordinary a Power as that of eftablifhing Falfhocd in the room of Truth
and Scripture. And even fnppofing their Decifions to be right, how will
it follow that they have a Power to oblige others to fubmit to and fubfcribe
them? If by found Reafon and Argument they can convince the Confcien-
ces of others, they are fure of the Agreement of allfuch with them ir. Princi-
pie; and upon this Foot Subfcriptions are wholly ufelefs; and if they can-
not convince them, 'tis a very unrighteous Tning to impofc Subfcriptions
on them; and a fhameful Prevarication with God and Man for any to fnb-
mit to them without it. Decifioss made in Conrroverfies of Faith, by the
Clergy, carry in them no Force nor Evidence of Truth. Let their Office be
ever fo facred, it doth not exempt them from human Frailties and Irnper ..
fections. They are as liable to Error and Miflake, to Prejudice und Paffion,
• as any of the Laity wharfoever can be. How then can the Clergy have aOV
Authority in Conrroverfies of Faith, which the Laity have not? That they
have erred in their Decifions, and decreed Light to be Darknefs,anJ
Darknefs Light; that they have perplexed the Confciences of Men, and cor-
rupted the Simplicity of the Faith in Chrifl:, all their Councils and Synods
are a notorious Proof. With what Jufrice or ModeHy then can they pre- '
tend to a Power of obliging others to believe their Articles, or fubfcribe
them? If I was to fpeak the Teal Truth, it will be found that thofe
numerous Opinions which have been anathematifed as Heretical, and which
~ hare
have broken the Chriftian World into Parties, have been generally invented,
and broached, and propagated by the Clergy; witnefs Arias, M.lcedoniur, Neflo-
rim, Eutycbes, Diojcorus ; and others; and therefore if we may judge by any
Obfervarions made on the Rife of Herefy, what is a proper Method to put a
Stop to the Progrefs of it. it c~n.not be the Clergy's. forming Articles of
Fairh, and forcing others to [ubtcribe rhem , becaufe this IS the very Mediad
by which they have eflablifhed and propagated it.
The Truth is, this Method of preventing Error will fnit all Religions.
and all Sorts of Pr.nciplcs whatfoever, and is that by which Error main-
rains its Ground, and is indeed render 'd impregnable. All the diflerent
Sons of C/;YijlianJ, Papijis and Protejl auts, Greeks, Lutherans, Cahinijls and Ar-
minians, cannot certainly be right in their diicriminaring Principles. And yet
where fhall we find any Clergy that don't pretend a Right to irnpofe Subfcrip-
tions, and who do not maintain the'Truth of rhe Articles to which they make fuch
Subfcriprion ncceffary r Upon this Foot the Doctrines of the Council of Treflt,
the thirty nine Articles of the Church of England,and the Affernblies ConfeHion
of Faith, are all of them equally true, Chriftian and Sacred; for they are in dif-
ferent Places embraced as Standards of Orthodoxy, and their Sacred nefs and
Authority fecur'd and mainrain'd by the Sublcriptions of the Clergy to them:
And therefore, I think it as little agreeable to Prudence asit is to Jufiice for
Chriflians to keep up a Practice that may be fa eatily, and hath been fo of-
ten turned into a Security for Herefy, Superflition and Idolatry; and efpe-
cially f(lr Proreftanrs to ware any longer rhefe Marks of Slavery, which their
Enemies, whenever they have Power, will not fail to make Ufc of, either to
ferrer their Confciences, or difiinguifh them for the Burning.
Bur it may be faid that the Abufe of Subfcriptions is no Argument againft
the Ufe of them; and that, as they are proper to difcover what Mens Senti-
ments are, they may be fo far fornetimes a Guard and Security to the Truth.
But as all Parties, who ufe them, will urge this Reafon for them, that they
are in Poffeffion of the Truth, and therefore \viUing to do all they can to fe-
cure and promote it; of Confequence Subfcriptions to Articles of Faith can
never be looked on properly as Guards to real Truth, but as Guards to cer-
tainprevailing Principles, whether true or falfe. And even in this Cafe they
are wholly Ineffectual. The Clergy of die Church of England are bound to
fubfcribe the thirty nine Articles, i, e. to the Truth of Athanafian and Calvi-
niflick Principles. But hath this Subfcription anfwer'd its End? Do not the:
Cl,:rgy, wbo are all Subfcribers, and who often repeat their Subfcriptions, •
differ about thefe Heads as much a~ if they had never fubfcribed at all? Men
that have no Principles of Religion and Virtue, but enter the Church only
with a View to the Benefices -and Preferments of it, will fubfcribe ten thou-
fand Times over, and to any Articles that can be given them. whether troe
1>r falCe. Thus the Afiatick Bifuops fubfcribed to the Condemnation of the
Decrees of the Council of Chalced;n, and inform Ba.fili{cus the Emperor that
their Subfcriptions were voluntary. And yet when BaJilifcus was depofed,
they immediately fllbicribed to the Truth of thofe Dc:crees.and fwore their
p ~ 6rft
108 The IN T It 0 Due T I 0 N~
firtt Subfcription was involuntary. So that Subfcriptions cannot keep out any
Arheifls, Infidels, or profligate Perf ODS. And as to others, daily Experience
teaches us, that they either disbelieve the Articles tbey fubfcribe, fubfcri-
bing them only as Articles of Peace j or elfe, that after they have Iublcribed
them, they fee Reafon, upon a more mature Deliberation, to alter their
Minds, and change their original Opinions. So that till Mep can be bronght
always to act upon Confcience, never to fub~cribe what they' do ~ot believe,
nor ever to alter their Judgment, as to the Articles they have Iubfcribed j Sub-
fcriptions are as impertinent and ufelefs as they are unreafonable, and can ne-
ver anfwer the Purpofes of thofe who impofe them.
But I apprehend fan her, that this impofing of Subfcriptions is not rmly an
unreafonable Cuflom, but attended with many very pernicious Confe uence . lr is
a great Hindrance to that Freedom and Impartiality of Inquiry which is the
unalterable Duty of every Man, and neceflary to render his eligion rca-
fonable and acceptable. For why fhould any Perfon make any Inquiries
. for his own Information, when his Betters have drawn up a Religio for
. him, and thus kindly faved him the Labour and Pains? And a his worldly
Inrerefl may greatly depend on his doing as be is bid, and fubfcribing. as he
is ordered; is it not reafonable ro think that the generality will contentedly
take every thing upon Trnft, and prudently refrain from creating to them-
- felves Scruples and Doubts, by nicely -examining what they are to fer their
Hands to, leaft they fhould mifs of Promotion for Dot being able to comply
with the Condition of it, or enjoy their Promotions with a diffatisfied and
uneafy Confcience P
Subfcriprions will, I own, fometimes prove Marks of Diftinction, nd as
Walls of Separation: For though Men of Integrity and Confcience may:
and oftentimes undoubtedly do fubmit to them; yet Men of no Principles,
or very loofe ones, worldly and ambitious Men, the Thoughtlefs and Igno-
rant, will moft certainly do lt, when they find it for their Inrerefl. The
Church that enclofes her felf with thefe Fences, leaves abundant Room for the
Entrance of Perfons of fuch Characters. To whom then doth fhe refufe
Admittance? Why, if to any, it muft be to Men who cannot bend their
Confciences to their Inrerefl j .who cannot believe, without Examination,
nor fubfcribe any Articles of Faith as true, without underftanding .and be-
lieving-them. 'Tis in the very Nature of Subfcriptions ro exclude none but:
thefe, and to diflingui1h fuch only for Shame and Puoifhment. Now how is
this confiflenr with any Thing that is called Reafon or Religion? If there
could be found out any wife and reafonable Methods to throw out of the
Chriflian Church and M~niftry, Men who are in their Hearts Unbelierers,
who abide in the Church only for the Revenues file yields to them, whofuift
their religious and political Principles, according to their Intereft, who propa--
gate Doctrines inconfiflene with the Liberties of Mankind, arui are fcand.alous
\ and immoral in their Lives j if SubfcriptioDs could be made t.;:>aof\Ver there
Ends, and thefe only, and to throw Infamy upon {nch Men, and upon fuclt
Men only; no one would have any Thing toalledge agailSft the Ufe of thero.
T be I N T ROD U C T ION. ,f 01 .
Wherells, in Truth, Subfcriprions are the great ~ecurjties of {rich pr0Aigate.
Wrerches who by complying with them, enter Into the Church, a-nd,·the1;'e-
by {hare in ~11:h~ temporal Advantages of it; whilft ~he fcrupu~o~s, confei.,
entious Chriftian 15 the only one {he excludes, who thinks the Vi. old ~f God
a more fure Rule of Faith than the Dictates of Men; and that Subfcriprions
are Things much roo facred to be trifled with, or lightly fubmirred to ..
They are indeed very great Snares to many Perfons, and Temptations to
them too often to trefpafs upon the Rules of ftriB: Honefty and Vir~ue. Fc:r
when Mens Subfiftence and Advantages in the World depend on their fubfcri-
bing to certain Articles of Faith, 'tis one c:f t1~e rr~o~ powerful. ArgumentS'
that can be, to engage them to comply WIth It. TIS poffible Indeed they
may have their Objections againft the Reafonablenefs and Truth of what
they are to fubfcribe- But will not Intereft ofcen lead them to overlook
their Difficulties, td explain away the natural Meaning of Words, to' put a'
ilifferent Senfe upon the Articles than what they will fairly bear, to' tak-e them
in any Senfe, and to fubfcribe them in no Senfe only as Articles of Peace r
It muff be by fome fuch Evafions that Ariam fubfcribe to Athanafilln Creeds;
and Arminians to Principles of rigid Cal'lJinifm. This the Clergy have been.
again and again reproach'd with, even by the Enemies of Chri.ftia-niry.
And 1 am forry to fay it, they have not been able to wipe off the Scandal-
from rhernfelves. I am far from faying or believing that all the Clergy make
thefe evaGve Subferiptiens :' Tho fe' only that do fo give this Offence; and if
they are, in other Cafes, Men of Integrity and Confcience, they are Ob-
jects of great Compaffion. As far as my own Judgment is concerned, I think
this Manner of Subfcribing to Creeds and Articles of Faith, is iofa ous
in its Nature, and vindicable upon no Principles of Confcience and Honour.
It tends to render the Clergy contemptible in the Eyes of the People, who will.
be apt to think that they have but little Reafon to regard the Sermons of Men,
who have prevaricated in their Subfcriptions, and that they preach for the {arne
Reafon only that they fubfcribed, 'Vi.~. their worldl Inrerefl. 'Tis of very
pernicious Influence and Example, and in its Confequences leads to the
Breach of all Faith amongft Ma.nkind, and tends to the Subverfion- of civil
Society. For if the Clergy are known to prevaricate in Iubfcribing-to religi-
ous Tefts of Orthodoxy, is it not to be fear'd that others may learn from-rhern
to pre.varicate in their Subfcriptions to civil Tefls of Loyalty? And indeed ..
there IS a ~~eat deal of Reafon to imagine, that if Men can tutor and twifi:·
their Con ciences fo as to fubfcribe Articles of Faith, contrary to their OW(1,
Perfuafion, and only as Articles of Peace, or a Q?alification for a Living,
they would fubfcribe for the fame Rearon to Papery or Mahometanifm; fgr:
if this be a good Reafon for fubicribing any Articles which I do not believe
'[is a.Reafon. for ~ubfcribing all; and therefore I humbly appreh~nd that;
PractIce, \VhIC~ gIVes fo much Occafion to fuch fcandalolls Prevarications-
with God and Man, fuould be caft off as an infufferable Grievance, aDd
as an Yoak upon the Necks of tbe Clergy, too heavy for them tOt
I 10 The I N T ROD U C T ION.
Let file add farther, that this Practice of impofing Subfcriptions, hath
been the Occalion of innumerable Mifchiefs in the Church of God. 'Twas
the C0l111110nCry of the Orthodox and Ari ans ; and all other Herericks, in
their Turns of Power, Either fubfcribe or depart [rom Jour Churches. 'Ibis
enilamcd the Clergy againfl: each other, and filled them with Hatred, Ma-
lice an.l Revenge. For as by impaling there Subfcriptions, Inquuition was
made inro the Confcicnces of others; the Refutal to fubmit to them was a
certain Mark of Herefy and Reprobation; and the Confequence of this was
the Inlliciion of all Ipiritual and temporal Punifhrnents. 'Twas impoffible
but that fuch Procedures fhould perpetuate the Schifins and Divitions of tile
Church, (ince the Wrath of Man cannot work the Righreoufuers of God,
and Iince Civil Punifhmenrs have no Tendency to c: -nvince the Conlcience,
but only to enflarne the Paffions againf] the Adv j s and Inflicters uf them.
And as ecclefiaflical Hillary gives us [0 drc ul: u l an Account of the rn-lan-
choly and tr~~jcaJ r:::::.Js of this Practice, one would think that no Nation,
who knew the Worth of Liberty, rio Chriflan Proreflanr Church, that hath
any Regard for the Peace of the Flock of Chrifl, fhould ever be found to
authorize and continue ir.
VI. What Security thee fhall we have lefr us for Truth and Orthodoxy,'
when our Subfcriprions are gone? Why, the facred Scriptures, thofe Oracles
of the great God, and Freedom and Liberty to interpret and underfland
them as we can; the Confequence of this would be great Integrity and Peace
of Confcience, in the Enjoyment of our religions Principles, Union and
Friendfhip amongfl: Chriflians, notwirhflanding all their Differences in Judg-
me nt, and great Refp,;,ot and Honour to thofe faithful Paftors, that carefully
feed the Flock of God, and lead them into Paflures of Riohteoufne!s and
Peace. \Ve {hail lofe only the Incumbrances of Religion, o~r Bones of Con-
tent ian, the Shackles of our Confciences, and the Snares to Handly and Vir-
rue ; whiHl: all that is fubftanrially good and valuable, all that is truly divine
and heavenly, would remain to enrich and blefs us. The Clergy would indeed
lore their Power to do Mifchief; bur would they not be happy in that Lofs,
efpecially as rhey would be infiniteiy more likely to do good? They would be
no h1nger looked on as Fathers and Dictators in the Faith j but fiill they
might remain Ambaffadors fer Chrift, befeeching Men, in Chrift's fiend, to
become reconciled to God. And was all human Authority, in Matters of Faith,
thus wholly laid afide, would not the vVord of God have a freer Comfe,
and be much more abundantly glorified? All Chriftians "ou!d look upon
Scripture as the only Ruie of their Faith and Practice, and therefore fearch
it w~tl:.grea~cr Diljgen~e and Care,. an? ~e much m~r~ li~ely to underftand
t~e IVlllld of God there1l1. The mam 1hIngs of ChnftlanIty, would nnque-
fhonably be generally agreed to by all ; and as to othel' Things, Points of
Specu!::ltio3, and difficult QIeftions, if Chrifiiuns differ'd about them their
Difr~~'ences . would ~e of no great ImpOrtance, and might be rnain;ained,
.t.:ODllltCli: Wl:!l Chanty and Peace.

The I N T ROD U C T ION. J f I
Indeed, a ftria and conflant Adherence to Scriptl1l'~, as the only JLI~ge in
Conrroverlies of Chriflian Faith, would be the rnofl likely Method to Il1t.rQ.
d uce into the Church, a real Uniformity of Opinion as well ~s Practice,
For if this was the Cafe, many Di(put:.:) wo uld be \\'!Jo~l~ at an End, :1S ha-
vine norhinrr to e:ive Occafion to them III the Iacred Wrirings , and all others
wo~ld be o;'~allyD Ihorteri'd, as hereby all foreign Terms, and human Phra-
fes of Spe~ch, by which the ~lefijons that have been Cont!o\rerc~d.a~1011~!1:
Chrifiians, have been darken d and perplexed, would be immediarcly Iaid
afide, an~ the <,H1!y ~nquiry \:ould be, \Vh~~ i.s ~he Senf~ bf Scri~turc? \Vhnt:
the Dodrine of Chrif] and his Apoftles P 11115 IS a mucn more Ihorr ef~
feuual Way of determining Conrroverfies, than fending Men to Nice anu
Chalcedos, to Council" and Synods, to Athal1tZj?us or Ariw, to Caluin or A;"1';i-
minius, or any other Per fans wharfoever that can be mcntioned , who at l~·.:1~
deliver but their own Seofe of Scripture, and are not to be regarded any far-
ther than they agree with it. It W1S a Departure from this, as the great
Standard of Faith, and corrupting the Simplicity of the Gofpel Doctrine by
hard unfcriptural Words, that gave Occafion to the innumerable Controver-
fies that formerly troubled the Chriflian Church. Human Creeds were f'u1>-
ftit~ted in the Room of Scripture; and according as Circurnftances diffcr 'd,
or new Opinions were broached, fo were the Creeds corrected, amended and
enlarged, till they became fo fuJI of Subtleties, Contradictions, and Nonfenfe, as
rnuil make every thoughrful Man read many of them with Contempt. The Con-
trorcr(y was not about Scripture Expreflions, but about the Words of Men,
nor about the Senfe of Scripture, bu: the Decrees of Councils, and tile Opini-
ons of Atbanafius, Leo, Cyril, and the venerable Fathers. And upon this foot
'twas no \Vonder their Difputes fhould be endlefs; fillce the \Vritinns of all
fallible Men muft certainly be mote obfcure and intricate than the \Vritings of
the infalJ:ble Spirit of Truth, who could be at no Lars ~bom the DoCtrines
he dictated, nor for proper Words fU1Nihly to exprefs them. 'Tis int1nire~
'tis endlefs Labour, to confult aU th:1t the Fa.hers have wr;ttcn; ~1nd whca
\ve have conflllted them, What one Controvert}, h:H'e they rntiona!lv deciJcd ?
What one Chri£lian Doctrine have thf'Y cJc:1r1yand [olidiy expbi;l'd? Ho\\'
few Texts of Scripture have they criric1!Jy fc~;:lcd the Senfc and I\feaning- of?
How often do they differ flom one anothr, and i:1 bOI',' mr.'ly Infiai1ccs"frorn
themfelves? Thofe who read them greatly difFer in their Intcrpre,a~i()\l
()f them; and Men of the moil: contrary Sentiments, all cL,im them f'Jr their
own. Athlmajims.and Ariam appe:llto the Fathers, and fl1Ppon thei,' Prin-
cipies ,b~(,3Qu0.ta.tlOns from them. .And :li:e t.hefe the v~~er .. b~e G';.iltle-
men \\hc- ..\: \Yrltlngs are to be fet up In Oppo(it;on to the Scnpture, or lee tH>
a,s author~tat;ve JUdge~sof the Senfe of ~cri.ptur~? Are Creeds of their (~ich;-
tlnC" to be [u,Jmltted ..0 as (he on! y Cnten0n 0.1. Orr hodoxy or eftee""'ed "'''',
St~da~d.s to,di!~lnguifh between Truth and Error? Away w{th thi~' F;Uy a;d
Superflltlon. 1••e Creeds of the Fathers and Councils are but" human-
Creeds, th~t .have all the Marks i.n thern?f human Frailty and Ignorance. The
Creeds whiCh are to be found m tl'i.: l1ofpel) are the infallible Dictates of
I (, ~ Tbe IN T ROD UC T ION.
the Spirit of the God of Truth, and as fuch, claim our Reverence-and Sllb'~
miffion ; and as the forming our Principles according to them. as far as we
are able to underfland them, makes us Chriftians in the Sight of God, it
fhould be luflicient to every ones being owned as a Chriflian by others, with-
out their ufing any inquifirory Forms of Trial, till they can produce their
Commiflion from Heaven for the Ufe of them. This, as it is highly reafon-
sblc in it felf, would do the highefr Honour to the Chriflian Clergy; who,
inilead of being reproach'd for Haughrinefs and Pride, as Incendiaries and
Plagues of Mankind, as the Sowers of Contention and Strife, and Dif1:urbers
of the Peace of the Church of God; would be honoured for their 'Narks fake,
eflecmed for their Characters, lov'd as Bleffings to the World, heard with
Pleafure, and fuccefsful in their Endeavours to recommend the Knowledge
and Pradice of Chriftianity,
VII. Were the Doctrines of the Golpel regarded as they fhould be,
and the Precepts of the Chriftian Religion fubrnitted to by all who profers
to believe it, univerfal Benevolence would be the certain Effecc, and eternal
Peace and Union would reign amongfr the Members of the Chriflian Church.
For if there are any Commands of certain Clearnefs, any Precepts of evident
Obligation in the Gofpel, they are fuch as refer to the Exercife of Love, and
the maintaining univerfal Charity. In our Saviour's admirable Dilcourfe on
r-.:.:l't. v, the Mount- this was the excellent Doctrine he raughts Bleffid tire the Meek,jor
S, 7, 9 they /hall inherit the Eaub. BleJ!ed are the Merciful, for the) /hall tJbta;n Mercy,
B1fJ!i:d arc the Peace-makers, for they/hall he called the Children of God. And in ano-
1\7m. xxii. ther Place defcribi ng the N ature of Religion in general, he tells us, that the
3)· Loue of God is the firJl Commandment, and that the fecond is like unto it ; Thou
{bait love tby NeigMvur as thy [el]. This he enjoins upon his Difciples as his
John xv, peculiar Command e This is my Commandment, that ye love one another, as I havt
J~. lo::ed you ; and recommends it to them as that whereby they were to be diflin-
xiii, 34' guifhecr from all other Perfons. A ne~ Commandment 19ive umoyou, that )1 love
;s, oneanother as 1 have loved you, that te aifo love oneanother. By this /hall all Me.
kllOW that Je are 1n} Difciples, if ye have Love one to another. This was the more
needful tor them, confidering that our Lord forekne\v the grievous Perfecuti-
ons that would befal them for his fake; to encourage them under which, he
Matt, v. pronounces rhf'm blett: BleJfed are they which are perfecutedfor Righteoufizefs fake,
10. jor ti;eirs iJ thi! Kingdom of Hea'Ven; wh:!ft, at the fame time, he leaves a Brand
u ofInfamy on Perfecutors, and marks them out for the Vengeance of God: Re-
johe and h~ exc(!edingglad, fir great is .your Re'ward ill Heaven; for fo perfecuted they
!.uke xi. the Propht:tsthat were before you. f!7/Jeunto you; for ye [mild the Sepulchres of the
",·.;c Fro ,'):;ets, and your Fathers killed them; therefore, Jaith the WiJdom oj God, I
7;';it(end J014 Prophets and Apo/lIes, and they will flay and perJecrm them, that
Blood oj all the Pr:-ophets- may he required of thiJ Generation. And, indeed.,
1) ;'ar was onr Lord from encoura.ging any perfecuting Methods, that ~e
, .Iked and put a Stop to an the Appearances of them. Thus when hIS
j):,fciptes would have called down Fire from H;avCll to conGuue rhe Silmil~
ri t(l1lf,
"itanf' who refufed to receive him, he rebuked them, and faid, Ye know not Luke ix.
what ;"anner oj Spirit Je (l~e of i the Son of Man is nut come to deflroy Me.m Lives, 5h 56.
hut tolave tbem i and when one of thole who were with Chrift cut oft the Ear
of one of the high Prieft's Servants, upon his laying Hands on him, he feverely
reproved him; Put up again thy Swol,d into its Place i for all they that take the ~:~:t,
Swordfhall peri{h with the Sword. And, in order to cure his Apofiles oftheirxx,J. St.
Ambition and Pride, and to prevent their claiming an undue Power, he
gave ~h~m an ~xample of gre~t a~d Condefcenrion, in \Va~ing
and wlplOg their Feet, and forbid them irmtanng the Gentiles, by exerciftilg ~x. l~,
Dominion and Authority; but uiboeuer wil/ be great amongfl you, let him be your O:.c.
Minifier; and whojoever will be chief amongfl you, let him beyour Servant, euen as
the Son of Man came not to be mini/ler'd unto, but to minifler, and to give his Life (J
Ran{omfor many. And as the Jewifh Teachers took on them the Name of
Rabbi, to denote their Power over the Confciences of thofe they inflructed,
he commanded his Difciples, Be ye not called Rabbi, for one is yuur Mafler, t've1'lxxiii. S,
Chrijl, and ali ye are Brethren; and call no Man Farber upon Earth, for one is JOW(~w.
Father, which is in Heaven. But he that is greatefl amongfl you, fball be your Ser-
vant. From thefe, and other Paffages of like Nature, it is very evident,
that there is nothing in the Life of }efus Chrift, that gives any Countenance
to thefe wicked Methods of propagating and fupporring Religion, that fome
of his pretended Followers have made ufe of, but the ftrongeft Directions
to the contrary.
It is indeed objected, that Chrif] fays, Compel them to come in, that my Houfe Luke xiv,
may be fuO: But that this Compulfion means nothing more than Invitation and l3·
Perfuafion, is evident, from the parallel Place of Scripture, where what St.
Luke calls, Compelthem to come in, is exprefled by, Bid them to the Marria!l,e, i. e. Matt.xxii,
endeavour, not by Force of Arms, but by Argument and Reafon, by 1m.. 9.
porrunity and Earneflncfs, and by fetting before Men the Promifes and
Threatnings of the Gofpel, and thus addrefling your felves to their Hopes
and Fears, to perfuade and compel them to embrace my Religion, and be-
come the Subjeds of my Kingdom; and in this moralSenfe ofCompulfion, the
original Word is often ,ufed. But farther, 'tis, by a late Writer, reckon'd Chrilliani-"
very furpriztng, that Chriilfuould fay, Think not I am come to .fend Peace, ICy liS old,
come not tofend Peace, but a Sword; for I am cometo fet a Mau at Variance with ~c. p. ,os·
hi5 Fa!ker, and the Daughter again!i her Mother, &c. But how is this fo "ery 3:,tt·3;:
fUrpf1ZlOg? or what Man of common Senfe can miilake the Meaning of the
\Vords, who reads the whole Difcourfe? In the former Part of it, 'tis
expreOy declared, that the moil grievous Perfecutions fuould befall his Difci-
pies for his fake; that Brother {boulddeli'Ver up Brother to Death, and the Father
the Child; and the Childrellfball rift up againfl th,tr Parents, and cattfe them to
be put to Death. Can any Man underftand this of an Intention in Chrift to
fet People at Variance? \~hen '!is a Prediction only of what fhauld be the
Co~fequence of pUblIfill~~. hiS Gorpel, through the Malice and Cruelty
of Its Oppafers ; a Predh~:hon of what his Difciples were to fuffer, and
not of what they were to make others to rufter. And as to that Paf-
q . ~~
J 14- T be I N T ROD U C T ION.
Luke xii. rage in Luke, 1 am cometofend Fire on the Earth; and what willI, if it he a/rend!
'19, ~ 1. ki lldlt!d 1 Suppore ye tbat I am come to give Peace on Earth? I tell you nay,
but rather Divifiun. How is it explain'd by Chrift himfelf? Why, in the
very next Words : For from henceforth, i. e. upon the Publication of my Reli-
gion and Golpel, there (hall be five in one Houfe divided, threeag~~nf! two, and
two againfi three, &c. Can any Man need Paraphrafe and Criricifin to ex-
plain there PatTages of any Thing, but of that Perfecurion which fhould be-
fall the Preachers and Believers of the Gofpel ? Or imagine it to be a pro-
phcrick Defcription of a Fire to be blown up by Chrift to confume others,
when the whole Connection evidently refers it to a Fire, that the Oppofers
of his Religion fhould blow up, to confnme himfelf and Followers? Jefus
knew 'twas fuch a Fire as would firfi confume himfelf I am come to fend Fire
on tIN Earth; and uiba: will I, if it he already kindled? Or, as the Words fhould
be rranflared, How do 1 wifh it was already kindled? How do I wifh it to] break
out on my own Perf all) that I might glorify God by my Sufferings and
Death? For as it follows, 1 baue a Baptifm to be 6apthed with, a Baptifm
wi th my own Blood: And how am Ijiraiten' d till it he (lccomplijh'd! After this
Account of his own Sufferings) he foretells the fame fhould befaU his Fol-
lowers: Suppoje ye that 1am come to give Peace on Earth? I tell )'Olt, Nay, !Jut
rather Diuifian, i. e. as I my feH mutt fuffer to bear Witnefs to the Truth,
to, after my Decesfe, fucb {haJIbe the unreafonabJe and furious Oppofirion
to my Gofpel, as {hall occafion Divifions amongft the neareft Relations, fome
of whom {hall hate and perfecnte the other for their embracing my Religion.
And of Confequence Chrifl did not declare, ;.1f the mofl rexpl'efi Terms, as the fore-
Ibi.J. mentioned Writer aReres, 7'hat he came to do that which we muji {uppofe he C(l1llt
to hinder. He did only declare, that he came to do Wl12t he was refolved DOC
to hinder, i, e. to publifh fuch a Religion as his Enemies would put him to
Death for, and as wouldoccafion Divifions amongfl the neareft Relations,
through the unreafonable Hatred and Oppofition that fome would {hew to
others upon Account: of it. This Maner is elfewhere cl~arly exprefl'ed
John xvi. by Chrift : 7'hefe Thi»gl have I fpoken eo you, that ye/hould lIet he offended. 7'htJ
l,:t, 3· fhaO put you out of the SY11/1gogues ; yea, t,he TIme cometh, that who[oerverkiUeth YOII,
wiD think thltt hI! doth God Service. Ami theft Things will they do unto JD.U, becauJe
they have not known the Huher nor me, i. e. have not uooerfiood either natural
Religion, or the Religion of my Gofpel.
There is therefore nothing in the 00ndutl: or Dotl:rines of Jefus Chrift
to countenance or encourage Perfecution. His Temper was benevolent, his
Condua merciful, and one governing Defign of all he faid, was to promote
Meeknefs and Condefcenfion, univer[~l Olarity and Love. And in this all
1tOIr.. xii. his Apoftles were careful Imitators of his Example: Let DJve, faith St. Paul,
~,I0. be without Di/ft11tU/ation; he kindly affi8ioned one to MlDther with lJrother/j Love,
18,in Honour, prifering one another. If;t ~e po{fiMe, as much as in you lies, !i'Ut
11ll. lo.peaceably with all Men. And the Love he' recommended was fuch, as 'fJ'orketb
no ill to his Neighbour, and which therefore he declares to IJe the fuljiiling ~j
tbe Law. And, leaft different Sentiments in kffer Matters fuould caufe DI~
The IN T ROD t1 C T ION. J I;
vi60ns amongft Chrifiiaos, he. commands, to receive him that is we~k in theRoOl XIV. o

Faith not to dOfJ/;~ful DUputattons, p.1! fi' J',ftxeu1l'<' J'I<J.~.O,,>,I($P.""" not to judge ort•
to contend about Difpurarions, or dilputable Things. Upon Account of fuch .
Matters, he orders that none fhould deJpife or judge others, tecaufe GodRom. XIV. I

