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COORDINATE GEOMETRIC

Chapter Objectives

 Plot points in the Cartesian plane and algebraically


determine the distance and the midpoint between two
points.
 Graph equations, lines and circles.
 Determine equations of lines and circles.
 Understand geometric definition of parabola, ellipse, and
hyperbola.
 Graph parabolas, ellipses, and hyperbolas given
characteristics such as vertices and foci.
 Determine equations of conics given the characteristics of
a graph.

Introduction

The coordinate geometric concept is one of the most important


ideas in mathematics. The concept started with an explanation
on the Cartesian plane, the slopes, midpoints between two
points and equations of two lines. Basic conics concepts such as
circles, parabolas, hyperbolas, and ellipse are also explored.

Cartesian Plane

A plane is a two dimensional graph. The axes are two


perpendicular real number lines in the plane that intersect at
their origins. The horizontal axis is called the x-axis and the
vertical axis is called the y-axis. The points where the axis
intersect is called the origin. The axes divide the plane into four
quadrants, numbered by roman numerals and ordered
counterclockwise.
Each point in the plane is called an ordered pair, and is denoted
as (x, y). The first number of the ordered pair indicates the
position in the horizontal direction called the x-coordinate or
abscissa. The second number of the ordered pair indicates the
position in the vertical direction called the y-coordinate or
ordinate. The origin is denoted as an ordered pair (0, 0).

Note:
Graph of the origin, x-axis, y-axis and ordered pair.
y-axis

P(x1,y1)

0 Origin x-
axis

The four quadrant on the plane:


y-axis

II
Second Quadrant I
x<0 First Quadrant
y>0 x>0
y>0

x-axis
III IV
Third Quadrant Forth Quadrant
x<0 x>0
y<0 y<0
Example:

Show the quadrant of the given points on the coordinate plane:


(4,5), (-2,4), (-1,-7), and (3,-3)

(-2,4) (4,5)

(-1,-7) (3,-3)

Slopes

If A(x1,y1) and B(x2,y2) are two points on the coordinate plane.

B(x2,y2)

A(x1,y1) y2 - y1

x2 - x1
x
O
The slope of a straight line, m through points A and B is defined
as

y2 − y1
m =
x2 − x1

General Properties of a Straight Line Slope

The slope Propertie Graph


is s
Positive Increase

Negative Decrease

Zero Horizontal

undefined Vertical

Example:

Evaluate the slope of a straight line that passes through (-2,-1)


and (1,2).
y2 − y1
m =
x2 − x1
−1 − 2 −3
m= = =1
− 2 −1 − 3
The slope, m is 1.
Equations of a Straight Line

There are 4 basic straight line equations:

Type of Straight Line Equation


If the slope is known y = mx + c
If the coordinate of a y= m(x - x1)
point and the slope is
known
If the coordinate of two y − y1 y2 − y1
=
points are known x − x1 x2 − x1
If the intersection of the x y
+ =1
points are known a b

Example:

Find the straight line equations that passes through (-2,-1) and
(1,2)
y2 − y1
The slope formula, m =
x2 − x1
−1 − 2 −3
m= = =1
− 2 −1 − 3
The slope, m is 1.
The equation formula, y = mx + c
y = 1x + c with (-2,-1) or -1 = 1(-2)+c
c=3
The equation is y = 1x + 3

Parallel and perpendicular Lines


If the slopes of two straight line are given as m1 and m2, then

(i) Both lines are parallel if m1 = m2

(ii) Both lines are perpendicular if m1 x m2 = -1

m1 = m2 m1 x m2 = -1
Parallel Lines Perpendicular
Lines

Example:

Find the equations of the straight line that passes through (-3,7)
and is parallel with the line y = 3x – 5
The line is parallel with y = 3x - 5, so m1 =3
m2 is also 3 since parallel line has similar slope or m1 = m2 .
The equation formula, y = mx + c
y = 3x + c with (-3,7) or 7 = 3(-3)+c
c = 16
The equation is y = 3x + 16

Example:
Find the equations of the straight line that passes through (2,-8)

1
and is perpendicular with the line y = − x .
3
1 1
The line is perpendicular with y = − x , so m1 = −
3 3

1
m2 is perpendicular to m1 so m1 x m2 = -1 or − x m2 = -1
3
m2 = 3
The equation formula, y = mx + c
y = 3x + c with (2,-8) or -8 = 3(2)+c
c = - 14
The equation is y = 3x - 14

Distance between Two Points

The distance, d between two points


A = (x1,y1) and B(x2,y2) is given by
d
d = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 )2

Note: It does not matter which


point is taken to be the first point
or the second point.

Example:

Find the distance between (-3, 7) and (5, -2)


Formula: d = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 ) 2

d = ( −3 −5) 2 + ( 7 −[− 2]) 2

d = ( −8) 2 +(9 ) 2
d = 64 +81

d = 145

Midpoint between Two Points

The midpoint, (x, y) between two


points A = (x1,y1) and B(x2,y2) is

 x1 + x 2 y1 + y 2 
given by ( x, y ) =  , 
 2 2 

Note: It does not matter which


point is taken to be the first point
or the second point.

