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c  - Not an extensive review.

Just stuff that I thought was important to look over before the
written test. Take it or leave it.

Vertebral unit ʹ 2 vertebrae and everything between them

Vertebral segment ʹ 1 vertebra

Superior Facets of Vertebra

- ¦ervical
„ ¦oronal plane
„ Ô  ʹ backward, upward, medial
- Thoracic
„ ¦oronal Plane
„ Ô  ʹ backward, upward, lateral
- umbar
„ Sagittal plane
„ Ô  ʹ backward, upward, medial

Vertebral Somatic Dysfunction ʹ Fryette͛s principles

Principle I ʹ In neutral, groups of vertebrae are sidebent and rotated in opposite direction

„ sually pain is not unbearable

„ ¦hronic condition

Principle II ʹ when flexed or extended, the coupled motions of sidebending and rotation in a
single unit occur in same direction

„ ussociated with acute pain

Principle III ʹ motion of a vertebral segment in any plane of motion will modify the movement of
that segment in other planes (generally reducing it)

Rule of 3͛s (for thoracic vertebrae only)

- 1,2,3,(12) ʹ SP in same plane as TP

- 4,5,6, (11) ʹ SP ½ way between its TP and TP of one below
- 7,8,9, (10) ʹ SP one level below its TP

Tibiofemoral motion

- Knee flexion ʹ internal rotation; short leg

- Knee extension ʹ external rotation; long leg

Fibular head
- unterior glide ʹ posterior movement of distal fibula and ext. rotation of the ankle
- Posterior glide ʹ anterior movement of distal fibula and int. rotation of the ankle

Tibiotalar joint

- People with inflexible joint are 5x more at risk for sprains

„ sually plantar flexion (anterior talus)


- External rotation = inversion


- Internal rotation = eversion

„ sually the cause of an inversion ankle sprain

umbar uscle Energy

- ateral Recumbent
- Type I
„ Posterior TP up
- Type II
„ Posterior TP down

Innominate otion

- Physiologic (normal when in motion)

„ Rotation and flare
- Non-physiologic (caused by some trauma)
„ Innominate shear and pubic shear
- Innominate Shear
„ Superior shear ʹ both uSIS and PSIS superior
„ Inferior shear ʹ both uSIS and PSIS inferior
„ Determine which side by flexion test
- Pubic Rami Shear
„ Superior ʹ superior pubic tubercle and tender inguinal ligament
„ Inferior ʹ inferior pubic tubercle and tender inguinal ligament
- Pubic ¦ompression
„ Standing flexion test +/-
„ uSIS and PSIS equal
„ Tender pubic rami and tender pubic symphysis
- Innominate Rotations
„ unterior rotation
X Inferior uSIS, superior PSIS
„ Posterior Rotation
X Superior uSIS, inferior PSIS
- Innominate Flares
„ cutflare
X ateral uSIS, medial PSIS
„ Inflare
X edial uSIS, lateral PSIS

HIPSIT (order we treat dysfunction)

- Hip
- Innominate Shears
- Pubic
- umbar
- Sacroiliac
- Innominate Rotations
- Thoracic

umbar HVu

- Posterior TP down
- ateral recumbent
- ocalize to joint space below

Pubic uscle Energy (types of E used; he always likes to ask this)

- Superior Innominate Shear

„ Respiratory cooperation
- Inferior innominate Shear
„ Post-isometric and respiratory cooperation
- Superior Pubic Shear
„ Joint mobilization using muscle force
- Inferior Pubic Shear
„ Post-isometric
- Pubic Symphysis Reset
„ Joint mobilization using muscle force
- unterior Innominate Rotation
„ Post- isometric
- Posterior Innominate Rotation
„ Joint mobilization using muscle force
- cutflared Innominate
„ Post-isometric
- Inflared Innominate
„ Post-isometric
Sacral uscle Energy

- Remember Fred itchell came up with this stuff

- 3 tests
„ Seated flexion
„ Spring test
„ Ôackwards bending
- 2 landmarks
„ Sacral sulcus
„ Iu
- 2 problems
„ Sacral shears
„ Sacral torsions
- 3 horizontal axes on sacrum
„ ull on S2 (top, middle, bottom)
- Shears
„ Non-physiologic
„ Involves slippage of the sacrum around the backward ¦-shaped SI joint
„ cccurs around middle axis
„ True SI joint problem
- Torsions
„ Physiologic
„ 5/S1 joint problem
„ cccurs around oblique axis
„ Imbalance in the muscles that affect sacral motion in relation to 5 motion
- * 5 rotates to same side as deep sulcus *
- Respiratory otion
„ Inhalation
X ¦urves flatten; sacrum conternutates
„ Exhalation
X Sacrum nutates

HVu Review

- ong lever and short lever

- Goal is to move 1/8 inch
- For thoracic somatic dysfunction
„ Flexion
X Isolate to segment below
X Force is 90϶ posterior
„ Extension
X Isolate to segment below
X Force is directed 45϶cephalad and posterior