/)aa re,ei'lJta them, and becaufe every Man ought to bejully per/uaded in his own h ~.
Mind and becaufe the Kingdom oj God W(lJ not Alent and Drink, hut Righteournejj 17.
and Peace, and JOY, in the Holy Ghoft, and becaufe everyone was to giw an 4'
Account of J;imJelJ to God, to whom alone, as his only Mafler, he was to fland
or fall. From thefe fubflanrial Reafons, he infers, U7i! then that are flrong, xv. 1·
who have the moil perfect Underftanding of the Nature of Chriflianity,
and our Chriftian Liberty, ought to bear the Infirmities of the U/'eak, and not to)'
plea/e outJelves j and having pray'd for them, that the God of Patience and
Confolation would grant them to he like minded vile towards another, according t»,
or after the Example of Chrifl, that, norwirhflanding the Strength of fame,
and the Weaknefs of others, they might, with ~ne Mind, and with one ]'r1outh,6.
glurify God, euen the Father of our Lord Jerus Chrtll ; he adds, as the ConcIu-
fion of his Argument, Whertfore receiue ye one another, as Cbrift alfi receiuedt:
us tfJ the Glory of God. .
In his Letters to the Corintbiaus, he difcovers the fame divine and aimiable I Cor. i,
Spirit. In his firfl Epift.Ie, he befeeche~ them, hy the Name of the Lord Je{us 10, &c.
Chrift, that they would all [peak tbe fame Thzng, and that there /hould be 110 Schifm
amongft them, but that theX fhould be perfeElIy joined together in the [ame Mind,
and in the/arne Judgment, 1. e. that they fhould all own and fubmit to Chritl,
as their only Lord and Head, and not rank themfelves under different Lea-
ders, QS he had been informed they had done; for that they were the Body of xii 2.7·
Chri{l, and all of them hIS Members. and ought therefore [0 maintain that
Charity to one another, which Ju.ffereth long, and is kind, which envieth not,ltiii. 1,&c.
'Vaunteth not it {elf, is not puffed up, doth not !Jeha'lJeit !elf tmfeemly, {eeketh not
her own, is not eafily pro'lJok,d, thinketh no Evil, rejoiceth not in IniqUity, hut re-
joheth in the Truth, heareth all ThingJ, be/iC'lJethalt Things, hopeth all Things, en-
durtth all Things, which is greater and more e"cellent than Faith and Hope, whic1i
jails not ;n Heaven it Jelj', where Faith and Hope fhall be at an End; and
without which, though we could !peak with the Tongue of Men and Angels, jhoulJ
ha'Vt the Gift of Prophecy, and tmderfland aD Myfleries, and all Knowledge and
could rernO'lJeMountains, yea, though we /hould beftow all our Goods to feed the'Poor
and give our Bodies to be burned, we fhould be only asfounding Brajj, and as a tinkling
Cymbal, nothing i.n the Account of God, nothing as to any real Profit and
Advantage tbatwill accrue to us. And, in.his fecond EpiftIe, he takes his Leave 1. Cor:
of them with this divine ExhonatioD, and glorious Encouragement: Finally, xiii. u.
Brethren, farewell, be perfeR, be of good Comfort, be of one Mind 70 d.U70 ~eJv.m
be affeetionate and kindly di~pofed ~o ~ne another, as thoug\ you were in~
fiuenced by one common Mmd; Live In Peace, and the God oj Lo'Veand Peau
fball be with you.
In his Epiftle to the Galatians, he gh'es us a Catalogue of chofe WorksGaJ. \".
()f the Fieth which exclude Men from the Kingdom of God~ fl.l':h as AduJ- 19, &c.
q ~ eery,
tery , Fornication ,-r-Hatred. , Variance, Emulation, Wrath, Strife, Seditions, ,r HI:'
refies, Envying.r, and the like; and then aflures us, that the l!ruitI OJ the Spirit
are Love, Joy, Peace, Long-fuffering, GentleneJ.r, GoodneJ.r,.Faztk' Meekne[s, and
Temperance, againjl which there is no Law; and, after having laid down this as
Cal. vi. an etlenrial Pri nci pIc of Chriflianiry, that neither Circumcifion auailetb any '[hing,
• s. nor Uncircumcifio», but a new Creature, or, as 'tis expreffed in another Place,
Faith which works by Love; he pronounces this truly apoflolick Benediction,
If.As many as walk according to this Rule, Pence be on them, and Mercy, and upon
tbe Ifrael of God.
The fame divine and excellent Strain runs through his Letter to the Ephe-
..,h' fians: 1therefore, the Prifoner of the Lord, hefeechyou that ye walk 7.vorthyof the Va'-
Lp • 1'/.
I, s.c.
.r. J
cation uihereuxtb ye are called, with all Lmslinejs and MeekneJs, with Long- uffering.
and Meekne{s, forbearing one another in Love, endeavouring to keep the Unity of tlte
Spirit in the Bond of Peace; and the Term of this Union, which he lays dowa
is the Acknowledgment of one Carholick Church, one Spirit, one Lord and
Mediator, and one God, even the Father of all, who is above all, through all, and
3 Lin all. The contrary Vices of Bitternejs; and Wrath, ,md Anger, and Clamour,
~ 7.' and evil !peaking, and Malice, are to be put away, as Things that grieve the H(J~
)- Spirit of God: and we muft be kind One to another, forgiVing one another; even as
Y. T 2,' God, for Chrift's Jake, hath !orgi"Jen us, and he Followers of God, by walking in
, . Love, even as Chrift hatha/fo loved us, and hath given him[e/f for us.
Phil. ii. His Exhortation to the Philippians, is in the moft moving Terms: If there
I, &c. be any Confolati-onin Chrifl, if any Comfirtof Love, if any Fel/owjhip of the Spirit,
if any Etnxels and Mercies, fulfil ye my 10y, tbatye be like minded, ha",ing the fame
Love, being Qf one Accord, of one Mind. Let nothing he done through Serif« or rllin-
glory, but in lowline/s of Mind let each efleem other better than themfel1.Jes.
In his Exhortation to the Coloffiam, he warmly preffes our cultivating the
c,lolT. iii. fame Difpofirion, and abounding in the fame Practice: Put ~f all tbe]e, Anger,
s, S:c. . Wrath, Malice ;-put on as the EfeEf oj God, holy and beloved, Bowels of MercieJ,
.Kindnefr, Humblene/s of Mind, Meeknefs, Long-Juffering, forbearing one anoth~,
and forgiving one another, even as Chrifl forgrrve us. And, a60ve all thefe Thing!,
pur on Chm"ity, which is the Bond of PedeEfne/s, and let tile Peace of God rule ill
your Hearts, to which alfo ye are called in one Body.
In his Directions to 'lImothy, he gives him this Summary of all praCtical
1 Tim. i Religion ~ The End oj the Commandment is Charity out of a pure Heart, and a gooa
~,&c. l?on!ci.ence,and I:'aith ~nfeigned, and he af<:ribes Me~s turning afide to vain
Janglmg, to thelf havmg fwerved from thIS great Pnnciple ..
And, to mention no more Paffages on this Head, I {hall conclude this whole
Account with that amiable Defcription of the \Vifdom, that is from above gi-
... ven by St. 7mnes: The Wifdom that is from above is pure and peaceable, and
Jzmc~ 111. gemle, and eRfy to he iutreated, full' of good-Fru;t!, without Partiality and without
141 "c. Hypocrif!. But ifwt ha-uehitter Envying and Strife;n our Hearts, we'have nothing
to glui"Y in, !Jut we lye againft the Trutb, i. e. belye our Chriflian Profeffion ; for
wharever falfeJlld~ment we may pafs upon our felves, thisWiJdomdefcmdeth
not fromab(jve, but If earthlY,fen.fual, devilijb,. for 'Whe1t Envy;ng. flndStrife';!, there
is Dmfujion, and every e'lJiIWork. 1-
T'he I N T ROD U C T ION. I , 7
I have' thrown all there excellen~ P~{fage.s of the f.'lcred, vv~ritjngs together,
that it may appear in the moil convincing Light, that the Scriptures have no-
tl ina in tbem to countenance the Spirit, or any of the Methods of Perfecu-
tion b and to confront the melancholy Account I have given before of the
Pro~rers and Ravag~s. caufe.d. by this accurfed Evil. Goo~ <;'o~, how have
the PraCtices- of Chnfhans differed from the Precepts of Chriflianity ! Would
one imagine that rheAurhors of rhofe d:e~dful Mifchiefs .and Confufions wer~
the Bifhops and Miniflers of the Chriftian Church? 1 hat they had ever
read the Records of Chriftian Religion? Or if they had, that they ever be-
lieved them? . .
But it may be objected, that whatever may be the Precepts of the Chriflian
Religion, yet the Conduct even of the Apoflles themfelves gives ferne Coun-
renance to the Spirit and Practice of Perfecurion, and particularly the Con-
duB: of St. 'Paul ; and that fuch Powers are given to the Guides and Difhops
of the Chriftian Church, as do either exprefly or virtually include in them a
a Right to perfecute. Let us briefly examine e~ch of thefe Pretenfions.. ..
As to the Practice of the Apofiles. Bez.a mentions two Infiances to vind i- I'c Erret.
catethe Punifument of Here ticks. The firfi is that of Ana-lim and Sapphira, a ~,lagliL
ftruck dead by Peter; and the other that of Elymas the Sorcerer, Druck blind p~n.
by Paul. Hut how impertinently are both there Inflnnces alledged? Herefy 1 1, c.
was not the Thing punifhed in either of them. Anauias and .(applJira were
ftruck dead for Hypocrify and Lying, and for confpiring, if it were poflible,
to deceive God. Elymas was a Jewi/h Sorcerer, and falfe Prophet, a fubtle
mifchievous Fellow, an Enemy to Righceoufnefs and Virtue, who withflood
the Apoflolick Authority, and endeavoured, by his Frauds, to prevent the
Converfion of the Deputy to the Chriftian Faith. The two firfl of there Per-
fons were punifhed with Death. By whom} What, by Peter? No, by the
immediate Hand of God. Peter gave them a Reproof fuirable to their Wic-
kednefs i but as to the Punifhrnenr, he was only the Mouth of God in de-
claring it, even of that God who knew the Hypocrify of their Hearts, and
gave this fignal Inflance of his Abhorrence of it in the Infancy of the Chri-
ilian Church, greatly to difcourage, and, jf poffible, for the future, to pre- .
vent Mens thus dealing fraudulently and infincerely with God. And,
I pre fume, if God hath a Right to punifh Frauds and Cheats in another
World, he hath a Right to do (0 in this; efpecially in the Infiance before
tiS, whi~h feems ~o.have fomething very peculiar in it. Peter exprefiy fays
to SOpphtrtl, !low IS I~ that ytho'lJe :z~reed together to tempt the Spirit of the Lord 1 Acts v j'.
What can thiS tempnng of the Spinc of the Lord be but an Agreement be-
tween Anania! and h~s.Wife? to put th~s. Fraud on tile A poftle, to fee whe-
ther or no he could dIfc~v~r It by the Spl.f1t he pretended to? This was a pro-
per Challen~e t~ the SPlflt of God, whIch the Apoftles were endewedwith,
and a Combll1atlon to put the Apoftolick Character to the Trial. Had" Dot
the Cheat been difcov~red, the Apoftle's lnfpiration and Miffion would have
be.en ~~ferve~ly queftlOned, and as the State of Chriftianity required that
thIS dIVIneMlffion fhould be abundantI y eftablifhed,.PeuJ' lets them know that
1. ~he~.~
their lIypocrify was difcovei'd, and, to create the greater Regard and At:'
rcurion co their Pcrfons and r..1etC1ge, GQd faw fit to punifh that Hypocrify
with Death.
,'\.\', x;:i. As to El)'lilflJ the Sorcerer, this Inflancc is as foreign and impertinemos
.', r" the other. Sergius Paulus, ProconfulofCypl'lls, had entertained at Papl», one
B,'1ijeluJ a Jew, a Sorcerer; and hearing a1fo that Paul and Bamal as \~en in
the City, he fenr for them to hear the Doctrine they preached. AC(;'~lding-
Iy they endeavoured to inflrud the Deputy in the Chriftian Faith, bue were
withfiood by EIJlniH, who, by his Subtleties and Tricks, cndcavoure.. to hin-
der his Converfion. St. Paul therefore, in order to confirm his 0\\ n divine
Miflion, and to prevent the Deputy's being deceived by the Frauds and Sor-
ceries of Elymas, after feverely rebuking him for his Sin, and Oo..cficion to
Chriflianiry, tells him, not that the Proconful ought to put him \:j Jail, and
punifh him with the civil Sword, but that God himfelf would decide the
Conrroverfy, by ftriking the Sorcerer himfelf immediately blind, which aC 4

cordingly came to pafs, to the full Conviction of the Proconfui. Now what
is there in all this to vindicate Perfecution? God punifhes wicked Men for
Fraud and Sorcery, who knew their Hearts, and had a Right to punifh the
Iniquity of them. Therefore Men may punifh others for Opinions they think
to be true, and are confcientious in embracing, without knowing the Heart,
or being capable of difcovering any Infinceriry in it. 01' God may vindicate
the Character and Million of his own Mefl'engers, when wickedly oppofed
And denied, by immediate Judgments infliCted by himfelf on their Oppofers.
Therefore the Magiflrare may punifh and put to Death, without any War-
rant from God, fuch who believe their Million, and are ready to fubmit to itt
as far as they underfland the Nature and Defign of it. Are thefe Confe-
cuences juft and rational? or would any Man have brought there Inflances
a&sPrecedents for Perfecution, that was not refolved, at all Hazards, to de-
fend and praCtife it? .
'I Cor.v, s· But doth not St. Paul command to deliv~r Per/onsto Satan for the Deflru8io"
Gal. i. 9, of the Flefh? Doth he not wifh that they were even cut off who trouhle Chrijlia1lJ,
v, I~. and enjoin us to mark them which csufi Di'ViJiom and Offences, contrary to his Do-
~om. XVI. Grine, and to avoid them, and not to eat with them 1 Undoubtedly he doth. But
I ~or. v, 9 what can be reafonably infer'd from hence in favour of Perfecution, merely
for the fake of Opinions and Principles? In all thefe Inftances, the Things
cenfured are Immoralities and Vices. The Perfon who was deliver'd by
St. Palll to Saran, was guilty of a Crime not fo much as named by the Gentiles
rhemfelves, the inceftuous Marriage of his Father's Wife; and the Perfons we
are, as Chriftians, commanded nor to keep company and eat with, are Mell
of fcandalous Lives; fuch as Fornicators, or Covetous, or Idolaters, or
Railers, or Drunkard'S, or Extortioners, making a Profeffion of the Chriftias
'Religion, or, in St. Paul's I)hrafe, called Brethren; a wife and prudent Exhor-
tation in thofe Days efpeciaIry, to prevent others from being corrupted by
'[uch Examples, and any Infamy thrown on the Chriftian Name aDd CharaCter.
As to more whom the Apofile wifhes cut off, they were theper[ecuting Jews,
The I N T ROD U C T ION. 1 J '}
who fpread Contention amongft Chri,ftians, .and taught the.m t.n ~jtc ni~dde-
vour one another, upon Account of Circurncifion, and fitch-like f:-dles; Men
that were the Piazues and Corrupters of the Society they belonged to. Men
who caufed fuch t'>Divifions, and who caufed them out of a Love to their own
Belly, deferved to have a Mark fer upon them, and to be avoided by all who
regarded their own Intereft, or the Peace of orhe rs.
What the Apoflle means by delivering to Satan, Iam not able certainly
to determine. It was not, I am flue, the putting the Perfon in Jail, or tor-
turing his Body by an Executioner; nor fending him to the Devil by the
Sword or the Fagot. One Thing included in it undoubtedly was, his Sepa-
ration from the Chriflian Church: Put away from amongfi Jour [elues that wicked I Cor. ",
Perfon, which probably was attended with fome bodily Diflernper, .which, as it 13·
came from God, had a Tendency to bring the Perfon to Confideration and Re-
fleCtion. The immediate Defign of it was the DeflruEtion of the Flefh, to cure
him of his Incefl, that, by Repentance and Reformation, his Spirit might be
Javed ill the Day of Chrif/ j and the Power by which the Apoflle infliEted this
Punifhmenr, was peculiar ro himfelf, which God gave himfor Edification, and 1 C:lI',
notfor Dej1ruailJlI: Sotbat whatever is precifeJy meant by delivering to Satan, x, S.
it wasrhePunifument of a notorious Sin; a Punifhment that carried the Marks
of God's Hand, and was defign'd for the Perfon's Good, and was aEtuaIJy
inflrnmental to recover and fave him, 2 Cor. ii, But what Refemblance is
there in all this to Perfecution, in which there is no Appearance of the Hand
of God, nor any Marks bur thofe of the Cruelty and Vengeance of Men;
no Immorality punifhed, and, generally fpeaking, nothing that in its Nature
deferves Punifhrnenr, or bur what deferves Encouragement and Applaufc
And '~is very probable that this is what Sr. Paul means by his 7.v;jbiilg t!Jere cut
()ff who diflurbed the Peace of the Galatian Chriftians, by tPread; ng Divifions
amongll: them, and exciting Perfecurions againf] them; though, I confefs, if
St. Paul meant more, and pray'd to God that thofe obfrinate and incorrigible
Enemies to Chriflianiry, who, for private Views of worldly Inrerefl, raifed
perpetual Diflurbances and Perfecurions where-ever they came, might receive
the jufl Punifhment of their Sins, and be hereby prevented from doing far-
ther Mifchief, I don't fee how this would have been inconfiflcnt with Charity,
or his own Charaaer, as an infpired Apoftle.
Ie may poffibly be urged, that though the Things cenfured in there Places
are Immoralities, yet that there are other Patf.'1ges which refer only to Prin-
ciples, find that the Apofile Paul fpeaks aaainft them with great Severity:
As particul~rly, Jf any Mlln preach II~Y other GoJpel unto you, than that ye have re~ Gal. i. 9.
ce;ved, let h,m be. a.ccurfe~. And agaID, A Man that is lin Heretick, aJter the firft Tic. iii.
ilndfecond Admomtton, refea. As to the firft of thefe, nothing can be more 10.
evident than that ~h~ A poft~e pronounces an Anathema only againfi thofe who
fubverted the Chnfilan ReltglOn, fudl who taught that it was infufficient to
Salvation, without Circumcifion, and Submiffion to the 1ewifh Law: As the
Gofpel he taught, was what he had received from Chrifi he had, as an
Apoftle, a Right: to warn the Churches he wrote to againfi 'corruptin{! the
z Sinl-
I~O Tl» IN TR on u C T ION.
Simplicity of it, and to pronounce an Anathema, i, e. to declare, in the
Name of his great Maller, that all Iuch falfe Teachers fhould be condemned
who continued to do fa; and this is the utrnofl that can be made of the Ex-
preflion : anti therefore this Place is as impertinently all edged in favour of
Perfccurion, as it would be to alledge thofe Words of Chri1t: He that belie-
-octb not, lb,dl be condemned. The Anathema pronounced, was the divine Ven-
geance, it was Anathema Maranatba, to take Place only when the Lord fhould
come to Judgment, and not to be executed by human Vengeance.
. As to Herely, againfl: which fuch dreadful Outcries have been raifed, 'cis
taken indifferently in a good or a bad Senfe in the Scripture. In the bad Senfe,
it Ganifies, not an involuntary Error, or Mifl:ake of Judgment, into which
feri~us and honefl: Minds may fall, after a careful Enquiry into the Will of
God, bur a wilful criminal Corruption of the Truth fer worldly Ends and PUf-
pofes- Thustis reckou'd, by St. Paul hirnfelf, amongft theWorks of the Flefh,
Gal. v, 2.0. iuch as Adultery, Fornication, Variance, Strifes, and the like, becaufe Herefy is
embraced for the fake offle!hly Lulls, and always miniflers to the fervingthem.
Thus St. Peter, 71JerQ toerefal]« Prophets alf« amongfl the People, even as there{hall
2 Pet. ii, be[alfe Teadm s amongjl you, uib» privily (hall bring in damnable Herefies, even deny.
I, &c. ing the Lori! t bnr bought tbem, and bring upon themfehmfwift DeftruElion; and ma-
1l] !hall follow their pernicious b[7ays, by reafon of whom the Way of Truth !hall be
v. io-euil [pol» of; and through Covetau!nels jhalJ they, with feigned Words, make Mer.
cbandiz.e of you; whom he farther defcribes, as walking after the Flefh in the Luft
~f Uncleannejs, and as given to almoft all manner of Vices. This is Herefy, and
denying the Lord that bougbt us, and the only Meaning of the Expreffion, as
ufed by the Apollle; though it hath been applied by weak or deligning Men,
Tit. iii. to denote all fnch as don't believe their rnetaphyfical Notion of the Trinity,
II. or the Athanajian Creed. Hence it is that St. Paul gives it, as the general
Character of an Heretick, that he is [ulniened, viz. from the Chriftian Faith,
finneth, viz. by voluntarily embracing Errors, fubverlive of the Gofpel, in
favour of his Lufls, on which Account he is felfcondemn'd, viz. by his own
Confcience, both in the Principles he teaches, and the vile Ures to which he
makes them ferve: So that tho' fincere and honeft Enquirers after Truth,
.Perfons who fear God, and praCtife Righteoufnefs, may be Heretic-ks in the
Efieem of Men, for not underfianding and believing their Peculiarities in Re.
ligion, yet they are not and cannot be Hereticks, according to the Scripture
~efcription of Herefy, in the ~otion of which there is always fuppofed.a
Wicked Heart, cauling Men WIlfully to embrace and propaoate fuch PrinCI-
ples ~s are fub.v~rli\'e of the Gofpel, in order to ferve the Purpofes of their
~vance, Ambl~lon, and LulL . Such H~re(y as this is unquefiionably one of
tne worft of Cnmes, and Heretlcks of thIS kmd are worthy to be rejeCted. It
mull he.confelfed, that Herefy hath been generally taken in another Senfe,
.~nd to mean Opinions that differ from the ellabliihed Orthodoxy, or from
the Creeds of the Clergy, that are uppermofl: in Power; who have not only
taken on chen: to reject fuch as have differ'd from them from their Coml11u-
.J1ion and Churcb) but to deprive them of Fortune, Liberty and Life. B~lt
as St. Paufs Notion of Here!y entirely differs from what th.e CI~rgy have
generally taught about it, theirs ,may be, allowed to ?e a very Irrational and
abfurd Doctrine, and the Aponle s remain a very ,Wife and good p~e j and
though they have gone into all the Lengths of Wickednefs to punifh w~at
they have {ligmatized with the Name of Herefy, they have had no apoflolick
Example or Precept to countenance ~hem j Scripture Hereticks being only to
be rejected from the Church, according to St. Paul, and as to any farther
Punifhmenr, 'tis deferred till the Lord fhall come.
As to the Powers given to the Guides, or Overfeers, or Bifhops of the
Church I allow their Claims have been exceeding great. They have affirmed
to themielves the Name of the Church and Clergy, hereby to difiinguifh them ...
{elves from the Flock of Chrifl- They have taken on them, as we have feen,
to determine, mend, and alter the Faith, to make Creeds for others, and
oblize them to fubfcribc them, and to act as though our Saviourhad divefled.
himfelf of his own Rights, and given unto them alt Power in Heaven ana
Earth. But thefe Claims have as little Foundation in the Gofpel as in Rea-
fon. The Words Clergy and Church, are never once ufed in Scripture to de-
note the Bifhops or ocher Officers, but the Chriflian People. St. Peter ad-
vifes the Presbyters tofeed the Flock of God, and to exercife the Epifcopa! Office I Pet. v, -
'willingly, a not ar lqyding it over the Heritages, or Clergy of God. And St. j.
Paul, writing to his Ephefians, and fpeaking of their Privileges as Chriftians,
fays, that hy Chrifl they were made ~o~'s pec,uliar Lot, or Heritage, or tJ Clergy.
In like manner, the Body of Chrifiians 10 general, and particular Congre-
~a[ions in particular Places, are caIled the Church, but the Miniflers of the
Gofpel never in conrradiftindion to them. 'Tis of all Believers that St.
Teter gives that noble Defcription, that they are a [piritual Huitie, an holy
PriejlhoQd, to offer up Jpiritual S,,,rifices, a (hoJen Generation, a rmal PriejJhcod, an
holy Nasion, and a c peculiar People, or a People for his peculiar Heritage, or
purchafed P~ffeffion, as the Word is reuder'd, Epb. i. 14. So that to be the
Church, the Clergy, and the facred Priefrs of God, is an Honour common
to allChriftians in general by tI.e Gofpel Charter. There are not the Titles
of a few only, who love to exalt themfelvesabove them.
. Undoubtedly, the Order of the Chriflian Worfhip requires, thatthere
ihould be proper Perfons to guide and regulate the Affairs of it. And ac-
cordingly St. Paul tells us, that ClJriji gave [ome Apoflles, fame Prophets, !omeEph. i,.
Evangelifk, ana Jome Paflors and Teachers, different Officers, sccordinc to the I I.
<iifferem S[a~e ~nd Condition of his Church .. Tothe Apoflles)extra~rJinary
powers were gIVen, to fit. them for the Service to which they were called;
and, to-enable· manage there .P?wers in a right Manner, they were
under the peculIar Conduct of the SPlTlt of God. Thus our Saviour afrer
his Refurrea~on, bre~thed· on· his Difciples the Holy Ghoft, and Caid,
Moje .foe'IJerSms ye remIt> they are remitted to them; and w/;ofe!oe7)ey:Si111,e Tltai1J John n,
. , i.lo
• Mil ft1("T~( T"'JI,,~nfft1v!
" E, '" ~ £x.AH~",.Jnll~·
~. Ac&@- i:1S ?rseA7TOIllO"IY.

TheIN T 110 Due T I 0 lf~
they nrt.rnained; a CommiRion of the fame import with that which he gave'
them before, Matt. xviii, 18. U/hatfteverye fhall· bind. on Earth, fhall be bound ilf
Heaven j and w!Jat!oerz,'erye /ball wole on Earth, /hall be loofed in Heaven. To
bind, is to retain Mem Sins; and to loole, is to.• 'm,it their Sins. And this
Power the Apofiles had; and it was abfolutely necefiary. they fhould have it,
or they could never have Ipread his Religion in the World. 13m wherein
did this binding and looting, this retaining and remitting Sins, conlift ? What,
in their faying to this Man, I abfolve you from your Sins; and to the
other, I put you under the Sentence of Damnation? Would any confiderate
Ma,n, in the World have ever credited their Prerenfions to fuch an extrava-
~ant Power? Or can one lingle Inftance be produced of the Apoilles pr~
tending to exercife it? No. Their Power of binding' and looting, of re.raining
and remitting Sins confifled in this, and in this principally. -uiz: their fixingrhe Conditions of Mens future Salvation, and denouncing the Wrath of Al-
mighty God againft all, who, rhro" wilful OOfiinacy, would. not believe and
obey the Gofpel. And tho Commiffionwas given them in the. moil genera!
Terms, Whole [ue'Ver Si-m ye retain, &c. not becaufe thay. were to go to parti-
cular Perfons, and peremptorily fay, YON /halJ hd Ja.ved., and you /hall bt
damned, but becaufe they ware to preach the G~fpcl to Genli/eI,. as well as
Jews) and to fix rhofe Conditions of' future Hclppinefs and Mifery. that
fhould conclude ail t-he Nuions of the Earth) to, wnom the Gofpel fuould
be preached. This was their proper- Office and, Work. as Apoftles j' and,
in order to this, they had the Spirit given them, to bring all Things tha:t
Chrift had faid to their Remembrance, and to infima them full¥ in the
Nature and f)'oCUiaes of the Gofpel, And asehey have declared. the whole
Couafd of God to the ":~rld., they have loafed and bound all Mankind',
eoe». the Vir] Bifh()PI and PitjJors fYj the' Church, at'. -weU III others, as they h:we
fixed chofe Conditions of; l'ardon and'Mercy, of future Happi-nefs and Mi~
;kry for all Men, from which God wm Inot recede, to the End of Time.
This was a Powsr it to be enrrutled with Men under the ConduCt of aD
uneri'iag Spirir:, and with thenl only j whereas me Gommon Notion offitc6f-
.dotal or prieftly Abfolutioo, as' it hath no Foom!atioo·, inthisCommiffioDci
the Apoftles, DOr in ~ny ~alfage of die facred Writing.s, is irrational and
.abful'd, and whlch the Pnefts have 110 more Power to give, than any, other
~ eommonChriftian whatfoevel"; no, oor than they have to make a new Gofpel.
I would: add., tbat> 39 the· .ApofUes Jleeeivedi this Commiffion from C!Jl'ifl,
,they were bound tooonnntH'nemfelf\\'VAOlty re· it, and not to excecdJ the
Lim~ts-of it'. T~ey were hts· Servants who fent them, aD~' me Me9"age t!Jef
recmved frmn hIm, that, and that only, were they 'to debvertotb.eWorld.
.:. Cor. v. Thus St. PaIIl fays of; himf~lf, that69dhad&o7ll11littwt~./J;''',th#1Vortl (JfRlio1l:'
.:10. ci linti_. and that he was tJ1I!aJ.r [R' Clwifl; that' he [l)'MlcWlIDt' Bi",.fiI/.,
~v. ~'/;.ut Cbr;flJ1efuf.tl1l.1:.Prd.,_h;",jJ}'~lI1#ef __ ~·fI»J-fw /_; th~ be
1. ~. had no Dominion over othtTl.Faith, no Power to. impofe upon them arbitrary
Things, or Articles of Faith, which he had' not received from Cluift.; and
'I Cor. ii. that accordingly he determined to know nothing !JUt ChriflJ 1JIItl:hi~4 i.e. to
:2. Z . preach
The :IN TR 0 Due T ION. I ~3
preach nothing but the pure and uncorrupted Dodrines of his Gorpet; and
that this was his great Cum fort, that he had not /hunned to declare tbe CounJel
qf God. If then the infpired Apofiles were to confine t.hemfelves t? what they
received from God, and had no Power to make Articles of Faith, and fix
Terms of Communion and Salvation, other than what they were imme-
,iiately ordered to do by Chrift, it is abfolurely impoffible. that ~he Clergy
can have that Power now; who have, as I apprehend, no immediate Com-
miffion from Chrift,nor any direct Infpiration from his Holy Spirit. Nor
is -there any Thingin rheCircumllanees of the World to renderfuch a Power
defirable s becaufe the Apoi1:les have fhewn us all Things that we need believe
or praCtife as Chriflians, and commanded the Preachers of the Gofpel to teach
DO other Doctrines but what they received from them. Hence St. Peter's Ad-
vice to the Elders" that they fhould feed the Flock oj God, not as lording it ouer I Pet. V. 3"
the Heritage. -And St. Paul, in his Epiflles to TImoth], inftrutting him in the
Nature of the Gofpel Doctrines and Duties, tells him, that by putting the I Tim. iv,
Brethren in R-fmemna."uj' thele Things, he 'Would apprO"'.;ebimfelf a good Minifter 6.
gj 14111 Chrift, Rod eommandsbim to take Heed to him/elf, and-to the DoEl,.ines vi. I~, J 4,
he had taught him, and to continue in them, charging him, in the Sight of God, to.
a7Ul'IJtj(J1tt:hr;fl Jej'us, 'to keep the Commandment given him, that which was C0171-1. Tim. ii,
",ifled to his Trufl, wit·hout Spot, unrehukeable, till the AppUlrar;ce of Cl:riji ~feJIIJ. 2. •.
Thefe were the Things to which Timothy was to confine hi mfelf, and to com-
mit to others, that they might be continually preached in the Chriflian
Church; and ofConfequence 'tis the fame A pofiolick Dourine that the
Bifuops,or Elders, or Minifiers of the Church, are to inftrutt their Hearers
in now, as far 8S they underi1:and it, without mixing' :my Thing of their
own with it, or of any other Perfonswharfoever.
The great End and Defign of the miriiflerial Office, is for the perftEling Mrs :1):.:
If the Saints, and the edifying of the Body ofChrif/. Hence the Elders are com- 1.S.
manded to take Heed to them[elves, and to the Flockllver which tbe Holy Gbofl bad
",aJetmmBIsHoPS, toInd-the Church ofG()d. They are likewifeexhorred to
blld/aft the faitbjuNf/ord, .tlS thF:)haa lJ«n tflught,that hy found DoE1rine they may
lit alJlet()~hfrtand «Jmn1lce ·Dtbn1. They are ro give Atundanre to Rending,
Jl,ilKindiiffl.alldDoE1ri1te, 'and to put others in Remembrance of the great:
Trntbs·df tbeGofpel, charging them, before the Lord, not to fhive about
unprofitable Words., but tohege1ltle,to all Men, and in Mukmfi to inftrtlE1 FI.'en
theft who epplje.They are -toCDntend·earneftly for the Faith, as well as other
Chrifiians, I;>ut,!hep 'tis for that Faith 'Which 'Was once delivered to the Saints ; .
and, even for tIllS,. ~1HS.r:ulll#ofthf.Lordil "",(-(<<'%£~,to fight. He is not toaTim. ii.
u~e ~arnal,bnt fp,.,tflal.mapo1l1,nor to.put on any Armonr, but that Ofi4'
J:Ighteoufn~fs on the :RIght Hand, and on the Left. ~hey are to fpeak the Eph. iVl'
7nltb. but. It mnfl: be ~nLfYlJe. They fhouldbe z.ea!fJU]/YaJfeEted, bur it fhouJd J~ •.
bei.}ways Ilia good 7'hiwg. They mull flop the Matlths of unruly and vain Talker! !It. I. II.
but ·itmuft be by UnCfWrtlptne!s of Do8rine,Grav;ty, Sincerity, and ftJ1lnd Speerh: u. 8.
,1HIt",.,.f"e ,qmJ,mned. Upon ·thefe, and the like Accounts,th~y are raid
'f ~. to
to be o't:er U! in tlie Lord, to rule us, and to be our Guidel ; Words that do not
imply any Dominion that they have over the Confciences of others, nor any
Right in them to prefcribe Articles of Faith and Terms of Communion for
ot/;ers. This they are exprefly forbidden, and commanded to preach the
Word of God only, and pronounced accurfed if they teach any other Cofpel
than that which they have received from rne Apoflles. And of COl1!.~'q'letlCe
when we arc bid to o[,ey and [ubmi: our [elues to them, it is meant then, and
then only when they rule us in t lie Lord, wnen they fpeak to us the Word of
God, and labour in the Word and Dollrine. In all other Cafes, they have no
Power, nor is there any Obedience due to them. They are to be refpected,
and to be bad in diJ:iMeHonour fir tbeir lVork fd.:.e, i. e, when they preach mt
t/;i!n~re!vCJ, but Grip yefus the Lord, and when their Faith and Converfarion
is Iuch, as to become worthy our Imitation. But if they teach other wilt, and
content not to the H/or ds a/our Lord ']efuJ, if t/;ey dont aboutWtJrds whereof come
Emy, Strife and Railing, fuppofing that Gain is Godlinefs, from [ucb we are com-
manded to tuitbdr au: our [elues. The Epifcopal Character, however orherwife
greatly venerable, then forfeits the Reverence due to it" and becomes con-
So that there are no Powers or Privileges annexed to the Epifcopal or Mi.
niflerial Character in the facred Writings, that are in the Jeaft favourable
to the Caufe of Perfecution, or that countenance fo vile and deteftable a
Practice. As to the Affair of Excommunication, by which the Clergy have
fet the World fo often in a Flame, there is nothing in the facred Records
that confines the Right of exercifing it to them, nor any Command ever to
exercife it, but towards notorious and fcandalous Offenders. The incefhi-
ous Corinthian was delivered over to Satan by the Church in full Affembly,
'J Cor. v, on which Account his Punifhmenr or Cenfure is [aid to be by many. And
4' t hough St. Paul bids Titus to reje8an Heretick, he alfo bids the, Corinthians to.
1. Cor. ii. put away that wicked Perfon from amongft them, which had brought fuch a Scan-
6. dal upon their Church, and the Thf'jfalonians, to withdraw them/ehmjrom every
Brother that (hould walk difOl-derly. So that as the Clergy have no Right, from
the New Teflarnenr, to determine in Conrroverfiesof Faith, nor to create any
new Species of Herefy, fo neither have they any exclufive Right to cut off any
Perfons from the Body of the Church, much lefs to cur them off from it for
not.fubmitting to their Creeds and Canons; and of Confequenceno Power to
mark them out by this Act to the civil Magifirate, as Objects of his In-
dignation and Vengeance.
I have been the longer on this Head, that I might fully vindicate the;
Chriftian Revelation, from every Sufpicion of being favourable to Perfecu-
tion. Nottvithftanding fame late Infinuations of this kind that have been:
. thrown out againft it by its profeffed Adverfaries, let but the Expreffions
of Scripture be interpreted ,vith the fame Candour as any other Writings
-are, and there will not be found a fingle Sentence to countenance this Do·
tl:ril\e and Pra.Ctice. And t~erefore though Men of corrupt Mi"n~s, or weak;
Judgmenrs,havc, for the fake of worldly Advantages) or through £lropg
z ~~
Prejudices: entered into the Meafures of Perfecurion under Pretence of
vindicating the Chriftian Religion, yet as they have no Support and Foun-
cation in the Gofpel of Chrifr, the GoCpel ought not to be reproached for
this, or any other Faults of thofe who profefs to believe it. Let Perfecution
be reprefeoted as a rnofl dereflable and impious Practice, and let Perfecurors
of every Denomination and Degree bear all the Reproaches they deferve,
and be efleemed, as they ought to be, the Diilurbers, Plagues and Curfes
of Mankind, and the Church of God; but let not the Religion of Jefus
Chrif] fuffer for their Crimes, nor {hare any Part of that Scandal, which is
due only to thofe who have difhonoured their Character and Profeffion, and
abufed the moft beneficent and kind Infliturion that ever appeared in the
It is in order to expofe this fuameful Practice, and render it the Abhor-
rence of aU Mankind, that I have drawn up the foregoing Sheets, and, I
prefume, that no one who hath not put off Humanity it felf can read them,
'without becoming Sentiments of Indignation. The true Ufe to be made of
that Hiflory, is, not to think difhonourably of Chrifi: and his Religion, not
to contemn anddefpife his faithful Minifters, who, by Preaching and Pra-
ctice, by Reafon and Argument, endeavour to propagate Knowledge, Piety,
Righteoufnefs, Charity, and all the Virtues of private and facial Life.
The Blefling of the Almighty God be with them. The Grace of our Lord
Jefus Chrifl fucceed and profper them. I fay therefore, the Ufe of the fore-
going Hiflory is to teach Men to adhere clofe to the Doctrines and Words of
Chrif] and his Apoftles, to argue for the Doctrines of the Gofpel with Meek-
nefs and Charity, to introduce no new Terms of Salvation and Chri-
flian Communion, not to trouble the Chriflian Church with meraphyfical
'Subtleties and abftrufe Queflions, that minifter to Quarelling and Strife, not
to pronounce Cenfures, Judgments, and Anathemas, upon fuch as may dif-
fer from us in fpeculative Truths, not to exclude Men from the Rights
of civil Society, nor lay them under any negative or pofirive Difcouragements
for Confcience fake, or for their different Ufages and Rites in the Externals
of Chriftian Worfhip j but to remove rhofe which are already laid, and which.
are as much a Scandal to the Authors and Continuers of them, as they are a
Burthen to rhofe who labour under them. There were the {ole Views that
influenced me to lay before my Reader the foregoing melancholy Ac-
count; not any Defign to refleCt on the Clergy in general, whofe Office and
CharaCter I 'greatly reverence, and who, by a8:ing according to the ori-
ginal Deugn of their Inflirurion, would prove the mofl ufeful Set of Mt'11 in
every Nation and Kingdom, and thereby fecure to themfelves all the Efleern
they could reafonably de fire in the prefent World, and, what is infinitely
.more valuable, the Approbation of their great Lord and Mailer in auother-

FIN 1 S.



fI'he Do8rine of J ES U.8 C H R 1ST forbids Perfecutitm on the Ae.
count of R ELI,G ION.
~P'~~l."~j(l~ L T H '0 UGH the very Name of the IN <t.uI SIT ION' was
not fo much as heard of in theChriftian Church, before
the Thh-teenthCentury, yet having now fpread it felf al-
moftthroughout the whole WOrld, and become every
where notorious; it is not to be wondered at, that there
1hduld be a general Curiofity in Mankind of more tho-
2t:·rIl.~riliroughly underltanding ,it, and knowing by what Laws it
is conducted, and what are the Methods of Proceeding therein. The DoCtors
of the Romifh Church give it the higheft Commendations, as the only and
moft certain Means of extirpating Herefies, and an impregnable Support o~the
B Falth;
Faith; not invented by human Wifdom and Council, but given to Men by
the immediate Influence of Heaven, whore Tribunal breathes nothing but
Holinefs, and to which they give fuch Titles as denote the moil: perfect
Sanctity. The Inquifirion it felf is called the Holy Office; the Prifon of the
Inquifition the Holy Houje, fo that the very Name raifes it Refpett and Vene-
ration: Y ea, they go fo far as to compare it with the Sun; and affirm,
that as it would be accounted ridiculous to commend and extol the Sun, it
would be equally fo to pretend to praife the Inquifition. The Proteftants
on the other hand reprefent it, not only as a cruel and bloody, but moft
unjuil Tribunal; where, as the Laws by which other Tribunals are go-
verned are difregarded, fo many Things, which every where elle would be
efteerned Unrighteous; are commended as Holy. And they are fo far from
thinking that it is a proper Means of reftraining or puni!hing the Guilty,
(which is the principal Thing to be aim'd at by every Tribunal) that on the
contrary, they believe it was invented for the Oppreffion of Truth, and
the Defence ot Superftition and Tyranny; where Perfons, let their Innocency
appear as bright as the Sun at Noon-day, are treated as the moft vile and
perfidious Wretches, and cruelly put to Death by the fevereft Tortures. r
therefore thought it might be of Service to the World, to.defcribe the Ori-
gine of: this. Tribunal; and againft whom, and by what Methods they ge-
nerally proceed in it. In order to this, it is neceffary to look back, and
deduce this whole Affair from the very Original.
The Chriftian Religion, taught by the infpired.Apoftles, made its Pro-
grefs in the World, and fhewed it felf to be of Divine Original by the RoO'
Iinefs of its Precepts, the exceeding Greatnefs of its Promifes, and the many
Miracles wrought in Confirmation of it; and, at laft, brought the whole
World into. its Obedience without the Affiftance of Carnal Weapons, or
'Temporal Power. Our Lord himfelf expected only a voluntary Obedience
from Mankind; as he required only to be worfhipped in Spirit, and com-
manded everyone that would be his Difciple to deny himfelf, which is the
'Ffoper Work of the Mind and Soul, and cannot be effected by any exter-
nal Violence whatfoever. Even God the Father- himfelf heretofore.. in or-
der, to reprefent the Nature of the Kingdom of his Son Jefus Chrift, fuewed
it to Daniel under the Figure of the Son of Man, whilft the other Kingdoms-
of this World were denoted by the Images of wild Beafts; for no other
lZaufe undoubtedly, but to.fhew the different Nature of Chrift.'s Kingdom
from the Kingdoms of this World. Thefe are to be erecled, enlarged, and
preferved by Violence and Arms, and.Meafures fierce and beftial , hi~ by
Mildnefs, Gentlenefs, and the Weight of Arguments, in order to conVInce,
and not offer Force to the Mind. The Precepts of the Gofpel breathe no"
thing but CharUy. and Love e OUf Lord calls Charity his N ew Comm~n~-
rnenr, by which he would have all Men. know and diftinguifh his D1[e1-
ples.. But there is nothing fo.oppofite to· Charity as the punifhing an er-
roneous Perfon, who believes he promotes the Divine Glory by his Error;
,"lin Defence of ir, is ready to undergo the molt. cruel.and 1hameful D~~.
Our Saviour fent his Difciples like Sheep into ~he m~dft of Vl olves, ir~ or-
der [Q bear Tefiimony to the Gofpel by their Patience under Sufferings,
and hereby fprcad the divine Savour of it through the World. }t was
ftr from his Dcfign, that like Wolves they. fhould tea~ and dcvo~: the Shecp ,
or that they Ihould violent! y compel thole by the 1 errors ?f I orments and
Death to embrace his Religion, whom they could not gam by the Force
of Arguments: Bcfides, aIT agree that Faith is the Gift of God, and there-
fore can never be produced by human. Force ~ n?r can God. be pre-
vailed on by external Violence to cornmumcatc this hIS excellent Gift. The
Mind is to be convinced by Arguments; the Tongue and bodily Members
111 ay be forced by external Violence; b~t this can nev~r{)r:1 an~ one a
real Belief of that to be true, which he IS perfwaded in his Mind IS falie : So
that nothing can be more directly oppofire to the Genius of Chriftianity,
than to perfecute the Erroneous; to expofe them under the infamous Name
of Hereticks to the Fury of the Mob, and punifh them with a cruel
Nor are we to think, that thefe gentle Means of propagating Chriftianity
were proper only for the Time of its firft Appearance, when the Church
was deftitute of the Civil Power; and by Reafon of its Oppofition to the
prevailing Religions of the World, drew upon it felf the Anger and Fury
of the Princes of it; but that the Cafe is now alter'd.. fince the Kings and
Rulers, upon their Converfion to the Faith, are obliged to fubjeCt their
Scepters to J efus Chrift: For the Change of Fortune makes no Change in his
Religion; nor em the Alteration of any worldly Affairs take away the Force
and Obligation of his Commands; for Chrift, by his Apoftles, preached one
Scheme of Doctrines to hlft for ever. 'Tis true, that Kings are to fub-
mit their Scepters to Chrift, not by forcing Men with Punifhmenrs, in Op-
pofition to his Commands, to profefs, contrary to their Confcience and real
Sentiments, what they believe to be falfe, and fo to fillhis Church with Hy-
pocrites inftead of true Believers; but by ordaining equal and juft Laws,
agreeable to the Gofpel Precepts, for the Prefervation of the Publick
Tranquility; and that there may. be nothing to obftrult: the true fpi-
ritual Wor1hip of God, and the Salvation of Souls. This is that moft harm-
lefs, and yet moft powerful Method of propagating the Gofpel, agreeable to
its Nat~re and Genius, by which in the Beginning, it was fpread in a
fhort TIme through the whole World, by a few weak and defencelefs Perf ons,
inftructed only by the Divine Spirit, through the Weight of its Arguments,
and the Power of its Miracles; and by which it may be ftill propagated,
and prefe~ved pure and uncorrupt, againft all the Attempts of Unbelievers
and Hereticks : For our Lord didnot furnifh his Difciples with carnal Wea-
pons to oppofe the Frauds, Jmpoftures, Violence and Perfecutions -ef ~the
World, but with Ipiritual Weapons, which through God arepower'ful to
'bring every Imagination into Captivity to the Obedience of Chrift, that
they might triumph over the World in the midft of AfHittions,by their
Innocence, Simplicity, Fortitude and Patience. So far :indeed was he from
'B 2 ordaining
4. The HISTORY of
ordaining Perfecutions, as the Punifhrnent of Error, that he commands his
Church, when fuffering Pcrfecutions, to pray for thofe that perfecute ir.
By this Means the Church in the Beginning was founded, and fo wonderfully
propagated throughout the whole World in its firft and pureft Ages.