Example:

Find the midpoint of the segment joining points (2, 6) and (-4,
-2)
 x1 + x 2 y1 + y 2 
Formula: ( x, y ) =  , 
 2 2 
 2 + ( −4) 6 + ( −2) 
( x, y ) =  , 
 2 2 

 −2 4 
( x, y ) =  ,  or ( x, y ) = ( −1,2 )
 2 2

Intercept

The point where the line crosses, or intersects the x-axis is


called the x-intercept. The point where the line crosses, or
intersects the y-axis is called the y-intercept.

Determining Intercepts

Intercept Coordinates Axis Crossed Algebraic


Method
x-intercepts (a,0) x-axis Set y = 0 and
solve for x.
y-intercepts (0,b) y-axis Set x = 0 and
solve for y.

Example:

Find the x-intercept and y-intercept for the line 2x - y = -2.


At the x-intercept, y = 0 or 2x - 0 = -2
Coordinates of x-intercept is (-1, 0)
At the y-intercept, x = 0 or 0 - y = -2
Coordinates of y-intercept is (0, 2)

Conics

The word conics originated from the word cone. Conic sections
are curves that results from an intersection of a plane and a
double cone. There are four conic sections to be learned in this
lecture; a circle, ellipse, parabola, and a hyperbola.
Circle

A circle is a set of all points in a plane that are a fixed distance


from a point, the center. The center, C, is typically denoted (h, k)
and the fixed distance, or radius, r.

(x, y)
r

(h, k)

The standard form of the equation of a circle with radius r and


center (h, k) is
( x − h)2 + ( y − k ) 2 = r 2

The standard form of the equation of a circle with radius r and


center (0, 0) is
( x) 2 + ( y ) 2 = r 2

A unit circle is a circle with radius 1 and center (0,0), the


standard form of equation for a unit circle is
( x ) 2 + ( y ) 2 =1

Example:

Identify the center and radius of the given circle

( x − 2) 2 + ( y +1) 2 = 4
h = 2, k = -1, r = 2
The center is (h, k) = (2, -1) and r = 2

Example:

Find the equation of a circle with radius 5 and center (-2, 3).

Substitute (h, k) = (-2, 3) and r = 5 into the standard equation.

( x − [ − 2]) 2 + ( y − 3) 2 = 5 2
( x + 2) 2 + ( y − 3) 2 = 25

Parabola

A parabola is the set of all points in a plane that are


equidistance from a fixed line, the directrix, and a fixed point
not on the line, the focus. The line through the focus and
perpendicular to the directrix is the axis of symmetry.

The standard form of the equation of a parabola with vertex at


the origin is given by:

Equation y2 = 4px x2 = 4py


Vertex (0, 0) (0, 0)
Focus (p, 0) (0, p)
Directrix x = -p y = -p
Axis of x-axis y-axis
symmetry
p>0 Opens to Opens
the right upwards
p<0 Opens to Opens
the left downwards
Graph (p 2
y = 4px 2
x = 4py
> 0) Focus (0, p)
p p

Focus p
(p, 0)

Directrix p
x = -p Directrix
y = -p

Note:
y

Parabola

Vertex Focus
Axis of symmetry

directrix
Parabola at Vertex at (h, k)

Vertex (h, k)
Focus (h, k + p)
k
Directrix y = -p + k
(h, k)
Axis of x=h
Symmetry
Direction Up
Equation (x - h)2 = h

4p(y - k)
Vertex (h, k)
Focus (h, k - p)
Directrix y=p+k k
Axis of x=h (h, k)

Symmetry
Direction Down
Equation (x - h)2 = h
-4p(y - k)
Vertex (h, k)
Focus (h + p, k)
Directrix x = -p + h k
Axis of y=k (h, k)
Symmetry
Direction Right
Equation (y - k)2 = h
4p(x - h)
Vertex (h, k)
Focus (h - p, k)
Directrix x=p+h k
Axis of y=k (h, k)
Symmetry
Direction Left
Equation (y - k)2 = h
-4p(x - h)

Example:
Find the focus and directrix of a parabola whose equation is y2 =
8x.
Compare y2 = 4px to y2 = 8x
4p = 8 or p = 2
The focus of the parabola of the form y2 = 4px is (p, 0) so the
focus is (2, 0).
The directrix of the parabola of the form y2 = 4px is x = -p so
the directrix is x = -2.

Example:

Find the equation of a parabola whose vertex is located at the


point (2,-3) and whose focus is located at the point (5, -3).

Sketch the parabola to know the direction of the parabola.

