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David Boucard November 15, 2010

Ms. Singh AP Biology

Chapter 12: Cell Cycle

The Key Roles of Cell Division


1. Cell division occur whenever reproduction, growth or repair is needed. In reproduction, the
genetic code is copied by DNA replication which is then passed down through to the offspring.
In growth, the cell split into duplicates if needed to function in a system such as tissues. In
repair, division occurs to replace a weakened cell or a cell that has undergone apoptosis.
2. A prokaryotic genome is in a singular, circular loop, while a eukaryotic genome is in several
DNA molecules that are in multiple bundles.
3. Mitosis/meiosis and cytokinesis are the major events in cell division.
4. In gametes, the number of chromosomes is 23 which combine from the mother and father to
form 46 chromosomes in a human.
The Mitotic Cell Cycle
5. The phases of the cell cycle are Interphase which takes up ninety percent of the cell cycle, G1 in
which proteins and organelles are produced, S in which DNA is copied, G2 in which molecules
and organelles are made for cell division, and G0 where the cell leaves the cycle
6. In mitosis, there is: Prophase in which chromatin is tightly coiled into chromosomes and the
nucleoli disappears, Metaphase in which the spindle fibers push chromosomes up to the equator,
Anaphase in which the sister chromatids move apart, and Telophase in which two daughter
nuclei begin to form.
7. The spindle apparatus is elongated by tubulin and starts assembling in the centrosome.
Microtubules shorten as the motor proteins walk on the kinetochore. They also walk along
nonkinetochore microtubules that extend from the centrosome, also known as asters, to lenthen
and move apart the cell.
8. In prophase, the spindle begins to form and the microtubules fibers extend, in metaphase the
spindle pushes the chromosomes, in anaphase it pulls the sister chromatids apart, in telophase it
disappears
9. Current models show the sister chromatids being reeled in by the shortening of microtubules.
10. The difference between cytokinesis in plant cell and those in animal cells is that a plate form in
plant cells as a precursor to the cell wall.
11. In binary fission, the DNA replication occurs at a single point and moves in both directions. The
cell elongates, the plasma membrane moves outward and the cell is divided into to daughter
cells without the help of spindle fibers or microtubules. Mitosis shares it origin in binary fission
as the proteins are related to two eukaryotic proteins, tubulin and actin.
Regulation of the Cell Cycle
12. Cyclin binds with CDK to form MPF(Maturation Promoting Factor) which signals the cell to go
onto the next step in its formation. Cyclin is broken down by the CDK which signals the cell to
go on through the process of the its cycle throughout different parts of the cell cycle. Without it,
a cell will not go on through the cell cycle and perform functions like mitosis. The cell needs
cyclin to be there in order to receive a kind of chemical communication to authorize it to move
on to the next part of the cell cycle.
13. Internal factors include M phase checking for all the chromosomes attachment to the spindle
before anaphase. External factors include growth factor which is released by one group of cells
to stimulate others, density dependent inhibition which stop crowded cells from further division,
and anchorage dependence which requires the cell to be stationary.
14. Cancerous cells do not respond to internal or external factors and, as a result, will continue to
divide indefinitely. They may also contain unusual numbers of chromosomes and secrete signals
to increase growth.
15. Benign tumors do not harm the functioning of the organism. Malignant tumors invade and
impair functions of other organs. Metastasis occurs when the cancer spread through the vascular
and lymphatic system.

Visual
Cyclin is at the checkpoint of every part of the cell cycle