Tbe Opinion of tbe PRIMITIVE CHRISTIANS concerning Perfecution.

A G R E E ABLE to this Practice was the univerfal and conflant Doctrine

of thefe Times; for the primitive Chriflians oppofed with the greateft
Vigour, all Cruelty and Perfecution for the Sake of Religion, 'Tis true,
indeed, that they condemned the Heathen for their Barbarities; and argued
wholly for this, that Chriftians fhould have the free Exercife of their Religion
granted them; but they us'd fuch Arguments, and Topicks of Rea-
foning, and even fometimes when treating of different Subjects, cxprefs'd
themfelves in fuch a manner, as plainly declares that they do equally con-
demn all SOft of Violence for the Sake of Religion, againft all Perfons what-
foever. Thus. Tertullian, in his Apology, C.24. fays: :take heed that this be
1Jot made uft of to the Praife oj Impiety, viz. to take away from Men the Li-
berty of Religion, and forbid them the Choice of their Deity; fo that it Jhould be
criminal for them to worjhip whom they would, and they fbould be compelled to
worfhip whom they would not; no one would accept of an involuntary Seroia,
110 not a Man. And in the 28th Chap. It plainly appears UJyujl, that Men
poffilJed oj Liberty and Choice, jhould be compelled againjl their Will to facrifice.
For in other Cafes a willing Mind is required in the Performance oj Divine !For·
/hip; and it may jujUy be accounted ridiculous to force any Perfon to basour the
Gods, whom he ought willingly for his own Sake to endeavour to appeaft. And
again, in his Book to Scapula, cap. 2. Every one hath a natural Right and
Power to worJhip {lc&ordillg to his Perfwafion, for no Man's.Religion can be either
hurtful or profitllble to his Neighbour: Nor can it be a Part of Religion to com-
pel Men to Religion, which ought to be voluntarily embraced, and not through
COllftraint; fince 'tis expetfed, that euen your Sacrifices jhould be offeredwitb
Q willi1tg Mind; fa that if you compel us to facrifice, think not to pleaftyour Gods;
for "nleftthey delight in Strife, they will not defire unwilling Satrifices.: But God
is not a Lauer oj CONtenhon. Cyprian alfo agrees with :tertullian his Mailer,
in his 62d Letter to Pomponius, concerningVirgins, where, treating of the
Excommunication of Offenders, he thus fpeaks: God commanded,_ that tboft
who would not obey his Priefls, and thofe judges, which CJ1.melJ.fter crime he ap-
pointed, ,jiould be flain, Such were cut off with the Sword during the Dijj>t~fa-
lion of the Circumcifion in the FleJh. But now, fil1ee the fpirnutiJ C;rc1J11J&ifi~n
lak,s Place in ali tb« faithful Sm;ants qj Gqa" tb& Prqua and Objlinalllll'r 10PI Jl~;n
The HIS TOR Y of the IN QUI SIT ION. 5
nuitb tbe [piritunl Sword, by being caft out of the Church. And in his 5 I £l:
Letter to Maximus, the Presbyter, difputing againl]; thole who fcparated
thcmfclvcs from the Church, he {peaks to them in this manner: Since
tlfflll )'Ollr DdivcranCt' [rout Prijo», you bccnmc infdled 'with an heretical am]
jcbijillatictlIOpinio11, JO it ,"CIlS, tbnt all your Glory remained ill Prifo» behind you;
'f1Jt!re you Jeemed to baue 11ft tlic Vigllity of your Cbaracicr; [incc you, tbc Soldiers
oj Chrifl, returned not to the Cburcb zobcn l'0U came [rom your Imprijonment; wbo
'went into lmprijonmet.t 'Leith the Commendation and Applaz~rt's of tbc Cburcb , for
though there may be 'fares ill the Cburcb, this ollght to be no Objlru{fioil to our Faitb
and Charity; 110ris their being in tbe Church allY Renjon for our Departure out of it :
It /holtld be 0111' Care that we be found the true Wheat, tbat toben tbe j\laJler Jhall
gatber it into his Granaries, we may rtap the Fruit of our Work and Labour. 'The
Apoftle, in his Epiflle to the Corinthians, [a)'.I, That in a large Houfe there are
not only Veffels of Gold and Silver, but of Wood and Earth, fome to 1-10-
nour, and fome to Difhonour. Let us endeavour, as much as we call, to be
found amongft tOOft of Gold and Silver. "Iis the fole Prerogative of the Lord to break
the Earthen ones, to whom the Iron Rod is committed. Tbe Servant cannot be grea-
ter than his Lord; nor Jhould anyone arrogate to himftlf what the Fatber hath com-
mitted to the Son only, viz. to winnow and purge the Flower, andfeparate, by any
human Judgment, the Chaff from the Wheat. And in his 55th to Cornelius : Nor
let anyone wonder that lome fbould forfake the Seruant appointed over them, when'
the Difciples left the Lord himfelf, though he wrought the grcatefl Sigm and Wonders;
and proved by the 'Teflimony of his Works, tbat he afled by the Power of his Father.
And yet he did not reproach or grievouJly threaten tbem when they for[ook him, but
gently turned to his rlpoftles and [aid, What, and will you forfake me alfo? Ob-
Jerving that jured Law, of everyone's being left to his own Liberty and lViII, and
making for himJelf his own Choice, whether of Life or Death. And a little after,
to the fame Purpofe: As for our part, moft dear Brother, we are in Con.fcience
obliged to endeavour, that no one perijh from the Church through our Default; but
if anyone deflroys himJelf, and will not repent and return to the Church, we wbo
endeavoured their Salvatiolt, Jhall be without Blame in the Day of Judgment; and
they only remain in Punijhment, who would not be bealed by our falutary Admoni-
tions. And fince from thefe Pa{fages, it plainly appears, that Cyprian taught,
that all' Force in Matters of Religion, is contrary to the Nature of €hrifti-
anity; l' cannot but take Notice of the Difhone£l:y of Bellarmine,· who intkLaici,.
his 3d Book-of Conrroverfies, C.21. brings in Cyprian as a Defender of the'
Murder of Hereticks; who having in his Book concerning Martyrdom, cited that
Paffage out of Deut. xiii .. That the falfe Propbet Jhall be jlain, adds., 1f this was
to be done unJer tbe Old Teftament, 1JZ1lch'msn under the New. But If we look to
the Words immediately following, we {hall find that Cyprian's Opinion was
quite the reverfe: For thefe are the Words of Cyprian: If before the coming
of Chrijf, the Commands of worJhipping God, and forfaking Idols,· were to be ob-
{eroed, bow much rather are they to be obJerved fluce his Appearance? who not only'.
exbwled us by Words, but by his own Ac7io1ZS; and who, after having endured all'
manner of Injuries and Reproaches, was crucified, .that be might lea'iJf us an Example

6 The HISTORY of the INQUISIT 10 N:

bow tojitffer and die. So tbat he hath no Excufe who will notJuffer on his OW11 ACCOtl11f;
for as he Juj/ered for tbe Sins of all, bow much more ought everyone to fuffer for
bis men Sins ? If this Pafijge be read entire, it will appear, how very falfly
Bellarmine hath applied it to the Defence of the Murder of Hercticks,
which was onl y intended as an Exhortation to the patient fuffering of Mar-
Latiantius defends the fame Doctrine in a nobler and plainer manner, lib. 5.
c. 20. Tbere is JI0 need of Compulfion and Violence, becaufe Religion cannot beforced,
and Men muft be made willing, not by Stripes, but Arguments. Let tbem draw the
Sword of their Reafon : If their Reafons are good, let them produce them ; we are
ready to hear, if they can teach; if tbey are filent, we cannot believe them: If they
pretend to force us, we cannot yield to them: Let them imitate us, or fairly de-
bate the Cafe with us. "Iis not our manner, as they objett, to entice Men; We teach,
prove, and demonftrate ; 110 one is kept amongfl us again) his 'Will; and he mu]:
be unacceptable to Gad, who wants Devotion and Faith; and yet none forflzke us, be-
ing prejeroed by the fol« Evidence and Force of Trutb. And a little after: Let
them learn from this what Difference there is between Trutb and Falfbood , in that
they, though boafling of their Eloquence, cannot per/wade; yet Cbrifiians, though
unskilful and ignorant, can; for the 'Thing it Jelf, and Trutb pleads in their behalf
To what Purpof« then is their Rage, but to expofe more that Folly which they flriue to
conceal? Slaughter and Piety are quite oppofite to each other; nor can Truth confi)
with 'Violence, or Juftice with Cruelty. And a little after: They are convinced that
zbere is nothing more excellent than Religion, and therefore think that it ought to
be defended with Force; but they are mifiaken both in the Nature of Religion, and
in the proper Methods to jitpport it; for Religion is to be defended, not by Mur-
der, but Perjiaafion ; not by Cruelty, but Patience; 110tby WickedneJs, but Faith.
crhofe are the Methods of bad Men, theJe oj good; and 'tis necejJary that a religious
Ma» jhould be good, and not evil; for if you attempt to defend Religion by Blood anJ
"Iorments, and Evil, this is not to defend, but to violate and pollute it: For there is
nothing jhould be more [rce than the Choice of our Religion, in which, if the Con-
fent of the Worjhipper be wanting, it becomes entirely void and ineJfeflual. '1be
true Way therefore of defending Religion is by Faith, a patient SuJfering, and D't:
ing for it: 'Ibis renders it acceptable to God, and flrengthens its .Authority and
Influence. This was that moft harmlefs Perfwafion of the Primitive Chriftians,
before the World had yet entered into the Church,
and by its Pomp and Pride
.hadperverted the Minds, and corrupted the Manners of its Profeffors,

The Laws of the EM PER 0 R 5, after the Nicene Council, agait!ft
the Arians and other Heretlcks.

J\ F T E R the Converfion of Conflantinr: to the Chriftian Religion, the Ci-

J.~ viI Power became veiled in the Hands of Chriftians, This Change in
their Circnmftances produced as great a Change in their Doctrine and Man-
ners; and the degenerate Pofterity, deviating from the Example of their An-
ceftors, introduced into the Church Methods of Cruelty, not only equal to
thofe of the Heathen, but even greater than were ever practifed by them.
What gave the firft Rife to it was, the Difpute between Alexander, Bifhop
of Alexandria, and rlrius, a Presbyter of the fame Church: When the News
of this was brought to Conftantine, he firft by Letters fharply reproved them
both: Alexander for bein~ needlefly inquifitive, and Arius for his imprudent
Anfwers, about an unnecejJary 5f2gejfion, which arofe from their want of being bet-Eufib •
fer employ'd, and a contentious and [attious Spirit; and ferioufl y exhorts them Lif: ~£Il
to mutual Peace in thefe Words amongft others: Since therefore the one hath Conftant.
been need1dly ii1quiji:ive, and the other as imprudent in bis Anfwers, you ought 1. :. c.
1!IIItuailyto pardon each other: And as you do not differ about any ~f the prin- 69, 7C.]
cipal Requirement, of tbe Cbriflian Law, nor pretend to introduce any ncto Opinion ~~er:.\>.
into the IVor/hip of God, but are in theft 'Things of one and tbe [ame Mind, you '
ou~ht to maintain Communion with one another. But afterwards, with the Per-
f~afion of the Bifhops, or out of fome political View, he called the Nicene
Council, that by their Authority the Opinion of Arius might be condemned.
Euftbius, who was prefent at that Council, was able to give the beft Account
of it; but he chofe rather that their Actions Ihould be for ever forgotten,
and contented himfelf in a very few Words to declare the Iffue of it ~ And if
we add to the Account given by him, the fomewhat larger one given by.
Socrates, it appears plain, that all who would not fubfcribe to their Decrees,
were condemned to Banifhment , and there is no room to doubt, fuch are the
Frailties of human Nature, but that many through Fear were compelled to
fubfcribe. Some few indeed there were, who not at all terrified with the Fear'
of BanJhmenr" went into Exile with Arius, whom the Synod had condemned,.
becaufe they would not confent to his Condemnation. The Emperor hirnfelf.
put forth an Edi6t, by. which he ordained., thatall the Books written by Arius
fhould be burnt, condemning to Death every one that Jhould conceal any of Arius' S S«rat. I.
Books, and not commit them to the Flames. He afterwards put forth a frefh Law I. c. ' •. ,
agamft the Recufants, by which he rook from them their Places of Worfhip,b!th.LJ(O;
and ~ro hibi
1 rteo t h err
. M·eeung not on I'y 10 pu blirex,
k b ut even In
. any, p'f1vate
. of omfta" e-
Li• c. 6~...

Houtes whatfoever.
After they had thus proceeded to Methods of Severity, and' civil PuniJh.,.
ments were decreed againft thofe, whofe Opiaions. the C"uw;il were pleafed to-
L. (;ondem~
8 The HI STORY of tbe INQUISI TI 0 N.
condemn, whom they expo fed under the infamous Name of Hereticks, and
rendcr'd odious to the People, their Cruelty was not fatisficd with one Degree
of Punifhrncnt only; they went from one to another, that 10 the Doctrine
condemned by the Council might find none that fhould dare to defend it,
and Io might at laft be totally extirpated. From pecuniary Mulcts, they
proceeded to the Forfeiture of Goods, Banifhmenr, and at length to Slaugh-
ter and Blood; for fuch is the Nature of Cruelty, that it feldom confines
it [elf to the fidl: Beginnings; but when it is once let loofe, like an 'irnpe-
ruous Torrent, it Ipeads it felf every where, and from every Occafion grows
more outragious and furious. This will appear moft plainly in the Account I
am now giving of the IvIethods for the Reftraining and Punifhrnentof He-
For in the firft Place, Laws were made againft Herericks, whereby they
were prohibited from having Churches, holding Affernblies, the enjoying
any Ecclefiaftical Preferments, the Confccration of Bifhops, the Ordination
of Prieits, the making of Wills, the fucceeding to Inheritances, the fharing in
any Charities, the Advancement to publick Offices, and ordaining fevere Pu-
nifhments againft thofe who did not obferve there Prefcriptions.
L.OmneJ. And firft, it was determined who fhould be accounted Herericks. crbeyare
r:.tieHtI;ret. comprehended under the Name of Heretuks, and are adjudged to the Punifhments pro-
nounced againft fuch, who jhall be diJcovered to differ, euen in tbe lettft Point, from
the Judgment and Pratiice of the Catholick Religion. By the fame Law it is or-
dained, Tba; no one Jhould dare, either to teach or learn tho.fecrhings that Jhall have
Clme;. been decreed to be prtfane.. By the Law following, their Churches are taken
from them, and they are prohibited to perform Holy Offices, either in pri-
vate Houfes.or Churches, under the Forfeiture of one hundred Pounds of Gold
Mani- upon all .Contraveners, The following Law is yet more fevere, which takes
cheos, from them the Power of Giving, Buying, Selling, making Contracts or Wills,
or inheriting their Parents Eftates, unlefs they renounce their heretical Pra-
vity. There are many Laws extant concerning the Banifhment of Hereticks.
~heodofius II. and Valentinian III. counting up thirty-two SeCts, and their Fol..
lowers, decree, Let not theJe and the Manicheans, who are arifm to the Height of
Impiety, bau« the Liberty of dwelling any where within the Dominions of the Roman
L • .,4r;4n;, Empire: Let the Manicheans be expelled from every City, and punijhed with
c.deH~ret. Death; for they are not to be fuffered to have any Dwelling on tbe Earth, 'eft
they jhould infea the 'VCry Elements themJelves.
See alfo L. Jtuicunque, where the forementioned Penalties are not only re..
peated, but other kinds of Punifhrnenrs ordained againft them ; which are aU
ex~ant in the Law of the Emperor Martian, who renews the Punifhments or-
dained by the preceding Emperors againft theEutichians, and which is recorded
at the End of the Council of CbalcedtJn, and which will fuffice inftead of all
other Inftances. By this Law tbe Emperor ordained, 'fhat they jhould not btJ'lil
Power of difpojing their Ejlates, and making a Will, nor of inheriting what oth~rs
jhould leave them by Will. Neither let them receive Advantage by allY Deed of Gift,
t.ut let wbatflC'Vcr is gi'r.lm them, either by tbe Bounty of the Li'Ving, or the Wilr of
z . ~e
The HIS TOR Y of the IN QUI SIT ION ~ 9
tbe Dead, be immediately forfeited to our Treafury; nor let them bave tbc Power,
by any Title or Deed of Gift, to transfer any Part of their oum Efiates to others.
Neither fbali it be lawful for them to baue 01" ordain Bifbops or Presbstess, 01"
any other of the Clergy whatfoever; as knowing that the Eutychians and Apol-
linarifts, who fball prefume to confer tbe Names of Bijhop or Presbyter, or an'}
other [acred Office Up011 anyone, as well as thofe who fball dare to retain them.
/hall be condemned to Banifbment, and the Forfeiture of their Goods. And as to
thoft who have been formerly Miniflers in the Catholick Church, or Monks of the
orthodox Faitb, and [orlaking tbe true and orthodox WOljhip of the Almighty God,
have 0 I' /hall embrace the Herefies and abominable Opinions of A pollinarius or
Eutyches, let them be fitbjetl to all the Penalties ordained by this, or any fore-
going Laws tobatjoeuer againft Hereticks, and banifbed from the Roman Dominions;
according as former Laws have decreed againft the Manicheans. Farther, let not
any of the A pollinarifts, or Eutychians, build Churches or Monafieries, or have
AjJemblies .and Conventicles either by Day or Night; nor let the Followers of this ac-
curfed Sect meet in anyone's Houfe or Tenement, or in a Monaflery, nor in any other
Place what.fOever: But iIthey do, and it !hall appear to be with the ConJent of tbe
Oumers of fuch Places, after a due Examillation., let fuch Place or 'Tenement in which
they meet.beimmediately forfeited to us ; or if it be a Monaftery, let it be given to tbe
ortbodo.xChurch of that City in whoJe Territory it is. But if fa be they hold th~fe un-
lawful A.lJembliesand Conventicles without the Knowledge of the Owner, hut with the
Privity of him who receives the Rents of it, the Tenant, Agent, or Steward of the
Eftate, let fucb Tenant, Agent, or Steward, or whoever /hall receive them into any
Houfe or Tenement, or Mona./fery, and Juffer them to hold Juch unlawful AjJemblies
and Conventicles, if 'be he of low and mean Condition, be publickly haj/inado'd as a
Punifhment to himfelf, and as a Warning to others; but if they are Perfons of
Repute; .let them forfeit ten Pounds of Gold to our TreaJury. Farther, let no Apol-
linarift or·Eutychian euer hopefor any military Preferment, except to he lifted in the
Foot Soldiers, or Garrifons : But if any of them jl:Jallbe found in any other military
Service, let them be immediately broke, and forbid all Accefs to the Palace, and not
fuffered to dwell in any atber.Ci ..y, CJ'owNor Country, but that wherein they were
But if any oj them are horn in this augufl City, let them he banijhed from this
nwft Jacred Society, and from every Metropolitan City of our Provinces. Farther"
let no Apollinarift, or Eutychian, have the Power of calling A.lJemblies, publick
or private, or gathering together any Companies, or difputing in any heretical man-
ner; or of defending their perver[e and wicked Opinions; nor let it be lawful for
anyone to !pealeor write, or pub[jjh awy tbing of their own, or the Writings of any
others, contrary tQ the Decrees of the flJmerable.Synod of Chalcedon. Let no one
have any fuchBooks., nor dare to lettpany of the impif1llsPerformances of fuchWritm.
And if any are found guilty oj theft Crimes, let them be condemned to perpetual Ba-
ni/hment; and as for thoJe, wha through a Dejire of Learning, Jhall bear t'lhers
tliJputing of this wretched Berefy, 'tis our PleaJure that they forfeit ten Pounds oj
Gold to our Treafury, and let the Teacher of the[e unlawful '["enetsbe punijbed:wJtb
Death. Let oil fuch Books and Papers as contain an] of the iJarnmlbIt 0PI11ZOIlS
C' of
tfEutyche9, or Apollinarius, be burnt, that all the Remains of their impious Per.
'VcrJenefsmay pcrijh with the Flames; for'tis but juft that there Jhould be a pro-
portionable Punifbment to deter Men from tbe]: moft outragious Impieties. And let
all the Governors oj our Provinces, and their Deputies, and the Magiftratcs oj our
Cities, know, that if, through Neglefl or Prefumption, they fball fuffer any Part of
this moft religiousEdift to be ruiolated,they fhall be condemnedto a Fine of len Pounds
of Gold, to be paid into our '['reaJury; and jhall incur the farther Penalty of
being declared infamous.

Given at Conflantinople, in the Ides

fJf AuguJl, and the Confulate of
Conftantius and Rufus.

At the fame Time that they publifhed thefe cruel Laws, the Authors of
them would fain be thought to offer no Violence to Confcience, This fame
Emperor Martian, in another Epiftle to the Archimandrites of 'Jerufalem, at
the End of the Acts of the Synod of Chalcedon, fays, Such therefore is our Cle-
vnency, that we uJe no Force with anyone, to compel him to Jubftribe or agree with
liS, If he be unwilling: For we would not by Terrors and Violence drirueMen even
into the Paths of Trutb, Who would not wonder that they fhould thus feek to
colour over their Cruelties? A Doctrine is forbidden to be learnt or taught,
tinder the fevereft Penalties, which thofe ought to think themfelves obliged to
profefs, who are perfwaded of the Truth of it; and thofe who do profefs
it, are for that Reafon expofed to many Punifhments; and yet the Authors of
fuch Punifhments would ftill be thought to offer no Violence to Confcience,
]Jut I would' fain know, for what End are all there Penalties againft Hereticks
erdained r For no other Curely, but that Men may be deterred by the Fear of
them from meeting together, and openl y prof effing themfelves, or teaching
others thofe Doctrines, which they think themfelves obliged in Confcience
both to profefs and propagate; and that being at length quite tired out by
thefe Evils, they may join themfelves to the eftablifhed Churches, and at
leaft profefs to believe their received Opinions. But this is to offer Vio-
lence to Confcience, or to force Men, by the Fear of Punifhments, not to pro-
fefs what they believe, or to pretend to believe what they do not; nei-
ther of which can be done, but in Oppofition to the Voice and Dictates of
�i"'lI1Ie. The Conftitution ·of crbeodoJiuswas in much feverer Terms, which is extant
Tit. 46. in the Code oPlOeodofius, tit. de Judceis, I. I. &3 lib. 16. tit. 6. 1.75~ in which
f·48, we read thus: Farther, we ordain, tbat whojoroer jhall per/wade or force. IS
Slave, or Frennan, to forfake the Worjhip of the Chriftian Religion, aNi join him-
ftlf IfJ any (Jccur[edSeCtor Rite, let him be punijhed with the Loft of Fortune and
Life. Po nd a little after: Let him firft incur the Forfeiture of his Goods, and af-
terwards be 'ondemned to the Loft of Life, who by falJe Doftrine /hall pervert flny
one from the.Faith. This Law fo pleafes Simanca, that he congratulates hl.m-
J"elf on its being made b)' an Emperor that waa a $pt»IUud i for after ha~JDg
recited it, he adds: A Law truly worthy of an Emperor that was a Spaniard, as
though it was the Glory of Spain to exceed all Nations in Cruelty, and its Ho-
nour, even in former Ages, to have been as remarkable for ufing feverer Me-
thods of Punifhrnents in this World to miferable Hereticks than others, as they
now are for the Barbarities practifed by the bloody Tribunal of the Inquifi-
tion, The Emperors Honorius and Tbeodofius alfo, Cod. Ne Sana. Baptifma ite-
retur, I. 2. thus command: If anyone Jhall be dzflovered to bave rebaptized any
of the Minifiers of the Catbolick Party, let him be put to Death, both the Perfon
guilty of this execrable Impiety (if he be of an Age capable oj Guilt) and the Part,
[educed by him.
And that there might be no Remains of the Opinions condemned by the
Synod, and to prevent their being tranfmitted to Pofterity; it was prohibited
by the fevereft Laws, either to keep or tranfcribe any of their Books. We
have feen before the Law ofConjlantine, againft all who fhould conceal any of
Arius's Books; and another Edict of Martian, againft the Books of Eu-
tyches. Tbeodofius publifhed fuch another Law againft the Books of Nefiorius ..
after he had been condemned in the Council of Ephefus, 1. Damnato, c. de HfE-
reticis : Let not anyone dare to keep, or read, or tranfcribe the impious Books of
the accur(edand execrable Neftorius, written againfl the venerable orthodox Party,
and the Decrees oj the mo) holy Council oj Prelates at Ephefus; and we ordain tbat
they be diligently fought after, and publickly burnt. ']ujlinian alfo forbids the
tranfcribing any heretical Books, under the Penalty of having the Hand cut
off. For after that Anthimus had been condemned in the fifth Synod, he made
this Law againft his Books. Novel az. cap. I. We prohibit all to keep any of
his Books: And as it is not lawful for anyone to write, or ha-ve in his Po.D4!ion the
Books oj Neftorius, according as the Emperors, our PredcceJJors, haw thought fit
in their Conftitutions to ordain, with re{pea to the Sayings and Writings of Porphyry
againft Chriftianity; fo let nothing [aid or written by Severus remain in the Pof-
JeJlionof any Cbrifiian ; but let them be abhorred as profane by the CatholiclcChurch,
and burnt by thoft that have them, unleft they are willing to fuffer the appointed Pe-
nalty. Let them not therefore be tranfcribed by the Notaries of any Sort, as know-
ing that the Punifhment oj thoft who /hall write any of his Books, Jhall be the L~(s
of their Hand. From thefe feveral Laws, Conrad Brunus infers, that the
Schools of Hereticks are to be deftroyed thus: "The Schools of Hcreticks Brun. 1.6.
" are to be deftroyed by thefe Means. Heretical Matters mutt be removed, §. %.7,. &).
" the Scholars muft be prohibited from coming to their Schools, the Places f~
" they ufe _to meet in muft be appropriated [0 Ecclefiaftical Purpofes, The
'" Mafters are to be removed by being publickly put to Death; the Pu-
C' nifhment ordained againft Herericks, who 1hall dare to teach unlawful Opi-.
unions, as Valentinian and Martian have enacted, 1.5f<gicunque, c. de Heret,
" The Scholars are to be prohibited from going to heretical Schools byape-
" cuniary Mulct, viz. under the Forfeiture of ten Pounds of Gold, according
" to the Conflitution of the Emperor Martian, d. l. !?<,.uicunque,§. Eos vcro,
.' c. de HfErtt. And in general, the Houfes where heretical A1fcmblies and
" Conventicles are held, are to be forfeited to the King or Church; but
- .. C 2 " ,hofe
.. thofe efpecially wherein their Errors and Herefies are taught; aecording
u to the Conftitution of Jufiinian againft Anthimus, &c. Interdicimus autem, &c.
Thus did the Chriftians imitate the Heathen Cruelty, by perfecuting thofe
that differed from them, and followed the Example of 'julian, in deftroying
their Schools, which the Heathens themfelves condemned as barbarous and
cruel: For thus Ammianus Marcellinus declares, b. 25.· His Laws, abJolutely
commandingfome <Thingsto be done, and forbidding others, were generally good, lome
.[et» excepted; among which 'was that crud one; by which he prohibited the Cbri-
flian Mafiers of Rbetorick and Grammar to teach, to preuent any from forfaking
the Worfhip of the Gods: But in Procefs of Time, under the Government of
the Popes, the Edicts of the Chriftians vaftly exceeded this Cruelty of Julian.
'Tis true, thefe were Laws made by the Civil Magiftrate, but that they
were publifhed with the Approbation of the Bifhops, no one can doubt, who
compares our Times with the Antient, The Bifhops could not bear that their
Decrees and Anathemas fhould be flighted as infignificant and harmlefs Flafhes.
They would fain have all condemned by their Sentence appear to others to
be jufily condemned; and eagerly thirfted after the Mitres and Churches of
thofe, whofe Doctrines they were pleafed to anathematize; and therefore,
in order to get Poffeffion of them, it was found neceffary to arm the fecular
Power, and to enact civil Laws againft them; that hereby they might frrip
them of their Dignities, and drive them into Banifhment, . .m order, to enter on
their vacant Sees. Nor let anyone imagine, that the ancient Times were
more holy than ours; the fame worldly Spirit that now influences our Synods,
governed the Councils of the ancient Bifhops : Even the Council of Nice, fo
much celebrated and extolled, is an abundant Proof of this. Such was the
fierce and reftlefs Spirit of the Bifhops there met together; [0 many and
bitter their Contentions, that, forgetting the principal Caufe of their meet-
ing together, they meanly prefented Accufations againft each other to the Em-
peror, who, that he might put an End to their Quarrels, ordered the Ac-
cufations to be burnt , and commanded them that they fhould immediately go
upon the Bufinefs for which they had been affembled. Who can believe" that
an A1fembly of Men, inflamed with Paffion and mutual Hatred, and breath~
ing nothing but Revenge, would reft contented, with having procured the
Condemnation only of their hated Enemies, and not rather ufe their urmoft
Endeavours to excite the Emperor to banifh thofe whom they had condemned?
iIi}. .Ere J. But not to rely on Conjectures, Sotratesexprefiy tells us: "That 'l"beodojiliS
7· c. 5· "Bifhop of Synada in the greater Phrygia, cruelly perfecuted the Hereticks
" of the Macedonian Sect, of which there was a great Number in that
" City; driving them not only from the City, but from the very Country
" alfo; not according to the Cuflom of the orthodox Church, which ufes no Me-
" tbods of Perfecution, nor thro' Zeal for the true Faith; but from a covetoUS
" Defire of enriching himfelf with the Spoils of the Hereticks. To this End
U he left no Means untried to ruin the Followers of Macedonius, arming hIS
" Clergy, and perfecuting them by innumerable fubtle Methods, and Tricks
'.~ of Law. But his Malice was principally levelled againft their Bifhop AgQ4
" petliS)
'e petus, whom he tired out with repeated Injuries. And becaufe he did not
Ie think the Governors of the Provinces fufficient for the Punifhrnent of Here-
ec ticks, he went to Conftantinople to folicite new Edicts from the Magiftrates.
Nor were the Bi1hops of Rome afraid to implore the Affifiance of the Empe-Simanf4
rors againft Hereticks. Pope AnaftaJius perfwaded the Judges to condemn the tit. 49.·
Manicbeans to perpetual Banifhrnent, whom he could not bring over Co the§' 14·
Catholick Faith; leO: by their Contagion they fhould infect the holy Flock.
And Leo the Great, writing to Leo the Emperor, fays: That the peroerf«
and en.fnaring Difputatiom of the Heretuks would Joon come to an End, if put un-
der Reftraint by the Imperial Power .. And in his 43d Epiftle to the fame Prince:
Vouchfafe, by your Regard for the Faith, to yield this Remedy to the Church j that
Hereticks may not only be kept out of all holy Orders, but even expelled from every
City, that the holy People of God may be in no farther Danger of Injeflion frD1lI
Jheft wicked Men. And in his 45th Epiftle, he exhorts the Emprefs Pulcberia;
'I"hat /he would banijh Eutyches further from Conftantinople, that he might re-
teive no Comfort from thoJe whom he had drawn over to his Impiety.
But further, when they had got into Poffeffion of the fupreme Power in
Rome, they were oftentimes the Authors of Perfecution themfelves. Pope
Celeftine, as Socrates relates in his Ecclefiaftical Hiftory, b.7. c. I I. " took
" from the Nouatians their Churches in Rome, fo that Rufiicula, their Blfhop,
U was forced to meet his FJock in private Houfes: For till this Time the
" Nouatians flourifhed in Rome, were in Poffeffion of many Churches, and
" had large Congregations to fill them; but they fell a Sacrifice to Envy,
" becaufe, Tbe Bijhops both of Rome and Alexandria had ufurped a tyrannical (N. r.)
" Power, exceeding all the Bounds of the Priefibood. For this Realon, the Bifhops
" of Rome did not permit even thofe who agreed with themfelves in Opi.
" nion, to hold free and open Affemblies; but though they praifed them for
" their Agreement with them in the Faith, yet deprived them of all the:r
"Subftance. But the Bi1hops of Conftantinople were however free from this
" wicked Spirit; for. they not only fuffered the Nouatians to meet within the
" City, but evenbose them- a very Imcere Affection." But the Bifhops of
Rome, even when they had no Power at Conftantinople, yet by their perpe- .
tual Solicitations of the Emperors there, at laft extorted from them the Op-
preffion of Hereticks, Whilft Juflinian was Emperor, the Followers of An-
thimus and Seuerus held their publick Affemblies, although they had been
condemned and excommunicated by the Pope of Rome. Wherefore the Bifhops
of the Second Syria, and the Archimandrites and Monks, fent Letters to Agapetus.,
Bilhop of R01M, then at Conftantinopk,in which they:befoughthim to deliver
tHem from Hereticks. The Bifhopsthus: Take· from,usfpeedily theft e'7.:ilMm,
and offer up this acceptable Sacrifice to God and our Saviour, that we may have a
good Account to give in the future aufulJudgment. PreJerve the Ecclejiajtical Dig-
nity free from all Fear, and the thrice repeatcd heretical Diflurbance; e.ftablifh our
Order; and put our moft ju) Emperor in Mind oj thoJe ma}]} and righteous SentenCt~
that were fir) pronounced from the Apoflolick Chair; ordaining, that thoft wbo
.bQd their impious WritiJt~s Jhould deliver them up, and ~ommit tpetn to the Flame~,
J+ The HISTORY of the INQUISIT 10 N.
in Imitation of thoJe who were inflamed with Zeal to deftroy the Writings of the Ma.
nicheans, and thofe of the impious Neftorius, and the bardned Euryches, and Diof.
corus their Father and Protettor : So will you deprive of all Hope thrift who
'Vainly truft in them. We therefore pray, moft holy Father, that you would put in
Execution that Sentence againft Anthimus, which is both God's and yours, that fa
all Offence may be removed from theft little ones, that believe in the Lord, and from
us all. The Monks alfo making the fame Requeft, in the ConcJufion give this
Reafon for it: For this Caufe we have fent unto you to Rome, and have promifed
tlnd even undertaken for your defired Return. We have received theft Promifes
from the moft pious Emperor, that what you fball canonically pronounce, he will piouj!y
execute; that all the World may be delivered from this prefent Difturbance by them.
Agapetus had paired his Sentence before this Req ueft of the Bifhops and Monks,
and condemned .dntbimus; and pronounced, that as he had been expelled from
the Bifhoprick of Conftantinople before, fo he Ihould now be banifhed from
that of Trapezuntium; and degraded from every prieftly Office and Function.
But no fOoner rad he received theft Letters of the Bifhops and Monks, but he [ent
to Juftinian the Emperor, that he would baniJh tbofe whom he had condemned for
Hereticks. Baronius adds, ff/hen he had done theft ,[,bings, and thus performed all
the Duties of his Office, the moft holy Agapetus died, in order 10 receive his Reward
now his Work was done: As though it was fuch an heroick Action, to conclude
his Life with exciting the Emperor to perfecute thofe whom he had condems-
ed for Hereticks, as merited the Reward of eternal Salvation. After the Death
of Agapetus., the Monks renewed their bloody Petitions to the Emperor, and
befeech'd him that he would banifh thofe whom .I1nacletus had condemned as
Hereticks: For, fay they, there is Reaflm to fear, moft pious Emperor, left for
tJUr long Delay., that of the People of Ifrael /hould happen to us, who' have amongft
us Men aceurfed from the Priefibood v who (becaufe they had in the Midfl of them
Achan and Jonathan, who expofed tbernfelves to a Curfe, the one Wilfully, tbeother
througb Ignorance) were in Danger of being entirely dejtroyed, though they knew not
that. tke, bad theaccurfed 'I'bing ~mongft them. pefpife not tberefore; 0 ye mofl
Chrifttan Emperors,fo great anEvtl, but be filled WIth Zeal to promote the Knowledge
,( (jod and his Inte:ejt., fulfilling what is writt~: A wife King fcattererh the
Wicked; that w:th DaVId and Jofias, and Elias and Agapetus, who were in-
fpired with the nobleft Zeal fir God, you may have a Part in this World as/hey had,
4nd bring all your Enemies under your Footflool; and that he may grant you hereafter,
'With them, an eternal Kingdom, wba hath promifed, that he will give an hundred
fold here, and hereafter Life eternal. Not long after, Anthimus and his Followers
were condemned by the Council of Conjfantinop/e, through the Intrigues of
the Roman Legates; and many Petitions were offered to the Emperor {or
the Bani1hment of thofe the Synod had condemned as Hereticks; fo that by
the curfed Solicitations of the Ecclefiafticks, he was even forced to confent to
th~ir Perfecution.
It muft however be owned, that fome of the Bi1hops were Enemies to Perfe.
cution; and being of more moderate Sentiments, blamedthofe who defended
.and encouraged it. Sf/piti"s Se'UtrU.s tells us .: 2D./ldaciUs a1ll1Ithacius foolifhlJ
2 ~U~
npplied thcm[elvts to tke ftcular p'o~ers,. tbat by tb.eir Sentence a.nd Authority. t?ey
'Wouldbanifh the Heretuks from Cities, VIZ. Inftantius and Salvianus, Helpidius
and Prifcillianus. And when afterward Prifcillianus appealed from the Synod
of Burdeau« to the Emperor, the Bifhops Idacius and Itbacius fol1owed him as
his Accufers: But Martin, then Bijhop of Treves, was continuallyjoliciting Itha-
cius to deftft from his AccuJation; and prayed Maximus that he 'Wouldabflain from
the Blood of thofe unhappy Men; that it was more than Jufficient, that they were ad-
judged Hereticks, and expelled the Churches by the Epifcopal Sentence; and that it
was a new and unheard-of Impiety, that the Civil Power fbould judge in the .Af-
fairs of the Church. And the Interceffion of Martin prevailed fo far, that
whilft he continued at Treves all Procefs was flopped; and when he was about
to go from thence, by a peculiar Influence, he obtained a Promife from Maximus;
that nothing cruel Jhould be infliCted upon the Accufed; although, after his De-
parture, Prifcillianus was condemned to Death. The Reafon affigned by Bel-
larmine, that thefe Bifhops were cenfured, viz. becaufe they brought an Ecclefia«
ftical 4fJair before the Emperor, and became ..deeufersin a CauJe of Blood, is very
frivolous. 'Tis true, that Martin blames Itbacius that he accufed PrifcilliaJJ'
before the Emperor's Tribunal; and that, as Sulpicius Severus teftifies, not
fa mueh from his Hatred of Heref y, as from a Defire of Revenge; and there.
fore Martin adds, that it was a new and unheard-of Impiety, that the fecu-
lar power fhould judge an Ecc1efiaftical Caufe. But by this Martin plainly'
fhows, that fecular Punifhments ought never to be inflicted on religious Ac-
counts, becaufe Matters of .Faith do not come under the Cognizance of the fe.
cular Tribunal; and that the Progrefs of Herefy neither can nor ought to be'
prevented by the Blood of Hereticks j and therefore he obtained a Promife
from Maximus that nothing cruel fhould be inflicted on the Accufed. We ac-
knowl edge with Bellarmine, that a Bifhop ought not to be an Accufer in theCaufc
of Blood; but at the fame Time, cannot imagine, with what Juftice a Bi-:
$hop, who ought not [0 all: the Part of an Accufer, may not only excommu-
nicate Hereticks, but, as Bellarmine contends, deliver them over to the fecular
Power, and even exhort the Judges to perform their Duty : For this is fome-
thing more than to act the Parr-of an Accufer. An Accufer only labours to'
prove the Crime, that when proved, the Judge may pafs Sentence on it; but'
when a Bifhop, by his own Sentence, pronounces any Perron an Heretick, and.
delivers him over to the fecular Arm, he lays the Judge under a Neceffity of
burning, without any farther Examination, the miferable Heretick, And if:.-
thro' Compaffion, he feems willing to defer the Execution, the Bifhop exhorts, ,
and even compels him, under the Penalty of Excommunication, to perform
his Office. Who in fuch-a Cafe will-clear the Bi1hop from the Guilt of the Blood
and Murder of the Heretickf Who doth not fee that the Bithop is the fole
Caufe; and the Civil Magiffrare, who in all Things blindly fubmits to the"
Bifhof' is t~e Inftrument only of the Heretick's; efpeciallY,as it is un· '
lawfu for hun, under any Pretence, to refufe Obedience to the B.lfhop's Or- ,
ders? If therefore 'tis unlawful for a Bifhop to rum Accufer in a Cafe of
Blood; much more unlawful is it for him to deliver thafe.he colldemns as He.;..
J 6 The HIS TOR l' of t be IN
QUI SIT 1 0 N.
reticks to the fecular Arm, and prefs the Civil Power to put their Sentence
in Execution. But to return from this Digreffion. Martin not content to
blame ltbacius, aftcrPrifcillian was put to Death, excommunicated him, and
with him thofe who were the Authors of his Murther, The Fear of this
Excommunication raved many, that had been thrown into Prifon , from
Death. The Emperor, who favoured Itbacius and UrJatus, oftentimes prefled,
and at laft commanded Martin that he fhould communicate with him; but
could not prevail, till he had prornifed to recal the Tribunes that had been fent
into Spain to deftroy the Churches: Nor could he be at laft prevail'd with.
notwithftanding the vigorous Endeavours of the Bifhops, to fubfcribe to his
Confent to communicate with him; [0 unjuft did it feem to him to punifh Men
with Death for their Errors in Matters of Faith. Few indeed was the Number
of there Bifhops, who had the Courage to oppofe this perfecuting Spirit; and
therefore, generally fpeaking, the poor Hereticks were made to undergo all
Sorts of the moft cruel Punifhments,