Vertex Parabola
(h, k) = (2,-3)

Axis of symmetry

Focus
(h +p, k) = (5,-3)

Directrix

The parabola opens to the right so write the standard equation


of a parabola opening to the right.
( y −k )2 = 4 p ( x − h)

Substitute (h, k) = (2,-3) into the equation ( y + 3) 2 = 4 p ( x − 2)


If h +p = 5 then 2+p = 5 or p = 3
Substitute p = 3 into the equation and solve.
( y + 3) 2 = 4(3)( x − 2) or ( y + 3) 2 =12 ( x − 2)
( y + 3)( y + 3) = 12 ( x − 2) or y 2 +6 y +9 =12 x −24

The equation is y 2 +6 y −12 x +33 = 0

Ellipse

An ellipse is the set of all points in a plane whose sum of the


distances to two fixed points is constant. These two fixed points
are called foci (plural of focus). The line through the foci, called
the major axis, intersects the ellipse at the vertices. The
midpoint of the line segment joining the vertices is called the
center. The line segment that joins two points on the ellipse and
is perpendicular to the major axis is called the minor axis.

y
Minor axis

vertices vertices
Major axis
Center

foci foci
(-a,0) (0,0) (a,0)

The standard form of the equation of an ellipse with its center at


the origin is given by:

Orientation of Equation Graph Foci Vertices


Major Axis
Horizontal x2 y2 (-c, 0) (-a,0)
+ =1
along the x-axis a2 b2 (c, 0) (a,0)
(-c,0) (c,0)

(-a,0) (0,0) (a,0)

Vertical along x2 y2 (0, a) (0, -c) (0, -a)


+ =1
the y-axis b2 a2 (0, c) (0, a)
(0, c)

(0, -c)

(0, -a)
(-a,0) (0,0) (a,0)

Equation of Ellipse with Center at (h, k)

Orientation Equation Graph Foci


of Major Axis
Horizontal ( x − h) 2 + ( y − k ) 2 =1
(h - c, k)
along the x- a2 b2 (h +c, k)
axis (h -c, k) (h +c, k)

Vertical along ( x − h) 2 + ( y − k ) 2 =1
(h, k -c)
the y-axis b2 a2 (h, k+c)
(h, k+c)

(h, k -c)

Note:
The length of the major axis is 2a and the length of the minor
axis is 2b.
Example:

Find the standard form of the equation of an ellipse with foci at


(-3,0) and (3,0) and vertices (-4,0) and (4,0).
The major axis is at x-axis since it contains the foci and vertices.

x2 y2
The general form of equation is + =1 .
a2 b2
From the vertices; -4 = -a and 4 = a. Substitute both values in
the equation;

x2 y2 x2 y2
+ = 1 or + =1
42 b2 16 b2
From the foci, -3 = -c and 3 = c. Substitute a and c into the
formula b 2 = a 2 − c 2 to get the b value.

b 2 = 4 2 − 32 or b 2 =16 − 9 = 7
Substitute b values in the equation;

x2 y2
+ =1
16 7
Hyperbola

A hyperbola is the set of all points in the plane whose difference


of the distances to two fixed points is a positive constant. These
two fixed points are called foci (plural of focus). The line
containing the foci is called the transverse axis intersects the
hyperbola at two points called the vertices. The midpoint of the
line segment joining the vertices is called the center. The line
through the center and perpendicular to the transverse axis is
the conjugate axis.

Transverse
Axis

Foci

Center
Vertices Conjugate
Axis

Foci
(-a,0) (0,0) (a,0)

Equations of Hyperbola with Center at the Origin

Orientation of Equation Graph Foci


Major Axis
Horizontal x2 y2 (-c, 0)
− =1
along the x- a2 b2 (c, 0)
axis
(-a,0) (a,0)

Vertical along y2 x2 0, -c)


− =1
the y-axis a2 b2 (0, c)
(0,a)

(0,-a)

Equations of Hyperbola with Center at the point (h, k)

Orientatio Equation Foci Vertices


n of Major
Axis
Horizontal ( x − h) 2 − ( y − k ) 2 =1
(h -c, 0) (h -a, k)
along the x- a2 b2 (h+c, 0) (h +a, k)
axis
Vertical ( y − k ) 2 − ( x − h) 2 =1
(0, k-c) (h, k - a)
along the y- a2 b2 (0, k+c) (h, k +a)
axis

Example:

x2 y2
Find the foci and vertices of the hyperbola given by − =1 .
9 4

Compare the given equation to the standard equation; a = 3, b


= 2.

The coordinate for vertices is (-a, 0) and (a, 0) or (-3, 0) or (3, 0)


We need to find the value of c by substituting a = 3, b = 2 into

c2 = a2 +b2 .

c 2 = 32 + 2 2 or c = 13 .
The coordinate for vertices is (-c, 0) and (c, 0) or (- 13 , 0) or (
13 , 0)
Example:

Find the equation of a hyperbola whose vertices are located at


(0, -4) and (0, 4) and whose foci are located at (0, -5) and (0, 5).

The center is located at the midpoint of the segment joining the

 0 + 0 −4 + 4 
vertices or  ,  = ( 0,0 )
 2 2 

The foci and vertices are located at the y-axis, we use the

x2 y2
standard equation for hyperbola which is − =1 .
a2 b2

x2 y2
Substitute the value of a; − =1
42 b2
We need to find the value of b by substituting a = 4, c = 5 into

b2 = c2 −a2 .

b 2 = 52 − 42 or b = 9 =3 .

x2 y2
Substitute the value of a and b; − =1
16 9