q'he ARIAN Perfecutions oj the ORTHODOX.

B UT neither did the Arians, when they had an Emperor of their own
Party, refrain from any Sort of Cruelty, but perfecuted
whom they had been deprived, with a more implacable and bloody Hatred.
thofe, by

The Perfecurions againft Athanafius, their principal Adverfary, are notorious

to all. Athanajius himfelf, in his Letter to the Hermits, gives us many In-
frances of their Cruelty, which is the Burthen of his Epiflle , and aggravated
as far as Words can do it, 'Viz. That they fcourged the Bifhops in Egypt, and
bound them with cruel Chains; That they fent Sarapammo into BaniJhment,
and beat Potammo in fa barbarous a manner on his Back, that he wasleft for
dead, and died foon after of his Bruifes and Pain , That they would not [uf-
fer a dead Woman to be buried., That .they €jeCl:ed many Bifhops.from jheir
Sees, andJ~nt them intoBanifhmenr., and that they obtained an ·Edi~ from
theEmperor, .that the Bifhops fhould not only be banifhed.from the Cities and
Churches, but even punifhed with Death wherever they could be found. And
he adds: That.fO druulJully were, Men terrified by them, that lome pretended to
believe their Herefies ; end others Jhrougb Fear choft rather. to fly into DeJarts
than fall into their Hands. In another Place he fays: How many Bifho~s
'were brougblbefore Gouernors and Kings, and heard this Smtence .from their
Jhe Emperor batb commanded ,au jhould be bani./hedfrom your Cbur,bes. HO'W every .City feattered themJe~ves up and dow~ for fear of being accufedas
Ibt Bifhops Fnmds? For tbe Magijlratcs wert written w, QIIJ &fII1I11I(IfIde4ttpp'n
... ' Penalt,
Penalty of a Fine, to compel the Bifhops of their reJpeflive Cities to JubJeribe. I,:
fine, all Places. and Cities were filled with Terrors an~ Tumults ~ for Violence was
offered to the Bifbops, and the Judges Jaw the Mourmngs and Sighs of tbe People.
And at length, after a tragi cal Account of the various Cruelties and Perfe-
cut ions of the Arians, he adds: 'That tbey would 110t[ufftr the Friends of thofe (bey P. 8~9.
bad flain, to bur~ their dead Bodies, but hid them ill private Places, that hereby !h~y
might conceal tbeir Murtbers, There are other Paflages to the fame Purpofe In
the fame Epiftle.
In his firtt Apology alfo for his Flight, he fpeaks to the fame Purpofe,
and among other Things relate~, that Sebaftianus, Captain of the Forces, at
the Inftization of George the Bifhop, ordered Virgins to be brought to a flaming P. 704.
Pile and violently compelled them by Fire to declare their Profeffion of tbe Arian
Faith; and when he perceived their Courage was not to be thus [ubdued, he
jlripped their Bodies n~ked, and fa .mangled their Faces. with Blows, tbat it was
a long, while before their own Relations knew them ag,azn. He aljiJ apprehended
forty Men, and miJerably tore their Bodies by a new Method of Cruelty; for he
mnde Rods of the Palm '1'ree, retaining their Prickles, and with theft beat them
on their Backs, in fuch a barbarous manner, that fame, by Reafon of the Prickles
ftickin~ in their Ftejh, were forced feveral 'rimes to apply to the Phyficians for a
Cure; wbilft others actually dy'd under the Torture. As for the otbers, as many
as they apprehended, they banijhed them, with tbe Pirgins, into Great Hoafis, a
Country in Egypt.
And that they might have fome Pretext to palliate their Perfecutions, lib. Zo.
j/iflor, in his Account of the Perfecutions of the Pandals, tells us, that the
very Laws made by the Catholicks againft heretical Impiety, were now
turned, and executed upon the Catholicks themfelves; fo that what they
once fuffered from the Catholicks, they made the Catholicks to fuffer in their
Turn, now they had got the fecular Power on their Side.
Lucius, an A,ian Bifhop, be fides the Slaughters, Torments, Banifhments, Brun,lS, I.
Hangings, Burnings, and other innumerable Cruelties he exercifed on the 2. c. }.
Catholicks, laid waite the Monafteries and Caves of the Monks. Almoft the
fame Things are related of Seuerta, Bithop of Antioch. Piffor in his firft Book
of the Vandal Perfecution, fays, that being infected with the Arian Rerefy,
they filled every Place with Fire and Slaughter, and burnt and demolifhed
the Churches, Temples, and Monafteries; and tortured the Bithops and
Priefts with various kinds of Cruelties, to force them to deliver up all the
Gold and Silver they had of their own, or that belonged to their Churches;
and if they gave them any, they put them to yet more exquifite Tortures
to force them to deliver up the whole, as imagining they had concealed a Part
from them. They deprived the Catholicks up and down of their Church;,
and commanded them to be fhut up. The fame T/iflor recounrs the van- c. 6. §.6.
ous Sorts of Cruelties wherewith the Arians perfecuted the Catholicks, 'fJiz. G. :.8. f·
that in Africa they were, by the Vandals, firft deprived of their Churd!es4,~.
and Houfes, then driven without the City-Walls, without Creature, Wea-
pon, or Clothes j and yet farther, by a publick Edia, it was.~
D that
that no one fhould entertain or feed them; and if anyone out of Compaffion
did this, he was burnt, with his entire Family.
;. 8. ~. 8. Huneriik, the Arian King of the Vandals in Africa, among other Cruelties
he exercifed on the Catholicks, threw an immenfe Multitude of them one
tlpon another, like Heaps of Locufls, into flrait and vile Places, where they
had no Conveniency for eafing Nature, but were forced to do it amongft one
another as they lay, fo that the Stench and Terror exceeded all other kinds
of Punifhments. Viftor relates thefe Things" who himfelf was an Eye-wit-
nefs to them.
f. ~. The fame Viftor relates other kinds of Cruelty practifed by Huneruk ,
but it would be too tedious to recount them all. 'Tis enough to add, that
fome had their Tongues cut out, others their Hands, others their Feet chopt
off; others their Eyes dug out, and others were miferably flain through
the Extremity of their Tortures. See alto Rift. Tripart; b. 5. C. 32. and
b.4· c·39·
Auflin alfo, in his 50th Epifble to Boniface, and in his 68th Epiflle, and in
other Books which he wrote againft the Donatifls, recounts the various
Cruelties of the Donatifis and Circumcellians; fo that the Chriflians feemed
only to be employed in mutual Butcherings of one another; and aCl:edas
though the whole Perfection of the Chriftian Life confifted, not in the Ho-
Iinefs of their Manners, but in a bitter and imprudent Zeal; fo that Ammianus
Marcellinus, an Heathen Writer, defcribing thofe Times, relates of Julian
the Emperor, b. 22. '.that he ordered the Chriflian BiJhops and People that were
at Variance with each other, to come into his Palace, and there admonifhed them,
that they jhould everyone profeft his own Religion, without Hindrance or Fear,
'Whilft they did not diflurb the publick Peace by their Diuifions , which he did
for this Rea.fon, becaufe as be knew their Liberty would increaJe their Dioifions,
be might now have nothing to fear from their being an united People; havingfound
by Experience, that even Beafis are not fo cruel to Men, as the Generality of Cbri-
JUans are to each other.
The Ecclefiafiical Doctors give very pathetick and odious Defcriptions of
thePerfecutions of the Arians. 'Tis abundantly plain from the Writings of
the Orthodox, which now remain, that their Edicts were far from being
vain and harmlefs Terrors. And if we now had the Writings of the Arians,
we fhould not proba?ly fi~d foft~~ Things related by them of the Orthodox,
than the Orthodox 10 their W rmngs relate of the Arians: But by reafon
of the fevere Edicts againft keeping their Books, their Works are entirely
deftroyfd ; and we have now no Remains of the Hiftory of thofe Times but
what. we find in the Writings of ~he O~thodox. A!1? though thefe wer~ in
fome Refpefrs greatcMen, yet their ACtIOnsand Wntmgs abundantly tellIfy,
that they were far from being free from human Paffions, Hatred, Anger, arid
the Study of Revenge; efpecialJy when they had to do with their Adverfaries,
and thofe who differed fnim them in Matters of Religion. This hath been
.'. the Unha~pinefs .of all Times, that it. i~too ge~eraJly true; of Divines,. what
:,~. 1· p. Erafmus WIth Grief declared of the DIVines of hIS 0!V~ CJJxII Ib~ B~bafJl(JII;1"
[ome of them is fuch, that they have hrought a Reproach on this mofl holy Study
it felf, fince thoft who have attained to the Height of this ProJejjion~ arc fometi.nes
more fierce than the Laity, more ambitious, eafier provok'd, more virulent with
their Tongues, and more unfit for all manner oj Comierfe in Life, not only than
unlearned Perfons, but than they themftlves would otherwiJe be; fa that fome have
imagined that the very Study of Divinity batb made them fuch: or, as he elfewhere
fays, that their Behaviour is fitch, that Divinity bath been looked on as a Sort of
Study that deprives Men of Sincerity and common Serfc. Let us not imagine, that
there Things are not equally true of the ancient, as well as of the modern
Divines. He that but dips into the Acts of the ancient Councils, and Ec-
clefiaftical Remains, will evidently fee, that they had the fame Paffions with
thofe of our own Time, were equally precipitant in condemning, bitter in
reproaching, and violent in perfecuting thofe they call'd Herericks, Socrates
writes of the Bifhops of his own Time, crbat their manner was, to load 'with Hi'U:.ccl.
Reproaches, and pronounce impious all they depoftd, without declaring the Caujes b•• ' c. z,"lt
of their Impiety. When they write againfl their Adverfaries, their Stile is
oftentimes bitter; an Impotency of Mind that many have obferved in the
principal and moft celebrated Authors. Erafmus, tho' he highly commends
Jerome~ hat~ feveral Times. obferve~ the fame in him. In his Apology to
Martin Dorpius, he thus writes of him : Even Jerome, a Man ]: gra7JC and7'om. 9.
pious, could not always .govern himJelf; he grows furioujly hot againfl Vigilant ius, p. 3,4.
immoderately in/ults jovinian, and bitterly inveighs againft Ruffinus. In his Apo, Tom. 3·
logy againft Sutor, he goes farther, and fays; That tho' his Mcmor-j is 11OW~O~1~9;.
d:]ervedly accounted facred by all, yet whiljJ he lived, he reuiled, am] railed at, p. 64C~
and deceived others; and was in his Turn reviled, and railed at, and deceived
by others. Hutter gives no better a Character of 'Jerome, writing againH: the
Irenic~m of ~a:ceus? p. 14. He that turns .over the Writings of ~t. Jerome aj,ainft
Joviman, Vl~tlantlUs, and Ruffin~s, wtll be amaz'd to fee t11 a Monk /uch a
boiling and bitter Gall. Upon which Account Budeus pleafantly writes to
Erafmus: Who knows, but that for this Rcafon he may be brought and JcourgedErafrni,
before the Tribunal of Cbrifl ? I don't mention thefe Things to blacken the Tom, 3.
Reputation of 'Jerome, but to fhew by the Example of this orherwife grearf: 156•
Man, how difficult it is to govern ones felf in theological Debates, when
we fee Men, famous for their Piety, thus carried away by the Heat of
Difputes. The Moderation of Auflin is generally commended: But he
that reads his Writings againft the Donatifis, muft acknowledge, that in the
Warmth of Difputation he oftentimes exceeds the Bounds of Moderation,
and lays to their Charge every thing that came uppermoft. Athanafius's
Epift!e to ~he Monks is Pr,?of enough of his ungovernable and angry Tt;m-
per, 10 whIch we find nothmg but foul and reproachful Language agaUill:
the Arians; a plain Proof of a violently diforder'd Mind. I queftion not
but that he had weighty Reafons for his Anger and Hatred. But 'tis as cer-
tain, that w hen the Mind is diforder'd, tho' for the moft juft Ca~ many
Things are ralhly thrown out, the EffeCt of Choler, and "not agreeable to
Truth: So that 'tis by no Means fafe, haftily to credi~, alltliaf the an-
I) 2 gry
gry Fathers have [aid of, or imputed to their Adverfaries, efpecially as they
have taken Care to fupprefs their Writings. Cun~us very folidly and grav~}y
l'Ti!fal. in pronounces his Opinio~ ?f the Greek Fathers,. vtZ. '.the co~nmon People thmk,
Jllliani tbat he muJf be very criminal, who doth not belteve, that Pzety, the great Sup-
Ca:fam. port of Chriflianity, is always attended with Candour, For my own part, as 1
efleem them on "!,,anyAccounts to be excellent and d~vine ~,:~, fl / know tkat
they have done til dejignedly, and we~e of a. very bitter Spirit, l\?t to mention
others, the Greek Fathers, tbro' a national Vice, were always too oiolent on botk
Sides. crhey had all of them a rolling Eloquence, admirable Learning, and a
Genius fit for every thing; and on thefe rlccount: one may diJcern a Sharpnefs
and Eagernefs breathing throughout all the Remains they have tranfmitted to Po-
fierity. As for thoJe they were angry with, tho' great Men in tbemfetues, and
worthy the higheft Commendation, they blacken'ii them as the vileft P erfons ; and
on the other hand, they were fo lavijh of their Praifes on thoft they approved, that,
tho' they had little to deferve it, Pofterity admires their Virtues, and euen adores
a Stone of their Sepulchre as a God. Not much different from this, is that Paf-
1.u.p.663 fage of Melchior Canus, in his Common Places of Divinity: 1 cannot excuJf
Sozomen's Lyes : For he was a Greek, which Nation is and ever was ad.
diBed to lying. And he was fo fully convinced, that the moft fhameful Lyes
had crept into the Hiftories of his own Church, that he breaks out into
t· 6~o. this Complaint: 1!peak it rather with Grief, than as a Matter of Reproach,
that Laertius hath written the Lives of the Philofophers with greater Regard to
e.truth, than Cbriflians have the Lives of their Saints; and that Suetonius's Ac-
count of the Csefars is written with greater Incorruptnefs and Int~"grity~ than the
.Account which the Catholicb have given, I wilt not fay of their Emperors, but
of their Martyrs, Jlirgins, and ConfeJTors. Tb« two former have not concealed the
real or fuJpeBed Fices of their bejt Philofophers or Princes, nor the Appearances
Df Virtue in the worft; whereas ours, for the moft part, either are governed by
'heir Paffions, or induftrioufly forge fo many idle Stories, that I am not onty a/hamed
but tired of them. Such as theft are fo far from being ufefut to the Church of Chrij,
tha! th&y greatly diJJerve it~ Intereft.. I forbear t" Names, becauft here I blame
tbelr Morals, and 1!0t thezr Learmng, as to whzch the Cenfure migbt be more
free. As to Bebavl0ur, one ought to be more cautious towards the Living,. and
more reJpefl/ul towards the Dead: But this is certain, that whoe'7Jer mix Fable
an~ Faljhocd with Ecclefiafti:al Hiflory, can't be good and uprigbt Men, an.a
the,,: whole Accouiit, can be mvented for no Q/her PurpoJe, but to increaft tbezr.
Gams, .or to eftablifh E,rr.or; of which the firft is 'Uile, the other pernicious.
';. 6H; And a little after, defcnbmg th~ Office of a good Hiftorian, he fays: 'fbat
be ought not to dare to fay any thzng falfe, or omit any thing true that he may'nt
be [zlfpeBed to writ.e either out of Favour 01' Hatred.. He adds: Since theft
VJzngs are ne~t'ffary Ma11es of Htme./l"j and Integt'ity, 'tis flrange th~t Suetonius
.!!o~ld hav~ evJervedthem aO,. "?fd almoft all our! have tntirely omitted. tbCf!Z .
. TIS n~ dIfficult M~tter to cO'\Jecrore what their Candour and FidelIty IS,
m relatIng the Atb~ns of theU' Adverfaries, and thofe whom they have
~cmdemnedfor Hereucks, who have been fo immoderate and. falfe in their .
Com men:;
Commendations of their Saints. Canus himfelf confefles, that moft uf their
Writers have been deftiture of every Qualification of a good Hifl:orian.
Bellarmine, in his Marks of the Cburcb, fays : c.fhe Catbolicks are 110 where (tip. 16.
Jot/nd to have praifed or approved either the Dotirine or Life of any Heathens 07'
Heretitks. So that it was a fufficicnt Reafon to write the worft Things of
any Man, or to conceal and condemn to eternal Oblivion the beft and
mofl: laudable ACtions, if he had been pronounced an Heretick by the Church;
and the Papifls now think it Reafon enough to give no Credit to any Per-
fan, if he doth not condemn, or if he praifes the ACtions of thofe WRO have
been declared Hereticks by the Church of Rome, and hath in any manner
oppofed her. On this Principle, Melchior Canus gives his Reafons, why all p. 66:~
the Faithful of Chrift ought to explode the Hifl:ory of Carie. For, fJ.ys he,
in his Writings, he villifies and cruelly ufes .fome of the Popes, who were tbe beft
of Men, and commends and extols ;ome of the German Emperors, who were Re-
bels and Enemies to the Church of Rome. So that you may know the Lion by his
Paw, i, e. a Lutheran by tbofe be praifes or condemns. If this Inference of
Canus were true, 'cis neceifary, that he who would be owned for a Cacho-
lick, muft load all the Enemies of the Church of Rome with Infamy and
Difgrace, and never ~Iame the Catholic~~ but prai~e a~d commend every
thing they do. But If we read the W nungs and Hiftories of the modem
Papifts, we fhall find them filled with fo many Stories and evident Lyes,
to whieh the publick ACts and Documents bear Wienefs, that one can
fcaree find the fmalleft Footfteps of Truth in them, and may juftly af-
firm, that they wrote entirely for Gain, or the Eftablifhment of Error.
And if their Power fhould rife again to the fame Height as it was in
former Ages, fo that they fhould be able wholly to deftroy the W ricings
and Monuments of thofe who differ from them, and Perfons were to learn
from their W ritings only the Doctrines and ACtions of the Reform'd
and Proteftant, who doth not fee what wretched Accounts they would
tranfmit [0 Pofleriry, even lighter than Vanity it feTf; which however
could fcarce be convicted of Falfhood by proper Teftimonies, after they
had thus deftroyed the contrary Documents? And therefore, as 'tis not fafe
to form a Judgment of the Principles and Behaviour of the Reform'd and
Proteftant from Popifh Writings only, fo we ought to bevery cautious and back-
ward of pronouncing concerning the Doctrines and ACtions of thofe who were
condemned for Hereticks, from the Writings and Hiflories of the Ancients,
beeaufe their Writings have been fo entirely fupprefs'd by the Induftry
and Care of their Adverfaries, that there is fcarce one genuine Book of
theirs remaining, wherein they have defcribed or defended their Doctrine
or Manner of Proceeding. But 'tis Time to return from this Di-
We have fhewn with what Bitternefs the Orthodox have perfecutedrhe'
Arians and Donatifls v nor did the Arians exercife lefs Cruelty a@linft the
Orthodox, when they had an Emperor who favour'd their Party:.. But it'
muft be confefs'd this Cruelty was not always equal.e Fbrakhough~he
.rlrians are not to be excus'd in their barbarous Treatment of the Ortho-
dox; yet we read that fornetimcs it was .greatly abat~d. Socrates in his E.c-
clefiaflical Hiflory, 1.4. C, 32. relates of Valens the Emperor, That he VtO-
lmtly oppoJ'd tbr;f: icbo l'rofiffed. the Doft~ine of C.on!ubflantiali~)', tbreatning
tbcm every Day witb [euerer PuniJhm~ntJ ; ttll ThemI~lUs tke Phtlofbphe~ partly
mitigated bis Rage, by an Oration, called 7fe9"~&<JvnTIItO" in sobicb he admonifbes the
Emperor, tbat he Jhould not fb greatly wonder that there, was Juch a piverjity of
Opinions amongft Chrif!i~ns ; for that it was but fm~ll if compared tuitb tbe Num-
ber of tbe different Opzmo~s ~mol1gft the Gree~s, whzch :»~re more than three hun-
dred. This Variety of Opinions muft neceJJanly caufe Druifions ; but that God was
pleafed with this Diverji,ty. of Sentiments, th~t all. might learn the rn.0reto reverence
his Majefty from the Difficulty of underjl-andzng bim. /Vhen the Pbilofopber had re-
prefented theft and otber cp;ings of,like Nature to h~m, the Emp'er~r g'ew a!?erwaJ:ds
more mild, though he dtd not entwely lay afide bis Fury, punifhmg the Pnefts wIth
Banifhment infiead of Death. But afterwards, as the fame Socrates relates,
c. 35. being preffed with the Gothick War, he left .off banifhing the Homou-
flans. Farther, there were fome amongft them who abftained from all Vio-
lence in Matters of Religion, and were willing to allow the free Exercife of it
to thofe who differed from them. Grotius gives them this Teftimony: Nor
Proleg. ad is this a little to their Prai.fe, that tbe Vandals, about the 'limes of Hunnerick
Procop. and Gundemond, and the Goths, always abflained from offering Violence to the
~o[h. e: Conftiences of thoJe[ubjeft to them, and permitted the Followers of the Nicene Faith
".a;r~ahc. to beliC'Ve and teach,. and per/arm. divine Worfhip as they pleaftd. crbe Amba.ffa-
P dors of the Goths fa~d to Behfanus, that tbey never forced anyone with Threat.
nings to change his ProfejJion ; nor hinder'd the Goths themfelves from believing the
Nicene Faith ; adding, that the Goths did not fhew leJs Reverence towards the
Jacred Places than the Romans themftlves. And a little after, p. 32. Theude.
rick, King of the Oftrogoths and Italy, is highly extolled by Eunodius, the Catholick
Bifhop of Ticinum, for his Piety and WorJhip of the true God. Such was his Re-
gard even to the, Religio,n he d~d not profejs, that he always made the beft Men Bi-
jhops. Concernmg whIch, hIS Nephew Athalarick thus writes: " 'Twas but
" j?ft to obey t~e Will ?f fo g?od a !?rince, who in a Religion he did not be-
" ~Ieve, aCted Wlt~ fo WIfe.Dehbera.tlon, as to choofe fuch a Bifhop, as made
" It appear ~hat thIS was hISg;over;;mg Defire, to fee the Religion of all Chur.
" ches fiounlh under ~ood Pnefts. Hence it came to paJs, that he called a Synod
to put an End to a Schifm that had arofe, as Paulus Warnefredi and Zonarasde.
clare: F!e a~nulJed all Simoni~c~l Ordinations, and dejired th: Catholick Bijhops
to pray tn hIS Behalf for th: d!v~ne Affiftance; as may be ften in Caffio.dorus: So
that I do not wonder that Sllvenus, Catholick BiJhop of Rome, was fufpeE1ed by
the Greeks, oj favouring the Empire of the Goths rather than tht Greeks,
~~ocopius furnilhes us with this noblt Inflanct of the Equity of the Goths in Re-
In .like ~anner ~he Orthodox Emperors did not always make Ufe of that
Se\'~enty w~lch theIr Law~ .thr~aten'd againft Hereticks, it being fometimes
theIr IntentIon only to terrIfy WIth the Fear of Puni1hments, and Dot to infliCt
2 ~ the
the Punifhments themfelves. Sozomen relates, that " Tbeodofius commanded E~.llijl.
" by a Law, that Hereticks fhould not affernble together, nor teach their 1·7· c. 1:'
" Opinions, nor <?rdai.n.Bifhops or others: That ~om.e of them fhould .be
" driven from their Cities and Lands; others dcclar d infamous, and denied
" the Privileges of the City w.hich oth~r Citizens e~joy'd; and that he or-
" dained other grievous Penalties by his Laws, ~hlch. he n~ver executed:
" For he endeavour'd not to punifh, but only terrify his Subjects, and thus
" to bring them into his own Sentiments of the Deity ; for he commended
" thofe who were willingly converted." The fame Writer relates of Va-
lentinian, who enjoy'd the Empire with his Brother Jlalens. "They were 1.6. c.6.
" both Chriftians by Religion; but diffcr'd in their Opinions and Manners.
" For Valens, when baptiz'd by Eudoxius the Bifhop, furioul1y followed the
" Doctrine of Arius, and was angry that he could not force all into his Senti-
"menrs. But Valentinian embraced the Nicene Faith, and favour'd thofe who
" were of his Mind; but never injur'd any who were of a different Opini-
" on." Socrates alfo, and Sozomen relate of Grattan, who govern'd the Empire !lift. Er-;
with Valentinian the Younger, that he ordain'd by Law, Tbat all Perfons ojl.~. c. z ,
every Religion, without Exception, jhould meet in their Churches; and that the I. 7. c. I.
Eunomians, Photinians, and Manichees only jhould be e/Jl,'Pelled from them. So-
crates, after having recounted the various Sects of Hereticks, adds, Tba: the I.~. c. :0;
Emperor Theodofius perJecuted none of them except Eunomius, whom for gather-
ing A.!Jemblies, and reading over the Books he had written in private Houjes at Con-
ftantinopJe, he Jent into Banifbment; becau]: he corrupted many with his Doiirine :
As to the reft he offer'd them no Injuries, norforced them t(lcommunicate with himJelJ;
but permitted all to meet in their Conventicles, and to think as they pleaJed of the
Chriftian Faith. Some of them he fuffer'd to build themJelves Oratories without the
Cities, but the Novatians to have their Churches within them, without fear; be-
cauft they held the [ame Sentiments, in Matters of Faith, with himfelJ. And he
relates of Atticus, Bifhop of Conftantinople, 'fhat he did not only preJerve his own 1. 7. c. :.~
People in the Faith, but even jurpriz'd the very Heretic!c.sby his wonderful Prudence;
that he had no Inclination to perJecute them, and that having once attempted ta
terrify them, he always after jhew' d himJelf more mild and gentle towards them.

'the Opinion of flme if the FAT HER S concerning the Perftcution of
DI 55 EN TERS. .

HAT the Opinion of thofe ancient DoCtors of the Church, whom

. we .call !athers, was, we may learn from their Writings..dtba-
m ~lS Eplil:Ie ~o the Hermits, fpeaks in this Manner of the 4r;(llIs,
and thus pamts out thelf Perfecutions againft the Orthodox: 'Ibal Jewilh He-I 8:.IJ
refy hath not 011{ylearnt t? dmy Cbrifl" but alfo to deligbt in .Slaughters. BlI! even
this was not JuJjicient toJatl.{y them. for as the Fathe~ of t~ezr HereIY goes about as
a roaring Lion, j'ekil!,,~ sobom to devour; JO theft ~)(tVtngLlkerty togo up a~d d?wJJ,
not about and sobomloever tbey happen to meet 'lvzth, who either blame their Hight,
or abbor'thi'ir HercJy, inhumanly tare them with Scourges,. or bind them with
Chains, or bnnifb them from their natiVe: Country. And;l llttl~ afte~ :. If it be a
mean and difhonell 'l'hing, that Jome Bijhops have chang d their Opinion througb
Fear, how niucb more heinous and vile is their lFickednejs, 'lobo, as is the CaJegene-
rally ~f thoJe who mijlruJl. the Cjoodnejs of tkeir Caufe,. baue forced others again)
their Will to renounce their Beliej ? 'Thus aijo the Devil, btcauJe he hath no 'Truth
in bim, invades Men with the Hatchet and Ax ; and thus violently breaks open the
Doors of tboJe that receive bim .: Tbe Snuiour, on the contrary, is ge~tl~ ; his Lan-
guage is, If anyone will, let him follow me, and become my Difciple, Whm
he comes to anyone, he doth not make uft of Force, but knocks at the Door, andfays,
Open to me, my Sifter, my Spoufe. fJ they open he enters; if they reJuft it he
departs: For 'Truth is not to be preach'd by Swords, or Darts, or military Wea-
pons; but by Perjwajion and Advice. Bu.t wh~t room is .there for the Liberty of
Perjwafion, where Men are awed by the imperial Authortty? And what jignifies
ReaJoning, when soboeuer oppoJes is Jure to be rewarded with Banijhment or
Death? And after a great deal more, he thus inveighs againft the bloody
rlrians : AI). their Endeavours abound with Slaughter and Impiety; and Juch is tbe
(tccurJed Craftinefs of their 'Temper and Behaviour, that they abuft and decerue
Men by the Promifes of !I0~ours, an4 Majeftra~ies, and Money, thatfo when they
cannot obtain the Confiitutio» of their Bijhoprzck by lawful Means, they may groe
the more jimple lome Appearance of a right Inflitution. So that the very Name
of He~then is too "ood f~r them ;. fa far are they from meriting the Name oj
Chriftlans, and theIr Attzons fo unitke thoft of Men, that they are perjeflly javage
and brutal. For fuch is their Cruelty and Barbarity, that they are more bloodythan
the very Executioners, and more vile than any other Hereticks, and greatly excelled,
even by the Heathens themJelves: For I have heard from the Fathers, and 1 belie'IJe
it true, tbat in the Perftcution under Maximianus, the Grandfather of Conftan-
tius, the Heathens conceal'd our Chriftian Brethren when they were fought after
and were themfelves oftentimes fin'd and imprifon'd for no other ReaJon, but becauft
the) would not bet~ay !hoJe that fled to them, thinking themJelves bound to protell them
WIth the fame Fideltty as they would have expefled themftlves; not in the lea}
afraid to expoJe themJelves to Danger on tkat Account. Bu~ now theft wonderful
Inventors of a new Herefy, famous for notbmgfo much as thetr '['reachery, atl quite
Jhe RC'VerJe; for they Jeek out thofe th~t {(mceal themfelves, and lay Snares for thofe
that barbour thim; and become of thew own Accord, very Executioners; account-
ing the Concealed and the COJlcea~orequally their Enemy: So that they are naturally
bloody, and Murtberers~ and R.,zvals of tke Wic~ednefs. of Judas. ':tis indeed im-
poJfible that any Words can [uJficuntly tle[crtbethetr Af1tons. What would not this
Doctor hav~ fai?,. had he feen the ~ruel Laws of the Inquifition brought into
Vfe, by whlch us not only a CrIme to conceal an Heretickbut all who
.do not inform againft him are anathematiz'd as Favourers and Defenders of
Hereticks, and Hinderers of the Office of the Inquifition, and condemned
to other Punifhments, according to the arbitrary Will of the Inquifitors.
He would unqueftionably have complained that he wanted Words to defcribe
fuch an execrable Cruelty. For if what the Arians did was beyond Defcrip-
tion, how much lefs can any Words give a juft Reprefentation of the Barba-
rity of the lnquifitors, which is as much fuperior to the Cruelty of the Ari-
ans, as theirs was, according to Athanafius, to that of the Heathens. But
Athanafius goes on: Oh their new Herefr ! Such are its WickedneJ!es and Impie-
ties, that let the Devil be euer fo bad, this will appear to be the Devil all ouer,
Such a monflrous Evil never raft up before ; for thoft who had any heretical Opini-
ons, ufed to keep their 'thoughts and Sentiments to themfelves. But now Eufebius
and Arius, like Serpents crawling out of their Dens, vomit openly the Poifon of their
impious Sea; this taking the Liberty publickly to blafpheme, and the other as publick~
IJ to defend his BlaJphemy : But this he could not defend till he had found an Emperor
to jupport his Blafphemy. On the other hand, the Fathers in a general Council, of
about 300 Bifhops, fXJndemn-dthe Arian Herefy, and Jhew'd that "naas contrary
to the Faith oJthe Church: But the Defmders oj the Set!, fieing themftlves deJPis'd,
and being ableto al1edgenothing agreeableto RetJjOn, baoe invented a new Way, and
attempted to [upport themftlves by the fecular Power; in which one cannot help being
amt.¢d at their Infolenceand Wickedneft; and how much it exceeds all other Herefies,
For the Madneft of other Herefies confi)s in perfwafive Words,~in order to deceive the
Simple: And asfor the Heathens, the Apoftle tellsus, they deceive Men by their Elo-
quence and Oratory, and JUbtleSpeeches ; and the Jews, forgrtting the Scriptures,
cDntmd about Fables and end/eft Genealogies: Tbe Manicheans alfo, and Valentini-
ans, and the other Hereticks, endeavour to JUpport their Trifles by adulterating and
corrupting the [acred Scriptures. But the Arians, more perverfi than all the reft,
plainly declare all the other kindred Herefies to be inferior to theirs, fince they allow
'bemftlves in much more impious Prattices, and enJeavour to rival all otbers, but
tfpecially the Jews in their Wi~kedneft and Villainies; for as the~ immediately.brought
?auI befo~e the Governors ', ",!hom the'} cou!dnot convlt! oj the Crimes ob-
Jet1ed to hIm; fa theft, e'fJeryDa') devifing frejb '.rhckr, uft no other Arguments but
the Pow~r of the Judges; and if anyone but once contraditis them, he is immediately
dr'Jl"ed IN/orethe Governor and Captain: And farther, other Herefies being coer-
comt 1Jy the Demonftration of the Truth, Jhut their Mouths in Silence, and have no-
lhing to.dobut to bluJhupon ConvWion. But this new and execrable Rerefy when over-
comewtth Re~Jon, and put to Jhame by the Power of Truth, endeavours to bring
Men over to tis lnterejt by Piolencl, Stripes and Jails, when Words prove inef-
fet1ual to perjw.ade them; and e'Um by tbisJhews it ftlf to be an Enemy to true Piety
tI1Zdthe Worjh,p oj God : For 'tis the !roperty of true Religion, not toforce but per.
Jt»ade. 'thus our Lord, fa; from fomng Men, left.them to the Liberty of their 0W1I
JrUl, commonlythus Jpeaktng to all: If anyone wIll come after me; and to his
Di/riples: And will you go away alfo? But what is more fuitable to tbe NQh,lr.,
'fliftb tJn He.refy as this, whicb !s quite repugnant to true Religion, and ;" R.I.
itllion 10 Cbrift, avows Conftantlus as tbe Author oj its Impiety, her';' ",.IitIg
E him,
him, as it wert, an Antichrifl; what more agreeable to its Nature tban to all in
Dtfiance to the Saviour? . .
In his firft A pology for hIS Flight, he fpeaks to the fame Purpofe. And
in the .firfi:Place [0 prevent the Arians imputing thefe Perfecurions [0 the
,. 70t• Judges, and fo pronouncing themfelves innocent, he fays: What the 'Judges
jam to do, they are the true Authors of; or rather, they make themfelvtS the Tools to
execute the Sentence and Malice of the Judges. And afterwards he fhews from
w hom they learn'd thefe Perfecutions, Pray let them tell me, fince whatever is,
[aid to them, they pretend is unworthy Regard, whe~ce the~ havelearn'd the
Doiirine of Perfecution ? Surely they had tt not from the Saints , it therefore follows,
that they mufl have received it from the Devil, whoJe Language is, I.will purfue ~nd
overtake. It is the Command of God, and agreeable to the Practice of the Saints,
that we fbould fly j but to perfecute is the Invention of the Devil, who being an Enemy.
to all, is defirous of exciting C"verywhere Perfecution, In this and the like Manner,
Athanafius, whilft perfecuted by the Arians, largely and pathetically argues,
condemning Perfecution of every Sort upon the Score of Religion , and freely.
pronouncing it the Invention of the Devil. And yet we. do not find that this
fame rltbanafius made [he leaft Interceflion with the Emperor Conflantine,
when the Nicene Synod was ended, to prevent the Banifhment of Arius and his
Followers; no, nor one lingle Word to fhew that he even difapprov'd of
.rlrius'« Banifhment; through a, too. common WeaknefsofMind,whereby Men
are apt to think, that the fame Thing done to them by others would be
moll: llojuft, that would not be unjuft in them to do to others.
Hilarius againft rluxentius the Arian, fhews, with equal Eloquence, hirDe-
reflation of Cruel. y towards Men differing in their religious Sentiments. 41Id
firft I cannot help pitying the Misfortune oj our Age, and lamenting the' abJurd Opi-
nions of the prefent Times ; accardi'll. to which,. human Arts muflJUpport the CauJeof
God, and the Chu~ch of Chrifl be. defended by Methods of 'fecula» Ambition. I be-
[secb you,. 0 ye Bijhops, who belze'Ueyour jehm. to be JUch, what Helps did the
Apujlles make UJe of in propagating' the Gofpel? What Powers aJlifted them in
preaching Chr!ft, and con'1Jer.t~ngall. Nations/rom Idol,S t,o God? Had they. any oj
the Nobl~s from, the Palaces Jamed wub them, when tbey JUllg,Hymns to God t1J PrJ-
Jon and tn Cb~tns" an~ after they had been cruelly fcourged? Did raul gather the
Chu!"cb of ChriJ! by pzrtue of the Royal Ediff,. when he himftlJ was made a SpeRa- .
tle m the publrelc ~heatre.? Was. the Preaching of the Di~ine ~t'uthprotefled by
Nero, Vefpalian or Decms, whteh jlouri/htdby Means of their very Haired to-.
wards u~? !lad they not the Key~ of the Kingdom of Heaven ? Surely thry had, tbMtgb
the1,mqmtazned themylves by thetr own Hands and Labours, met together in GarrelS
lind fe~r:t Plac-(s, and t~avelled b~ Sea and Land over almoflalt the Nations" '.TOW1lS '
Ilnd Cttt~S oJthe Earth, zn OPp,o}itJonto !h: Edi8s both of Senate and Kings? VidnoS.
~ms Hatred of tbe GlIJpel manifeft the Di'lJtne Power, in tbat the more Chrifl was for.
lizddm to be preacb'J, be was ftzll tbt mor~ preach'din the TVor/d? But how (O<Wrttcb.
(d Cafe!) earthly SujJrages.are to recommend the Dhline Faith; and QJ;;riftisdedaretl
;Q be ddfi:ute of PO'U/(T, jime 4mbilion. ;sbecome tb,·M/1I1JS ufr~~ Mm /0 his
,. . Name.
Namt. tfbe Cburch now terrifies Men ./1y Banijhments and Jails, which Was til
firfi believed in by Means of BaniJhments and Jails: She now relies on tbe Dignity
of her Communicants, though at firfi confecrated by the Terror oj her P erfecutors : She
now puts her Priefls to flight; tbou~~hjl.;e was at fir) propagated by tbe FLight oj her
Pricfls, She now glories tbat jl.;e is beloved of the if/orid; tbough /he could not
belong to Chrijf, unleft tbe World hated her. And in his firft Book to Con-
flantine; to the fame Purpofe. God rather choje to teach Men the Knowledge of
himfelf than forcibly demand it; and by gaining Authority to his oum Precepts, by
wonderful heavenly Works, /hew'd that he difdained a Mind compelled even to the
Acknowledgment of himJefJ. If Juch a Method as this was made Ufe of to propagate
the true Faith, the Epijcopal Dotirine /hould agree with it and fay, He is the God

of the whole World, and needs not a conflrained Obedience. He doth not require a
forced ConfejJion: He is not to be deceived, but engaged: He is to be soorfbiped, 120t
for his own fake, but ours. I can accept him only tba: is willing; hear him only
that prays, and heal him only that freely confejJcshim. He is to be .fought with
-Simplicity of Mind, to be learn'd by humble ConfejJion, to be loved with true Af-
feC1ion, to be reuerenc'd. with Fear, and his Favour to be [ecured by an honeft Mind.
But wbat firange 'l'bing is this, that tbe Priefis are forced by Chains and [euere
Penalties to fear. God? 'IDe Priefis are kept in Prifon; the People are bound in
CbRins; Virgins are flripp'd naked, and their Bodies, conjecrated to God, expofed by
IY"'Y of Punifbment to publick Vie», made an open Spetiaclc, and fitted for the
Ambrofe alfo taught the fame Doctrine, Tb« Apofiles are not commanded to C"mmmr.
take Rods in their Hands, as Matthew writes. fVhat is a Rod but an Enfign of~n LNC. /,1·
'power, and an Infirument of Yengeance to in/liC/ Pain? And therefore tbe Difii- In c. 10-
pies of an humble Mafier, j J'!'Y of an humble Mafter, for in his Humility his
Judgment was taken from him, can only perform the Duty he hath enjoYlled them
by O]Jieesoj Humility: For he fent Perfons forth to low the Faith, who /houtd not
force Men but teacb them; nor eserci]: Power, but exalt the Doiirine of Humility •
.And a little after he adds: When the Apoftles would have had Fire from Hea-
'Ven, to confume the Samaritans, who would not receive ou,. Lord Jefus into their
Cit,; he turned about and rebuked tbem, Jaying, .Ye know not what Spirit ye
-.are of; .for the Son of Man is not come to deftroy Mens Lives, but to fave
GregQr,Nuianzen evidently fhews himfelf to be of the fame Sentiment,
although he hath not handled this Argument profeifedly: For having obfer-
ved that Men were not and at once, but flowly and gradually, brought
()fffrom Idolatry to the La.w, and from the Law to the Gofpel ; and having
'confider'd the Reafon ()f it, he thusfpeaks: And why is it thus? Be,;auft
.fJJe are to know, 'batMen arc notto'be driven by Force, but to be dra".X.inby P(r-
fwajion. For that which is forced is not la/ling ; this even the WtJ'ues teach 1If,

.ben they are repelled by Pioleme; and the very Plants when bent cC.;'Jt;,aryloti:Jeir
Ntuure. q'halwhich is'voluntary is both more lajling and fale. crbis iJqgree4b/~
ilo :,be Divine Equity; the other an Infianee of 'J'yranny. So thtfl' '?e.:1JiJJ nol
,bi"k i/jufl even 10 do good t() Mm againft tblirWill. ~ 'WitbMl ibnr Con-
E 2 fenl.
fent. And in the Poem of his own Life, he {peaks to the fame Pur-

P erfwafion' s much morejuft than Piolmce ;

Fitter for us, ana thoft whom we attempt
c.Ioreconcile unto the Being Supream :
What by Compuljion's done can neuer taft.
Like as the bending Bow, and Stream repeli'd,
c.IheForce remoo'd, by their own Power return
To nati'Ve Form and Place, florning Reftraint.
'l'hat's only durable which is Ih' Effef!
Of free Conftnt and Choice. Loue leads the Way,
And fleady keeps, by kind, yet powerful Influence.
Optatus MilC'lJital1uswriting againft Parmenianus, the Donatift; vindicates
the Church from the Charge of perfecuting Diffenters from it. For when
Parmenianus objected to the Catholicks: Tbat cannot be (ailed the Church,
which feeds on cruel Dainties, and grows fat with the FleJhand Blood of the Saints:
Optatus thus anfwers him, I. 2. The Churcb batb its proper Members; tbe Bi-
}hops, Presbyters, Deacons, Minifters, and the Body of tb« Faithful. 'Io which of
theft different Orders in the Church can you impttte what ,ou objef!? Point out, if,ai
can, by Name, any Minifter or Deacon, or inflance in anyone Presbyter that hfJIb
been concerned in it, or any Bijhops who baue appro'Ved it. What one among,ffus
hath endeauoured to mfnare, or hath perfecuted any Perfon ? Declare, if you can,
and prove one jingle Inflance of Perfecution by us. In this Pa1fage he plainly
acknowledges, that the Church ought not to feed on cruel Dainties" and de-
nies that the Donatifis can, with Truth, object this to his own Church;
though indeed, 'tis fcarce to be believed, when one confiders, the Edicts of
the Emperors againft the Donatifis, and other Hereticks. But he goes on"
and largely fhews, that the Donatifls themfe1ves had fed on thefe cruel Dain-
ties, and feafted on Chriftian Blood; and at length concludes : See, your own
Party beue made good what you your /elf have confeJ!ed, that that cannot be the
Church which feeds on cruel Dainties. MifJionary Dragoons, anti ordained Bi-
(hops are'Vaflly different. What you baue falfely laid to our Charge, hath been dOtll
b) others, not by us ; and what you baue owned to be Hnlawful to do, you your
Jel'Ves baue aBed.
What was Chryfoflom's Sentiment in this, he himfelf fufficiently de-
clares in his Sermon about Excommunication, where he thus inveighs againil
thof~, who pronounced others accurfed: I fte M.e1J" who IlnderJfand not the
genut11eSenft, nor indeed any thing of the faered Writings, who, to pafs by otber
e.things, 1am not ajhamed to own, are Furious, fj"rifiers, ~uarrelfome, who fmf1{IJ
not what they fay, nor whereof they offirm; bold and permptory i1l tbis D1Ie'1'binf,t
ever det~rmil1i1LgArticles of Faith, and dtclaring acetirftd, c.Ibingsthe, unJerjatla nolo
Upon thzs Account we are becometbe Scorn of the Enemies of our Faith, who look upun
.1 QJ Perfons Ihal ba'TJcnD Regard for Yirluc). and 1ft'll1T leaTIII Jo d9 't.",J. HIfIJ
am I aJflif1ed and grieved for theft crbings' And afterwards, citing tha.t Place
of St. Paul, 2. Tim. ii, 14, 25, 2.6. Tbe Servant of the Lord muft not ftnve, but
be gentle, &c. he goes on: Entice him with th: Bait tf C~mpajJion, and thus e?t-
deavour to draw him out from Deflrutiion, tbat being. thus delivered from the Infefiton
of his former Error, he may live, and thou may'ft deliver thy Soul. But if he obfii-
nately refufes ta hear, witnefs againft him, left thou be~ome.guilty; only let it be
with Long-fuffering and Gentlenefs, left the Judge requtre bis Soul at thy Hand.
Let him not be hated, jhunn'd, or perfecuted; but exercife towards him a fin-
cere and [eruent Charity. And at length he thu~ concludes: Impious and
heretical Principles are to be oppofed and anatbematized : but Men themfelves
are to be [pared, and we muft pray for their Salvation. If this was his Opinion
as to thofe who anathernatifed others only upon the Account of Herefy, how
zealous would he have been againft fuch, who, not conrent to pronounce
Hereticks accurfed, deliver them over to the fecular Arm to be moft cruelly
punifhed j' •••• • • •
He farther declares hIS OpInIOn, m hISeighth Homily on the fuft of Genefis :
Hereticks may be compared toPerjims in aDiJeaJe, and that are almofl deprived of their
Sight; for as the one cannot bear the Light of the Sun thro' the Weakneft of their Eyes,
and the other tbro' lllneJs naufeate the moft wbolfome Food; fo they being dijlemper' J
in their Minds, and darkned in their Undcrftanding, cannot endure to behold tbe
IAgbt of Trutb. We ought tberefore, in Difcharge of our Duty, to hold out the helping
Hand, and !peak to them 'l.o,itb great lvleeknefs. For thus St. Paul hath advijed,[ay-
ing, Tba: our Adverfaries are to be inftrufied with Gentlenefs., if peradventure God
may give them Repentance, to the Acknowledgment of the Trutb, and that they may
efcap« out of the Snare of the Devil, having been taken captive by him at bis Will_
JO that there is need of a double Meafure of Gentlenef) and Forbearance, to de!i;otr
and bring tbem out of the Snares of the Devil. But in his 47th Homily upon
Matt. xiii, explaining the Parable of the Tares, he doth not condemn all
Sorts of external Violence againft Hereticks: Wilt thou therefore that we g()
and gather them up? But tbe Lord forbad it; left alJOye pluck up tbe Wheat witb
the ~ares; whicb he Jaid to prevent Wars, and Effufion of Blood., and Slaughterw
F9r if Hereticks were to be killed, a bloody and eterNal Wor would fpre8d it, [elf thro'
tbe World. And therefore he forbids it on a double Account; the one., that the Wheat
might not be burnt; the other., that unleJs they were healed., they could not efcape the
fevereft Punijhment. '!'herefore., if you would punijh them., and not hurt tbeCont, you
muft wait for the proper 'lime and Seajim. What then doth be mean when he fa'ls., left
alfo yo ~11tckup the Wheat? Undoubtedl, this., that if you talee up Arms, YO~tmuft
neceffimiy de.ftroy.1JJ~ of the Saints with the Herl!ticlcs; or thst e'lJenJome ~f theft
may be cbanged mltJ toe true Wheat: If therefore you too haftiiy pluck them up,
,ou will de.ftroy all tbat good Wheat., which might have been produced ouf of tbr
'Ocry :r~res. !J.ut e doth not forbid us to c~njine., or .fI.:ut the Mouths of Heretic!rJ"
or to hznder thetr Ltberty of Speech., or fJnodtcal AJ!embltes, 'Jr prevent their Unitnl,
bid only to murder and deftroy them. . .
St.jerome is of the fameMind, who in his 62d Letter to Theaphilus againft70in
of/entIa/em, thus (!leaks: erhe Church oj Chrijt was found(d on the blood, Sfij'rr;1o/,S
and Patience of its firft Profeffors, and not on their abufing and injuring otberr,
It grew by Perfecutions, and triumphed by Martyrdoms. For tho' he 1hews him-
fell' very fevere againfr Hereticks, yet he was not for punifhing them with
Death, but treating them with Genrlenefs, Thus in his Comment on Hofea ii, I.
You that believe iii Chrift, whether Jews or Gentiles, Jay ye to the Branches that
are broken off, and the People that is caft out, My People, for he is thy Brotber.; and
my Sifter, for fbe hath obtained lVlercy.. ':V hen the Fulneft of the Gentiles Jhall come
in, tben fball all Ifrael be Javed. ThIS IS commanded US, that we fbould not wholly
deJpair of Hereticks, but provoke them to Repentance, and with a brotherly .Affcflion
wifb their Salvation. And explaining the Parable of the Tares, Matt. xiii. he
fays: Wherefore he who governs the C~urch oug~t not to. .fl:eep, left tbro' his Ne~-
ligence the Eneml Jhould low the Tares, J. e. beretical O'pl1J~ons.But tobereasttu
[aid, left f,tlthermg the Tares, ye pluck up alfo the Corn, 'ttS tojhew US, that there
is a Place for Repentance, and that we ought not haJlilyto cut off our Brotber; be-
cauft it may happen, that he who ero-day is infeBedwithheretical Pravity, may re-
pent era-morrow, and become a Defender of the 'Irutb. .And in his Commentary on
theEpiftle to the Galatians, ch.v. 9. A little Leaven leavens the whole Lump, among
other Things he hath this: .A Spark is to be extinguijhed as .foonas it appears,
and the Leaven not to be Julfer'd to approach the Lump: Corrupted Flefh is to be cut
()ff, and fcaby Sheep to be driven.from tbe Sheepfold, left tbetubole Houfe, Lump, Body
and Flock, fbould be,burn'd, leavened,corrupttd, .and perifh. Arius at firft was
,but as a fingle Spark, which,. becauJe it was not immediately extingui/hed,ftt on Firt
and ravaged tbewholeWorJd. .

~t e- AUGUSTINE'S Opinion ,conc.erning/he Perjecutioll of HERETICK~

A.· .
Uguftine., in his fOE mer W ritings, condemned all Violence upon the Ac-
count of Religion; for, writing againft the fundamental Epiftle of Mo.m-
~htEt4f,he begins with this Addrefs to the Manicoeans : Tbe 8eruant oj the Lord
·tJugbt not to ftriue, &c. It is therefore our Bufinefs Willingly to aB this Part. God
l,i'Uts that which is good to thoft who willingly ask it of him. Cf'heyonly rage again}
'Of,(, -,who know nothing oj the Labour that is nece.ffary to find out erruth, or the Dijfi-
.culty oliWoiding Errors.''!'is they who rage againjt you, who know not hfYWuncom-
mon and tliJfiCltltit is to O'Vercomecarnal Imaginations by the Calmnefs oj a pious Mind.
'~'1is they !who filJ.e againft you, who are ignorant how hard it is to heal the Eye of tbe
inward Man, 10 tiat· it· ~lPIbebold its Sun; not tbat Sun whofe cele.ftial Bod, .~
.worJhip, and whicb in'aJiattl tbejle}hly Eyes fJj Men and Beajts, 1mt tbat of 'Whicb
.Jhe Propbetwrites, The'Sun of Righteoumefs is rifenon me·; and ofwhicb we
rtad in the Evangelijl, He was that true Light which enlightens every Man that
~ometh into the World. 'l1Jcy rage againjt 'ou. ,'Wbfl1ctmiJ _ tbal -lis by 1II'!"Y
1 .szghs
Sigh! and Gr~ans we mufl attain to a [mall 1'.01"I;onof the KJ:owledge of God. Laftl],
tbey rage agatnfl you, who are not deceiued wah that Error, into which they fee you are
fallen. But as for my Jelf, I, who after long and great Rufluation, can at lart
perceive, what is that Sincerity tobicb is free from all Mixture of vain Fable, can:Ot
by an) Means rage againft you, tohom 1 ought to bear with, as Lsoas once borne with
my Jelf, and to treat you with the fame Patience that 17:YFriends exercifed towards
me, when I was a zealous and blind Efpoufer of your Error.
And again, in his Queftions upon St. Matthew's Golpel, chap. 12. when the
good Corn fprung up and brought forth Fruit, then appear'd the Tares alfo :
For when the Jpiritual Man begins to diJcern all ,[,hings, he begins to diJcern Errors.
His Servants ;aid to him, Wilt thou that we go and gather the Tares? Arc
'Weto [uppofe that thoft are the Servants, whom he calls a little after Reapers, which
in tbe Expofition of the Parable he exprejly faith to be Angels? But who will dare af-
firm, that the Angels knew not who [owed the Tares, and then fuji difcerned them,
when they perceived the Fruit come forth? We ought rather to interpret it of faithful
Jr1en here, fignified by the Name of Servants, whom he alJOcalfs the good Seed. Nor
is it any Wonder that the fame PerJons /houltl be called the good Seed, and the Servants
of the Mafler, finti Chrift fays oj him/elf, that he is. the Gate, and the Shepherd; .
for the fame crhing is rtpreJented under many different Similitudes for different Rea-
JDns; and the rather here, beeaufe when he !peaks to the Servants, he doth not fay,
When the Harveft comes, 1 will fay to you, Gather firft the Tares: But I.
will (peak, fays he, to the Reapers .. From whence we may infer, tbat tbe gather-
ing the Tares to burn them is the Bufinefs of others, and that no Son of the Church fhould
imagine that 'tis an Office belonging to him. When therefore any Perfon begins to beJPi- .
ritual, he perceives the Errors of the Hereticks, and judges and difcerns every thing
that he reads or hears to differ from the Rule of Trutb, But until he grows more
perfert in theJe JPiritual ,[,hings, and ripens into Fruit as the Seed did, he may be
Jurprized how [0 many Falfboods of the Hereticks fbould exiji under the Cbrifilan
Name. Hence it was that the Servants laid, Didft thou not fow good Seed in .
this Field? Whence.then the Tares? When at laft he comes to fknOW,. that this
is .owing .to the Subtlety of the Devil, who, far from being awed by the Authority
ofJo great a Name, covers his own Faljhoods under it, he may have an Inclination
to: deflroy fuch Men out of the World, according, as he hath Opportunity •. But sobe- .
tber he ought to do this, and whether it be the Duty of Men, he confults the Juftice cf
God, whether he hath commanded or permits it? Hence the Servants laid, Wilr :
thou that we go and gather them? '['0 which the Trutb it felf anf.;;ered: '['be
Condition of Man in this Life is not fucb,.that it can certainly be known, what that·
Man may ajterwardsprove, ,who is now..fem to;be in .a manife}t Error ; . or how his
Error may contribute to the [ncreafe of tbe Good: And therefore fUGh arc not to be
tltJ.ftroyed, left whilfl we endeavottr to leill tbecvil, we. k!ll a./} the good, or Jucb as "
p&1fiblymay heret([ter prove Jo ; . and left we hereby preJudzce the good, to whom t~ '
(Jther may be, tho' unwillingly, uJeful•. But the mofl proper 'lime for,. .'
the" End of all'I'bings, when there will be no farther Opportunity. oj IJ1MNJUtgtH
Ll/e,or of advancing in the Truth, by the Occajion and Comparifon oj Dtblf'Mms
Errors~, .dntlC'U&n then this is to be done not. by Me», ,but by the '.IInge/J. Hrn~~
The HIS TOR yo of the IN QUI SIT ION.
it WaJ that the Mafler anfwers, No, left gath~ring the Tares ye pull up alfo
the Wheat. But in the Time of Harveft I will fay to the Reapers, &c. And
tbus he render'il tbctn tbe 1Jl()fl patient and calm.
But afterwards, upon his fharp and long Difputes with the Donatifls, tho' he
was fo far of the fame Mind, as that he was not willing to puni1h them with
Death, yet he fo far altered his Opinion, as that he did not difapprove of, but
was for actually inflicting all Punifhrnents, which did not cut off the Hopes of
Repentance, i. e. all manner, Death only excepted; that being terrified by
them, they might be compelled to embrace the orthodox Faith; which he
hath fhewn in a few Words, in his fecond Book of Retratiations, c. 5. I haw
two Books entitled; Againft the Donatifls : In the firfl I declared, that I did not
approve that Jchifmatical Perfons Jhould be compelled to Communion by any fecular
Power. Tbe Reafon was, becauf« I had not then experienced what great Mifchief
would arife from their Impunit)', nor how rnucb Good Difcipline would conduce to their
Conoerfion. He argues the fame more largely in his 48th Letter to Vincentius,
on Account of the Rogatian Herefy: My firft Opinion was, that none was to be
forced to the Unity of Chrifl; but that he was to be dealt with by Words, fought with
by Argument, overcome by Reaftn, leji thofe who once were open Hereticks fhould be-
come feigned Catboluks, But I ch.anged my Opinion, not from the Contradiction of
others, but from demonflrative Examplf1,!. My own City was firfi altedged, which
tbo' entirely in the Herefy of Donatus, was converted to the Catbolick Unity by Fear oJ
the Imperial Laws, and 1:JOW fa thoroughly detefts their pernicious Animojity, that one
would be apt to believe it had never been infected with it. Many otber Cities were
particularly named to me, [0 that from hence I underflood the Meaning of what is
written, Give Opportunity to a wife Man, and he will be wifer. For how ma-
ny, to our certain Knowledge, were willing to become Catbolicks, convinced by C'Vident
crruth ; but 'jet deferred it through Fear of offending their Friends? How man,
were held in Subjetlion, not to Trutb; in which you neuer had any Concern,
but to Obftinacy of Habit, whereby was fulfilled in them that divine Paffage, An
evil Servant will not grow better by Words; even though he underftand,
he will not obey. How many imagined that the Donatifts Were the true Church,
hecauft Security had render'd them proud, floathful and negligent in their Enquiries
.lJjter the Catholick Cf'ruth? How many were preve1lted, by the falfe Reports of Slan-
derers, from entring into the Church; who gave out that we placed I know not
#what upon the Altar of God? Hou: many thought it indifferent to what Party (J
Chriftian b!longed, and therefore continued Donatifts, becauft they were born in that
Sect, and no one forced them to forfake it, and return to the Catboliclc Faith? Now
the Terror of thoft Laws, by the Publication of 'which Kings ftrve the Lord with
Pea,:, was offuch Advantage to all theft, that they j:~y, [ome of them: Tbis was what
we tntendeJ.· Bleffid be God, that hath given us tbe Occajion of doing it now) nnd
prevented all fartber Delays. Others Jay: '.this we knew to be true. But we
were under an untJccountable Prtpoffiffion. BleJ!edbe God, who hath broh our
Bonds in lunder, and batb brought us to the Bond of Peace. Others fa'-: We knew
1JOtthat the Cf'ruthwas here, neither were we willing to learn it. But Fear math US
iJi/igent in inquiring alter it, being apprehcnjivl, #bat WI j/J01I1J loft our tempQrat
2. {!..njO"j1ll11I1S,
Enjoyment, without gaining an, eternal Blejfings.l1lt}ftd be G~d, 'zeho by Fear ath k
cured us of our Negligence, JO that thro' 'Terror we have enquired after, what in a
State of Security we jhould never have been careful to have known. Otbers Jay:
lYe were afraid to enter tbro' falJe Reports, 'which we could not know to be falft
unlefs we entered. Neither fbould we have entered, u1tlefs we had been forced.
Bleffed be God, who hath taken away our Fear by the Rod, and given us to underfland
how vain and lying the Reports are, which have been raifed of his Church. .Hence
we believe all thoft crhings to be falfe, which the Autbors of tbts lierefy have raifld,
[ince their Followers have [pread much greater Faljhoods. Others Jay: We thought
it fignified nothing of whatever Party we were Cbrifiians. But bleffed be God,
who hath brought us from the SchiJm, and jhewn us that 'tis agreeable to the one God,
that he Jhould be worfhipped in Unity. Should 1 therefore oppoJemy Jelf to my Col-
leagues in preventing Methods Jo gainful to the Lord, and thereby hinder the ga-
thering into the Sheepfold of Peace, where there is one Flock and one Shepherd, the
ftray'd Sheep ofChrift, who now wander in the Mountains and Hilis, i, e. in the
Swellings of their Pride? Ought I to oppoft Juch a Provijion as tbis, for fear of your
lofing the'rhings you (all your own, wbiJfti[ you were free from Fear, 'joU would
proftribe even, Chrifl""hi;lt.felf 1 .'Iltl'f)c jou' a .Liberty of making Wills by .th~ Ro-
man LAw, lJnd ought you' to deftroy by tnfamous Charges the /Pill deltvered
by God to the Fathers, in which 'tis written, In thy Seed 1hall all Nations
,be bleffed ? Should you he allowed to make free Con/rafts in buying and felling,
and yet dare to divide amongft your ftl-:;es what the betrayed Saviour bougbt for
us? Is it juft that your Donations to others jhould be 'Valid, and jhould not what
God hath given to his Children be firm, whom he batb called from the rifing of the
Sun to the Jetting of it? Can it be unjuft to banifh )'OU from the Land of your
Blidy,wbe-n you endeavour to' banifh Chrijl from the Kingr}()m of his BlooJ, fro",
Sea to Sea, ana from tbe Riv!r to the"utmoft Bounds Of the World? No: ut tb«
Kings of the Earth [erve Chrift, even by making Laws far Chrift.
From thefe Words of .Auftin, it appears clearer than the Light, that he
approved of the Punifhment ordained by Civil Laws againft the Erroneous,
as that "they ought not to make Wills, nor buy and fell, .nor receive Lega-
cies, but that they fhouldbe fenr 'into Banifhmenr. And to fhew tl)ac. he
thought 'this Punifhment juft upon the Donatifts and Rogatians,he adds: 7l'he
t1error 'O!fcmporalPowers, when it oppofts the 7l'ruth, is a glorious 'Trial to tbe
Good and ReJOlute, but a dangmms eremptation to tbe Weak. But when it inculcates the
'fruth upon tbe Erroneous andScbifmatical,lo ingenuous Minds it is an ufeful Admo-
.nnwn, but. 't(Jlbe Foolijh it jrd'tJesan'f!"PiJ!lable .A.J!!it1ion. There .is no Power
but what IS of GOO, an4,he' ~'t tefiffedi"tlie Power, ~e.fifleththe Ordinance
of God: For Princes are nota Terror to th(Uri(hatdoweU; but to thore' whQ
do ill. Wilt thou. not therefore fear the· Power? Do well, and thou" Ihalc
have Praife from it. For if the Power favouring the 'Truth correflsa1zY one, be
who is made better by it bath Praife from it: Or if, in Oppofition to tberrftt!b, it
raglS againft any one, he who is crowned Conqueror bath Praife .Bu} fJ! 1"-
the!,. fhQu 110ftnot well that thou jhould'ft 1Iotfear the Power. :'An(J'tomakft~
appear, he 13rgelyrefutes his Opinion, and then think{beltatfrt~~eChhe
. F M~
J ufkice of the Perfecution raifed againft them. And in the former Part of his
Letter, he argues, that they ought to be compelled to return to the Church,
not by Reafon only, but by Terrors. For, fays he, if they fbould be terrified,
and not taught, it '1,C'ould Jean to be the ExerciJe of an unjuft Power over them; and
if they were taught, and not terrified, their old Habits would harden them, and they
would move more jlowly into the Way of Salvation.
The-like may be read in his 50th Epiflle, to Boniface, a military Man of
CceJar's Retinue: A PerJon in a raging Pbrenzq can't bear the Phyfician, nor a
libertine Son his Father; the one becau]« he is bound, the other becauJehe is chaftifed;
both becaufe they are loved. But if they negleft them, and fuffer them to perifb, 'ti:
IJ folfe and cruel MildneJs; for if the HorJe and Mule, who have no Underflanding,
bite and flrike at thoft who handle them to cure their Wounds, who yet, tho' they are of·
tentimes in Danger, and Jometimes receive MiJchief, don't leave them, till by medi-
cinal Smart and Pains they have made them Jound; how much iels ought one Man to
be given up by another, a Brotber by his Brother, left be perijh eternally; when
ofter Corretiion he might be brought to underftand, ho-wgreat a Benefit was conferred
on him, even when he was complaining of Juffering Perfecution, Tberefor», as thi
Apoflle Jays, Let us do good to all as we have Opportunity; let thoJe, that can,
do it by DifcourJes of the CothoUckPrecepts, 'others by the Laws of Catbolick Princcs,
that all may be called-.tQ Salvati()11, and· tec()'f)N'edfrOflJlJejlruflion, partly·· by thaft
who obey divine Admonitions, and partly by. thoJe'Whoribey,the Imperial Commands.
When the Emperors make bad Laws in Fawur oj FaJjh.oodagainft the Trutb, true Be-
lieuer« are apprrnJed, and thofe who perfeoere are crowned with Viftory. But when
I~ey ordain good Laws Jor the CJ'ruth, in OppDjition to Error; the Unruly are ter-
rified, and the Wife amended. He therefore who refuJes to obey the Imperial
LaW!, when made, againft tbe Trutb of God, .acquires a great Reward: Hewho
reJufts to obey, when fMde for Supportoj' divine 'rrutb, expoJeshimJelf to moft grievous
Puni,/hmcnt. For in the -rimes of· thi- Prophets all thoft Kings are blamed, who did
not forbid and abolifh every thing contrary to the divine Precepts, and tho]; who
did arc bighly commended. Even King Nebuchadnezzar, when he was. a Scrva"t
Cfldols, made an impwus Law, that tbe Image Jhould be worjhippeJ. But I~
!who. 'd¥t!ot obey bis w'ick.e~Conjl~~tiofl, afl~d p~uj/y '/Pldfaitpfilll'J. ,:AnJ' yel IU
Jame J(mg,. cbanged kyo dzvsne Mzracle, m!Jde a pzous and, pommendahleLaw for the
t.(ruto ; that whol'Ver .fhould blaJpheme the truc God of Shadrack, Mefhack, aNa
Abednego, jhould be deftroy'd with his whole Houfe. '.fboft who defpiftd this Lawt
and defervedly fuffired tbe Penalty of it, might 'Jet fay, what theft 00, that tbry
'Weren ..~..btc01!sPerJOns, beCattft p.erjecu.tedby t~e. King.'s L..QUI; . wb.icb ~hey.. might
fayaHlJ,dl, if they were as. mad as thoft who divide tb~ J4embers Dj ClJrifl, Jejlroy
1lJ.eS'iJcf'a~ts, of CbrijJ, .and yet gl!J,.yin Perftcutio~:· l$ecauft t,bty arefo~~ddcn to
tIo tjJe(e 'iPt~g;sh~.'he.l'PP~ri.l
LaWs, ~",de for the Unit"jc{ (:.brijt, ~be,'f).nly!Majlof
lbezr "inn()(ence~.nil-pu. the GltJr, t{1Jai.tyrJom from Men, wbi.b t~1 ClJ1lllOt rt-
tei'iJefrom theLorJ •. ·~fte.~ whiCh he fubjoins a long Difcourfe ~_'prove, that
all who fuffer Perfecunon are not Martyrs, but fueh only whof~r for Righ-
teoufnefs; and that an
PerfecutQrs are not of the falfe C~~h.PIr 4gar juf-
/ered Perje&uJionfrom Sault ~ 4IId~t.J/II who ptrfe~ .. 'ity, tIIIdjhlwho
'. 2 fi4ferrp
fuffertd Perfeaaio» unhol~. And a l~ttle aft~r: If therefore We 'will acknowledge
the Truth, that is an un.JuftPerfecution, whtch the Wicked make on the Church of
Chrifl, and that a juft Perfecution which the Churches of Chrifl make on the
Wicked. So that the Church is bleJ!ed which fuffers Perjecution for Righteoufnefs
Sake, and they miftrable who fuffer Perfecution jar Unrighteoufnefs. Befides, the
Church perfecutes, by Love; they, by Rage; fbe, that fbe may corrett i
they, in orde: to. overthrow; fhe, that Jhe ma~ re~al from Error; they,
to force others into it, She perfecutes and apprehends Enemies; to cure them of their
ranity, and that they may advance in the 'Truth; they return Evil for Good, and be-
cauft we confult their eternal Salvation, endeavour to deprive us of our temporal Safety.
And afterwards: "Tis an Inflance of Mercy to them, becauft by theft Imperial Laws,
they are fnatched, tho' again}! their Wil/~, from that s.s, where they ha,?e learnt
their Errors from the Dotirines of Deuils, that they may be healed by bemg accu-
flamed to found Dotirines and Manners in the Catholick Church. For many of tboje;
whofe pious Fervour of Faith and Charity in the Unity of Chrifl we now admire,
give 'Thanks to God with great Gladnefs, that they are not now in the Error to think
thoft evil 'Things good; whic.b. 'fhanks they would neuer have give~ willingly, un-
left they had been forced rmwIllmgl1 to' depart from that accurftd SOCtety.
As to the Objection, that the ApoO:les never defired fuch Methods from
the Kings of the Earth, he anfwers , That none of the Emperors then be-
lieved in Chrift, and therefore could not ferve him by making Laws for
Godlinefs, againft Impiety. But afterwards, when that began to be fulfilled,
which is written, All the Kings of the Earth Ihall worfhip him, all Nations
1hall ferve him, what Perfon in his Wits could tben thus addrefs himftlf to Kings?
It doth not concern you, who in your Dominions defends or oppofes the Church of our
Lord, who will be religious Dr impious. ,May it not as well be Jaid, It is nothing to
you, who in your Dominions is chaft or ~ewd? Fo: :0
fince God hath given ali Men
Freedom of Will, why fhould Adulterzes be punijhed by Law, and Sacrzlegp per-
mitted? Is the Preferuatio» of the Soul's Fidelity to God of lefs Importance than
a Woman's to her Husband? Or becauft thoje'I'hings which are done, not from any
Contempt of Religion, but merely thro' Ignorance,. arc to be more gently a.imad- N. B.
'lJlrtu] on, are theythereJore to he entirety negleffed? Who doubts whether it be
better to draw Melt to the Worjhip ()f God by .Argument, .than" to c{)mpel them with
the Fearoj1 Punifhment or Pain? But doth it follow, that becaufe thoft who are
won byReafiin are the beft, that therefore others are to he Wholly diJregarded? We can
produce many Inflances to prove, of how great Advantage Compuljion by Fear and Pain
hath been, they h,!'Vingbeen hereby render'd open to InjlruBion, or e:fcited to the Pra-
Oice of what .tbe,have beentflught. . And .afterwards: 'fo 1I?hatPurpoft do theft
Men cry out, Men dre free either to kelie1Je, .Or. notbtlievc. " 'l'o whom did Chrijt
ufe Violc~ce 1 Whom.didbc force! I produc~' the Afoftle Paul. Let them own
that Chrifl firfl forced, and afterwards taught hu1I.; firft flruck, and then comftrted
bim. "!'is wonderful to confider, how he, who, forced by bodily Punijhment, firfl
entwed into the GoJpel, it more abundantly than ~llthey, who by .tlJe JY"'~
MIl,were called to the Beltef of tt. By how much greater hts Fear fIlas that f!'tt.d his
Lwe,'by fo much the more perfeft was his L(J'()cthat caft DUIFear. '1Fbj tbmJliDtlidttot
F :£ i the
the Cburcb compel ber loft Sons to return, fince theft loft Sons have compelled o/btl's to
their Deflrutiion ? Efpccia!ly as the holy Mother more kindly embraces thoft, wha,
having been not fo much compelled as [educed, are made to return by terrible tbo'
wholfomc Laws, into her B%1l1, and rejoices over them much more than over thofefht
batb never IoJI. lFhat, doth it not belong to the Pajioral Care, to recover. thoft
Sheep, icbcn found, to the Lord's·Flock, by the Terror of Stripes, or even Pains, if
tbey refiJI, which having not been Violently [natcbed away, have wandered from
tho' Flock, tbro' flJt and gentle Perftuafion ? And a few Lines afterwards : Be-
callfe they cannot /hew that they are compelled to Evil, they argue, that they ought not
to be compelled even to what is good. But we have Jbert»n that Paul was compelled
by Chrijl,.fO that the Church imitates its Lord in compelling thoje,firft waiting before /he
compels an)', that the Preaching of the Prophets might be fulfilled with refpefl,to tbe
Faith of Kings and Nations. For to this PurpoJe may be under.ft(}()d that of blejJerl
Paul, Having in a Readinefs to revenge all Difobedience, when your Obe-
dience is firft fulfilled. Hence our Lard himJelf, firft commands the Guefl.;
to be invited, and after'wards compelled to his great Supper. For, when the Ser:
vants anft»ered bim; Lord, it is done as thou commandedft; and yet there
is Room, he faid, Go out into the High-ways and Hedges, and compel them
to come jn, Now in thoJe who were firft kindly brought in~,is fulfilled the firft Obe-
dience; in thoft who are compelleJ the DijObedience is-:rev.engedl. For 'what is tbis,
Compel them to come in; wbetf 'tis firft [aid, Bring in;- and the AnJwer was,
It is done as thou haft commanded, and yet there is Room ? If he would ha'Vl
it underflood, of being compelled by the Terror of Miracles.~, tboft were done in great~
eft abundance, in Behalf of thoft who were firfl called, eJpecially of thofo of who,,,
'tis. !<lid, The Jews feek Signs. The like may be: read .ia his.,204th Epiflle
to Donatus, a Donatift Prefbyter, inwhich he relates the various Cruelties of
the Donatifls and Circumcellians, and writes that many were reduced to the Uni-
ty of.the Church, by.the.Laws made againft them .. After.a long ACCOWlt of
this, he anfwers anObjection of the Donatips, that the Catholicks coveted
and took away their Goods,> and Ihewsthe Fal1h~odof it •.. See alfohis 116th
Epiftle to the Donatifls. ' .
From hence we IP:t.y.fee that AuJiin ·hath very [tiUy taught; and'endeavoured
by many ArgumeJ),ts to-PrDve" that Hereticks oughtto be compelled to return
to the.Church by, external Violence and tho Fear of Punilhments, tho' he was
n.ot willing that they,fhould be put to Death. Wherefore he not only writes to
DulciJius the Tribune in his6Qth Epiftle : 'ThfJU haft not received by any Laws tbe
PO'U{tr of. the Sword. over them, _nor do any of the Imperial ConJiitutions, 'lfJhichthou.
4r.t,inlruJJ(d. with the Execution of, command thee to pul-,thilm{o ])eath .. But in his
IS8t!;l. ~d: l59th. Epifrle. to· MJJ.:cellinus, and in· his l~h [~ Apringi1is,. he
largeJy lntcr~edesto prev~t theIr Death, aRd that,tbetr Punifhment- migbJ noG
reachfofor •. ~,in his 127Fh Epiftle· to Vrmatus, P::.roconfulof' Africa, he.
thus WrJtes: S1nce·tbtre~are jUcb,tIlr'-ribl.~Judges tmd, Laws, to pre'Ve.nS tbeirin ..
(lJrr;ng the Punifhmffllof tbe. tlernalJudgment, we would ,have them corretled, not.
4eftroyed: We would nat. that the neceJj4r'j Difcip/ine towardstbem Jhould be neg..
WJea, ,nor that tbry jhQuld. be punijhed .amirdin& 1(J\tbtirJ~lfirJs.• .' "futjNch' aRe;.
I . j1rmnt
ftraint on their Sins, as that there may be lome to repmt that they htl'l.J1!
So that tho' he intercedes for them that they Ihould not be put to Death, yet
the only Punifhment he woul~ have Hereticks, exempted from is ,Death.
Hence in his Epiftle to Crejcontus the Grammarian, b. 3. c. 50. he faitb : No
good Men in the Catbolick Church are pleafed, tbat allY one, even an H~retick, jh?ul~
be punijhed with Deatb. But as to all other Methods of Perfecurion, AUjitn IS
fo far from being againft them, that he recommends them, as a Remedy pro-
per for the Extirpation of Herefl~s. Hen~e in his fir11:, Book agai,nft Gau-
dentius, c. 5. he fays: God [orbid that tbis jhould be called perJecutmg Men,
when 'tis only a perfecuting their Vices, in order to deliver them from the Power
of them; jufl as the PhyJician treats his diftemper'd Patient.
This then is the fo much admired Clemency of Auflil1, that he interceded
with the Proconfuls, that the Donatifis 1hould not be punifhed with Death ;
whilft at the fame Time he not only approved of all other Penalties except
Death, fuch as Banifhmenr, the denying them Power to .make Wills, to in-
herit their Patrimony, or to receive what was lefe them by others, of ma-
king Contracts, buying and felling, and the like s but hehimfeIf accufed them
to the Proconfuls, that; if they perfifted in thefe Opinions, they might fuffer
there Punifbments. Who doth not fee, that under fuch Circumftances, Life
is fometimes·worfe than Death? And that, as Arcadius and Honorius decreed
with refpect to the' Children of thofe condemned for Treafon, Life would-be.
a Punifhmenr, and Death a real Relief? 'Tis much more terrible to pine away
in Poverty, Banifhrnenr, and other Miferies, and then perifh bya lingering
Death, than to be killed outright, tho' in a cruel and bloody manner. Yea
fometimes, fuch hath been the Cruelty of Perfecutors, that they have denied
thofe they have perfecuted, Death, that they might not feem to give them the
Honour of Martyrdom;.. whilft they have invented and exercifed on them
all manner- of Miferies and Tortures, that by the Weight and Length of
their Punifhments, they might force them to a Denial of their Faith. There
is no need to produce many Proofs or Examples of this Nature, or to-fearch
.into Antiquity for Inftances. I fhall only produce two frefh ones, one of-which
now prefents us in France. There we fee that the miferable Reform'd
are not punifh'd. with Death, but given up to-the licentious Abuf~s of Sol-
diers, and that they have no End of their Troubles, unlefs they abjure the
Reform'd Religion, And yet all the Reform'd unanirnoufly agree, they ne-
ver fuffer'd a more griev.ous Perfecurion, Bohemia will afford us another In-
ftanceof Perfons forced by the like CrueltytoApoftacy •. We read -in the
Biftory o£,the Bohemian Perkcution,. ('9~. that whenthe,Vice Chamberlain
of the Kingdom haq f?lic;ited th.elnha?itants.of:the City 'I'tijia in vain to Apofta~
cy, and was complalOmgo~ theu.Obfbnacy· mthe JefmtsCollege at Prague, one
Martyn e Huerda, a Spa.nzard, w~ prefent~ and laugh:d at it, and promifed to· .
accomph~ the Matter for 500.Pleces of Gold. '" Takmg with himiOmeBands .
~, ofSoldlerss he entered the.Clty, and rent them by Tens and Twenties to eaell,
" ~enator ,.and gave rh.em L!ber~y to plague them by every Method they could
.~ 1Qvent,;., and .by .thls Means III a httlewhilecompelled,thel1tal1::to.A~
.. I' ftacy~
u ftacy, and then received his Reward from the Chamberlain. The fame
ce Martyn, when ot.hers had attempted,. in vain, t~~ Reformation, as they cal.
" led it, of the City Kutteberge, terrified the Citizens by the fame Means,
" till at length they were fo opprefled by Means of the Soldiery, and broken
" by their continu'd Perfecutions, that moft of them complied with their Ene-
" mies, and fubmitted their Necks to the Antichrifi:ian Yoke; whilfi: others,
" leaving every Thing behind them but their Wives and Children, went into
" Banifhmenr," c. 93. The like Sort of Reformation we may read, c.97.
made in the City Zaterus. Cap. 103. gives an Account of various Punifh-
ments inflicted, by the Cruelty of which many were forced to Apofi:acy,
though not one put to Death. Yea, there is an Account, §. 13. " That
U forne, who begged rather to be put to Death, than compelled to Apo-
u ftacy, were anfwer'd: Csefar did not thirft after their Blood, but the Salva-
u lion of their Souls. The like Requeft made by others was received with
U Laughter. Ho; Sirrab, Do you want the Honour of Martyrdom? Te
u Wretches, you are unworthy of having any Occafion wherein to glory." From
thefe Examples 'tis dearer than Day, that fome Perfecutions, though not
reaching to Death, may be more cruel than Death it felf. And though
poflibly fame Perfon may pretend a Sort of Gentlenefs in all this, yet let
him remember what Bellarmine juftly writes, De Laicis, /.3. C.21. That Au-
flin excepts the Punifhment of Death; not that he thought they did not defmc
it, but becaufe it became the Clemenc, of the Church; and becaufe there were, as
"jet, no imperial Laws: For the law Qgicunque, C. de Hseretici, was not madc
till a little after Auftin's Deatb, ordaining Hereticks to be put to Death. By
which he plainly infinuates, that he believed that if there had been any im-
perial Law, ordaining the Punifhrnent of Death to Hereticks, Aufiin would
have approved of it; for he immediately adds: nat it appears that Auftin
tbought it juft to lei/I Hereticks i becaufe he jhews, that if ,tbe Donatifts werc
put to Deatb, they would be jujUy punifhed~ 1. I. cont, Epift. Parrnen, c. 7.
If anyone will compare thefe Things with the former Opinion of Aujiin,
he may juftly cry out, Oh how much is Auftin changed from himfelf, who,
mindful of his own former Error, from which he was notrecover'd, but by
the great Patience of his Friends, was againft ufing Methods of Cruelty,
even towards the Manichtl!ans. But now he approves of all Punifhments
againft the Donatifis, Death only excepted, that they may be compelled into
the Catholick Church, even againft their Wills, under a Pretence that at
Iail: they may voluntarily remain in her Communion. Now he puts into the
Mouths of Perfons' thefe forced ftudied Speeches and Pretences, by which they
are taught to palliate their Return into the Church, which was in reality
wholly owing to Violence and the Fear of Punifhmenr, as though it had
been voluntary, and the very Means of their Salvation. But Jet us fup-
pore, that they believe themfelves obliged by Virtue of a divine Command [0
preach their Doctrine, ]~ft they fhould difobey God; and that therefore they
ought to return Into their own Country to propagate it: What would ~d
St. AuJlin determine again1\:them in fuch a Cafe? W~y, all. his A:guments tend
(0 this, that if they fhould r~turn, c?ntrary t~ t~e imperial Edl~, he Ihould
not at all difapprove a capital Punifhmenr, If H was fo appointed by the
And indeed, aU who fince AuJlin have taught that Hereticks are to be per.
fecuted, and even punifhed with Dea~h, have made Uf~ of no ~uthority
more than AuJlin's; and to Ihew how highly they ~ftcem his Authority, they
ufe his Arzuments as the very ftrongeft, though In thernfelves abfurd, and
manifeftly ~ontrary to Scripture, to defend a Doctrine fa abfolutely repug-
nant to the Nature of Chriftianity. From him they have borrowed the Di-
ftintl:ion that it is unlawful for Hereticks to perfecute the' Church, but the
Duty of the Church to perfecute Hereticks, This is now become the com-
mon Exception of all the Murderers of Here ticks, with which everyone armed
with the fecular Power, under a fpecious Pretence, perfecutes and oppreffes
thofe who differ from him: This is the principal Argument by which the
Papifts defend themfelves, when they would juftify their own Perfe.cuti?n of
Hereticks, and condemn all others that perfecure them. And which IS the
Wonder, they commend ~s praife-worthy and heroical what is practifed
by their own Church agamft others, even when they condemn the fame
Things as cruel and inhumane in them; as though they were exempted from
she common Law of Nature, of doing to others as they would be done by.
Conrad Brunus complains of the Hereticks and Schifmaticks, that the Vandals B. ~. c. S-
and Donatifls in Africa, turned and executed all the Laws made againft Here- §. 3·
ticks upon the Catholicks. Tbef«, fays he, the Hereticks alfo of our 'I'ime imitate: In
this indeed they are worfe than they; becaufethey denied thoft Laws were ever made
againft themftlves; whereas our modern Hernicks affirm they'W(1'e made, and ought
to be executed again) the Catholicks, as may eajil, be [een from many of their Wri-
tings. In the fame Book he complains: '!'hat the Hereticks Jpare neither /lU~
nor Ses, nor Degree, nor Dignity; but rage promifluoufly againft Children and gro'Zt.m
PerJOns, Women and Men, l/irgins and Married, old Men and young. He adds,
&.13- "lis cruel and moft inhumane to abuft the Dead: But tbis is peculiar to our
Heretkks and Schifmaticks. crheyconcealthe Bodie! of Bifhops and Presbyters, WO~
mpt .·Yirgins, whom they have barbaroufly killed., and deny them Burial. '!'he
Bodie! offome they have taken out of their Graves, and caft upon the Ground ; Trip. 1. z;
othtrs have contemptuoujly feattered into the Air the AJhes of thofr whom they baue« 3.
burnt, and thrown the Bodies of ftme into Rivers. If anyone confiders the De- Pipe Leo,
cretals of the Popes, the Inftrutl:ions of the Inquifition,
and the ufual Manner.Ep. 7)'
of proceeding in it, in which there is no Diftintl:ion of Perfons; but all are
fubjeCted to th~ Inquifition ~ithout Refpetl: .to Age, Sex or Dignity, which
not only forbids the burymg dead HeretIcks, but annexes a Punifhment
to thofe who bury them; and oftentimes commands their dead Bodies
to be taken up, and to be either thrown upon Dunghills, or reduced to
Afhes, and their !\fhes fcatter'd in the Air, as {hall be hereafter more large-
ly fhewn : f~y, If anyone confiders there Things, he might well think 1!ru-
tlUS to be m Jdl; unlefs he was of Auftin's Opinion, that Q)e Cpurch mIg~
Tl» 1-1 I STO of
do :\gainfl: Hereticks what it would 'not be lawful for Hereticks to do againft
the Church :\Vhich Doctrine once allow'd, everyone will decide for him-
felf, that his is the true Church, and hence claim a Right of perfecuting
others, and perfwadc himfelf he doth not act unjuftIy, even though he
would not allow others to act fo by himfe1f. Thus we fee, that Chriflians
by this idle Doctrine, are deviated from their ori~inal Simplicity and Meek-
nefs j and that in the room of mutua] Love, by which all the Faithful were of
one Heart and one Soul, there have fucceeded in the Church of Chrift, not
only Difcords, Contentions, Hatreds and Enmities, but 'Slaughters, and the
worft of cruel Butcheries.
But furely they ought to confider, that they cannot without Injuftice, do to
others what they think it would be unjuft in others to do to them; and that
therefore as they would not themfelves be perfecuted by others, it muft b.
unjuft in them cruelly to perfecute ochers, even though they think them He-
reticks.For as Salvian,Presbyter of Marfeilles, admirably writes in his Trea-
rife of the Government of God, B. 5. p. 150, 151. 7'hey are Hereticks, but not
willingly. erhey are Hereticks in our Account, but not in' their own. For they
judge themJelves to be Jo very good Catholicks, that they give us the infamous Name of
Hereticks : Sf) that juft what we think of them, they think of us. We know they do
an Injury to the 9ftly begotten Son of God, ·becauJe they affirm him to be left than the
Father. ,[hey think we,derogate frQmitheFather's Honour, becaufe we make the Son
equal to him. q'he ,cr'ruth is suitb- us; they imagine it to be with them: We truly ho-
nour God;, they think that their Opinion is moft honourable to God. erhey are de-
feBi'r}e in their Duty; but believe that tbis is the chief Duty of Religion. -cr'hey are
-Impious':; bUNhink it to be true Piety: CJ"houghtherefore they err, they err with an
'honeft Mind, 'not from Hatred but real AJfetfion to God, and believing that they ho-
nour tmd love tb« Lord. fJ'hough they baoe not true Faith, tbey ejieem rom -this to
he the mojt perfeEt Loueof God. How: they /hall be punijh'd in the Day of 1udg-
ifnentfor this Error in Opinion, no one knows but the Judge. And therefore IJbink
God patiently bears with them, becaufe he fees that though they do not believe aright,
,It thtll'tbey err from a rea/love to Piety and Trutb, &c. But the Minds ofChri-
·:ftiansha:ve been 'perverted, from this Branch of Equity through the Preva-
.Ience of Self-love ; fo that when they could prevail with the Civil Power to
affift them, they have pronounced all that differed from them Hereticks, and
;-then exercifed all Kinds of Cruelty againft them.

C·£ A P.

rfhe PER SEC U T rON S of tbe POP E S againj/ HER E TIC K s.

Nthe following Ages the Affairs of the Church were fo manag'd under
I the Government of the Popes, and all Perfons fo Itrictly cU.~.bedby ~he
Severity of the Laws, that they durft not even fo much as whifper agamft:
the received Opinions of the Church, Befides this, fo deep was the Igno-
rance that had fpread it felf over the World, that Men, without the leaft
Regard to Knowledge and Learning, received with a blind Obedience every
Thing that the Ecclefiafticks order'd them, however Itupid and fuperftitious,
without any Examination; and if anyone dared in the leaft to contradict
them, he was fure immediately to be pumfh'd s whereby the moft abfurd
Opinions came to be eftablifh'd by the Violence of the Popes. 'Twas at
this Time that the Doctrine of Tranfubftantiation \vas introduced into the
Church, now, in every Thing, fubjett to the Pope's Beck; and how dan-
zerous it was to. oppofe it, we may Jearn from the Inftance of Berengarius
~f crollrs, Archdeacon of Angiers, who, teaching that the Bread and Wine in
the Supper, was only the Figure of the Body and Blood of the Lord, was
condemn'd as an Heretick, by Leo IX. in a Synod at Rome and Vercelle, in
the Year J050, and five Years after, viz. J055. was forced to recant, and to
fubfcribe with his own Handto the Faith of the Roman Church, and confirm it
with an Oath, by Vitfor II. in the Council of Tours. But as Berengarius his
Recantation was forced; and as he afterwards defended that Opinion, which
in his Heart he believed, Nicolaus 11. called a Council at the Lateran, Anno
1059. and there again condemn'd Berengarius, and compell'd him to make a.
folemn Abjuration, which Berengarius publickly read, and fign'd with his own
Hand. This was that famous Abjuration, which begins, Ego Berengarius.
Thus was the Truth fuppreffed by the Papal Violence. In the Eaft alfo, Anno
J I 18. one Bafilius, the Author of the Sea of the Brmgomili, was publickly
burnt for Herefy by the Command of Alexius Comnenus the Emperor, as
BaroniJIs relates, Anno II 18. §. '27.
In the mean Time the Power of the Roman Pontiff grew to a prodigious
Height, and began to be very troublefome, even to the Emperors them-
{elves; for not content with the Eccle.fiaftical Power, they claimed alfo the
SubjeCtion of~he Secular. But in the midft ofrhis thick Darknefs, fome Glim-
me-rings of Light broke forth through the great Mercy of God.
For after the Year ofChrift, 1100. there arofe various Difputes between the
Emperors and P?pes, about the Papal Power in fecular Affairs, which, as they
were managed With great Warmth, gave Occafion to many more ftrittJy to ex-
amine that ,unbounded Power which the Popes of Rome claimed to theIDfe1vcs..
Some of the Emperors bravely maintained their Rights a~ft the PapaJ En-
crcachments, and were fupported, not only by the Arms and Forces of Generals
Tbc l-IIsTORY of tbe INQUISITI0 N.
and Princes, but by Bifhops and Di vines, who Ilrenuoufl y wrote i~ their Defence.
This fpiritcd lip many others to oppofe that unbounded Authority, which the
Popes afiumed in Matters of Faith, ~ho not only argued t~lat they were ca-
pable of erring, as well as the other BIfhops~ but ~ct.ually pointed out and ccn-
Iured their I1nny Errors and Abufes of their unlimited Power: All thefe the
Court of Rome branded with the infamous Name of Hereticks, and would
have made the Sacrifice to the publick Hatred.
They appeared firft in fame Parts of Italy, but principally in the :Alilane:u
and Lombardy: And becaufe they dwelt in different Cities, and had their par.
ticular Inflructors, the Papifls, to render them the more odious, have
reprefented them as different Sects, and afcribed to them as different Opi-
nions, though others affirm they all held the fame Opinions, and were entirely
of the firne Sect. The Truth is, that from the oldeft Accounts of them
we Ihall find, that they did not all hold the fame Tenets, and were not
of the fame Set!:; though neither their Opinions nor Sects were fa many and
different as the Papifts reprefenr, The Principal of them were Tanchelinus,
Petrus de Bruis, Petrus rlbailardus, Arnaldus Brixianus, whofe Opinion Ba-
ronius calls the Herely of the Politicians, Hendricus, and others, who preached
partly in h-zly, and partly in France abouc the Country of crholoufe; and be-
caufe afterwards the greater Number of them propagated their Opinions in
the Province of Albigeois, in Languedoc, and gather'd there large and nume-
rous Churches, who openly profeffed their Faith.s they were ftiled At-
bigenfts -.


B 0 U T the fame Time the Valdenfts, or the poor Men of Lyons, ap-
.. . peared at Lyons, whore Original hath been largely fhewn by the moft
Reverend and Learned Ujher~ Archbifhop of Armagh~ in his Book De Suc-
tejJilJ1lt, &c. cb, viii. I fhall therefore only enquire, whether the Valdmfes and
Alhigm.fts were the fame People, according to the common Opinion of Pro-
teftants, or different from one another. It cannot be doubted but that they
hadfome Opinions in common. But there is nothing more evident, than
that there was among1t them a great Variety of Doctrines, and Difference of
Rites and Cuftoms, as appears from the Book of the Sentences of the Inqui-
fition at 'l'holoufe, which I have publifh'd, in which are to be found many of the
Sentences pronounced againft .the Albigenfes and ValdenJes, which difcover
fame very curious and uncommon Things, concerning their Doctrines and
Rites; and which are fuch evident Proofs oftheir difference inOpinioM .and
Cuftoms, that from the reading of a few Lines. one mayeaCtly know whe-
1 ther
ther the Sentence pronounced was againft t~e .dlbigeJ~fes or Valdenfes; ~~ich
manifeff Difference hath induced me to believe that they were two dlftmCt:
Seas; though -I have hitherto been in the common Opinion, that they
were hut one. And that this may appear more clearly, I 111a11here give
out of the Book of Sentences, the Doctrines common to both, and thofe in
which they differ'd, and defcribe their panicuLtt: Rit~s and Cuft~ms. ,
The Opinions common to them both were thefe : Euer» Oatb IS UJl!a'u-!ul.(al.)9.b•
filla fir-Jut; and therefore thcy would never, uFon any Occafion, take anfol.96.
Concerning Penance and tbe COJ!ld!irJ1lof Sins: The A!big,mfes are faid tofa ·40•
believe, TbatCOIifdfion made to the Priejis of the Church ofRome,jigni/ies JIotbing : '
That neither the Pope nor any otber of the Cburcb of Rome can abfolve anyone
from his Sins; but that they ha-ve the Power of AbjOlving, [rom their Sins, all
"thoft who become of their Sdl, by tbe Impofition of Hands.
Almoft the fame Things are afcribed to the ValdenJes, that they teach,
Tbat they have Power from God o~ly, even as the Apofll~s .had, of confejJing Men fal. 96.
and Tromm of their Sins, who belieus them, and are wzllmg to confefs to them:
'That they hear their Corfeffions, and enjoyn tbem Penance for their Si11S; although
theft who hear their ConfejJio11S,are not ordained by the Church, are not Priefls or
Clerks, but Laicks only; and tbough they corfe]: tbat they haw not, in tbe leafi, re-
ceived this Power from the Church of Rome. And farther, in moil: of the Sen-
tences azainft the Va/denfes, we find, That they cOl'feffid their Sins to one of the
Valdenf~, and recei-ved AbJolutio1Zand Penance from J;;'p, and believed that the
[aid Corfiffion and AbjOlution, and Penance, as much av. if'd to the Salvation of
the Soul, as though they had been confeJ!ed to a proper Priefi, But their Doctrine
is beft underftood by the Sentence of Hugu.>za's..the Wife of John, of Vienna:
'Ihat God only can abjOlve from Si11S; and that ,>who receives Confejjion, can onlyftl. r47~
advift what a Man ought to do, and e1qoin Penance x (wd that a wift and prudent
Perfon may do tbis, whether he be a Priejf or not.
As to the Church of Rome, the AlbigenJes are faid to believe, That there/oT. 40,
are two Churches, one merciful, viz. theirs and the Church of Chrift; which
retains that Faith, in which everyone, and without which no one can be Javed:
'1JJe otber a cruel one, viz. '[be Church of Rome, which is the Mother of For-
mcation!, the Temple of the Devi!, and Synagogue of Satan; and that no one can
be favedin the Faith of that Church. And elfewhere we read, '['bat no /01. ).
Man can be [(Wed, that is not received by them, and unlefs be die of their Sefl.
The VaZdenfes are raid to have taught-almoft the fame Things: 'fhat they (01.96.
are 1ZC't Jubjetl to the Roman .Pontiff, nor to the Prelates of the Church of Rome:
Cfhat they cannot be excomJ!lunicatedby .the _Pope., 1zor the otber Prelates of that
Church: Cf'hatthey ought not to obey the P()pe, when he commands tbem tofor[ake and
abjure their Sea, as condem~ed by tke Church: '['hat th-: Ch~rcb of Rome jins,
and aas unlawfully and unJujily agamjl tbs1n, becaufe it perjecutes and condemns
them. And that they farther taught, Cf'hatthe Prelates of tbe Church of RQme,ftl. uS,i.
are blind Leaders of the Blind; do not preferw tht Cf'ruth of the G(){pej,»ofl imi-
tatethe apoftolick Poverty; and that Ibe very Churcb of Rome is an Oouft oj Lies:
G 2 The
The Opinions that are afcribed to the Albigenfes, but never to the Faldenles,
~l. 40. are thefe: 'That there are twa Gads and Lards ; the one goad, the other evil.
nat the Creation of all <Things, vijible and corporeal, was nat from God our hea-
venly Father, and the Lord Jefus Chrift, but by the Devil and Satan, the evil
God, who is the God of this World, and the Maker and Prince of it: Which
for. 68. they exprefs e1fewhere in this Manner: q'hat it was not God that caufed the
Earth to yield Seed and bring forth Fruit. And elfewhere: Tbat the good
God made all q'hings inuifibl« and incorruptible; and that the evil Prince, viz.
Lucifer, made all 'Ihings uifibl« and corruptible, and even humane Bodies.
fil. 1:0. h. And in another Place: 'Ihat there were two Gods, one good, the other bad;
and that the bad God created all ~hings vijible.
Since thefe Things are to be met with in the Sentence of Petrus Auterius,
one of their famons Doctors, I am apt to think, not only that fome of the
ManichfEans, who were banifhed from Afia, and came into Bulgaria, and af-
terwards went into the Country of Tholoufe, lurked amongft them; but that
they had, many of them at leaft, embraced the Manicbean Opinions. And
indeed, we ought not to conceal the Truth. For although they are to be
commended for having difcover'd many of the Romijh Errors in Doctrine,
and for their forfaking the Communion of that Church; yet we ought in-
genuoufiy to own their Miftakes. And as their recommending to thofe they
received into their Communion, wha.t they called the Endura, i. e. fafting
themfelves to Death, was certainly an Error In Practice s fo that we need nos
be afhamed to own that they fometimes erred in Matters of Faith. 'Tis ra-
ther to be wonder'd at, that in fo barbarous an Age, they fhould throw off
fo many Errors, than that they fhould retain fome.
But befides, they are kid alfo to have held the following Opinions.
ror. 4~; That all the Sacraments of the Church of Rome are vain and unprofita,
ble, viz. The Eucharift, Baptifm, Confirmation, Order, and extreme Un-
f,r. 39· J. As to the Eucharift, they are reported to have believed, ~hat there was
fM. no. 6'l1ot the Body of Chrijl, and that there was nothing but meer Bread.
fol. no. II. As to the Baptifms: 'l'hat they condemned the Baptifm of Water, ftryilll,: 'fhllt
IJ Man was to be Javed by their laying on of Hands upon thaje who beliC'lJedthem;
fil. 68. iI. tRld that their Sins were to be remitted without ConfejJion and SatisjQ8ion: 'lbat
no Baptifm availed any 'l'hing; no, not their own. We read alfo in the Sentence
of Petrus Raymundus Dominicus de Barno, that he heard Peter .duteri; teach-
f,1.176. ing, amongft other Things, 'Iba: the Baptifm of Water, made by the Church,
was of no wail to Cbildren; /J(cauje they were fo far from conftllting to it, tlxJt
Ibey w~t.
{fl. ;. P s to extreme Untl:ion: 'l'hat the Order oj St. James, or extreme UnBi01l
rtpOff Jhe Sick, made by material Oil, fignified notbing; and that they prefer 1mpo-
}iJion of Hanas, which Ibe InquijJtors caIl execrabk
jJ. ~. As to Orders : fiat the-; rep1'oacb ana condem1J the Conftitution of the wbols
Church of Rome, and den, all the Prelates oj it the Power oj Binding and Loofing •
/lfJing: '!'bat they cannot 100ftor bind other Sinners, }iTlCI they are grea~eJl
. Sm ..
SinlJ4l's; but that they can give to tboft they receive, the Holy Spirit, in order to
their Salvation.
As to Matrimony: crhat it is always finful, and cannot be without Sin; and/ol. iC"
was never appointed by the good God. AHa: Tbat carnal Matrimony betweenfol. 8~. 4.
a Man and Woman, is not true Matrimony, norgood, nor lawful, nor appointed
by God; but a quite differentfpiritual Matrimony.
As to the Incarnation of Chrift: Tba: the Lord did not take a rtal humane Bo-pl. 40.
dy, nor real humane Flejh oj our Nature; and that he did not really arife with it,
nor do other 'fhings relating to our Salvation; nor fit down at the Right-hand of
the Father with it, but only with the Likenefs it. They affirm alfo: Tbat the
mofl holyVirgin Mary, the Mother of our Lor, neither is, nor was a carnal Wo-
man, but their Church, which theyfay is true Penitence; and that this is the Vir-
gin Mary. Or as we read elfewhere: c.fhat God .never enter'd into the Wombfil. 8:.~.
of the bleJ!edVirgin Mary; and that he only is the Mother, and Brother, and
Sifter of God, that keeps the Commands oj God the Father. Likewife, that is wasfir. 1 :'0. &..
impojJiblefor God to be incarnate ; becaufehe never humbled himfelf fa much, as to
put himfelf in the Womb·of Woman.
Concerning the Refurrection of the Dead: They are charged with denyingfol.t ao, 6.
the RefurreBion of Bodies. Or: c:rherewill be nofuture Refurreffion of humanefol. 146•
Bodies; and altho' tbe Souls of Men Jhall cometo judgment, they/hall not comein their
Bodies. Which is e1fewhere more diftinCtly explain'd : That they imagine aftl. 40.
Sort of Jpiritual Bodies, and a Sort of an inward Man; in which Bodies Perjims
are hereafter to rife. One of the Albigenfes is faid to have believed, that whenfol. 146.
the Souls of wicked Men are gone out of their Bodies, before and after Judgment,.
tbey go through los Bauffes, and los Tertres, i. e. ouer Rocks and Precipices; and
that the Devil throws them headlongfrom the Rocks. Alfo, 'I'bat the Souls of Men;
even after their Separation from the Body, have Flejh and Bones, Hands and Feet;
and all Members; which thoughthey are thrown by Devils headlongfram the Rocks;
and by this Means tormented, yet can never die.
As to the Adoration of the Crofs: Tbat no Man ought to adore the Crofi :p. 6S'...
Which in another Place is very odioufly reprefented, 'Viz. That the Sign of thefol. 3.
holyCrofi, whi~h the univerjal Church wo,:Jhipsas the.Emblem of our Salva~ion, and
the Repreflntatton if our Lord's Palfion, ts a detejJableEmblem of the Deuil. And
the Reafon of this is added elfewhere: crbat the Croft of Chrift ought notfol. 175..
to be adored; becaufe no Man worfl;ips the Gallows upon which his Father was
As to the humane Soul: 'that Souls were Spirits banijhedfrom Heaven becauflfoJ.I W.D..
of their Sins.
Thefe are raid to. be the Principles of the Albigen[eJ', and they will all ap.
pear i~ the Sentence pronounced againft Stephana de Proaudo,. w~ich I fhall
here give at large, from the Book of the Sentences of the Inquditlon at tJ'ha-
" In the Year of our Lord 13°7, the 5th of the Nones of March, and fidE
U Sunday in Lent, We the before-mention'd Inquifitor and Vicars. . Whereas:
u it moft evidently andlawfully appears to \19:, by thy wicked A1feruons,. that
Co' tholl
" thou Stepban« de Promalo, formerly Wife of Peter Gilbert, being infeCled
" with the pcltiterous Doctrines of Hereticks, dolt affert and confers into.
t, lerable and abominable Errors, contrary to the Catholick Faith of the ho,
" l y Romun Church, denying, with profane Lips, that the Incarnation of our
" Lord )1:. eii;'.jl hath been or is from the Woman, and that there is to be
" a Rclurr cction of human Bodies, attributing the Creation of vif ble Thing5
" to the Devil, whom thou affcrreft to be the Prince of this World, thereby
" denying the Creation to be from the Almighty God. And thou don- re-
" pro.ichfully dilown, deny and condemn, acccording to the Error of hereri-
" cal Impiety, all the Ievcn Sacraments of our Salvation, viz. Baptifm by
" corporal Water, and adminiftcr'd to Children. Likewite the Sacrament of
" the holy Body and Blood of our Lord JeJ!ls Cbrifi from Bread and Wine up-
" on the A lrar. A nd the Confefllon of Sins made to the Priefts of the Roman
" Church, to whom thou denyef] the Power of binding and loofing. Likewife
" the Sacra tlJ cnt of carnal Matrimony, which thou affertefl and affirrneft can-
te not be without Sin, according to the Doctrine of thofe Hereticks. Thou
" alfo repro.icheft and blafphcmcft our holy Orders, by preferring the damn-
(( ed and profane Order of Hercricks. Thou Iayett that the Order of St.
U James, or extreme Unction of the Sick. with material Oil, profits no-
" thing, preferring to it the execrable Impofition of Hands, which they
" call Spiritual Baptifin, or the Confolation, or Reception, and good End.
" Thou alfo approveft and comrnendeft, doft defend and fuflain, the Life,
(l Sect and Faith of the Iaid Hereticks, and impiouOy afferteft and declareit,
te that there is no Salvation to any unlefs he be received by them, and die in
" their Sect. Likewife thou afferteft and affirmefl, that the Sign ofthe holy
" Crofs, which the whole Church .'lhres as the Sign of our Salvation, and a
" Reprefentation of our Saviour's Paflion , is the deteftable Sign of the
"Devil. Likewife thou reproachefl and condernneft the State of the
" whole RfJma;z Church, and denieH: the Power of binding and loofing in
" all the Prelates of the Roman Church, faying, that they cannot bind
" and loofe other Sinners, [;n~~ they are greater Sinners themfelves;
" and thOll afferteft that thofe Hereticks, whom thou calle~ and affirm-
" eO: to be good Men, can ~;..( e the Holy Spirit for Salvation to thofe;
u whom they receive, anc fa yd. that they are Imitators of the Apoftle, lead
" their Life, and are of their Sect~ and fayeft and attefteft many other erra-
u neous and f:lIfe Things, according 1:0 the Premi1,fes, as we our felves have
" heard them with our Ears feveral Times from thy own Mauch, in the Pre-
" fence of many Perfons. Likewife we havehea~d from thee~ many others
" being prefenc and hearing alfo, that thou haft feen and heard, in their turn,
~, feven perfect HereticKs in ,'Iholou[e, viz. Peter Raimondi de S.ant1o Pap«lo,
" and MeJfier Bernart de MonteALuto,and Peter Auterii, and 1ames his Son~
," and William Auterii, Brother of the faid Peter., and Aucelius and AndtfW,
" and haft feen an eighth Heretick in the Way, whom thou nameft Philip,
" Likewife thou haft confeITed before the, faid Inquifitor, that, thou haft ado:;
-', red the faid Heretick James after an heretical Manner. Upon all which Er-
. " rors
" rors and Herefies thou haft been frequently adrnonifhed, and exhorted by
" Reafons and Authorities of holy Scripture, and bcfought by fweet Words in
" the Lord, as well by me the aforcfaid Inquifitor, and the Vicars, as by many
" relizious Perfons, Predicants and Minors, and other Orders, and by other
" good Men of the Clergy and Laity in the City of CJ'!JC'!(I:t!:, and even by
" thy own Parents, that thou would'ft forfake the aforelaid Errors, arid
" with a good and pure Heart would'It return to holy Mother the Church
" of Rome, without which there is no Salvation, and wouldft abandon that
" deteftible heretical Sect, which leads Souls [0 Damnation, and infernal De-
"ftruCtion. But thou would'It not hitherto acquiefce, nor, tho' long waited
cc for, be converted to the Catholick Faith, but even yet perfeverc1t in thy
e c Iaid Obftinacy with an harden'd Mind. Therefore with the Advice of good
" Men, fkilful in the Canon and Civil Law, and of many religious Perfons,
" that fuch a fcabbed Sheep may not infect the found Sheep of the Lord's
" Flock, having God before our Eyes, and not being able to bear fuch
" Blafphemy and Scandal to the Faith, and the Name of our Lord jeJi's
" Chrifl, and having peremptorily affigned to thee this prefent Day, to hear
" thy definitive Sentence, and laying the holy Gofpel before us, we do ad-
" judge thee to be an Heretick, and as fuch leave thee to the fecular
" Court.
Thefe Opinions of the Albigenfes are not one of them afcrib'd to the Vnldcnfes,
who had quite different Tenets, which are never mentioned in the Sentences of
the A/bigm;es. They are fuch as thefe :
Tbat aft Judgment is forbidden by God, and that of Con.feque11ce'tis a Sin, and fa!. 90.
Gontrary to what God hath forbidden, for any Judge to condemn any Man to PUJ1ilh-
ment or Death, in any Ca.fe, or for any CauJe what.foe'Ver. And for this they apply
tbe]: Words of the GoJpel, Judge not that ye be not judged.
Tbat the Indulgences givC1Zby the Prelates of the Church oj Rome are if no mrail : fl. 9(>.
Tbat there is no Purgatory for Souls after tbis DIe; and tbat tbe Prayers and
Vows of the Faithful for the Dead cannot profit them. This is elfew here more
diftinctly explained: Tbat this Life is tbe only Purgatory and Place for Repen- fil.9:·
tance for Sins; and that when the Soul goes from the Body, it goes either to Pa-
radift or Hell; and that therefore the Valdenfes make no Prayers or Vows for the
Dead, becauJe, fay they, thoJe who are in Paradift do not need them, and tbo]e tbat
are in Hell cannot reap any Advantage by them.
Tbat in the. f?hurcb there are but three Orders, viz, of Bifbops, Priefls, and Jol. (46. h.
Deacons. It IS imputed to them alfo as a Crime, that tho' they were Laymen,Jol. 1:.8. /;.
they preached from the Gofpels, Epiftles, and other Books of the holy Scrip-
~ures ~ where~s the Preaching and Expofition of the Scripture is entirely for~
bidden tbe-Lalty. All thefe Things will appear more pbin from ~l Sentence
paired on one at the ValdenJes, which I ihall here infert, out of the Book of the
Sentences of the'ThololfJe lnqu. fol. 128.
U In the Name of our Lord J~(its Cbrifl, Amen. We the forefaid Jnqwfi-:-
" tors of heretical Pravity, and delegated Commiffaries of the vener<tbkPer';'
U fons, tite Vicars General and Chapter of the Church 'of Ai:f, during the Va-
" cancy
4-8 The HISTORY of the INQUISIT 10 N.
" caney of the See. Whereas it evidently and legally appears to us, as
u well by the Inquifirion made in g~neral againfl all who are inf:C!:edw.ith
" heretical Praviry, and by the Publick AC!:sand Procefs of the faid Inquifi,
" tion, as well as by thy Anfwers, and Affertions, and proper Confeffions
" made in Judgment, that you John Cbauoat; Son of Peter Cbauoat; of the
" Village of Mu!fia, near Urgeletum, in the Diocefe of Btfancon, ufually dwel-
" ling at Vienn« in the Diocefe of rli», was long fince taken up, and have been
"' found by Procefs, to be of the SeC!:and Herefy of thofe, who are called Pal.
" denies, or poor Men of Lyons; which Sect and Herefy the holy Roman
" Church hath many Years ago condemned as heretical, and hath perfecuted
., and condemned the Followers and Profeffors of it as Hereticks ; which SeC!:
" thou haft held and maintained for nine Years paft, participating and corn-
u municating with the Valdenfes; knowing them to be fuch, by eating and
ce drinking according to their Manner, praying with them on your bended
ce Knees, by hearing their Words and Preachings which they make in their
" Conventicles to their Believers, and by receiving them in thy Haufe, and
" alfo by often confeffing thy Sins to them, and humbly receiving from them
"* MeliDrtl-" Abfolution and Penance, which they call the" Amendment; and whereas
menwm. " being apprehended, and at the Beginning, bein~ judicially required, would'ft
" not fwear, but didft feveral Times refufc to abjure the faid Sea and Herefy,
" affirming that you believed it to be good, and that the Followers of it were
" good Men, and might befaved in it. And finally, whereas you have feign-
~, edly and fa10y faid ~ith your ~o~th, but not ~ith your Heart, that you
ce would depart from It, and abjure It, and haft 10 Word but not with the
" Heart judicially abjured it; of which Feignednefs and Falfhood, and the
" Doublenefs of thy Heart there is legal Proof, by thofe Things which you
U have plainly and fully fince recognized, afferted and confeffed in Judgment.
" And farther, whereas you have manifefted yonr Treachery after your
" feigned tho' judicial Abjuration of the faid SeCt:and Herefy, by having de-
n nied, and frill denying with an obftinate Mind, tho' oftentimes required in
" Judgment, to fwear that you would fpeak the Truth, and dofr as before,
" and much more evidently, approve and commend the Errors and Herefies
" of the faid Sea, and afferteft, that the Followers of it are juft and good
" Men; and that the Prelates of the Roman Church, and the Inquifirors
" of heretical Pravity, who perfecute them, do unjuftly and unrighteoufly,
" in apprehending and detaining them, becaufe unwilling to forfake the faid
" Se~ "and by delivering them over to the fecular Power. Particularly,
" whereas the erroneous Followers and profane Profeffors of the Sect and He-
U refy of the Paldenfes hold and affirm, that they are not fubjell: to our Lord
" the Pope, or the Roman Pontiff, or to other Prelates of the Church of
"Rome, becaufe it unjuftly perfecutes and condemns them. Item, They
U affert that they cannot be excommunicated by the faid RDman Pontiff and
" Prelates, and that no one ofthcm is to be obey'd, when they order and
" command the Followers and Profeffors of the faid Sell: to defqr and ab-
U jure it, altho' condemn'd as heretical by the R01IItJ1I Church. Item, The
• n forefaid
ce forefaid SeCt and Herefy, and Followers and Profeffors of the fame, hold
'" and dogmatize, that ,every Oath, withou.t Exception. or Expofition, is pro-
" hibited of God, and is unlawful, and a Sm; and this we have heard from
" your own Mouth, that you fo believe and hold, by applying to this Pur-
" pofe the Words of the holy Gofpel, and of St. James the Apoftle, of not
" Swearing, tho' in a mad and miftaken Senfe: Whereas, according to the
" found Doctrine of the Saints, and Doctors of the Church, and Tradition
" of the {aid Holy Catholick Church, 'tis not only lawful but neceffary to
H fwear for attefiing the Truth in Judgment, and alfo by a Statute long
" Iince publifhed againft the forefaid Error, 'tis appointed, that thofe who
" by a damnable Superftitio~ refufe an Oa~h, and will not, Ihall be for
4' this Reafon declared Hereticks, and fubjected to the Penalties ordered by
" the Canon. Item, Thou thy felf haft oftentimes, and before many of us,
H being canonically and judicially required to fwear for the Truth, wholly
" refufed to fwear, and yet refufeft it, afferting that you believe that 'tis
" prohibited by God, and unlawful, and a Sin to fwear at all. Item, From
" the fame Fountain of Error, and miftaken Underftanding, the forefaid Sect
" and Herefy afferts, that all Judgment is prohibited of God, and by Confe-
" quence that 'tis a Sin, and againft the divine ~rohibition, that any Judge,
" in any Cafe, or for w hatfoever Caufe, fhould Judge any Man to bodil y Pu-
u nifhmenr, or to Death; applying, without a proper Expofition, the Words
" of the holy Gofpel, where it is written, Judge not, that ye be not judged; Item,
" Tbou Jhalt not kill, not underftanding nor receiving them as the holy Roman
" Church underftands and delivers them to the Faithful, according to the
" Doctrine of the Fathers and Doctors, and canonical Sanctions; which faid
" Sanctions the faid Sect, departing frors the right Path, neither receives nor
" accounts valid, but defpifes, renounces, and condemns. Item, Moft per-
~, riicioufly erring about the Sacrament of true Penance, and the Keys of
£, rheChurch i they fay, and teach, and hold, that they have Power from God,
" as the Apoftles had, of hearing the Confeffions of the Sins of all that are
" willing to confefs, and of abfolving and enjoining Penances: And they do
" hear the Confeffions of fuch, and enjoin thofe who confers to them Pe-
" nances for their Sins, tho' they are not ordained Clerks or Priefts by any
" Bifhop of the Roman Church, but are mere Laicks, and confefs they have
" not any fuc.h Power from the Roman Church, but rather deny it, and in-
" deed have It not from God, nor from his Church, finee they are with-
" .out the Church, and cut off from the Church, out of which there is no
" true Penance or Salvation. Item, Thou thy felf haft confeffed in J udg-
" rnent, that long fince thou haft confeffed thy Sins feverally to four of
Ct the Faldenfes~. viz. 7ohnMor~n, Peter de Cernone, John Bray.lJan, and Ste-
" phen Poriberii, and haft received ~enance f~om them, knowing them to be
" FaldenJes, and tbat they were not Pnefts ordamed by any Bilhop oftheRomm.
"Church. Item, The forefaid Sect and Herefy of the valdenfes make a Jeft.
" of the Indulgences which are granted by the Prelates of the Chureh, af-
" ferting that they are not valid. Item, It denies that there is afttrthis Life
H " any
H any Purgatory for Souls, and of Confequence that Prayers, and Alms,
U and Maffes, and other Vows of Piety, which are made by the Faithful
cc for the Dead, can at all profit them. Item, Detracting from the Prelates of
cc the Church of Rome, they deny and condemn their State, faying, that they
" are blind, and Leaders of the Blind, and that they do not preferve the Go-
cc fpel Truth, nor follow the Apoftolick Poverty. They alfo obftinately
u and falfly affirm, that the Church of Rome is the Houfe of a Lye. Item,
4' Comparing themfelves with the Apoft:olical Life and Perfection, and equal-
cc Iinz themfelves to them in Merit, they vainly glory in thernfelves, boafting
4( th~ they hold and preferve the Evangelick and Apoftolick Poverty. Item,
'" Thefe and other Things, as well erroneous as mad, they privately dog~
4( matize to their Believers in their Conventicles. Item, They preach from
~4 the Gofpels and Epiftles, and other facred Writings, which by expound-
cc ing they corrupt, as Matters of Errors, who know not how to be Difciples
ce of the Truth, becaufe the Preaching and Expofition of the facred Scrip-
u tures is wholly forbidden to the Laity. Item, The faid Sect of the Val-
~, denfes differs and difagrees in feveral Things, in Life and Manners, from
~, the common Converfation of the Faithful, as is found and plainly appears
&, by the Inquifition and Examination as well of the Valdenfes themfelves, as
c, their Believers, and efpecially by the Confeffions of thofe who are con-
~, verted by the Inquifitors from that Sea and Herefy. Moreover, thou
" John haft judicially before us and elfewhere, oftentimes approved and
c, praifed the faid Sea: and Herefy of the Valt1enfes, and doft yet approve
., and commend it, nor wilt depart from it, nor abjure and forfake it, but
4' rather perfevereft in it with an obftinate Mind, altho' by us and feveral
cc other good Men thou haft: been oftentimes invited to Converfion, and'
4' haft been canonically admonifhed and judicially required by us, that
u in Heart and Deed thou fhouldft turn from it, and with thy Mouth and
cc Soul wholly abjure it. We therefore the forefaid Inquifirors, having God
.., before our Eyes, &c. do declare and pronounce, and deliver you over to
U the fecular Court, as, relapfed into the Herefy which you have before
c.c judicially abjured, and as an impenitent and obftinate Heretick, affettio-
u nate1y bewailing it, as the canonical SanCl:ions oblige us to do, to, preferve
U your Life and Members untouched. Signed,

('L. S~) William Juliani, publick ana

fworn Notary for tbe'Office oj
the Inquifition ; and James,
Mafquetius, Notar') of tbe
Inquifition. (L. S.),
From there Jnftances it appears, that the- Opinions of the Albigenft1 and'
Yaldenfes were different.
However, 'tis not to be doubted, but that often-
times their: Enemies gave very vile and odious Accounts of the Dodrines tbey
held; as will appear by comparing, the feveral Places in which they ~e-
fcribe them. For the fame Opinion, which in one Place appears extremely
erroneous; in another, when 'tis more fully explained, and without Spite, is
harmlefs enough; of which the fingle Inftanc~ of the Refurrection of the
Dead is full Proof. For fornetimes the Albtgenfes are accufed, that they
deny the RejurrefJion of kuman Bodies ; as tho' th~y quite d~ni,ed the Refu.rre-
aion of the Dead; which yet In another Place IS more dIftmcHy explained
thus, that the Dead Jhall arife with Jpiritual Bodies. And that their Opinions
have been mifreprefented elfewhere, there can be no Doubt, and it will ap-
pear upon a Comparifon of the feveral Places, wherein they are recorded.
But that the Opinions of the Albigenjes and ValdellJes were very different, cannot
be denied. For if they had held the fame, no Reafon can be affigned, why
different ones fhould have been afcribed to them. One would rather be inclined
to believe, that as their Perfecurors greedily fought after every Occafion to
puni1h them, they would have faftened on everyone of them all the heretical
Opinions of the Valdenfes and A,lbigenjes; that fo being burd~ned with nume-
rous Crimes, the Inquifitors might feem to have the more juft Pretence for
condemning them.
For this very Caufe it may be juftly concluded, that many other of thofe im-
pious Tenets that are afcribed by Baronius, Bzouius, and others, to the AlbigenJes
and Ya/denfes, were invented out of mere Hatred to them, and to render them
deteftable to the People; efpecially that impious Opinion, which Esmeruus
Direti. Inquif. Par. 2. !f<!fcef.14. imputes to the Valdenles: Tba: 'tis better to
fatisfy a IVlan's Luft by any Aa of Uncleannefs wbatJoever, tban to be perpetually
burning; and that (as they fay and pra8iJe) 'tis lawful in the dark for Men and
Women to lie promifcuoufly with one another, whenfoc'Ver and as often as they have
the Inclination and Defire. For if this had been their Tenet, would there
not have been one of that vaft Number of Prifoners, that they condemned
to fuch various Punifhments, to be found, that was infected with it? Or, if
it could have been proved upon them, was the Equity, Humanity and Com-
paffion of the Inquifitors fo very great, as to have concealed a Crime, that
would have been condemned by the common Voice of Mankind, and expofed
thofe that were guilty of it to the moft fevere Punifhment and Death?
Would they, by fuch a Method of acting, have given the World occafion
to cenfure them for perfecuting, and cruelly punifhing Men merely for the
Sake of holding Opinions different from the Roman Faith, tho' confiftent
with a due Regard to a good Confcience, when at the fame Time they might
ha ve accufed them of [0 horrid an Impiety? If they had been reall y fuch
execrable Perfons, their Crimes ought to have been publickly expofed; and
thus they themfeJves would have funk under the Weight of Infamy, and their
Profecutors would have been fo far from being charged as bloody Inquifitors,
that they would have deferved the univerfal Applaufe.
Hen~e we may learn what Credit , be given to, Popifh Writers, W~eD
they gIve us an Account of the OpInIOnS and Practices of thofe they call
Hereticks. 'Tis their Way to charge all that feparate from their Commu-
nion with Impurity and Luft, as tho' the only Caufe of their leaving the C0!U-
. H 2 rnumon
munion of the Church of Rome, was a difhonourable and vile Love of Wo-
men; and they have moil: impudently dared to reproach with this Vice,
Perfons that have been remarkable for their Chaftity and Continence .. In
the mean while, nothing is more notorious, than that their Monks and
Priefts, who are forbid the Remedy of a. chafte and honourable Matrimony,
abandon themfelves without Shame to the moil: impure Embraces, and infa.
mouOy wallow in carnal Pleafures. Erafinus, crom.9. Page 401. fays; There
is a certain German BiJhop, who declared publickly at a Feafl, that in one Year he
had brought to him 11000 Prieft s tbat openly kept Whores: For they pa y annually a
certain the Bifhop, This was one of t~e hundred Gricv~nces that ~he
German Nation propofed to the Pope's NunCIOat the Convention at Norim-
berg, in the Years 1522 and 1523. Grievance 9 I. Tba: the Bijhops in mofl Places,
and their Officials, not only fuffer tbe Priefls to keep Whores, fo they pay a certain
Sum of Money, but even force the cbafier Priefls, who live without Whores, to pay
the Price of tbofe that keep them; alledging, that the Bijh()p wants Money, a1tJ
that thoJe Priefls who pay it may either remain jingle, . or keep Whores as> they
pleafe. How wicked a Thing this is, everyone underflands. The fame F.rafmus~
in his Account of the Errors of Bedda, Tom, 9; P.484. hath the following Paf-
fage : What Wonder iffome Nuns in the Age of St. Auftin are faid to have mat-
ried, when in this Ag~ there ane faid to be fl. many MonajJeries that are notbing
better than publick" Stews, and more that arc private ones. Even in thofe where
the Rules are more jlrift, there are more that have the Veil than their Virginity.
':this I relate with Grief, and I wijh it was not true, And a little after: I knI)W
[rime, that have buried in the Monafleries the Girls they have abufed, that the Affair
might be.bujhed up. And p. 569. Bedda, fays he, cries out gloriot~fly, God for-
'hid, God forbid, that any Man Jhould be admitted to the Dignity of the hieft.
hood, who doth not Wholly deny him/elf carnal Embraces, tho' at this Day tbert
are .fome to be found who keep fifty Whores, not to add any thing worfe. And
p. 985. concerning the Prohibition of Flefh: Amongff the PrieJfs, how flam
is the Number that live chajie? Ifpeak of thoJe who keep publi,-kly at home their.-
Whores, inftead of Wives; for 1wiff not mention the Myjleries of their mar« ft.
cret: LUJls: I '/peak oj thofe 'Ihings only that are well kno.wJJ to C7.Jer:yone; But-
the Inftance he gives; p. 1380. is yet more execrable: That a certain Domi-
nican Profeffor of Divinity, whofe Name was John, mention'd to him at Ant-
werp, in the Houfe of Nicholas of Middlebourge, a Phyfician, a Divine of £0-
'vain, who told him, that he refufed to give A bfolution to a certain Con.
feffofof'theNuns, becaufe heacktlowledged hehad lain with 200 of them. But
whatn~ecl' is there of producing Teftimonies out of particular Authors? The·
very Laws of the Inquifition, which ordain Punifhments for thofe Priefts,
who follicit not only Women, but, what is much worfe~ even Boys, in the
&tcrarnenr ofConfeffion, are an undeniable proof that thefe Crimes are too.
frequent and common in that State of impure Celebacy. So that having their
own Minds infnar..edwith the Lufts of the Flefh, and their Eyes, as the Scrip-
tttre expreffes it, full ,of Adulter.y~ like the Generality of Mankindi they judge··
of oth.ers by themfelves" and infmuate. that the. only, at~eail: ,the chief Caufe
. el
The HIs TOR Y of tbe IN
of forfakina the Church of Rome, is the immoderate Love of Women :
Whereas if they were not acted by the Principles of a good Confcience,
but from a Defire of gratifying their Iuftful Inclination, they might
with much more Safety abide in the Communion of the Church of Rome,
where they have daily Occafions offered to them of fulfilling the Lufts
of the Flefh : They have nothing to fear, even from the bloody Tribunals
of the Inquifition, if they are but cautious, tho' they follicit Women in the
very Sacrament of Confeffion. Thi~ (or once to refute the Calu.mnics of the
Papifts, who, whenever they are gIVIng an A~coun~ of the RIfe ?f any of
thofe they call Hereticks, are perpetually repeating this Charge againft them.
But to return to our Purpofe :
Befides the above-mentioned Differences of Doctrines between the Albigp!fes
and Valdenfes, they differed alfo in their Rites and Cuftorns. For at firft there
were two Sorts of the AlbigenJes. Some profeffed their Faith, and ufed their fiT. 40. a.
Cufloms, and were called Perfem feu ConJolati, Perfeft or Comforted. Others
only enter'd into a Covenant with thefe perfect ones, which they call La COlZ-
uenenja, The Agreement, that at the End of Life they would be received intofol. q. h.
their Sea. This Reception is often called Heretication, and was performed 62..Il.10,a.
after this manner to Benediflus Molinerii in a certain IlInefs that he laboured
under: Bernard de Goch, 011eof the Albigenfes, held tbe Hands oftbe fick Per- fol. I2.0. b•
.fan between his own, and held a certain Book over bim, in tobicb he read the Go-
fpel of St. John, In the Beginning was the Word, and delivered to bim a fine
Tbread, with wbich he was to be tied for Herefy. The Rites adminifter'd to a fick
Woman were fornewhat different: Petrus Auterii faid in the Prefence of tbefol. 86. II.
fick Woman, Praife God; either inJlrulling the Woman to fay 10, or faying 10 by
him/elf Tbe» be laid his Hand upon the Woman, holding a certain Book, and'. 4;' III

reading lome Words, but firfl put a white Linen Cloth upon her, and after he had
read in tbe Book, Peter and Aurelius made many Boies near bel' Bed. For this
Reception they were prepared by certain Abftinences, which I gather from
the Sentence of Peter Raymundus Dominicus de Borno, who is faid to have feen
Peter Auterii with Peter Sancii, who then kept thofe Fafts, which they are.
obliged to do, who are to be admitted to the Sea of the Herericks.
This Admiffion was believed to fave the Soul of the Perron admitted, and
was called Spiritual Baptifm, The Confolation, The Reception, and Good End. So fol. S6. ~.
that they were believed to be fo fanctified by it, as that afterwards it wasfc/. 3· «,:
unlawful for them to be touched by a Woman. Thus we read in the Sen-
renee of a Woma~, whofe Father had been received amongtl: the A!big,mfcs; fol. 4:i>
'!'bat Jhe was forbid by her Father to touch him, becaufe after his Retebtion 110
Woman ought to touch him, and from tbat crime fbe never did touch bill:. And
in another Woman's Sentence; Tbat 'tioas mJ!a'i.ejul for ber :0 touch Petrus (o!. 68. c_
Sancii, and that }he heard tbat 'twas reported amollg)' tb.'m, tbat tbe)' 11either'
touch a Woman, nor jufJer themfelves to be touched h Oile.
But inafmuch as it was poffible that the Perloo -received miaht return to his'
former Pollutions, his Reception was delay'd to his laft Sic~e13) when there
was namore Hopes of Recovery, that 10 he miO'h£ not lore the wad he"
Q ha~
had received; for which Reafon fome were not admitted, tho' one of the Albt-
ge1lJes was prefent ; becaufe 'twas not believed they would immediately die.
td 68. Thus 'tis reported of Petrus Sancii, that being called to hereticate a certain fick
,rOmaJl, Jhe was not then bereticated ; becaufe he did not think it proper upon Ac-
count of her 110tbeing weak enough. And afterwards, though the Diftemper
grew more violent, Petrus Sancii did not hereticate her, becaufe the re-
J\s for thofe who were received during their IIInefs, they were commanded
to make Ufc of the Endura, i. e. Fafting; and to haften their Death by the
opening a Vein, and Bathing. Thus 'tis reported of a certain Woman; That}ht
;' t. I.,. b, perle·vered in the Abftinence which they call the Endura, many Days; and ba-
Jlm'd ber bodily Death, by lojing her Blood, frequent Batbing, and greedily taking
a 1'0ifo110lfS praugbt of tbe Juiee of wild Cucumbers, mixing with it broken GlaJs, that
fer. '16• by tearing of her Bowels jhe might Jooner die. Of another, 'cis faid, That jhe was
forbidden by ber Mother-in-Law to give her little Daughter, that had been bereticated
f< J. <J 9· by Peter Sancii, any Milk to drink, by which it died. Another confeffes, Tbat
Jhe had not Iem her Father, fince his Heretication, eating or drinking any 'Thing but
[01.63' cold Water. But one Hugo, who continued feveral Days in the Endura, did
afterwards, by his Mother'sPerfuafion, eat and recover. The fame Year
Peter Sancii inviced him to enter into the Endura, and fa make a good End; but he
would not agree to it till he came to die. The fame Hugo faw, that Sancius pro-
cured and haften'd his own Death, by Bleeding, Bathing, and Cold. Petrus Auterii
pl. 6'). b. is faid to have received another Woman; and after her Reception, to have forbid,
tbat any Meat Jhould be given to the [aid bereticated Woman; and there were two
Women who attended her, that watched that there Jhould be neither Meat nor Drink
given her the whole Night, nor following Day, left fbe jhould lofe the Good jhe had
'received, and contraditi the Order of Peter Auterii ; although the [aid Woman
defired that tbey would giw her Meat. But the third Day after, the eat and
/01.. 8z.. b. grew well. In the Sentence of Peter Raymundus, of the Hugo's, we read
there Things concerning the Enduro. Tou 'Voluntarily-fborten your own corpora!
Life, and inflift Death upon your felf; becaufe you put your felf in tbat Abftinence,
which the Heretices call Endura, in which Endura you remained ji.x Days, without
Meat or Drink, and wouldft not eat, neither yet wilt, though oftentimes invited to
. it. However, all of them did not care to fubjett themfelves to fo fevere a Law.
fo1.71• For we read of a certain Woman, that the would not [utter her fick Daughter,
although near Death, to be received; becaufe then her [aid Daughter muft be put
ftl. 30. h. in the Endura. There is alfo an Inftance of a Woman, who for fear the fhould
be taken up by the Inquifitors, put her felfin the Endura; and fending for a
Chirurgeon, order'd him to open one of her Veins ina Bath: And after the Chi-
rurgeon was gone, Ihe unbound her Arm in the Bath, chat fo the Blood running
out more freely, fhe might fooner die. After this lhe bought Poifon in order
to deftroy her felf. Afterwards fhe procured a Coblers Awl, which in that
bubarous Age they call Alzena, intending to run it into her Side: But the
Women di:puting amongft themfelves, whether the Heart was on the right
Side or the left, the at laft drunk up the Poifon, and died the Day after.
2 They
They had alfo a peculiar Manner of faluting each other, by embracingf{t'l. w h.
putting their Hands [0 both Sides, and turning their Head three Times tufol. 170. b,
each Shoulder, faying every Time, Praife the Lord: Which Manner of Sa-~~l i io.b,
Jutation feems to have been very common among them; becaufe we find itJol. 9· i.
mentioned in the Sentences of many of them, and was performed fometimes
with bended Knees , fornetimes by putting their Hands down, even to the
Ground. Sometimes aifo this Cullom was infifted on : So we read of a certainja or.
Perfon, being required by the laid Herctick, to bend the Knee before him. and fay.
Praife ye the Lord; he bent on his Knee, and laid before him, Pratje ye the Lord. 'Ihe
Her-ctick tJn!wer'd; May God bring you to a good End. And of a certain Woman.js; S9.
'17Jat/he law a certain Perjon bowing before Peter Auterii, in ber afore/aid Houle;
and then fbe was required to make her Amendment before the laid Heretuk, as the
other did. And then Jhe alJo began to bend the Knee before the laid Heretick, and
knew not how to make the afore/aid Amendment; upon which, they who were prejent
began to laugh, which made her bluJh and go away. We read of another, thatM· 10.
he agreed with Peter Auterii, Tbat he would commend himfelf to him; that he might
pray to Godfor him; and began to brrtJJthe Knee before him: And that Peter Auterii
[aid, Te may not do it; for this is not the Place; and fa fent him away, that he
might not bow the Kne« before him, which he was willing and had began to do.
Nor was this Manner of Salutation required only from thole who were admit-
ted, but alfo made Ufe of by thofe who were called Perfeft ; and admitted
others, as often as they met one another. Thus we read in the Sentence offc!. 16.t"
Amelius de Perlis, That he and Peter rluterius [aluted each other with mutual
Adoration before the Inquifitors; and that they both adored each other, after an
heretical Manner, before them, by falling on their Faces on the Ground; and laid
that they were of the lame Sell; and acknowledged that they had elfewhere oftentimes
adored one another after the fame Manner.
They fafted three Days a Week on Bread and Water. A certain lick Manfo'. 12.o.c.
was told, That he mufl have no Food, unlefs he could repeat the Pater Notter. fol.49.
We read of th(Valdenfes, that they had certain Elders (Majores) of theirfol. 1'17;..
Sect. Thus John of Lorain was called Majoralis of that Sea; and Chriflialt)
and John of Chabley, Majores.
'Tis reported .of them alfo, That they prayed on tbeir Knees before and after
Dinntr, leaning on a Table, This occurs in almoft all the Sentences of the
Yaldenfts. 'Twas alfo cuftornary with them to fay Grace over their Meat;
becaufe Perrin Faber was accufed, that he eat and drank with the Valdenfes, at fa!. 109.6..
the [ame 'Iable that had been bleJfedby them.
~ey ufed /0 compare themJel'Veswith the Apoflolical Life and Perfetiion ; (lndfal. tz.8.b.
boaft that they were equal to them in Merit; and that they preferued and imitated
tbe Evangelick and Apojiolick. PO'Uerty ; upon which Account they obtained the
Name of the poor Men if Lyons. '
Befides this, they had other Cuftoms different from the common Way orfol• n8.~,
Living. Thus we read, That the laid SeH of the Valden[es, ftparatcd and dif-
fered in otber 'things from tbe common Life and MMJnm of the Faithful.

56 17;)(1 HI S TO RY Of the INQUISI TI 0 N~
('}, 1:' 3-
And Iaflly, we read in the Sentence of John Philibert, aPre1byter, .1'hat the
Valdenfes preach to their Bclicuers flmetime after Supper, in the Nigbl, out .Qjtbe
GoJpc!sand Ejlijlle's, in tb~ ';.::tlga,r Language.. ..
Since therefore there IS 10 great a Diverfity In the Opinions and Cufrorns of
the Albigc'i1fi'sand Falden/es, 'tis very evident that they were two diftinCl: Sects,
both of them abhorring the Communion of the Church of Rome; but in ma-
ny Things differing from each other. This appears moft plainly from there
Acts; for all thofe that received Sentence, to Page 92, are Albigenfes: Ste:
pbcu Poncber is thcfirfr of the l/aldenfes, mentioned in the fame Page. Page 96.
follows the Sentence againfl: John BrayJ!e, the Valdenfia», After that, the AI.
bigcufts and Valdenjes are condemned promifcuouOy, but in fuch a Manner, as
tl;-at at firft View, one may know one from the other. The principal Perfons of
the Albigenfes, who received others, and are mentioned in the feveral Sentences,
are Petrus .Auterii, Jam.s, his Son; and If/illiam, Peter's Brother, Petrus Rai-
mundi de Santio Papula, Aimericus Barrotti, dmelius de Perlis; Andreas de Padris,
Odauius, Petrus Sancii de Garda; Bernardus .Andoyni de Monte Acuto, and a
szreat Number of others, mentioned p. 93, 101, 106, 123, 146. b. From
hence I conclude, that they were not only two difrinCl: SeCl:s originally, but
that they were not united in:o one Church afterwards, at lealt, in the Year
i. e. half an Age after their firlt Rife.
Pcgna in I cannot however deny, that Iuonetus, who lived about thofe Times, attri-
butes many Things to the Faldenfes, which in thefe Ads are afcribed to the
10m. 1.5.
.Albigenfes, viz. that they are divided into two Parties. Tbere are }Ome, fays
Ivonetus, who are accounted Perfett : 'I'hefe are properly called the poor Men oj
.Lyons. All are not taken in under this Cbaratter, but are firfi inflruaed tbem-
felves, a long whit~, tbat tkey may kno~ how to teach others. 7"hefe PerfeCl: declare
that they baue nothing of tbeir own, neither Houjes nor PoJ!e./lions, nor certain Dwel-
lings. .And if they had any Wives before, they put them away. 'I'hey fay they are
the true Succeffirs of the Apoflles, and are tbe Mafiers and Confc.fJors of otbers;
go viJiting about the Countries, and confirming their DiJciples in their Error: 'I'heJe
Difciples bri11gthem alt 'I'hings neceJ!ary. Into whatever Place they come, they give
Notice of their Arrival: 7'hey are met by great Numbers in }Orne fafe and fecret
Place, to fee and hear them. 'I'hey fend them the heft oj Meat and Drink. 'I'heyap-
point Colteaions for Support oj their Poor, their Mafiers and Students, who have no-
thing of their own; or eife to inveigle others, who are drawn over to their Party by
the Love oj Money. Molt of thefe Things are afcribed in thefe ACl:s, to the
Albigenfes; fo that they fometimes feem to have been confounded with one
On the other hand, Pegna and Eymerieus feern to have acknowledged a
Difference between them. For Pegna, upon Eymericus's DireCl:oryof the In-
quifitors, Par. 2. Comment. 38. calls the Sacrament of the Albigenfes, Confola-
mentum, the Confolatio1Z; and adds, that their other Sacrament was the Blef.
fing of Bread. This, fays he, is a Sort of breaking Bread, which they daily uft
at Dilmer and Supper:' 'ris performed after this Manner. When the Puritans (fo
he calls the .dlbigmfes) are come to the 'I'ables they all fay the L'Jrd's Pra-Jer; ill
I ~
The HIS TOR Y of the IN QUI SIT ION. 57
tb« mean while, he who is the principal Per..fonamongff them, either as to Riches or
Dignity, takes in his Hand one or more Loaues, according to the.Number,o[ tbo]o tbat
arepreftnt ; and Jaying, The Grace of our Lord Jefus Chrifl be with yo~ all
always; he breaks tbe Loaf or Loaves, and diflributes to all that fit down, sobitber
they are Puritans, or only tbeir Believers. And in J~is tbey differ/rom tbe poor
Men if Lyons ; for they perform this Ceremony or Bid/mg, only once sn a Year.
Of the Valdenies, Eymericus thus writes, P. 3. Num, I 12. ,[hoft among tbo»
tbat are PClfdl, put in tbe upper Part of tbc Shoe or Zabbata, a Sort if a
EJcutheon, as a Sign, from whicb tbey are called In~abbatati, 'Ihey have OM
among them, fitperior to the reji, whom they call _Majoralis or Elder, to who,.
alone, and to 120 other, they yield Obedience, When they fit at '[able they blefs in this
Manncr : He who blefled the five Barly Loaves and two Fillies, in the De.
fart, to his Difciples, blefs this Table to us. And when they rife, they repeat
tbo]« Words of the Revelation; Blefling, and Honour, and Wifdom, and
T hanks, and Glory, and Strength, be unto our God for ever and ever. Amen.
Always holding their Eyes and Hands lift up to Heaven. This Account is agree-
able to what we read of the Valdenfes, in the Book of Sentences of the Thou-
louft Inquifition, but much more explicite and diftinct.
The fame Eqmericus, Num. 88, &c. charges thefe Hereticks, of his Time,
with many Equivocations and Tricks, by which they endeavour to deceive
the Inquifitors, when they interrogate them concerning their Faith, viz. If
they are asked, Do )·ou belie-ve the Sacrament of Baptifm necejJary to Salvation; they
(;nfwer; I believe. By which, the). mean their own private Faith, and not their
believing the Dotirine they are asked about: Or, if it pleaJes God, 1 believe well;
meaning, that it is not pleajing to God, that they jhould believe as the Tnquifitors
would have them: Or, by returning the §<gejlion. Sir, How do you belieoe ? And
when the Inquifitor anfwers, I believe the Faith cf the Church of Rome, they reply,
1believe fo; meaning, that they believe the Inquifitor believes as he fays; not that
they believe as he doth. Thefe and other like Things he affirms that he obfer-
ved, during the Adminiftration of his Office.
I have been the longer on this Account of the Albigenfts and Valdenjes, that
everyone may judge whether they were one or two different Seas. To fpeak
my own Mind freely, they appear to me to have been two diftinCl:ones; and
that they were entirely ignorant of many Tenets, that are now afcribed te-
them. Particularly the Valdenjes feem to have been plain Men, of mean Ca-
pacities, unfkilful and unexperienced; and if .their Opinions and Cuftoms
were to be examined without Prejudice,·it would appear, that amongfl
all the modern Sects of Chriftians, they bare the grea.teft Refemblance to
.ihatof the Memnonites.



§.18. N·4·
I T was the entire Study and Endeavour of the Popes, to crufh in its In-
fancy, every Doctrine that any way oppofed their exorbitant Power. In
the Year 1I63. at the Synod oi Tours, all the Bifhops and Priefts in the Coun-
try of'IholouJe, were commanded to take Care, and toforbid, under the Pain of
Excommunication, e·very Per/on from prefuming to give Reception, or the leaf] AJ~
[fiance to the 'followers of this Rerefy, which firft began in the Country of'I'ho-
loufe, whenever they /hould be difcouered. Neither were tbey to have any Dealings
with them in buying or felling ~ that by being thus deprived of the common AJliJlances
of Life, they might be complied to repent of the Evil of their Way. WhoJoeverfhal1
dare to contravene this Order, let him be excommunicated as a Partner with them in
their Guilt. As many of them as can be found, let them be imprifoned by the Catbo-
lick Princes, and puniJhed toitb the Forfeiture of all their Subfiance,
Jlegna in Some of the Valdenfes coming into the neighbouring Kingdom of Arragon,
:Eymtric. King IldefonJUs, in the Year I 194. put forth, againft them, a very fevere and
1'. z . com.
bloody Edict, by which he banifhed them from his Kingdom, and ail his Dominions,
Bzovius, as Enemies of the Croft of Gbrift, Propbaners of the Chriflian Religion, and publick
II. 1199. Enemies to himJelf and Kingdom. He adds: If any, from this Day forwards,
§. fj. /hall preftlme to receive into their HouJes the afore/aid Valdenfes and Inzabbatati,
or other Hereiicks, of wbatjoe'i.JerProfejjion they be, or to hear in any Place tbeir
abominable Preachings, or to give tbem Food, or to do them any kind Office whatJo-
£1.'£7; let him know, that he ]hall incur the Indignation of Almighty God and Ours;
that he fbal! forfeit all his Goods, without the Benefit of .dppeal, and be puni]h'd as
-tbough gUilty of High TreaJon, &c. Let it befarther obJerved, That if any PerJon,
if high or lou: Condition, /hall find any of the often before mentioned accurled
Wretches, in any Part of our Dominions, who hath had three Days Notice oj this
'our EdiFt, and 'Who either intends not to depart at all, or nat immediately, burwha.
'c.untumacioujlyjiays, or travels about; every Evil, Difgrace, and Suffering that hejhatl
injliftoTJ fuch Perfon, except Death or Maiming, will be 'Very grateful andaccepta-
lIle to 'Us~ and he /hall be Jofar from i'ncurring any Puni}hment upon this rlttount,
ibat he /hall be rather entitled to our Favour. However, we give theft wicked
Wretches Liberty till the Day after AlI Sail1ts(thoughit may Jeemcontrary to
Jujiice and Reafln) by which they muftbe either gone from our Dominions, or -upon
their Departure out of them: But afteruiards they /hall be plunder'd, whipp'd and
beat, and treated 'With all Manner of Difgrace and Severity.
Raynald. Nor. did they aCt with lefs Cruelty againft Hereticks in Orvieto. Peter
4. 1I99· Parmtms, the PrrefeEt, declared, and that publickly, to a b.rge A1fembly,
.4, ':'3, ':'4' That whofoever, within an appointed Day, would come back to the Church,
which never fhuts her Hofom to thofe who return, and obey the Commands
of the Bifhops, .!hould obtain Pardon and favour; . but th'l,t whofoever
, ~owd
Ihould refufe to return by the prefixed Day, fhould be fubject to the Punifh-
ment appointed by the Laws and Canons. But w~at this Favour was, is de-
fcribed in the pub lick Records of that Church, 10 thefe Words: But tbe
Bifbop inflamed againft the Wickedl1ifs of the Manichreans, received, with a
pafloral Concern, the ConfejJion of the Hereticks, returning from their Herefy to t~e
Catholic]: Unity, and prefented them to the Prafed, Some of theft he bound t1t
Iron Chains, otbers he cauJed to be publickly tobipped, others be mf(erably banifbed
out of the Cit)', others hefined, sobo were true Penitents on Account of tbe Money they
loft; from others he toak large Securities, and pulled down tbe Iloufes of many mort:
So that the Governor of tbe City, walking after the Royal Pattern, turned afide
neither to the lift Hand nor to the right. To this Account Raynaldus adds, 'Ibeft f. 2.J.
'l'hings did this new Phineas, burning with an holy Zeal, for the Catbcluk Fsitb,
this rear in the 'Time of Lent. But he was a little after killed by the He-
About the Year 1200, Pope Innocent lil. wrote to feveral Archbilhops Bzovius,
and Bifhops in Guienne, and other Provinces of France, that they fhould ba- a. I19S.
nifh the Valden[es, Puritans, and· Paterines, from their Territories; and §. 6.
fends thither the Friars, Rey1J£r, and Guido the Founder of the Order ofRaynald.
Hofpitallers, to convert Hereticks , and commands-the Bifhops, that thofe who §. 31.
would not be converted 1hould be banifh'd , and that they fhould humbly re-
ceive, and inviolably obferve whatever Friar Reyner Ihould ordain againft
Hereticks, their Favourers and Defenders. He commanded alfo the Princes,
Earls, &c. That thofe Hereticks who fhould be excommunicated. as impe-
nitent by Friar Reyner, 1hould be adjudged to Forfeiture of their Eftates and
Banifhment , that if after this Interdict they fhould be found in their Domi-
nions, they 1hould proceed more feverely againft them, as became Chrifti-
an Princes. He gave moreover full Power to Reyner, to compel the Princes
to this Work, under Pain of Excommunication, and Interdict of their Domi-
nions, without Appeal; and commands him not to delay to publifh the Sen-
tence of Excommunication againft the Receivers of excommunicated Here-
ticks. And to conclude, he exhorts the People to give all Affiftance, when
required, againft Hereticks, to the Friars Remer and Guido, and grants to all
who fhould nand by them faithfully and zealouOy, the fame Indulgence of
Sins, which is ufed to be granted to thofe who vifired the Threfhold of St.
Peter or St. James. The next Year following he commands the Archbifhops ofBzoviulJ
Aix and Met];, and others, with fome Abbots, that they 1hould examine the a. 1I9lJ.
poor Men of Lyons, and others, concerning the Orthodox Faith; and as they §. u.
found t~e Matter, fhould give him full Information by Meffenger or Letters.
that being thus more fully informed by them, he might know the better how
to proceed againft them. He made alfo the moft fevere Laws for the Extirpa-
tion of Herefy, which are contained in his Letters to the Citizens of Viterbo, R.yoaM.'
fome of whom had been infeered with Herefy. . ;: ;;.99,
.. Some of the Setl:ariesof the Valdenfes : They called themfe1ves Pater;"", afw the Eumplc
of the Martyrs, w~o fuffered Martyr?o.m for the Catholick Faith j beJ:,aufc they. Jib them.
were e;rpofitojpa.ffiombHI, expafed to SufferIngs. Du Prefne (;/oj'ar. Me4. & Itif. LIII. ;" f1IlW.
60 Tbe H I s TOR Y of the IN QUI SIT ION.

Of DOMINICUS, and the jir:JI Rife of the Tholoufe INQ,yISI.TJON •.

T H US far we have confider'd the Method of Proceeding againft Here--

ticks, as committed to the Bifhops, with whom the Government and
Care of the Churches were entrufted, according to the received Decrees of the
Church of Rome, But inafmuch as their Number did not feern fufficienr to
that Court, or becaufe they were too negligent in the Affair, and did not pro-
ceed with that Fury againfr Herericks as the Pope would have had them;
therefore, that he might put a Stop to the encreafing Progrefs of Herefiest
and. more effectually exringuifh them, about the Year of our Lord, 1200.
he founded the Order of the Dominicans and FranciJcans, that they might
preach againft Herefies. Dominick and his Followers were rent into the
Country of 'fholouJe, where he preached, with great Vehemence, againft the
Hereticks that were arifen there; from whence his Order hath obtained the
Name of Preachers, or Predicants. Father Francis, with his Difciples, barreled
it with the Herericks of Italy. They were both commanded by the Pope, to
excite the Catholick Princes andPeople to extirpate Hereticks , and in all
Places to enquire out their Number and ~a1ity, and alfo the Zeal of the
Catholicks and Bifhops .in their Extirpation ; and [0_ tranfmita faithful,Ac-
count to Rome. Hence they were called Inquifitors.
It is evident that the firft Inquifitors were Dominican Friars, or of the Or-
der-of Predicants ; but 'tis not fo certain what Year the Inquifition it felf was
firft introduced. Dominick, as hath been faid, was fene into the Country of
D~ SucceJ. Tholou/e, * or Gallia Narbonenfis: He, as Bertrand relates in his Account of the
E,, Affairs of Tboloufe, whom UjJer cites, firft lodged in the Houfe of a certain.
omde;ee, Nobleman, to whom belonged the Houfe of the Inquifition at Tholoufe, near'
<:·9· . 9· the Caftle of Narbonne ; and finding him fadly infefted with .Herefy, Father
Dominick, Inquifitor of the Faith, reduced him to the Path .of Truth; upon' himfelf and his Houfe, to St. Dominick and his Order: Which
Houts hath ever Iince belonged to the Inquifition, and the Dominican Order:
From hence we may gather, that Dominick was the firft Inquifitor ; and that
the Inquifition was firtt introduced into 'Ibolou.fe: But as to the Year when,Wri.
ters differ; fame referring it to the Year of Chrift, 121 J ; others to 1208 ;
and others. to 1215. This is certain, and agreed by all, that it began under
the Papacy ()f Innocent III. and that Dominick was appointed the firft Inquificor
in GalJia"Nar.bonenjis: But whether he received his Office of Inquifitor.from
.drnaldus; Abbot ofCifteaux~ Legate of the ApoftolickSee, in France, or im-
mediately from the Pope, is difputed by the Popifh Writers. Thole wh? en..
c¥avE>ur to reconcile the Difference, fay that Dominick was firft appointed.
-That Part of France, which an<;iently contained the Pr~vill~e~of SiWIJ1' DlIHJh:',!~, PrD'l,1111(1.
a.I.ld .L'lPgN,J~t. . .
The HIS TOR Y of the IN QUI SIT [ 0 N. 6I
Inqnifitor by the Legate, and afterwards confirmed by the Pope himfelf
Ludouicus a Paramo feerns to be of the fame Opinion; for he fays, that tit.
ther Dominick firft difcourfed of his Defign, to introduce the Inquifition, to I. CliP· I.
the Abbot of Cijleaux, at that Time A poltolick Legate in France; and that rl. 13·
the Abbot appointed him Inquifitor, at the fame Time referring the Affair
te the Pope. After this he was confirmed in the Office by a Cardinal Legate
in that Kingdom; and at length, after the Conclufion of the Lateran Council,
Ann. 1216. he was made Inquifitor by Authority of the Pope's Letters,
a Copy of which. f?me Author~ affirm they have actually Ieen. . .
" When Dominick had received thefe Letters, upon a cerrain Day, In the c. 1.. 11.4.
" Midfl of a great Concourfe of People, he declared openly in his Sermon,
" in the Church of St. Prullian, that he was raifed to a new Office by the
" Pope; adding, that he was refolved to defend, with his utrnoft Vigour,
" the Doctrines of the Faith; and that if the Spiritual and Ecclefiaitic11
" Arms were not fufficient for this End, 'twas· his fixed Purpofe to call in
" the AffiO:ance of the Secular Arm, to excite and compel the Catholick
" Princes to take Arms againft Hereticks, that the very .Mernorv of them
" might be entirely deO:roy'd." It evidently app(!ars that Dominick was a
bloody and cruel Man. This is more than obfcurely intimated by. the Do-
minican, Camillus Campegius, Inquifiror General of Ferrara, who after having
recited the Letters of Dominick, in which he declares the Penances he enjoin- '. 20 •.•
ed to Pontius Rogerii, adds: 1 have the more 'Willingly annexed 10 tbis 'treatife ojZanchmJ.
Punifbments theft Letters of St. Dominick our Father, 'Who firft exercifed the Office
of InqttiJitor,tbat all may be able to make a Comparlkn: between the andent Severity
made ufe of to flop the P'rogrefs of theft Crimes, and the prefent Moderation and TCll-
dermfs oj this holy 'tribunal. Thefe Letters he wrote, as Ludouicus a Paramo ob-
Ierves, when as yet he acted as Inquifitor only by the Authority of the Abbot
of Cifieau«, and rhefe Letters Paramus produces to prove, that Dominick af.1. 2.. t, r.
fumed this Office, from a RefolutioiZ to plmifh Hcrcticks ,,~'i/hfilch Severit)" as tbat c. 2,. r'. ~,
by the Fear of Punifbment he might deter others from the like If/lCkednejJ. He was
horn in Spain in the Village Calaroga in the Diocefe of o.;illa. His Mother, be-
fore (he conceived him, is faid to have dreamed, that Ole was with Child of a
Whelp, . carrying in his Mouth a lighted Torch; and that after he was born,
he put the World in an Uproar by his fierce Barkings, and fet it on Fire by
the Torch that he carried in his Mouth. His Followers interpret this Dream
of his DoCtrine, by which he enJightned the whole World; whereas others,
if Dreams pre[ag~ any thing~ think that the Torch was an Emblem of
that Fire and Faggot,hy which an infinite Multitude of Men were burnt
to Allies. .
III the Beginning the Inquiftrors had no proper 1'ribunaI; they only en-
quired after Heretick~ their Number, Strength and Riches. After' thCf
had deteCted them, they informed the Bifhops, who then had the [ole PowClr
of Judging in Eccleftaftical Affairs, and fometirnes urged them, that ther
1hould anathematize, and other wife punifu the Hereticks they had dilcovered
to them. Sometimes they flirred up Princes to take Arms Hereri~ks.;
6~ The HISTORY of the INQUISIT 10 N.
fometimes the People. Such of rhem as engaged in this Work they fiO'ned
with the Crofs, and encouraged them in their Expeditions againft Hereticks.
Farther than this, Dominick, who was of a bloody fierce Temper, that he
might the more effectually extirpate all Herefy, invented a Method, how,
under the Appearance of Mercy and T'endernefs, he might exercife the moll:
outrugious Cruelty, 'Viz. the laying fome certain Punifhments, by way of
whollorne Penance, upon fuch as were converted to the Roman Faith, that
being thus converted, they might be freed from Excommunication. For
what could carry a. greater Appearance of Mercy, than to abfolve and reo
ceive into Communion, thofe Hereticks that returned to the Church, and vo-
luntarily fubjected themfelves to a wholfome Penance? But the Truth is,
that this was the Height of Cruelty: For they fubmitted to fuch Penances,
not from Conviction and Choice, but for fear of a more terrible Punifhmenr,
For the Fire and Faggot and other Punifhments were ready prepared for fuch
as were not converted; and all that refufed to fubmit to thefe Penances, were
pronounced excommunicate, convict, and obftinate Hereticks, and as fuch
turned over to be punifhed by the Secular Court. Befides, thefe wholfome
Penances were attended with the greateft Miferies to the Penitents; for either
they were condemned to perpetual Imprifonment, there to wear out a wretch-
ed Life with the Bread and Water of Affliction, or were marked on their Back
and Breaft with Croffes, that by thefeMarks of Infamy) they might be ex-
pofed to the Reproaches and Abufes of all Men; and were withal publick1y
whipped before the People, either in the open Street, or in the Church, and
commanded many other Things, under the fpecious Name of Penance; that
. by this Severity) which the Penitents were forced voluntarily to fubmit to,
that there-might be an Appearance of Mercy in their Cafe, all others might
. be deterred from Herefy.

,OJ the Wars againfl RA YM 0 N D, Father asd Son, Earls of

I N the mean while the Pope, being intent on the Extirpation of Hereticks,
excited all the Princes, that they fhould nor yield them any Refuge in their
Dominions, but opprefs them with all their Force. His principal Care was
to expel them from the Country of'l'holouje, where the Albigenfts were very nu-
merous. He was perpetually preffing Raymond Earl of'l'holouje to banifh them
from his Dominions; and when he could not prevail with him, either to drive
out fo large a Number of Men, or to perfecute them, he ordered him to be ex-
communicated as a Favourer of Hereticks. He alfo fent his Legate, with
Letters to many of the Prelates, commanding them to make Inquifition againft
1 the
the heretical AlbigenJes in France, and to deftroy them, and convert their Fa- Bzo':illS,
vourers. He alfo wrote to Pbilip King of France, that he fhould take Arms? I ~04'
againft thofe Hereticks, and ufe his utmofb Force tu fupprefs them; that by §. z z ,
endeavouring to prevent the Progrefs of their Herefy, he might be under
no Sufpicion of being tainted with it himfelf. With the Pope's Legate there
came alfo twelve Abbots of the Ciflercian Order, preaching the Crofs againfl:
the Albigenfes, and promifing, by the Authority of Innocent, a plenary Re-
mifiion of all Sins, to all who took on them the Crulade. To thefe Dominick
joined himfelf, and, as we have related, invented in that Expedition the Inqui-
fition. The Roman Pontiffs had appointed this kind of War, which they called
Holy, againft the Infidels and Saracens, for the Recovery of the Holy Land;
and becaufe all who lifted themfe1ves in that Service wore the Sign of the Crofs
near their Shoulders, they were called Crofs-bearers. They ordered ir alfo to
be proclaimed, that all who would enter into that Holy War, or pioufiy con-
tribute any Money for the Pay of the Soldiers, being conferred and penitent,
according to the Rules and Methods fixed by the Divines, 1hould obtain a full
Indulgence and Remiffion of their Sins, and be abfolved from the Sentences
of Interdict, Sufpenfion, and Excommunication, and efpeciall y from thofe they
had incurred by firing or breaking into Churches, or by laying violent Hands
on Ecclefiafticks, and from all other Sentences, except the Crime was fo enor-
mous, that they could not receive Abfolution but immediately from the Apo ...
Ilolick See. They were allowed a1fo, in the Time of a General Interdict, to
be prefent at Divine Services, and to receive the Ecclefiaftical Sacraments,
in thofe Places where they were celebrated, by a Ipecial Indulgence from the
Apoftolick See, if they had been abfolved before from their refpective Sen-
tences, as may be feen in the Bull of Innocent the Fourth, which begins"
Malitia htdUS temporis ; that by the Hopes of this Immunity, Men might
be excited to undertake thefe Expeditions. Accordingly Multitudes came to-
gether, and chearfully engaged in them, upon the Belief that they could in
to eafy a manner atone for their Sins. But now the Popes turned rhefe Ex-
peditions againft Chriftians thernfelves, whom they loaded with the infamous
Name of Hereticks, only becaufe they were Enemies to their See, and the
exorbitant Power of it. Some of thefe Crofs-bearers Dominick fent into the
Country ofcrholouJe againft the ALbigenJes, to overcome thofe Hereticks by the
material Sword, whom he could not cut off by the Sword of ' the Word of
[For this Fraternity Dominick framed certain Conflitutions, by which they.
were to preferve and govern thernfelves, The firft was, that fuch who en-
tered into this Warfare, fhould take a folernn Oath, that tbey would endea-
vour with al.l their Might to recover, defend, and protect: the Rights of the ..
Church ag:lInft all who 1hould pretend to ufurp them; and that in De-
fence of the Ecclefiaftical EffeB:s they would expofe thernfelves and their'
own Eftates, and take up Arms, as often as they Ihould be called on co do ie .
by the Prelate of the \Var, who was then Dominick, andafierwardsrbeMa-
fters G.eneral of the Dominican Order. Dominick. f.trtherexaCtedanOath. from
'Tbe 1-11 STO nv of the INQU I·SIT 1 0 N.
the Wives of there Crofs-bearers, if any of them were married, that they
would not pertwade their Hutbands to forfake this War for the Support of the
Ecclefiafl ical Immunity; and prornifed them eternal Life for [0 holy a Service.
And to d.Ilinguiih them from other Laicks, he ordered that both the Men and
their Wives fhould wear Garments of white and black Colours, tho' they dif:'
tercd as to their Make. They alfo repeated in the canonical Hours the Lord'.;
Prayer, and the Salutation of the Angel [0 many Times, as was cuftomary in
any other common VIars. It was ordained alfo, that none fhou!d be admitted
(0 this Iacrcd Warfare, without a previous rigorous Examination of his Life,
Manners and Faith, whether he had paid his Debts, forgiven his Enemies,
made his Will, that he might be more ready for the Battle, and obtained
Leave from his Wife before a Notary and proper Witneffes. The Wives ri
thofe who were flain in the Expedition promifed they would never marry again.
This kind of Warfare was at that Time very acceptable, fo chat many eagerly
entered into it, that by the Slaughter of Hereticks, and the Plunder of their
Goods, they might march away ,0 Heaven.]
But becaufe even thefe Crors-bearers did not fight againf] them with that con-
tinued Zeal and Fury, that the Pope and Dominick would have had them, the
Dominicans excited larger Numbers to engage in this Warfare, by the Hopes of
. UfTer. de a plenary Indulgence, The Text which their Preachers ufed to chufe for this
Purpofe, was from Pfal. xciv. 16. Who will rife up for me againfl the Evil doers]
51· ~. S·
Or who will jlandztp for me againfl the Workers of iniquity? And as they di-
rected their whole Sermons to their own cruel Purpofe, they generally thus
concluded: You fee, mofl dear Brethren, how great the Wzckedneji of tbe Here-
ticks is, and how much MifchieJ they do in the World. You fee how tenderly,
and by how many pious Methods the Church labours to reclaim them. But with
them they all prooe ineffetlual, and they fly to the Secular Power for their De/enet.
Therefore our holy Mother the Church, tho' with R.elutlance and Grief, calls together
ag,ainjl them the Chriflian Army. If then you hav: any Zeal for the Faith, if you
are touched with any Concern for the Honour of God, if you would reap the BmCfit of
this great Indulgence, come and receive the Sign of the Crofs, and join yourfe/ves to
the Army of the crucified Saviour. There was indeed this Difference between
thofe who took up the Crofs againft the Saracens, and thofe who did it againft
the Hereticks, that the former wore it on their Backs, and the latter on their
Breafts. And that their Zeal might by no Means grow cool, there were cer-
tain Synodical Decrees made by the Authority of the Pope, by which the Pres-
U:Ter. ihid. byters were enjoined continually to excite and warm it. Let the Prejbyters con-
&'..10. §.z. 3· tinually
and affetlionatcly exhort their P arijhioners that they arm themftlvcs again)
the heretical Albigenfes. Let them al.foenjoin, under the Pain of Excommunication,
tbo]« who have taken the Croft, and 110tprofecuted their Vow, that they retake
the Croft and wear it.
Raynold. Raymond Earl ofcrholouJe not being in the leaft diverted from his Purpofe b.y
the Sentence of the Legate, who having confulted with Dominick, had forbid
tiS .
II. IlO~.
~c him, as a Fa vourer of Hereticks, the Communion of holy Things, and of the
/~:~~: Faithful, was excommunicated by a Bull of Innocent himfelf, as a Defend~r of
" J,..1· Hereticks,
The HIS T o R Y of the IN Q U r SIT ION. 65
Herericks, and all his Subjects abfolved from their Oath of Allegiance;
and Power was given to any CatholickMan, tho' without Prejudice to the Right
of the fupreme Lord, not on,Iy to att agai~lt his Perro,n, b.ut to feize and de-
tain his Country; under this Pretence chief y, that It might be effettually
purged from Herefy by the Prudence of the one, as it had been grievoufl y
wounded and defiled by the Wickednefs of the other.
The Earl, frighten'd by this S~ntenc,e, and efJ?ecially 'by qhe terrible Ex- 9~~
pedition of the Crofs-bearers againft 111m, prornifed .01;>edl~nce, and .rol1~ht
to be reconciled to the Church; but could not obtain It without delIvenng
up to the Legate [even Caftles in his Territories for Security of Performance,
and unlefs the Magiftrates of AVignon, Nunes, and Agde, had interceded for
him, and bound themfe1ves by an Oath, that if the Earl 1hould difobey the
Commands of the Legate, they would renounce their Allegiance to
him. It was farther added, that the County of l7enaifein 1hould return to the §.6.
Obedience of the Church of Rome. The Manner of the Reconciliation of the
Earl of 9:holouje, was, according to Bzouius, thus: Tbe Earl was brought be-
fore the Gates of the Church of St. Agde, in the Toton of that Name. Tbere were
prefen: more than twenty Archbijhops and Bijhops, who were met for this Purpofe,
Tbe Earl [wore upon the holy Body of our Lord Jefus Chrift, and the Relicks of the
Saints, which were expojed with great Reverence before the Gates of the Church.
and held by [eueral Prelates, that he would obey the Commands of the holy Roman
Church. When he had thus bound him/elf by an Oath, the Legate order'd one of the
facred l7eflments to be thrown over his Neck, and drawing him thereby, brought him into
tbe Cburcb, and havingJcourged him with a Whip, ab.fOlvedhim. Normuflitbe omitted,
tbat when the /aid Earl was brought into the Church, and received his Ab.fOlutionas he
was fcourging, he was.fO grievoufly torn by the Stripes, that he could not go out by the
fame Place tbro' which he entered, but was forced to pafs quite naked as he was tbro' the
lower Gate of the Church. He was alfo ftrved in the fame manner at the Sepulchre
of St. Peter the Martyr at New Caftres, whom the Earl had caufed to beflain,
However, the vaft Army of the Crofs-bearers was not idle after the Re-
conciliation of the Earl of 9:holouje, but every where attacked the Hereticks,
took their Cities, filled all Places with Slaughter and Blood, and burnt many
whom they had taken Captives. For in the Year 12°9. Biterre was taken by Bzoviu.,
them, and all, without any Regard of Age, cruelly put to the Sword, and the a. I lOp.
City it [elf deftroy'd by the Flames. Cafarius tells us, that when the City §. 1. I
was taken,. the Crofs-bearers knew there were feveral Catholicks mixed with ~:,n~.-
the Herericks , and when they were in Doubt how to att, left the Catho- 110p. f.
licks fhould be flain, or the Hereticks feign themfelves Catholicks, Arnold Ab- 2.&.
bot of Cifleaux made Anfwer, Slay them all, for the Lord knmos who are his;
Whereupon the Soldiers flew them all without Exception.
CarcajJone alro was defiroyed, and by the common Confent of the Prelates f. z.J.'+
and Barons, Simon E~rl. of J:1ontf~rt, of the Baftard Race of Robert King of
France.. [whom Petavzus In hiS Ratton. 9:emp. calls a Man as truly religious as va.
liant,] was made Governor of the whoJe Country, both of what was already
conquered, and what was to be conquered for the future. The fame Year he
K took
took fevc:ral Cities, and :educed them to his own Obedience. He cruelly
treated hIS captIve Herericks, and put them to Death by the moil: horrible
§. 2.~. Pu